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# 1/16/2017

1 D Steady State
Conduction
BITS Pilani Pratik N Sheth
Pilani Campus Department of Chemical Engineering

Contents

## • Summary of Conduction, convection and radiation

• Application of Fourier’s Law in Simple Systems
• Plane Wall
• Composite Wall
• Thermal Resistance

• Convective Resistance
• Overall Resistance & Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

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Example

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## Fourier’s Law of heat

conduction
• The heat flux is directly proportional to the temperature
gradient and opposite to it in sign.
• For 1D system
Q dT

A dx
Q dT
= −k
A dx
Q - Rate of heat flow in a direction normal to surface
A - Surface area
T - Temperature
k - Thermal Conductivity
x - Distance normal to the surface
Dr Pratik N Sheth, Dept of Chemical Engg, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Plane wall

Q dT Q (T − T )
= −k = −k 2 1
A dx A L
(T − T )
= k 1 2
L
Q=
(T1 − T2 )
L
kA

Heat Flow =
Resistance

## Dr Pratik N Sheth, Dept of Chemical Engg, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

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Thermal Resistance

Q dT
= −k
A dx

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## The temperature gradients in the three

materials are shown, and the heat flow
may be written:

T2 − T1 T −T T −T
q = −k A A = −k B A 3 2 = −kc A 4 3
∆x A ∆x B ∆xc

## Solving these three equations

simultaneously, the heat flow is written
composite wall

T1 − T4
q=
∆x A / k A A + ∆xB / k B A + ∆xc / kc A
Note: the heat flow must
be the same through all
sections.
Dr Pratik N Sheth, Dept of Chemical Engg, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

## Multi layer plane wall

∆ xn T1 − T4
Rcond = q=
kn A RA + RB + RC

composite wall
∆Toverall
q=
∑ Rth
Note: the heat flow must Rth = the thermal resistances of the
be the same through all various materials
sections.
Dr Pratik N Sheth, Dept of Chemical Engg, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus