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SIMPLIFIED

Keys to
SOIL SERIES
ILOILO

Iloilo iii
This project was funded by the Knowledge
Management and Promotion Program (KMP)
and Open Academy for Philippine Agriculture
(OpAPA) of PhilRice®.

Philippine Rice Research Institute


Copyright © 2008

iv Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table of Contents

Foreword................................................. vii
The Simplified Key to Soil Series............ 1
Guide to Soil Series Identification........... 2
Soil Color Groups.................................... 5
Black/Dark Brown............................ 6
Strong Brown/Brownish Yellow........ 9
Yellowish Brown/Grayish Yellow....... 12
Soil Profile Pictures................................. 15
Soil Properties that affect crop growth.... 20
Soil Productivity....................................... 23
Crop Suitability Analysis.......................... 25
Soil Management Recommendations..... 31
Soil Taxonomic Classification.................. 41
Appendices:
Steps in Identifying Soil Series................ 49
Soil Sampling................................... 50
Color Determination......................... 51
Texture Determination...................... 52
pH Determination............................. 53
The PalayCheck System......................... 54
References.............................................. 56

Iloilo v
vi Simplified to Key Soil Series
Foreword
This guidebook on “Simplified Keys to Soil
Series Identification” was developed to make
the field identification of soils easier.

Soil identification is an important component


in rice farming. When the soil is properly
analyzed and identified, the risks of
incompatible management recommendations
will be lessened and selection of knowledge
and technologies to apply will be efficient.
And that is why we have this Simplified Keys
to Soil Series for Iloilo.

This is a good guide for effective nutrient


management, which is one of the
components of the PalayCheck System, a
dynamic rice crop management system that
presents easy-to-follow practices to achieve
respective Key Checks and improve crop
yield and input use efficiency.

It features the different color, texture,


pH, coarse fragments, and mottles of the
most common soils in Iloilo and contains
four simple steps in identifying the soil
series right in the field. It also includes
the soil productivity index, soil properties
that affect crop growth, soil taxonomic
classification, crop suitability analysis, and
soil management recommendations.

Iloilo vii
The concept of simplified keys to soil series
was first used in Thailand. In the Philippines,
the project “Simplification of the Philippine
Soil Series for Rice and Corn” started in 2005
under the Nutrient Management Support
System (NuMaSS) to provide management
recommendations for soils identified in the
field.

We thank the farmers, agricultural


technologists, and municipal and provincial
agricultural officers for helping us validate
the soil series, and for their comments and
suggestions during the pre-evaluation of this
guidebook. We also acknowledge the Bureau
of Soils and Water Management (BSWM) for
providing the secondary data of the soils.

We hope that this publication can help you


identify suitable crops in your area, learn the
limitations of your soils for crop production,
and subsequently know the corresponding
management recommendations.

LEOCADIO S. SEBASTIAN
PhilRice Executive Director

viii Simplified to Key Soil Series


The Simplified Key
to Soil Series

“Simplified Key to Soil Series Identification”


is a tool/guide in identifying soil series in
the field following simple steps, for the use
of researchers, agricultural technologists,
extension workers, and other stakeholders
of the rice industry, including farmers. Using
this guidebook, identification of soils will
be more accurate reducing the risks of
incompatible management and technology
recommendations. Transfer of technology will
also be made more easy and efficient.

This guidebook is easy-to-use. It involves


only five basic soil properties (color, texture,
pH, coarse fragments, and mottles) at 30-
50 cm soil depth and four simple steps in
identifying the soil series right in the field.
Once the soil is identified, suitable crops can
be selected, and crop productivity ratings,
soil properties that limit production, and
soil management recommendations can be
determined. Since same soil series behave
similarly, the soil management technology in
one area can be applied in other areas with
the same soil identity.

Ten soil series found in Iloilo (Alimodian,


Bantog, Barotac, Faraon, Guimaras,
Luisiana, San Rafael, Sara, Sta. Rita, and
Umingan) are included in this guidebook.

Iloilo 1
Guide to Soil Series Identification

1. Choose a vacant area


in your field and dig up
to 50 cm depth from the
surface (see page 50).

2. Get bulk soil


sample (500 g)
from between 30
cm and 50 cm
depth.

3. Compare the soil


sample with the color
chart in the guidebook
(see page 51).

2 Simplified to Key Soil Series


4. Take a half handful of the
same soil and check its
texture by wetting the soil
sample (neither too wet,
nor too dry) (see page 52).

5. Take one spoonful of the


same soil sample and
put it in a test tube.
Add 7 drops of reagent;
shake gently, and
compare with pH chart
(see page 53).

6. Take note of the presence or absence of coarse


fragments such as limestone, rock fragments,
lateritic nodules, manganese/Mn (black) and iron/
Fe (red) concretions, sand materials, and other
observable properties of the soil taken from soil
surface up to 50 cm depth.

