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Abstract-Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for the sustenance and

wellbeing since time immemorial. Due to this a lot of energy resources have been exhausted
and wasted. Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion
is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like India where the railway
station, temples etc., are overcrowded all round the clock .When the flooring is engineered with
piezo electric technology, the electrical energy produced by the pressure is captured by floor
sensors and converted to an electrical charge by piezo transducers, then stored and used as a
power source. And this power source has many applications as in agriculture, home application
and street lighting and as energy source for sensors in remote locations.
Keywords-Piezoelectric transduser, ACripple neutralizer, microcontroller PIC16f877A,
mobile charger unit, LCD, battery

I. INTRODUCTION
The usage of traditional power generation method such as burning of coal, wood, diesel etc is
continuously depleting our natural resources such as fossil fuel which is the demand for power
has exceed supply due to the rising population. In addition to this the traditional method cause
population. has the potential to redefine urban space by adding a sense of fluidity and
encouraging people to activate spaces with their movement. The crowed farm floor is composed
of standard parts that are easily replicated but it is expensive to produce at this stage. This
technology would facilitate the future creation of new urban landscape athletic field with a
spectator area, music halls, theatres, nightclubs and large gathering space for rallies,
demonstrations and celebration
Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion is very much
relevant and important for highly populated countries like India and China where the
roads,railway stations, bus stands, temples etc. are all over crowded and millions of people
move move around the clock. This whole human bio energy being wasted if can be made
possible for utilization it will be great invention and crowd energy farms will be very useful
energy sources in crowded countries. Walking across a “Crowd Farm”, floor, then will be fun
for idle people who can improve their health by exercising in such farms with earning. The
electrical energy generated at such farms will be useful for nearby application.
International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 3, Issue 4, [April 2016] Special Issue of ICRTET’2016

II. BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 1.Block diagram of system

2.1.Microcontroller PIC16F877A

PIC16F877A microcontroller is main part of foot step power generation system. It is used to
display battery voltage on LCD. It is also used to measure battery voltage with the help of
analog to digital converter of pic microcontroller. 10MHz crystal is used in this project
• 1.Operating frequency- 20MHz
• 2.Resets and Delays-POR,BOR(PWRT,OST)
• 3.Flash memory-8KB
• 4.Data memory-368Bytes
• 5.EEPROM-256Bytes
• 6.I/O ports-A,B,C,D,E

2.2.PIEZO ELECTRIC SENSOR

A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure,
acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical signal.

Figure 2.Piezoelectric Sensor


Piezoelectric sensors have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various
processes.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 3, Issue 4, [April 2016] Special Issue of ICRTET’2016

Figure 3.Piezoelectriccrystal

The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a set of inherent advantages. The high
modulus of elasticity of many piezoelectric materials is comparable to that of many metals and
goes up to 10e6 N/m²[Even though piezoelectric sensors are electromechanical systems that
react to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero deflection. This is the reason why
piezoelectric sensors are so rugged, have an extremely high natural frequency and an excellent
linearity over a wide amplitude range. Additionally, piezoelectric technology is insensitive to
electromagnetic fields and radiation, enabling measurements under harsh conditions. Some
materials used (especially gallium phosphate or tourmaline) have an extreme stability even at
high temperature, enabling sensors to have a working range of up to 1000°C. Tourmaline shows
pyroelectricity in addition to the piezoelectric effect; this is the ability to generate an electrical
signal when the temperature of the crystal changes.

2.3. A.C. RIPPLE NEUTRALIZER:

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and
smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and
load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at
this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.

Figure 4.Capacitor Filter


2.4. BATTERY:
• Manufactured/tested using CAD
• Electrolyte volume
• PE Separators
• Protection against leakage

III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IN DETAIL

The piezoelectric material converts the pressure applied to it into electrical energy. The source
of pressure can be either from the weight of the moving vehicles or from the weight of the
people walking over it. The output of the piezoelectric material is not a steady one. So a bridge
circuit is used to convert this variable voltage into a linear one. Again an AC ripple filter is
used to filter out any further fluctuations in the output. The output dc voltage is then stored in
a rechargeable battery. As the power output from a single piezo-film was extremely low,
combination of few Piezo films was investigated. Two possible connections were tested -
parallel and series connections. The parallel connection did not show significant increase in the
voltage output. With series connection, additional piezo-film results in increased of voltage
output but not in linear proportion. So here a combination of both parallel and series connection
is employed for producing 40V voltage output with high current density. From battery
@IJMTER-2016, All rights Reserved 660
International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 3, Issue 4, [April 2016] Special Issue of ICRTET’2016

provisions are provided to connect dc load. An inverter is connected to battery to provide


provision to connect AC load. The voltage produced across the tile can be seen in a LCD. For
this purpose microcontroller PIC16F873A is used. The microcontroller uses a crystal oscillator
for its operation. The output of the microcontroller is then given to the LCD which then displays
the voltage levels

Figure 5.Schematic representation of the working model

3.2. Maximum Theoretical Voltage Generated


When a force is applied on piezo material, a charge is generated across it. Thus, it can be
assumed to be an ideal capacitor. Thus, all equations governing capacitors can be applied to it.
In this project, on one tile, we connect 3 piezo in series.10 such series connections are connected
in parallel. Thus when 3 piezoelectric discs are connected in series, its equivalent capacitance
becomes: 1/Ceq=(1/c1)+(1/c2)+(1/c3)
We know,
Q=C*V
So
C=Q/V
Veq/Q=(V1/Q)+(V2/Q)+(V3/Q)
Thus,
Veq=V1+V2+V3
Hence, the net voltage generated in series connection is the sum of individual voltages
generated across each piezoelectric disc. Output voltage from 1 piezo disc is 13V.
Thus, Veq=V1+V2+V3 =
13+13+13 =39V
Thus the maximum voltage that can be generated across the piezo tile is around 39V.
STUDY OF CONNECTIONS
Next to determine the kind of connection that gives appreciable voltage and current necessary,
three PZT are connected inseries.

Figure 6. PZT in series connection

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 3, Issue 4, [April 2016] Special Issue of ICRTET’2016

A force sensor and voltmeter is connected to this series combination. As varying forces are
applied on this connection, corresponding voltages are noted. Also the voltage generated across
the series connection and the current is measured. Similarly the connections are done for
parallel and series-parallel connections are done and the graphs as shown in fig 7 and 8
respectively

Figure 7. V-I graph of parallel and series connection Figure 8. V-I graph of parallel and series
Combination

It can be seen from the graph that the voltage from a series connection is good but the current
obtained is poor, whereas the current from a parallel connection is good but the voltage is poor.
But this problem is rectified in a series- parallel connection where a good voltage as well as
current can be obtained.
Application
1. Street Lighting Operation
2. Foot step power can be used for agricultural.
3. Home application.
4. Street lighting.
5. Railway station.
6. Temples and other crowded areas.

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