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VOLUME 11, 2017

JOURNAL
SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH

Association Scientific and Applied Research

International Journal
The journal publishes scientific information and articles which present new
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JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 5, 2014


Editor – in - Chief:
Corr. Member Prof. DSc Petar Getsov – Director of Space Research
and Technologies Institute – BAS Chairman of
Bulgarian Astronautic Federation

Vice – Editor- in- Chief:


Prof. DSc Zhivko Zhekov - Konstantin Preslavsky University of Shumen

International Editorial Board:


Acad. Prof DSc Lev Zelyonii – Russia
Acad. Prof. DSc Mykhailo Khvesyk – Ukraine
Acad. Prof. DSc Genadiy Maklakov – Ukraine
Corr. Member Prof. DSc Filip Filipov – Bulgaria
Corr. Member Prof. DSc Petar Velinov – Bulgaria
Corr. Member Prof. Dr. Stoyan Velkoski – Macedonia
Prof DSc Vyacheslav Rodin – Russia
Prof DSc Stanislav Klimov – Russia
Prof. DSc Garo Mardirossian – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Habil. Georgi Kolev – Bulgaria
Prof. DSc Rumen Kodjeykov – Bulgaria
Prof. DSc Olga Prokopenko - Ukraine
Prof. DSc Andrei Andreev – Bulgaria
Prof. DSc Tsvetan Dachev – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Rumen Nedkov – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Georgi Kamarashev – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Alen Sarkisyan – France
Prof. Dr. Margarita Filipova – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Naziya Suleymanova – Kazakhstan
Prof. Dr. Hristo Krachunov – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Stiliyan Stoyanov – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Rozalina Chuturkova – Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Anton Antonov – Bulgaria
Ch. Assist. Prof. Dr. Petar Boyanov – Bulgaria
Dr. Stoyan 6DUJSargoychev – Canada
Assist. Prof. Angel Manev – Bulgaria

Editors
Aneliya Karagyozyan– Bulgaria
Prof. Dr. Anton Antonov – Bulgaria

Dek: TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data reveal our Ocean Planet, mission for NASA.

© Association Scientific and Applied Research


© Konstantin Preslavsky University Press
ISSN 1314-6289
associationsar@abv.bg
http://www.associationsar.com/
JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 5, 2014
CONTENTS
Technical Sciences

RESEARCH OF THE TRANSPARENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE


ATMOSPHERE WHICH INFLUENCE THE FLIGHT CONTROL OF FLYING
MACHINES
Petar Getzov, Stiliyan Stoyanov, Petar Boyanov ...................................................................................................5

COPPER RECOVERY FROM LOW GRADE ORES, CONCENTRATES AND


TECHNOGENIC WASTE BY AMMONIA LEACHING - AN OLD IDEA WITH
PROMISING FUTURE
Marinela Panayotova, Vladko Panayotov .............................................................................................................10

ROUTING INFORMATION SECURITY IN THE LOCAL AREA NETWORK OF


ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS USING AN ENHANCED DISTANCE VECTOR
ROUTING PROTOCOL – EIGRP
Petar Boyanov, Stiliyan Stoyanov, Hristo Hristov, Ognyan Fetfov, Tihomir Trifonov ......................................35

SECURITY ROUTING SIMULATION THE LOCAL AREA NETWORK OF


ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS USING A LINK-STATE ROUTING PROTOCOL -
OSPF
Petar Boyanov, Stiliyan Stoyanov, Hristo Hristov, Ognyan Fetfov, Tihomir Trifonov ......................................47

RESTRICTIONS ON THE DECENTRALIZATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN


BULGARIA
Ralitsa Nikolova ...................................................................................................................................................59

THE SHORTEST PATH PROBLEM IN LOGISTICS


Andrey Bogdanov .................................................................................................................................................68

Ecology

CONSUMPTION OF OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES


Almira Daulbayeva A, Margarita Filipova ...........................................................................................................73