Lateritic nodules

Manganese concretions Quartz

Iloilo 3
7. Take note also of other
observable soil properties
such as polished surface
(cutans/slickensides),
softness, hardness,
stickiness, etc.

slickensides /
polished soil surfaces

8. Use the Simplified Keys


to Soil Series Book and
compare all soil properties
starting from the color until
the soil name is identified.

4 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Soil
Color Groups
Black/Dark Brown
(go to page 6)

Strong Brown/Brownish Yellow


(go to page 9)

Yellowish Brown/Grayish Yellow


(go to page 12)

Iloilo 5
Black/Dark Brown

Texture
Clay page 7

6 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Black/Dark Brown

Texture: Clay

Sta. Rita (Srt)

Coarse Fragments none

pH 7.0-7.5

mottles (yellowish
Others
brown)

go to page 16

Faraon (Frn)

Coarse Fragments limestone fragments

pH 7.0-7.6

Others none

go to page 16

Iloilo 7
Texture: Clay

Bantog (Btg)

Coarse Fragments none

pH 7.2-7.6

iron (brownish gray)


Others and manganese
(black) mottles

go to page 16

8 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Strong Brown/Brownish Yellow

Texture
Clay page 10
Sandy Clay Loam page 12

Iloilo 9
Strong Brown/Brownish Yellow

Texture: Clay

San Rafael (Srf)

Coarse Fragments faint quartz

pH 4.5-5.8

Others none

go to page 17

Guimaras (Gmr)

gravels (black, white,


Coarse Fragments
yellow)

pH 6.0-6.8

Others none

go to page 17

10 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Texture: Clay

Luisiana (Lsn)

Coarse Fragments none

pH 4.5-5.2

mottles (strong
Others
brown color)

go to page 18

Barotac (Btc)

Coarse Fragments pebbles/red gravels

pH 4.9-6.6

manganese and iron


Others
concretions/coatings

go to page 18

Iloilo 11
Texture: Sandy Clay Loam

Sara (Sra)

Coarse Fragments none

pH 6.2-7.0

mottles
Others (dull brown and black
spots)

go to page 17

12 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Yellowish Brown/Grayish Yellow

Texture
Silt Loam page 14
Clay page 14

Iloilo 13
Yellowish Brown/Grayish Yellow

Texture: Silt Loam

Umingan (Umn)

Coarse Fragments gravels and stones

pH 5.8-6.7

Others none

go to page 19

Texture: Clay

Alimodian (Ald)

Coarse Fragments none

pH 5.4-6.9

tubulans
Others
(greenish gray)

go to page 19

14 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Soil
Profile Pictures

Iloilo 15
00 cm 00 cm 00 cm
Ap
18 A
Apg
13 Bwg1 09

24
Ag
Bwg2
Bw
56 42
Bt1
Bwg3
BC
25

69

Bt2 Bwg4
117+ 35
116+
Sta Rita (Srt) Bantog (Btg) Faraon (Frn)
page 21 page 21 page 22

16 Simplified to Key Soil Series


00 cm 00 cm 00 cm
Ap1 Ap Ap
05
AP2
09
13
AB AB
Bg1
33
23
23 Bw1
Bg2
63
Bt1
Bw2

49
38
92 Bt2
Bg3

72
66 BC1
122 BC
BC BC2
100+
80+ 140+

Sara (Sra) Guimaras (Gmr)San


Guimaras (Gmr) p Rafael
San Rafael(Srf)
(Srf)
page 21 page 22 page 22

Iloilo 17
00 cm 00 cm
Ap Ap
12
AB
20 BA
35 27
Bt1
Btc1
42

60
Bt2 Btc2
59

89

Bt3
BC1
90

BC BC2
130+ 110+

Luisiana (Lsn) Barotac (Btc)


Barotac (Btc) p
page 22 page 21

18 Simplified to Key Soil Series


00 cm 00 cm
Ap
Ap Ap
Ap

14
AB
AB AB
AB
23

Bt1
Bt1
BW1
BW1 55

52 Bt2
Bt2

BW2
BW2
88
Bt3
91

BC
BC
BC
108+ 120+

Umingan (Umn) Alimodian (Ald)


page 22
(Ald) p23
Alimodian (Ald)
Alimodian
page 21
p23

Iloilo 19
Properties
of Different
Soil Series
that affect
the growth
of crops

20 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table 1. Properties of Different Soil Series that
Affect the Growth of Crops.

