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houghtful GRADES

4+
ooks

r ’s G u i d e to
A Teache
m m e r
All Su y
in a D a
Bry
ra d bu
by R ay

Social
ibility
Respons
Series Editor Mary Abbott Literac
y

Author Trish Joly


Note to parents and teachers
The Thoughtful Books Series makes use of exemplary children’s literature to help young readers learn to
read critically and to thoughtfully consider ethical matters. Critical thinkers rely on inquisitive attitudes,
utilize thinking strategies, access background knowledge, understand thinking vocabulary, and apply
relevant criteria when making thoughtful decisions. We refer to these attributes as intellectual tools.
Each resource in this series features specific intellectual tools supporting literacy development and
ethical deliberation. Teachers and parents can introduce the tools using the suggested activities in this
resource, and then support learners in applying the tools in various situations overtime, until children
use them independently, selectively, and naturally.

Reading as thinking

Reading is more than decoding words. It is the active process of constructing meaning. Good readers
understand this process as engagement in critical thinking. They employ specific literacy competencies
as they engage with text, create meaning from text, and extend their thinking beyond text. The activities
in this booklet help develop the following literacy competencies:
• Accessing background knowledge: Good readers draw on what they already know to establish a foun-
dation for approaching new texts. In this case, students relate the story to their positive feelings about
summer.
• Reading with a purpose: Good readers are clear about why they are reading a text, either by bringing
a specific objective to their reading or by anticipating the author’s objectives. In this case, students
listen to identify Margot’s qualities.
• Finding important ideas: Good readers discriminate between details and key or important ideas. In
this case, students identify the criteria for determining which events are important and select and
sequence the most important events in the story.
• Anticipating: Good readers apply their prior knowledge and experiences to anticipate what might
come next. In this case, the author does not indicate what the students will find when they open the
door. Using their knowledge of the story, students write a plausible ending.
• Synthesizing ideas: Good readers thoughtfully apply key ideas and issues raised in text to their own
lives and in broader global and community contexts. In this case, students examine the concept of
intervention and determine the most appropriate intervention for the story.

Ethical considerations

A second focus of the activities in this booklet helps learners develop the intellectual tools necessary to
think critically about ethical considerations. It is important to teach the tools, often through modelling
and illustrating with examples, and continue to apply the tools in a variety of situations over time, until
learners internalize them. The following ethical consideration is addressed in this resource:
• Empathy/bullying: Critical thinkers are able to recognize the position of others in a situation. In these
activities, students explore the concept of bullying and the quality of empathy that would lead some-
one to intervene in order to change a situation.
Grades 4+
teacher’s guide for: 3–4 sessions
All Summer in a Day
by Ray Bradbury

Critical task Identify the most effective intervention that would stop the incident
in the story.

Story All Summer in a Day by Ray Bradbury. Available online at: http://www.
westburyfriends.org/online/ela/giver/all%20summer%20reading.pdf.
If this website is not effective, search All Summer in a Day to find a
copy of the story.

Summary This emotional story takes place in a classroom on Venus, where the
rain stops and the sun shines only once every seven years. In the story,
one student is mistreated while the children anxiously await the arrival
of the sun. Students examine the unkind act committed by the children
in the story and explore the roles of all the participants. They then
discuss the consequences of bullying and generate ideas for possible
effective interventions in bullying situations.

Main focus Literacy competencies


• accessing background knowledge
• reading with a purpose
• finding important ideas
• anticipating
• synthesizing ideas

Ethical considerations
• empathy
• bullying

Levels of involvement
Consider students’ interest and their level of maturity to determine
whether or not all three levels of after-reading activities are appro-
priate.
• Exposure: Outline the important events in the story and describe
the feelings of Margot and the other children.
• Investigation: Create a plausible ending for the story.
• Application: Identify an effective intervention that would stop the
incident in the story.

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 1 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Activities
Session One
Before reading

Accessing ➤ Print the word “summer” on the board. Ask students to talk with a
background partner and brainstorm a list of words that describe summer.
knowledge
➤ Invite students to share their ideas with the class, and write the words
on the board. Briefly discuss the images and feelings of summer.

➤ Print the story title on the board and explain that the story you are going
to read takes place on a planet where the sun only shines once every
seven years.

➤ Ask students to close their eyes and visualize as you read the paragraph
that describes the rain (“It had been raining … out their lives”).

➤ Brainstorm the feelings and images that emerge from the reading or
invite students to draw a picture.

During reading

➤ Explain to students that the story begins as the children are anticipating
the arrival of the sun.