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENT FOR


PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND
ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE SUCCESS
Hristo Krachunov, Elena Kindzhakova ................................................................................................................78

Biology

CARCINOMA HEPATIS AND BLOOD GROUP AFFILIATION


Velislav Todorov, Volodia Georgiev, Maria Boycheva, Cvetan Minkov, Rada Georgieva, Milen Boichev .....87

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 3


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

RESEARCH OF THE TRANSPARENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE


ATMOSPHERE WHICH INFLUENCE THE FLIGHT CONTROL OF
FLYING MACHINES

Petar Getzov, Stiliyan Stoyanov, Petar Boyanov*

SPACE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE - BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF


SCIENCES
E-mail: director@space.bas.bg, stil717@yahoo.com
*
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY
OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES, KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKY UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN,
SHUMEN 9712, 115, UNIVERSITETSKA STR
E-mail: peshoaikido@abv.bg

ABSTRACT: A detailed optical research is carried about to examine the transparency


characteristics out of the atmosphere which influence the flight control of self-moving and
self-indicating flying machines. Methods for determining the atmosphere transparency
coefficient for monochrome and compound radiation are proposed. The water vapours
quantity in horizontal and vertical direction is calculated. Methods for determining the mass
of the air and the carbon gas in horizontal, included and vertical direction are proposed.

KEY WORDS: Cisco, Atmosphere, Characteristics, Transparency.

1. Introduction
In the process of developing of optical and opto-electronic equipment for
the need of the space physics and distance research methods of particular
concern is the atmosphere transparency that influences the visibility distance of
distant objects and also influences the flight control of flying machine [1, 5, 6,
7].
By dissemination through the atmosphere the stream radiation is
weakened as at the expense of molecular dispersion [2] and by its absorption of
the different components of the atmosphere [3]. Because the stream weakens
selectively then the atmosphere transparency can be determined for
monochrome radiation [4].

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 5


As the main factors that influence the weakening of stream radiation in
the atmosphere are known then the following formula for calculation of spectral
atmosphere transparency it can be written:

𝑛 𝑘
(1) 𝜏𝛼 (𝜆) = ∏ 𝜏𝑝𝑖 (𝜆) ∏ 𝜏𝑛𝑖 (𝜆) = 𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆)𝜏𝑝2(𝜆)𝜏𝑛𝐻2 𝑂 𝜏𝑛 (𝜆)𝐶𝑂2 𝜏𝑛 (𝜆)𝑂3
𝑖=1 𝑗=1

where 𝜏𝑝1(𝜆) and 𝜏𝑝2 (𝜆)  coefficients for skipping through the
atmosphere of monochrome radiation
stream by taking into account the
weakening at the expense of the molecular
dispersion (𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆)) and aerosol dispersion
𝜏𝑛𝐻2 𝑂 𝜏𝑛 (𝜆)𝐶𝑂2 (𝜏𝑝2 (𝜆)).
𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜏𝑛 (𝜆)𝑂3  coefficients for skipping through the
atmosphere of monochrome stream by
taking into account the weakening only at
the expense of the water vapours, carbon
gas and ozone absorption.

The value of the coefficient 𝜏𝑝1(𝜆) determining by relay dispersion of the


molecules of the gases with the following formula is calculated:

(2) 𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆) = 𝑒 −𝛼𝑝1 (𝜆)𝐿 ,

where

32𝜋 3 (𝑛2 −1)2 - coefficient for weakening at the expense of


(3) 𝛼𝑝1 (𝜆) = ,
3𝑁𝜆4
molecular dispersion;
N = 2,9.1019 l/cm - air density at normal pressure, expressing
the amount of particles in one cubic;
n=1,0003 -centimeter;
indicator of refraction of air;
L - distance between transmitter and receiver.