Soil Lowland Soils Upland Soils


Qualities
in Relation Alimo-
to Crop Bantog Sara Sta. Rita Barotac
dian
Production
Soil pH 6.5-7.6 5.5-6.0 6.5-7.2 5.5-6.5 4.9-6.5
N Level medium low low low low
P Level high medium medium medium medium
K Level low medium medium low low
clay, clay clay loam
Soil Texture loam silty clay clay to clay
clay

mod- poor to mod-


Drainage well erately moder- erately well
well ately well well
Permeabi- slow to slow to slow to moderate- moderate
lity very slow very slow very slow ly slow to slow
rock frag-
Rock Frag- ments,
none none none none pebbles
ments
and gravels

moderate-
Effective deep deep deep (100- deep (100- ly deep
Soil Depth (150cm) (150cm) 150cm) 150cm)
to deep
(60-150cm)

Flooding sea-
none none none none
Hazard sonal
flat to flat to
rolling to
Topography flat gently flat undulat-
steep
rolling ing
Inherent moderate moderate low to
high to high
high to high
Fertility moderate

Iloilo 21
Table 1. (continuation)

Soil Upland Soils


Qualities
in Relation Guima- San Umi-
to Crop Faraon Luisiana
ras Rafael ngan
Production
Soil pH 7.5-8.0 6.0-7.0 4.5-5.5 4.5-5.0 5.8-6.7
N Level medium low low low low
P Level high medium low medium low
K Level low low low low medium
loamy silty
very fine
Soil Texture clay loamy to clay
clay
clayey loam
Drainage well well well well well
very
Perme- mode- mode- moder-
slow to moderate
ability rate rate ate
slow
rock
Rock lime- rock frag-
none frag- gravels
Fragments stone ments
ments
shallow deep deep deep deep
Effective
(<50 (100-150 (100-150 (90-120 (150
Soil Depth
cm) cm) cm) cm) cm)
Flooding sea-
none none none none
Hazard sonal
undu-
flat to
Topo- lating, rolling to rolling to gently
undulat-
graphy rolling steep steep sloping
ing
to hilly
Inherent mode-
high moderate low low
Fertility rate

22 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Soil
Productivity
Soil productivity is that quality of a soil that summarizes
its potential in producing plants or sequences of plants
under defined sets of management practices; it is also a
synthesis of condition of soil fertility, water control, plant
species, soil tilth, pest control and physical environment
(Bainroth, 1978: Badayos, 1990). In economic terms, it
is a measure of amount of inputs of production factors
required to correct soil limitation(s) in order to attain
a certain level of production. It is expressed as the
average crop yield under defined sets of management
classes (Badayos, 1990).

Soil productivity index is used for making comparisons


among soils; categorized into inherent and potential.
The inherent productivity index is the natural capacity of
the soil to produce a given yield; potential refers to the
capability of the soil to produce yield after correctible
soil constraints had been remedied. In economics, the
predicted inherent yield is calculated by multiplying
the inherent index by the maximum potential yield of
rice; predicted maximum possible yield is computed by
multiplying the potential index by the maximum poten-
tial yield. For instance, the maximum potential yield in
the dry season is 8 tons/hectare, and the inherent and
potential productivity ratings for Sara soil is 0.75 and
0.83, respectively. Then, the predicted inherent and
potential yields of rice in Sara soils are 6.0 and 6.6
tons/ha, respectively.

Iloilo 23
Table 2. The soil productivity index for rice.

Inherent Potential
Soil Series
Productivity Productivity

Alimodian 0.67 0.80

Bantog 0.72 0.83

Barotac 0.62 0.77

Faraon 0.48 0.60

Guimaras 0.57 0.70

Luisiana 0.23 0.43

San Rafael 0.43 0.55

Sara 0.75 0.83

Sta. Rita 0.65 0.83

Umingan 0.61 0.71

24 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Crop
Suitability Analysis

Iloilo 25
Crop Suitability Analysis
Soil suitability classification refers to the use of
a piece of land on a sustainable basis, based on
physical and chemical properties and environmental
factors. It is the ultimate aim of soil survey and this
may come up through good judgment and a thorough
evaluation of soil properties and qualities like depth,
texture, slope, drainage, erosion, flooding and fertility.
Based from these properties, the suitability of a
certain tract of land for crop production is determined.

Suitability ratings denote qualitative analysis of the


potential of a certain soil to different crops. It implies
what crop(s) would give the highest benefit in terms
of productivity and profitability from a given soil
type, indicated by S1 as the most suitable, S2 as
moderately suitable and S3 as marginally suitable.
The symbol N implies that the crop is either currently
not suitable (N1) where the effect of limitation is so
severe as greatly to reduce the yield and require
costly inputs or permanently not suitable (N2) where
the limitations cannot be corrected permanently.
Crop suitability analysis also provides information on
soil properties that limit the production of specified
crop(s). The crop suitability analysis for the soils of
Iloilo is shown on Table 3.