➤ Give students a copy of Lis-


tening to the story (Blackline
#1
aster

Master #1) and explain that


line M

Marg
ot … Liste
ning
Black

you are going to read the Marg


ot …
to th
e sto
ry
story in chunks and they
are to record their think-
Marg
ot …

m
ortiu
ing after each chunk.

Cons
inking
Explain that their first

cal Th
____
____

Criti
My fe
____

The
listening task is to find
eling
____

s…
____

out about Margot.


____

The c
____

hildre
n’s fe
____

eling
s…
____
____

I am
think
____

Begin reading and


ing …
____

Reading with ➤
7
____

stop at the follow-


e:

a purpose
Nam

ing points:
y
ina Da

• “their dreams
mer
Sum ll
ries –A

were gone.”
ok Se
ul Bo

• “But Margot remembered.”


ghtf
Thou

• “and her possible future.”

➤ After each passage, invite students to record information about Margot.


If necessary, provide examples or allow students to discuss the passages
with a partner before recording their ideas.

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 2 The Critical Thinking Consortium
➤ Continue reading the story. Stop at the following points and invite
students to respond according to the cues on the Blackline Master.
• “just as the teacher arrived.” (record your feelings)
• “did not stop running.” (record the children’s feelings)
• “Yes, seven.” (what are you thinking?)

➤ Finish reading the story.

After reading: exposure level

Examine the feelings ➤ Invite students to discuss their immediate reaction to the story. As a
of Margot and the class, discuss the characteristics of Margot and the feelings the story
other children evoked.

Finding ➤ Explain that students are going to look at the important events in the
important ideas story to examine the feelings of the characters and the situation that
evolved. Discuss the difference between important and unimportant
events using examples and non-examples such as: Margot remembered
seeing the sun (important event); the children took off their coats (not
an important event).

➤ Develop the criteria for identifying an important event (for example, if


it did not occur, the story would be very different).

➤ Cut copies of Important and unimportant events (Blackline Master #2)


into cards and distribute one set of cards to each pair of students. Invite
students to divide the cards between events that are important and events
that are not important, using the established criteria for deciding which
events are important.
Nam
e: ____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____

Impo ____
____
____
____
rtan
It has
t and
been unim Black
seven rainin port line M
years
and
g for ant e aster
#2
are w the c vent
aiting
for th
hildre
n s
e sun The c
. hildre
Willi n are
am a nine
put M nd th years
argo e oth old.
t in th ers
e clo Marg
set. ot talk
and s abo
The te reme ut the
ache mbers sun
r is n it loo what
in the ot ked li
room ke.
. The s
un co
Marg and mes
ot an the c out
d her go o hildre
go b famil ut an n
ack to y mig d pla
Earth ht y.
.
The s
Willi un fe
am p a wa lt like
ushe rm ir
and s Ma on.
shou rgot
ts at
her.
The ra
in re
Marg turns
ot cri .
es.
Willi
am th
inks
will n the s
The g ot co un
irl re and me o
mem gets ut
Marg bers angry
ot. .
The c
Thou
ghtf hildre
ul Bo
ok Se n cro
ries –
to a wded
huge
All Su
mmer
in a
Day door.
8

The
Criti
cal Th
inking
Cons
ortiu
m

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 3 The Critical Thinking Consortium
➤ With partners or as a class, sequence the important events in the story.
Paste the events in order in the first column of Blackline Master #3.

➤ Re-read the story, stopping after each im- Nam

portant event. As a class or with partners,


e: ____
____
____
____
____
____
____

using How do we feel? (Blackline Master


____
____
____
____
____
____

How
#3), record the feelings of Margot and
Even
t do w
e fee Black
line M
Marg l? aster

William and the other children. Encour-


#3
ot’s fe
eling
s
Feeli
age students to consider evidence from
ngs o
and
the o f William
ther c
hildre
the story that supports the identified
n

feeling by asking the question, “How


do you know?”

Thou
ghtf
ul Bo
ok Se
ries –A
ll Su
mmer
in a
Day

The
Criti
cal Th
inking
Cons
ortiu
m

Begin new session

After reading: investigation level

Create a plausible ➤ Ask students how they felt about the ending of the story. Did they feel
ending for the story the story was finished? What questions remain?

Anticipating ➤ Ask students to think about Margot and what might happen to her as a
result of the actions of the other students.

➤ As a class, discuss criteria for identifying a plausible ending (it aligns


with events in the story). For example, would it be reasonable that
Margot came out of the closet smiling and laughing at the children.
Why or why not?

➤ Invite students to take turns being Margot as the closet door was opened.
As students take turns role-playing, encourage them to look at how
people might react differently.

➤ Review Margot’s feelings in the story and those illustrated in the role-
plays.

➤ Invite students to write a paragraph that concludes the story and justifies
their conclusion with evidence from the story.