After solving formulas (2) and (3) it can be noted that visible part of the
molecular dispersion spectrum is sufficiently high and that significantly
influences on the reduction of the transparency due to which need to be
considered by calculation the flight control of the flying machines.
The skipping coefficient 𝜏𝑝2 (𝜆) that gives an account of loses of the
aerosol dispersion can be calculated by a formula similar to (2):
6 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017
(4) 𝜏𝑝2(𝜆) = 𝑒 −𝛼𝑝2 (𝜆)𝐿 .

For the calculation of the coefficient value 𝛼𝑝2 (𝜆) is required some
knowledge of the quantity, size and composition of the substance aerosol
particles, which cause scattering of the radiation. This creates great difficulties
and practically precludes the implementation of an analytical method for
determining the skipping coefficient 𝜏𝑝2 (𝜆).
The most accessible method for determining the skipping coefficient
𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) = 𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆)𝜏𝑝2(𝜆) by taking into account of summarized radiation
weakening at the expense of the molecular dispersion and aerosol dispersion is
based on the data of metrological distance visibility Lvisibility.
Between 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) and metrological distance visibility Lvisibility exists
particular relationship related to the infrared part of optical spectrum. The
coefficient values of 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) depending on Lvisibility are brought on fig. 1. The
presented graphics are created when the distance Lˈ between the object and
receiver is 2 km.

Fig.1. Modification of the coefficient 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) depending on the metrological


distance visibility

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 7


If the real distance L differs from Lˈ then the value of skipping
coefficient 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) is determining by calculating on the base of Buger’s law.
1 1
(5) 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) = [𝜏𝑝2 (𝜆)]𝐿 = [𝜏𝑝2
ˈ
(𝜆)2 ]𝐿 = [𝜏𝑝ˈ (𝜆)]2 ,

where
𝜏𝑝 (𝜆)  skipping coefficients of the atmosphere of
monochrome radiation stream through
atmosphere layer with thickness L, km;
𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆)  skipping coefficients of monochrome
radiation stream through an atmosphere per
unit thickness;
ˈ
𝜏𝑝 (𝜆)  taken out of the graphic reference value of
the skipping coefficient of monochrome
radiation stream.
By using the formula can be determined the atmosphere skipping
monochrome radiation stream with wavelength λ = 1,25 mkm by metrological
distance visibility Lvisibility = 10,2 km when the distance between the transmitter
and receiver L=5,5 km.
For the achieving of wave λ = 1,25 mkm by Lvisibility = 10,2 km with the
help of fig. 1. is determined 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) = 0,6. After that by using the Buger’s law is
determined the skipping coefficient 𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆) at L = 1 km:
1 1
𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆) = 𝜏𝑝ˈ (𝜆 = 1,25𝑚𝑘𝑚)1,85 = 0,61,85 .

As far as
1 𝐿
𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) = [𝜏𝑝1 (𝜆)]𝐿 = [𝜏𝑝ˈ (𝜆)2 ]1,85 ,

then by L= 5,5 km we obtain


5,5
𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) = 0,61,85 = 0,216.

For the skipping coefficient value of the atmosphere over radiation stream
influence the quantity water vapours on the way of radiation spreading. If in real
conditions the thickness of water vapours w differs from wˈ = 17 mm by which
the graphic on figure 1 is built, then this difference by means of special
multiplier is taken into account

𝜏𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 = 0,998−(𝑤ˈ𝑤) = 0,998−(17−𝑤) .

8 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Thereby, the formula for transition from coefficient 𝜏ˈ(𝜆) which is taken
from the graphic of figure 1 the real coefficient 𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) the following type will
acquire
𝐿
𝜏𝑝 (𝜆) = [𝜏𝑝ˈ (𝜆)]1,85 0,998−(17−𝑤).

In conclusion it may be noted the skipping coefficients of the atmosphere


of monochrome stream by taking into the account the weakening the radiation,
caused by absorption of water vapours 𝜏𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 and carbon gas 𝜏𝑛 (𝜆)𝐶𝑂2 can be
determined for different working wavelengths, because they have an especially
influence over the flight control of the flying machines.
When considering the characteristics of atmosphere transparency is
needed information for the effective layer thickness of water vapours on the way
of radiation stream spreading and the carried out ground layer of the thickness of
air layer.