When using a parametric system, the soil index can


be equated into percentage shown below. It means
that you can attain 75% of the potential yield of the
crop when the soil index is highly suitable (S1) while
less than 25% of the potential yield when the soil
index is not suitable (N).
S1: soil index >75 S3: soil index 25-50
S2: soil index 50-75 N: soil index <25

26 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table 3. The crop suitability analysis of the soils of Iloilo for different crops.
Rice Irrigated Rice Rainfed Rice Rainfed
Soil Series Slope Range Maize
Lowland Lowland Upland
Level to undulating,
Alimodian N2t S2tf S2tf S2c
slightly rolling to hilly
Bantog Level to nearly level S1 S2fs S2fs S2sc
Barotac Rolling to steep N2t S2tfs S2tfs S2tfsc
Faraon Undulating, rolling & hilly N2tws S3tfs S3tfs S3tfc
Guimaras Rolling to hilly N2t S3tfs S3tfs S2tfc
Luisiana Rolling to hilly to steep N2tf S3tfs S3tf N1tfc
San Rafael Undulating to rolling N2tf S2fw S3tfs N1fc
Sara Level to gently rolling S2f S2fs S2fw S2c
Sta. Rita Level to nearly level S2tfw S3fs S2s S2sc
Umingan Level to undulating S3tfws S3fs S3fs S2fsc
Suitability ratings: Limitations due to:
S1 - Highly suitable t - topography; slope
S2 - Moderately suitable w - drainage; flooding
S3 - Marginally suitable s - texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
N1 - Currently not suitable f - soil fertility
N2 - Permanently not suitable c - climate

Iloilo 27
Table 3. (continuation)
Soil Series
Slope Range Beans Tomato Tobacco Sugarcane
Alimodian Level to undulating, slightly rolling to hilly S3fc S2fsc S3sc S3fc

28 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Bantog Level to nearly level S3sc S3wsc S3sc S3sc
Barotac Rolling to steep S3tfsc S3tfsc S3tfsc S3tfsc
Faraon Undulating, rolling & hilly S3tfsc N2tsc S3tfsc S3tfsc
Guimaras Rolling to hilly S3tc S3tfsc S3tfc S3tfc
Luisiana Rolling to hilly to steep S3tfc S3tfc S3tfsc S3tfc
San Rafael Undulating to rolling N1fc N1fc N1fc S3fc
Sara Level to gently rolling S3fwc S2fwc S3fsc S3fc
Sta. Rita Level to nearly level S3sc N2sc S3fsc S3c
Umingan Level to undulating S3fsc N2fsc S3fsc S3fsc
Suitability ratings: Limitations due to:
S1 - Highly suitable t - topography; slope
S2 - Moderately suitable w - drainage; flooding
S3 - Marginally suitable s - texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
N1 - Currently not suitable f - soil fertility
N2 - Permanently not suitable c - climate
Sweet
Soil Series Slope Range Cassava Onion Watermelon
Potato

Alimodian Level to undulating, slightly rolling to hilly S3fc S2ws N2fsc S2fs

Bantog Level to nearly level S3fsc S3ws N2sc S3s


Barotac Rolling to steep S3tfsc S3tfs N2tfsc S3tfs
Faraon Undulating, rolling & hilly S3tfsc N2tfs N2tfsc N2tfs
Guimaras Rolling to hilly S3tfc S2tf N2tfc S3tf
Luisiana Rolling to hilly to steep N1tfc S2tf N2tfc S3tfs
San Rafael Undulating to rolling S3fc S3f N2fc N1f
Sara Level to gently rolling S3fwc S2fw N2fwc S2fws
Sta. Rita Level to nearly level S3fsc S3ws S3sc S3s
Umingan Level to undulating S3sc S2fs S3fsc S3fs
Suitability ratings: Limitations due to:
S1 - Highly suitable t - topography; slope
S2 - Moderately suitable w - drainage; flooding
S3 - Marginally suitable s - texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
N1 - Currently not suitable f - soil fertility

Iloilo 29
N2 - Permanently not suitable c - climate
Table 3. (continuation)

Soil Series Slope Range Banana Papaya Mango Coconut


Level to undulating, slightly
Alimodian S2f S2fws S2fs S1
rolling to hilly

30 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Bantog Level to nearly level S2fs N2ws S3ws S3s
Barotac Rolling to steep S2tfs S2tfs S3tfs S2tfs
Faraon Undulating, rolling & hilly S3tfs S3tfs N2tfs S3fs
Guimaras Rolling to hilly S3tf S3tf S3tf S2tf
Luisiana Rolling to hilly to steep S3tf S3tfs S3tfs N1tf
San Rafael Undulating to rolling S2fs N2f S3f S3f
Sara Level to gently rolling S2fw S3fws S3fw S2ws
Sta. Rita Level to nearly level S2fs S3fws S3ws S3w
Umingan Level to undulating S3fs S3fs S3fs S2fs
Suitability ratings: Limitations due to:
S1 - Highly suitable t - topography; slope
S2 - Moderately suitable w - drainage; flooding
S3 - Marginally suitable s - texture; coarse fragments; soil depth
N1 - Currently not suitable f - soil fertility
N2 - Permanently not suitable c - climate
SoilManagement
Recommendations

