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DECISION SUPPORT TO WATERSHED

MODELLING USING
SOFT COMPUTING

Table of content
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 General............................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Scope of study ................................................................................................................ 1
1.2.1 Artificial Neural Network-Based Modelling of Hydrologic Process .......................... 1
1.3Objective of the present study .......................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2
Literature Review
2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Runoff simulation models .............................................................................................. 3
2.2.1. Based on ANN and MLR ........................................................................................... 3
2.3 Contribution of MATLAB Software in hydrological Modelling .................................... 4
2.4Summary.......................................................................................................................... 4
Chapter 3
Study Area and Methodology
3.1 Study Area ...................................................................................................................... 5
3.2 Methodology ................................................................................................................... 5
3.2.1 Multi Linear Perceptron Analysis................................................................................. 5
3.3Multi Linear Regression ................................................................................................... 6
3.4 Model Development ........................................................................................................ 7
3.4.1 Collection of data ......................................................................................................... 7
3.4.2 Data transformation ...................................................................................................... 7
3.4.3 Design of Model ........................................................................................................... 7
Chapter 4
Results and Discussion
4.1 Result ............................................................................................................................... 9
4.2 Comparison of ANN and MLR Models ....................................................................... 10
4.3 Discussion...................................................................................................................... 15
Chapter 5
Conclusion
5.1 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 16
Publication ........................................................................................................................... 17

Reference ............................................................................................................................. 18
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 General
 Our project is based on the actual problem that exists in the present time.
 We believe that project should be made on the thought process of solving a problem
that causes tremendous amount of inconvenience to the people so that brought us to an
conclusion to try our best and solve the problem related to the solid waste
management; which is undoubtedly one of the biggest issues that has involved as a
challenge for us; in the recent past.
 We cannot prevent the solid waste,we can only manage it.
 With Each passing day the amount of solid waste generated is increasing and the space
for the disposal of the same is decreasing.

1.2 Scope of the Study


 This project focuses on various options available for the disposal of municipal solid
waste (MSW) sustainably and attempts to provide a documented picture of their
suitability to India.

 The report is divided into two parts, Part I and Part II. The first part will explain the
present solid waste management (SWM) crisis in India, its impacts on public health,
environment and quality of life and touch upon efforts towards SWM in the past. The
second part deals with the solid waste been reused and recycled in construction
engineering.

 BMC finds 73% of Mumbai’s garbage is food waste two years in a row. Waste
management experts said if Mumbai recycles this waste, it can reduce the amount of
garbage transported to its overburdened landfills by 93%.

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1.3 Objective of the present study

 To aim at the proper collection of the waste produced.


 To emphasize why people are still not involving in the various campaigns and
initiatives.
 To acquire the views of the people by conducting surveys.
 To lessen the loads on the landfills.
 To provide incentives if possible.
 To manage the recycling system in the efficient manner.
 To understand the magnitude of the reusable and recyclable material.
 To investigate the waste that goes into the landfill and try to use that our construction
field.

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Chapter 2
Literature Review

2.1. Introduction
RESEARCH
 Mumbai’s Dirty Problem- Deonar dumping ground & Dharavi slums.
 These places are most affected by these waste & unhygienic condition.
 Deonar dumping ground is referred as Asia’s Largest Dumping ground & founded in
18th century.
 The areas around these dumping ground is totally polluted and has majority of
Methane gas because of which population around these areas is mostly affected by
Respiratory and other diseases.
 These areas are most toxic and hazardous place to live-in but due to extremely rising
population in Mumbai they are forced to live near these areas without proper
accommodation, water supply and other basic needs.
 We are emphasizing on providing better incentives at certain level to increase these
area’s efficiencies
Issues in Solid Waste Management in Mumbai
Primary Collection
 A very high volume of floating population and daily commuters, with almost 65 lakh
people travelling daily is a cause for road littering (Jain 2004). In many areas of the
city, streets are in illmaintained conditions due to lack of timely street sweeping and
there is clogging of surface water drains due to solid waste dumped into it.
 The percentage of roads cleaned 6 days a week is 77 per cent and only major roads are
cleaned 7 days a week (SWM Cell 2003). At present, the door-to-door collection of
waste is limited to just 15 per cent of the waste generated and remaining waste
remains unsegregated. Because of non-segregation, part of the waste that gets dumped
on the disposal sites is recyclable in nature. This has led to increase in quantity of
waste required to be disposed.
 The problem in Mumbai is further aggravated due to a high density and large
proportion of slum population.

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 The slum and pavement dwellers do not have, drains or railway tracks. Hawkers
contribute to littering of roads. access to proper services and hence dispose their waste
in the public spaces like roads
Disposal of waste
 With increasing urbanization, land available for dumping and creation of landfill sites
for disposal of waste is becoming unavailable.
 There are only 4 landfill sites in the MCGM area, whose expected lifespan remains
only 5 years.
 MCGM is going to find it difficult to find new waste disposal sites in the near future
to take care of present level of waste generations and that generated by the new
population.
Incompetency in Enforcement of MSW Rules
 The MCGM has not yet been able to enforce MSW Rules 2000. Although it is
mandatory to segregate waste at the household level, notices to this effect have not
been given for the implementation of the rules.
 Rules require that community waste storage bins are put up. Further, the bins have to
be closed with prescribed color code and of a size that is compatible to transport
vehicle to avoid manual handling.
 But, in Mumbai, the bins placed are open and without base, which cannot be lifted by
mechanically. Hence, the garbage has to be handled manually.
Lack of Participation/ Communication
 It has been proven through research that in the case of Mumbai, there has been an
Absence of communication between local government and the communities
 This is due to the diverse backgrounds of communities and the difficulties of everyday
life of citizens due to the city morphology. Besides this, since the wards of the city are
as big as any Class I city, the ward offices have very large responsibilities.
 People are totally 15 dependent on MCGM for cleanliness of their locality and there is
no citizen’s participation or decentralized mechanism to keep the locality clean.

Graphic Era University, Dehradun (India) had concluded that blended Sugarcane Baggase
(SCB) in concrete had higher compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength in
comparison to that of without SCB .They came to a conclusion that cement can be partially
replaced by SCB upto a extent of 10%.They even concluded that with addition of more SCB
the density of concrete will decrease and low weight concrete will get produced.

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2.4. Summary

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Chapter 3

Study Area and Methodology

3.1. Study Area

3.2. Methodology

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Chapter 4
Result and Discussion
4.1. Result

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4.3. Discussion

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Chapter 5
Conclusion

5.1. Conclusion

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Publication
Pravin V.Desai, S.K.Ukarande, “Watershed Modelling-A case study”, International Journal of
Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology-2016, Volume 4 Issue 4, ISSN 2347-2812,
Page 61-64.

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References

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