References:
[1]. Getzov P., Space, Ecology, Security, New Bulgarian University, 2002, pp.
211.
[2]. Getzov P., G. Mardirossian, Z. Hubenova, Zh. Zhekov, B. Tsekova, F.
Filipov, S. Stoyanov, I. Hristov. Influence of molecular scattering of light
on light protective characteristics of optical devices. Proceedings of “Naval
scientific forum”, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, Varna, 2003, pp. 91-
94.
[3]. Getzov P., D. Kamenov, G. Mardirossian, S. Stoyanov, Zh. Zhekov.
Assessing the impact of anthropological changes of nitrogen, carbon and
chlorine constituting the on distribution of ozone in the atmosphere and
temperature, Proceedings of Konstantin Preslavsky University of Shumen,
“Natural Science 2003”, Shumen, 2003 pp. 165-168.
[4]. Mardirossian G., Aerospace methods in ecology and environmental studies.
Academic publisher “Marin Drinov”, 2003, pp. 201.
[5]. Manev A., K. Palazov, S. Raykov, V. Ivanov. Combined satellite
monitoring of the temperature anomaly in August 1998, Proceedings of the
9th international conference. Basic problems of solar-terrestrial effects, 21-
22 November 2002, Sofia, pp.153-156.
[6]. Palazov K., S. Spasov, S. Raykov, A. Marinov, B. Benev, A. Manev, P.
Petkov. Data processing for orientation in a satellite experiment UFSIPS,
project INTERBOL. Proceeding of international conference “Stara Gazora
- 2003”, 2003.
[7]. Stoyanov S., G. Mardirossian, Zh. Zhekov, I. Hristov. Entrance impacts
over opto-electronic device for measurement of angular coordinates of
distant objects. Proceedings of “Naval scientific forum” Nikola Vaptsarov
Naval Academy, Varna, 2001, pp.224-228.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 9


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

COPPER RECOVERY FROM LOW GRADE ORES, CONCENTRATES


AND TECHNOGENIC WASTE BY AMMONIA LEACHING - AN OLD
IDEA WITH PROMISING FUTURE

Marinela Panayotova, Vladko Panayotov

UNIVERSITY OF MINING AND GEOLOGY, SOFIA 1700,'' BOYAN


KAMENOV'' STR 1, E-MAIL:marichim@mgu.bg

Abstract: Sustainable development of the society and our everyday life increasingly
needs copper. To meet this demand impoverished ores, low-grade concentrates and
technogenic waste have to be processed. For these raw materials the classical route ''mineral
processing - pyrometallurgy'' is inapplicable and / or unprofitable. Leaching followed by
recovery from the obtained solutions is increasing being applied worldwide. Ammonia
leaching is progressively finding its use, especially when ores are carbonaceous and / or
oxidized. The paper presents development of ammonia leaching and its nowadays application
for copper recovery, including leaching technological conditions, leaching kinetics and
means for copper recovery from pregnant leach solutions with an emphasis on solvent
extraction and the latest development in the area.

Keywords: ammonia leaching of copper, copper hydrometallurgy, solvent extraction


from ammonia PLS

1. Introduction
Hydrometallurgy is a technology for "wet" extraction and recovery of
valuable metal components from solid materials. Due to its flexibility (ability to
be applied to different relatively small and with changing composition material
streams, usability at low metal contents in complex mineralogy) hydrometallurgy
takes a wide share of the extractive metallurgy. In addition, basic chemicals
needed in hydrometallurgical leaching and extraction from pregnant leach
solutions (PLSs) are produced in large tonnages at low prices, and suitable
materials for the needed equipment construction, have been developed at
reasonable prices. Furthermore, the problems with air pollution by smelters can
be avoided.
Generally, different solutions are used in hydrometallurgy (solutions of
acids, salts and alkaline reagents - alone, in mixtures, or aided by oxidizing or
reducing reagents). Among them, ammonia-based leaching solutions have found