Iloilo 31
Soil Management
Recommendations
The goal of soil management is to protect the
soil and enhance its performance to increase
farm profitably and preserve environmental
quality. It is the combination of soil factors
to maximize crop production at the lowest
possible cost while leaving the soil in a
productive state. It involves: maintaining the
soil in good physical condition and its soil
fertility status, and influencing the biological
aspect of the soil so that maximum benefits
result (Harpstead, et.al. 1997).
Soil management recommendations suitable
for each soil identified are enumerated in
the succeeding pages (Table 4). In coming
up with soil management recommendations,
soil properties such as texture, mineralogy,
moisture and temperature regimes, and
climate were considered since these factors
affect crop growth. These properties
cannot be changed but controlled tillage,
crop rotation, soil amendments, and other
management choices can be done. Through
these choices, the structure, biological
activity, and chemical content of soils can
be altered to influence erosion rates, pest
population, nutrient availability, and crop
production.

32 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table 4. The soil series of Iloilo with their limitations for crop production and corresponding
management recommendations for different crops.

Soil Limitations Soil Management Recommendations


Series for crop Diversified Root crop Tree/Forest/
production Rice
crops Plantation crop
Alimodian heavy clay fertilization; seed organic matter deep plowing; plant cover
subsoil that can bed configuration; incorporation; application of crops, trees
impede internal terracing liming; minimum fertilizer and legumes to
drainage tillage; deep restore fertility
and root plowing; and minimize
development; mulching; suited erosion; put up
topography; to corn dikes of stones
low fertility across the slope

Cropping Pattern: rice-maize/sorghum/vegetables/root crops

Iloilo 33
Table 4. (continuation)
Soil Soil Management Recommendations
Limitations
Series Root crop Tree/Forest/
for crop production Rice Diversified crops
Plantation crop

34 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Bantog poor drainage; high practice shallow construction of establishment unsuitable
shrink and swell cultivation when adequate drainage of adequate under present
capacity upon wetting soil moisture irrigation and flood drainage and condition but
and drying producing is at optimum; control system due irrigation system; become suit-
wide cracks in the suited for to seasonal flooding application of able if proper
soil, hard when dry; irrigated and hazard in low areas; organic matter management
seasonal flooding rainfed paddy use of broadbeds, and farm manure practices like
in low areas; slow rice; maintain ridges or furrows establishment of
permeability; irrigation properly the and mulching; adequate drain-
water paddy dikes application of age and flood
organic matter and control systems;
farm manure use of suitable
tree species
and proper
fertilization
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice; rice-diversified crops/vegetables/root crops;
rice-mungo/tobacco/corn
Barotac iron and aluminum application liming; application not suitable for root plant cover
toxicity; acidic; low of phosphate of freshly crops due to gravels crops, trees
fertility status; difficult fertilizers; decomposed and legumes
to manage; run-off; dikes organic matter to restore
gravels are present in construction fertility and
all horizon; topography minimize
erosion; use
of locally
adapted tree
varieties
Cropping Pattern: upland rice-corn; diversified crops-diversified crops; trees
Faraon shallow soil depth construction of contour farming; not suitable for root suited for
limiting productivity to bunds shallow cultivation; crops due to outcrops fruit, forest
shallow rooted crops; fertilization present and other
outcrops present; hardwood
topography trees e.g.
citrus,
mango, ipil,
molave,
coconut etc.

Cropping Pattern: rice-rice; rice-diversified crops/vegetables/root crops

Iloilo 35
Table 4. (continuation)
Soil Limitation Soil Management Recommendations
Series for crop Root crop Tree/Forest/
production Rice Diversified crops
Plantation crop
Guima- topography; application organic matter incorporation; suited for suited for