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 4 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Begin new session

After reading: application level

Identify an effective ➤ Ask students what word(s) describe what happened to Margot in the
intervention story. Introduce the terms bullying, discrimination, and empathy.

➤ As a class, review the events of the story. Give each pair of students
a copy of Who contributed? (Blackline Master #4). Invite students,
working with a partner, to brainstorm and record the story character’s
actions and determine if and
how the actions contributed to
the bullying of Margot.

4
ster #
a
line M
Who

Black
cont
ribut
Mar
got
ed?
was
bullie
d

m
ortiu
Cons
inking
cal Th
___
____

Criti
____

The
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____

10
e:____
Nam

Marg
ot

Day
Willia
m

in a
mmer
Othe
r chil

All Su
dren

ries –
Add
any o
ther c

ok Se
you th harac
ink sh ters
ould

ul Bo
be in
clude

ghtf
d

Thou
➤ As a class, discuss who was responsible for the bullying.
Encourage students to examine the actions of a variety of characters.

Synthesizing ➤ Pose the following questions: “Who could have supported Margot and
ideas stopped the bullying?” “What could have been done?”

➤ Explain the term intervention as an action that could change the outcome
of a situation. Provide an example, such as: “Someone is walking down
the street and they do not see a hole in the road. If you warn them, that
will stop them from falling.”

➤ As a class, develop the criteria for formulating an intervention (for


example, is safe, do-able, changes the outcome).

➤ With partners or as a class, have students examine the story events identi-
fied in the previous session and brainstorm: Who could have intervened?
When could they have intervened? What would the intervention have
looked like? Why would this have been a good intervention?

➤ Invite students to discuss this with partners and then answer the ques-
tion: “What would be the most effective intervention that would support
Margot and change the outcome of the story?” Remind students that their
response must answer the questions, who?, what?, when?, and why?

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 5 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Assessment
➤ Use the rubric Assessing plausible endings and effective interventions
(Blackline Master #5) to assess students’ ability to create a plausible
ending and identify an effective intervention.

r #5
Asse

Maste
ssing
plau

line
sible

Black
Crea Soph
te
plau s a unde isticated
endi
ngs
sible rstand
endi Crea ing
and
ng te
effect s a very pl Ex
iv
aligns e ending ausible, unde ended
charac with the that close Crea
rstand
effec
tive
even ly te ing
the st ters and ts, that s a plausib
inter
or co al Ba
justify y. Is able nflict in charac igns with le ending unde sic
rstand
vent
Offer his/h to fu te the ev
er co lly the st rs and Crea ing
s
effect the mos nclusio ory. Is confl ents, te
gene s a plausib
ions
simpl ict
interv ive t
Easily
ns. e just able to pr in ral en le Pa
unde rtial
hi s/her ificatio ov w ith th di ng th but
ention
s the m offers an conc ns fo ide and/or e events at aligns Crea
rstand
ing
os d lusio r
interv t effect justifies ns. Is ab conflict characters
, te

m
ive, pl ending s an impl Pre-re

ortiu
entio le in ausib cogn
ering ns au
the co after co sible ef ffers and
O justifi to provid the stor sistent that do le ition
Iden
ti severa ns ns justifi ca tion e a
for hi simple
y. ly align es not co

Cons
fectiv conc even Is un
mos fies the l optio equenc id- e es an lu sio ts , with n- ab
t ns. es of co in
nsider terven n(s). s/h er flict in ch aracte the plausib le to crea
even importan Correc qu ing th tion O th rs or le te
ding a

king
ts t en e co af ter ff ers pr e st co en
uenc tly select ces of
a few nse- ventio an effect
ovide or
a just y. Does no
n- .
es th s and iv hi s/h ifi

l Thin
even
ts
e mos
t
seq- optio
ns. sider n but may e inter- er co
nclusiocation fo
t
explai in the st importan Correc m
Offer ultiple op not con- Identifi n. r
ns hi or t
s/her y. Fully uenc tly select s sim

ca
es s ple ju tions. that es an
inte

Criti
choice
s. even the mos and seq- stifica
tion.
m
Does ay not be rvention
ts t
a sim in the st importan Select not pr effect

The
ple ex ory. Pr t s ca tio ov ide iv e. Is un
of th and sequ n ab
Com his/h
er ch planation ovides e en actio for his/h a justifi- interv le to iden

______
ments oices. of the st importan ces man n. er su
gges in th
entio tify an
: or t
be om y; key ev events in y Select ted e stor n for the
y. even

______
en s
sequ itted or in t(s) may of th and sequ ts
en co e ence
explan ced. Prov rrectly may events in

______
s som
ides no th e
choice ation of a sim the m t consist e story; With
hi pl ost en su

______
s whe s/h e an tly ppor
n prom er d/or importan select sequ
en ce
t, sele
pted correc se quen t ones in th s impo ct s and

______
. ce e rt
an ex tly. Does them to ex story. Ne ant even
ed
pl no plain ts
choice anation t provid his/h s suppor

______
s. of hi e er ch t
s/her oices.

______
______

11
______
e:
Nam

Day
in a
mmer
ll Su
ries –A
ok Se
ul Bo
ghtf
Thou
Extension

➤ Students can examine or create scenarios that involve bullying and


develop intervention strategies. Role-play these situations in order to
teach others how to prevent bullying.