10 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


their place in hydrometallurgy of nonferrous metals and especially - of copper.
Despite of this, the number of publications discussing jointly the leaching
conditions and means for copper recovery from PLSs is very scarce.
The present work is devoted to advances in ammonia leaching of copper
and recovery from PLSs - applied to different types of ores and concentrates,
and to technogenic (pre-consumer) waste. Each class of these raw materials
possesses particularities: The gangue material represents the major part in ores,
and even in low-grade concentrates. The copper concentration is low. The
copper concentration in the technogenic waste is relatively high, however
usually other metals in high concentrations are also available.

2. Leaching from ores and concentrates


Copper forms water soluble and very stable ammonia complexes -
[Cu(NH3)4]2+ and that is why it can be easily leached by ammonia water
solution. Ammonia leaching was first applied and developed for recovery of
copper from its metallic and oxide raw materials. Because very few metals form
such complexes, all ammoniacal leaching processes have the advantage of being
very selective. Ammoniacal processes are ideal when the gangue minerals are
acid consuming (e.g., calcareous or dolomitic). Ammonia leaching was first
used at the Kennecott Plant, Alaska, because copper ore contains carbonates in
limestone–dolomite gangue which are acid soluble, consequently - increasing
the acid consumption [1].
Sherritt Gordon Mines were pioneers in hydrometallurgy with their
Ammonia Pressure-Leaching Process which they used for treating nickel
concentrates [2]. In laboratory and pilot-plant tests on chalcopyrite, they
achieved a 95 % extraction of copper. Most of the unleached copper was floated
from the residue and recycled. The leaching was conducted at a temperature of
about 105 oC and air pressure of 0.8 MPa. Unsolved solids were separated, the
pregnant solution was heated to evaporate excess ammonia. Then the solution
was allowed to react with air to oxidize all available thiosulfates (by-products),
followed by hydrogen reduction. The flowsheet for the treatment of copper-zinc
concentrates is shown in Fig. 1. The generalized stoichiometric equation for the
copper dissolution reaction from chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) - the main used ore - can
be written as follows:
2CuFeS2+8.5O2+12NH3+2H2O → 2Cu(NH3)4SO4+2(NH4)2SO4 +Fe2O3 .
The Arbiter Process (Fig. 2), developed by Anaconda, uses ammoniacal
processing at 70-80 oC but eliminates the use of high pressures [2]. In the
leaching step, oxygen, instead of air, is used with special agitation techniques
that result in good dispersion of the oxygen in the slurry. Use is made of the
availability of the liquid-liquid-extraction reagents, such as LIX-group, to
extract copper by liquid-liquid extraction followed by electrowinning.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 11


Fig. 1. Flow-sheet of the Sherritt Gordon Ammonia Pressure-Leaching
Process

Copper recovery is not complete and unreacted copper has to be floated


from the residue. Liquid-liquid extraction using LIX in ammoniacal systems has
the advantage over acid systems that the solvent can take higher loadings of
copper.
The disadvantage is that LIX is less selective for copper over nickel and
zinc than in acid systems, but there are techniques for overcoming this problem.
One further potential advantage of the ammoniacal system is that copper can
exist in the cuprous form, which makes the possibility of direct electrowinning
of the copper from the leach liquor rather attractive, since the power cost would
probably only be about 50 % of that from cupric solutions and the cost of liquid-