36 Simplified to Key Soil Series


ras low CEC; of fertilizers practice cover cropping, green camote coconut and
run-off to increase manuring and liming; plant with fruit trees; plant
yield; legumes to low nutrient levels; locally adapted
construction terracing varieties;
of bunds; terracing
terracing
Cropping Pattern: coconut/fruit trees-diversified crops/root crops
upland rice- diversified crops/ root crops
Luisi- highly leach- liming; practice contour farming, strip suited for root suited for
ana ed; very acid- fertilizer cropping and cover cropping; crops permanent
ic; iron and application; application of fertilizer crops and trees
aluminum best suited to restore the
toxicity; low for rice fertility of the soil
base satura-
tion and low
CEC; run-off;
Cropping Pattern: upland rice-diversified crops/root crops; fruit trees/forest trees
topography
San iron and application liming; fertilization; organic suited for root suitable for
Rafael aluminum of fertilizer; matter incorporation; mulching; crops forest trees;
toxicity; construction intercropping; multiple plant locally
acidic; very of bunds cropping; terracing adapted varieties
low native
fertility;
run-off;
topography
Cropping Pattern: upland rice-root crops/ diversified crops; forest trees
Sara soil needs liming; liming; timing of land not suited for root suitable for
hardening fertilization preparation; sub-soiling crops trees; plant to
causing of complete acid tolerant
surface fertilizer; crops e.g. le-
cracking construction gumes, coconut
and difficulty of irrigation
in tillage; system
acidic; lack
of irrigation
Cropping Pattern: rice-rice; rice-diversified crops/vegetables/root crops

Iloilo 37
38 Simplified to Key Soil Series
Table 4. (continuation)

Soil Limitation Soil Management Recommendations


Series for crop Tree/Forest/
production Rice Diversified crops Root crop
Plantation crop
Sta. soil hardening phosphate organic matter not suited suitable for trees;
Rita causing surface fertilization; incorporation; cover crops; due to texture plant locally
cracking and best suited mulching; construction constraints adapted varieties
difficulty in tillage for rice of broadbeds, ridges
and furrows; suited for
sugarcane

Cropping Pattern: rice-diversified crops; corn/sugarcane-corn/sugarcane; rice-


corn/mungo/legumes; coconuts
Umi- presence of application construction of adequate gravels at the clearing of large
ngan gravelly or stony of fertilizer; drainage irrigation and lower subsoil gravels and rock
layer at the lower suited for flood control system; may cause the outcrops; suitable
subsoil. Due to paddy rice application of fertilizer and lower yield of for trees such as
this layer of stones and other organic matter; suited for root crops coconut, atis etc
and gravels, crops; diversified crops; adjust the
the soils tend clearing of cropping season
to be droughty; large gravels
occurrence of and rock
floods during and outcrops
after heavy rains Cropping Pattern:rice-diversified crops/vegetables/root crops; diversified
crops/root crops- diversified crops/root crops

Iloilo 39
40 Simplified to Key Soil Series
Soil Taxonomic
Classification

Iloilo 41
Soil Taxonomic Classification
Soil taxonomy is a system of naming, describing,
and categorizing soils. It helps us to understand
how soils had formed, changed, and their effects
on crops and natural resource management. It
uses a specific nomenclature that both classifies
the soil and gives a distinctive name to the
individual soil. Names are constructed from the
formative elements (generally originating from
Greek and Latin) which are used in specific
combinations to provide a highly descriptive
name to a specific soil type.

Scientists have developed different systems


of soil classification to group soils of similar
properties in one class, allowing them to
exchange information on soils found in
different areas. In the classification scheme,
characteristics and information about the soil
become more specific as one continues from
order, sub-order, great group, sub-group, family,
to series level. For this purpose, the USDA Soil
Taxonomic Classification scheme was employed
for technical use of researchers and students.
Soil Taxonomic Classification that implies the
general features of a given soil indicating its
texture, mineralogy, moisture and temperature
regimes, diagnostic horizons, and soil order
is presented in Table 5 (pages 43-47). These
features/properties influence crop growth
and serve as basis for transferability of soil
management technology.

42 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table 5. Soil taxonomic classification of each soil
series in Iloilo with interpretation.

Soil Taxonomic Interpretation


Series Classification
Ali- Fine, smectitic This is a fine-textured soil
modian (ca.), with large amount of clay (35-
isohyperthermic, 60%) and isohyperthermic
CALCIC temperature regime (>22°C).
HAPLUSTALFS It is an Alfisol (alf), i.e. there
is illuvial accumulation of clay
in the subsoil horizons from
the underlying horizons. It has
minimum complexity in its soil
horizonation (hapl-) found in
areas with pronounced wet
and dry seasons (-ust). It is
a member of the great group
Haplustalfs with high percentage
of calcium saturation in the
subsoil (calcic).
Bantog Very fine, This is a very fine-textured soil
mixed, with high clay content of >60%
isohyperthermic, and has isohyperthermic
AERIC temperature regime (>22°C).
CALCIAQUERT It is a Vertisol(-ert), dominated
by shrink-swell clays that cause
deep wide cracks, slickensides,
very sticky when wet and
compact when dry. It is saturated
with water repeatedly (aqu-) but
not as wet as the typical, i.e. it is
better aerated, usually because
either groundwater is deep or
the period of saturation is shorter
(aeric). This soil also has high
calcium saturation (calci-) in its
subsoil horizons.