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 6 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Name:  ____________________________________________________ Blackline Master #1

Margot …
My feelings …

Listening to the story


Margot …
The children’s feelings …

Margot …
I am thinking …

Thoughtful Book Series –All Summer in a Day 7 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Name:  ____________________________________________________ Blackline Master #2

Important and unimportant events


It has been raining for
The children are
seven years and the children
nine years old.
are waiting for the sun.

Margot talks about the sun


William and the others
and remembers what
put Margot in the closet.
it looked like.

The sun comes out


The teacher is not
and the children
in the room.
go out and play.

Margot and her family might The sun felt like


go back to Earth. a warm iron.

William pushes Margot


The rain returns.
and shouts at her.

William thinks the sun


Margot cries. will not come out
and gets angry.

The girl remembers The children crowded


Margot. to a huge door.

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 8 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Name:  ____________________________________________________ Blackline Master #3

How do we feel?
Event Margot’s feelings Feelings of William
and the other children

Thoughtful Book Series –All Summer in a Day 9 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Name:  ___________________________________________________ Blackline Master #4



Margot William

Who contributed?
Margot was bullied
Other children
you think should be included
Add any other characters

Thoughtful Book Series – All Summer in a Day 10 The Critical Thinking Consortium
Assessing plausible endings and effective interventions
Blackline Master #5

The Critical Thinking Consortium


Sophisticated Exended Basic Partial Pre-recognition
understanding understanding understanding understanding
Creates a Creates a very plausible, Creates a plausible ending Creates a plausible but Creates an implausible Is unable to create a
plausible ending effective ending that closely that aligns with the events, general ending that aligns ending that does not con- plausible ending.
aligns with the events, characters and conflict in with the events, characters sistently align with the
characters and conflict in the story. Is able to provide and/or conflict in the story. events, characters or con-
the story. Is able to fully simple justifications for Is able to provide a simple flict in the story. Does not
justify his/her conclusions. his/her conclusions. justification for his/her provide a justification for
conclusion(s). his/her conclusion.
Offers the most Easily offers and justifies Offers and justifies an Offers an effective inter- Identifies an intervention Is unable to identify an
effective the most effective, plausible effective intervention after vention but may not con- that may not be effective. intervention for the events
interventions interventions after consid- considering the conse- sider multiple options. Does not provide a justifi- in the story.
ering the consequences of quences of a few options. Offers simple justification. cation for his/her suggested
several options. action.
Identifies the Correctly selects and seq- Correctly selects and seq- Selects and sequences many Selects and sequences some With support, selects and
most important uences the most important uences the most important of the important events in of the events in the story; sequences important events
events events in the story. Fully events in the story. Provides the story; key event(s) may may not consistently select in the story. Needs support
explains his/her choices. a simple explanation of be omitted or incorrectly the most important ones to explain his/her choices.
his/her choices. sequenced. Provides a simple and/or sequence them

11
explanation of his/her correctly. Does not provide
choices when prompted. an explanation of his/her
choices.
Comments:
Name:  ______________________________________________________

Thoughtful Book Series –All Summer in a Day


Acknowledgements
Cover Design:  Merry Meredith
Interior Design:  M. Kathie Wraight
Production:  M. Kathie Wraight
Copy editor: Catherine Edwards
Reviewers: Mary-Lynn Epps, Karina Younk, Laura Tait

© 2008 The Critical Thinking Consortium

Teachers have permission to duplicate the blackline masters for use in their own classrooms. Broader distribution
of this resource, either electronic or in print, require the prior written permission of the publisher.

Series published by
The Critical Thinking Consortium
Faculty of Education
University of British Columbia
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Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4
Tel: 604.822.9297
Fax: 604.822.6603
E-mail: tc2@interchange.ubc.ca
www.tc2.ca
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partnership of school districts, faculties of education, teacher professional associations, and
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to post-secondary education through partner-sponsored professional
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Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 Social
ibility
tel 604-822-9297 • fax 604-822-6603 Respons
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