Iloilo 43
Table 5. (continuation)

Soil Taxonomic
Interpretation
Series Classification
Barotac Fine, kaolinitic This soil has fine texture and
(ca.), isohyperthermic temperature
isohyperthermic, regime (>22°C). It is an Oxisol
TYPIC (-ox), which is an intensely
KANDIUSTOX weathered soil predominated
by oxides from iron and
aluminum due to repeated
high precipitation and high
temperature (-ust). It is a typical
(typic) representative of the
great group Kandiustox. It has
low cation exchange capacity
(CEC) (kandi-), thus has low
fertility status.

Faraon Fine, Fine-textured soil (35-


isohyperthermic, 60% clay content) and has
LITHIC isohyperthermic temperature
HAPLUSTOLLS regime (>22°C). It is a Mollisol
(-oll) - dark-colored, fertile soils
with high base saturation and
neutral to medium acid pH. It
has minimum complexity in its
soil horizonation (hapl-) found
in areas with pronounced wet
and dry seasons (-ust). It is a
representative of the great group
Haplustolls with lithic contact,
specifically, it is a shallow soil
with hard coralline limestone
bedrock at 35cm depth.

44 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table 5. (continuation)
Soil Taxonomic
Interpretation
Series Classification

Gui- Fine loamy, This is a fine-loamy-textured


maras mixed (ca.), soil with isohyperthermic
isohyperther- temperature regime (>22°C).
mic, OXIC It is an Inceptisol (-ept), i.e. it
HAPLUS- is in the incipient development
TEPTS toward mature soil, but have
not yet fully developed its
diagnostic horizons. It has
minimum complexity in its soil
horizonation (hapl-) found in
areas with pronounced wet
and dry seasons (-ust) and
a representative of the great
group Haplustepts which has
low CEC (oxic).

Luisi- Very fine, This is a very fine-textured soil


ana kaolinitic (ca.), with high clay content of >60%
isohyperther- and has isohyperthermic
mic, USTIC temperature regime (>22°C).
PALEHUMULT It is an Ultisol (-ult) which is
a highly leached soil that has
clay illuviation and low base
saturation. It is a very deep
(pale-) soil found in highlands
(hum-) with pronounced wet
and dry seasons (ustic).

Iloilo 45
Table 5. (continuation)
Soil Taxonomic
Interpretation
Series Classification

San Fine, smectitic This is a fine-textured soil


Rafael (ca.), isohy- with high clay content of >60%
perthermic, and has isohyperthermic
TYPIC PA- temperature regime (>22°C).
LEUSTULTS It is an Ultisol (-ult) which is
a highly leached soil that has
clay illuviation and low base
saturation. This is a typical
(typic) representative of the
great groups Paleustults which
is very deep (pale-) occurring in
areas with pronounced wet and
dry seasons (ust-).

Sara Fine, smectitic It is a fine-textured soil (35-


(ca.), isohy- 60% clay content) and has
perthermic, isohyperthermic temperature
TYPIC EPI- regime (>22°C). It is an
AQUEPT Inceptisol (-ept), i.e. it is in
the incipient development
toward mature soil, but have
not yet fully developed its
diagnostic horizons. It is a
typical (typic) representative
of the great group Epiaquepts.
It is saturated with water for
repeated periods of time (aqu-)
manifested by its grayish color
with or without mottles.

46 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Table 5. (continuation)
Soil Taxonomic
Interpretation
Series Classification

Sta. Fine, smectitic It is a fine-textured soil (35-


Rita (ca.), isohyper- 60% clay content) and has
thermic, TYPIC isohyperthermic temperature
EPIAQUEPT regime (>22°C). It is an
Inceptisol (-ept), i.e. it is in
the incipient development
toward mature soil, but have
not yet fully developed its
diagnostic horizons. It is a
typical (typic) representative
of the great group Epiaquepts.
It is saturated with water for
repeated periods of time (aqu-)
manifested by its grayish color
with or without mottles.

Umin- Loamy skel- Loamy skeletal-textured soil


gan etal, mixed with many gravels and pebbles
(ca.), isohy- present and isohyperthermic
perthermic, temperature regime (>22°C).
FLUVENTIC It is an Inceptisol (-ept), i.e. it
HAPLUSTEPT is in the incipient development
toward mature soil, but have
not yet fully developed its
diagnostic horizons. This soil
has minimum complexity in its
soil horizonation (hapl-) found
in areas with pronounced wet
and dry seasons (-ust). It is
a representative of the great
group Haplustepts which
is subject to seasonal river
flooding (fluventic).

Iloilo 47
48 Simplified to Key Soil Series
Appendices

Iloilo 49
APPENDIX 1. STEPS TO IDENTIFY SOIL SERIES

1
Soil sampling

Choose a vacant area


in your field. Using a
spade/auger, dig up
to 50cm from the soil
surface.

Depth of soil is impor-


tant. The surface/top
soil is not a good basis
since it is always culti-
vated.

Get bulk soil sample


(½ kilo) from 30-50cm
depth; place it in a
container (plastic/pail).
This sample will be
used for soil series
identification.

50 Simplified to Key Soil Series


2 Soil color determination

Soil color is an indi-


rect measure of other
characteristics such as
drainage, aeration, and
organic matter content.
Black-colored soils may
indicate high fertility
and productivity.

Gray indicates a fairly


constant water-saturated
condition. Bright brown and
red colors are indicative of
good aeration and drainage.

Get an ample amount of soil


from the sample. The soil
should be moist (neither too
wet, nor too dry).

Compare the color of


the soil sample with
the color chart in
the guidebook. Take
note of the classifica-
tion of the soil color.

Iloilo 51
3 Texture determination

52 Simplified to Key Soil Series


4 pH Determination (UPLB procedure)

Get soil sample from a


30-50cm depth. Fill the
test tube with soil sample
up to the scratch mark.

Add 7 drops of CPR


(chlorphenol red). Mix by
gently swirling the test
tube.

If soil pH is 6 or greater,
repeat the steps using BTB
(brom thymol blue).

If the soil pH is 5 or less,


repeat the steps using
BCG (brom cresol green).

Match the color of the


solution on top of the soil
with the corresponding
color chart of the pH
indicator dye used.

Iloilo 53
APPENDIX 2. THE PALAYCHECK SYSTEM

The Palaycheck System


is a rice integrated
crop management
that combines the
technologies and
learning processes to
identify strengths and
weaknesses of current
crop management practices, make improvements
in the next season to increase grain yield, input use
efficiency, and profit with environmental concerns.

The PalayCheck System describes the crop


management practices (input) to achieve the following
Key Checks (output):

1) Used certified seeds of a


recommended variety.

2) No high and low soil


spots after final leveling.

3) Practiced synchronous
planting after a fallow
period.

4) Sufficient number of
healthy seedlings.

54 Simplified to Key Soil Series


5) Sufficient nutrients at tillering to early panicle
initiation, and flowering.

6) Avoided excessive
water or drought
stress that could
affect the growth and
the yield of the
crop.

7) No significant yield
loss due to pests.

8) Cut and threshed the


crop at the right time.

Iloilo 55
References
Badayos, R. B. 1990. Lowland rice soils in the
Philippines, their characteristics and classification
in relation to productivity. Inaugaral Professorial
Lecture. SEARCA, UPLB.

Beinroth, F. H. 1978. Some fundamentals of


soil classification. In: Soil-resource data for
agricultural development. Ed. Leslie D. Swindale.
Hawaii Ag. Expt. Sra., College of Trop. Agric.,
University of Hawaii. p.12-19.

MI Harpstead, TJ Sauer, and WF Bennet. 1997.


Soil Science Simplified. 3rd Edition. Iowa State
University Press, Ames Iowa 50014.

“Simplified Keys to Soil Series (29 Soil Series for Maize


Production), Lop Buri Province” The International
Training Workshop on “Applying Information
Technology for Site-Specific Agriculture in Small
Farms of Tropics.” August 4-10, 2003. Bangkok,
Thailand.

Soil Survey of Iloilo Province. Department of


Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of
Soils, Manila, Philippines. Bureau of Printing
Manila.

Soil Survey Manual. US Department of Agricultural


Handbook No. 18. August 1951.Soil Survey
Staff, Bureau of Plant and Industry, Soils, and
Agricultural Engineering. Agricultural Research
Administration, US Department of Agriculture.

56 Simplified to Key Soil Series


Subject Matter Specialists

PhilRice®
Wilfredo B. Collado
Jesiree Elena Ann P. Dela Torre
Mary Rose O. Obico
Rona T. Dollentas
Constancio A. Asis, Jr, PhD
Jovino L. De Dios
Evelyn F. Javier
Leo C. Javier
Eduardo Jimmy P. Quilang, PhD
Madonna C. Casimero, PhD

UP Los Baños
Rodrigo B. Badayos, PhD
Armando E. Soliman

Provincial Agriculture Office of Iloilo


Ildefonso Toledo, PhD
Ely Sandig
Aurea Delicana
Merlie Camarino

Managing Editor/Layout Artist


Erik-Ray Matthew S. Palomar

Editorial Advisers
Leocadio S. Sebastian, PhD
Ronan G. Zagado

Iloilo 57
58 Simplified to Key Soil Series