12 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Fig. 2. Flow-sheet of the Arbiter Ammonia Leaching Process

liquid extraction would be eliminated. Electrochemical studies are going on in


this direction.
The Arbiter process has been commercialized for copper, the Sherritt
process - for nickel.
Together with the establishment of technological schemes, research
efforts have been directed to investigate the leaching of copper from systems
containing sulfides of other minerals. The oxidation behaviour and dissolution
of copper, zinc and lead sulphide minerals and mixtures, and single concentrates
has been studied under standard leaching conditions: temperature - from 25 to
135°C, agitation 1080 rpm, ammonia concentration - 3.34 mol/L, ammonium
sulphate when added - 0.34 mol/L, and pH - 11.2 [3]. The found sequence of
sulphide mineral dissolution from a quaternary mixture of CuS, ZnS, PbS and
FeS2 is the following: PbS > CuS > ZnS. FeS2 does not react. The solid products
formed during the leaching reaction, such as goethite (from oxidation of iron
present in chalcopyrite) and oxidised lead compounds, such as PbSO4 and
PbO.PbSO4 (due to galena oxidation) remain insoluble in the leach residue along
with the unreacted pyrite (FeS2). However, it has been pointed that the pyrite

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 13


does become leached to some extent in the presence of Cu2S. The proposed
chemical equations describing the oxidation reactions of CuS, FeS2 ZnS and
CuFeS2 during oxidative ammonia leaching are as follows:
CuS + 4NH3 + 2O2 → Cu(NH3)4SO4
2FeS2 + 8NH3 + 7.5O2 + (4+n)H2O → Fe2O3.nH2O + 4(NH4)2SO4
ZnS + 4NH3 + 2O2 → Zn(NH3)4SO4
2CuFeS2+12NH3+8.5O2+(2+n)H2O→2Cu(NH3)42++4SO42-+4NH4++Fe2O3.nH2O
Some authors are classifying the ammonia leaching methods applied to
copper ores and concentrates as neutral (the metal is dissolved without aid of
any oxidizing or reducing agents), oxidative (where leaching requires the use of
an oxidizer to oxidize solids) and reduction (where a reducing agent is used)
methods [4].
However, actually leaching without oxidizing reagent can be applied only
to materials bearing copper under the form of copper hydroxide. In the case of
copper leaching by ammonia (applied mainly to highly oxidized ores such as
ocean floor manganese nodules), the reduction method actually represents initial
reductive roasting of the material and / or preconditioning of the suspension of
the reduction-roasted and grinded materials under reductive conditions. The
actual copper leaching reaction is carried out by introducing O 2 / air in the
system. In addition of the above described, below are presented some examples
of the mentioned types of leaching of copper ores and concentrates by ammonia
solution.
A process which can be described as ''Leach-precipitation-decomposition
- recovery'' has been patented [5]. According to the author: (a) the patented
process is suitable for recovery of a metals from sulfde ores, especially copper,
from chalcopyrite and other copper sulfide ore, and (b) the leaching of
chalcopyrite can be carried out under lower temperature and pressure, compared
to the above-described processes, there is no water or material balance problem,
and the ammonia can be completely recycled.
The process involves the recovery of mineral values from ore using
ammonia oxidative leaching wherein the mineral values include at least one
metal selected from a preferred group including nickel, copper, cobalt,
manganese, molybdenum, tungsten and silver, platinum, palladium, gold, and
uranium in the presence of other metals such as iron, aluminum, lead, bismuth,
mercury, cadmium, zinc, arsnic, magnesium, beryllium, yttrium, cerium,
germanium, antimony, zirconium, tellurium, vanadium, and tin because they
precipitate or are not leached by ammonia oxidative leaching. Metals such as
sodium, potassium, and lithium which remain in solution through the process
can be present. The source material or leach solution must contain a
nonhydroxide anion, such as a halide, carbonate, phosphate, or sulfate.

14 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Especially for the case of recovery of copper mineral values from flotation
concentrate, or a low grade ore, where iron is present, the preferred anion is
sulfate. It can be supplied by sulfuric acid, by a sulfate salt, or by oxidizing
sulfur in the source material. According to the author, the invention is applicable
not only to ores and concentrates but also to scrap metal, or a combination of ore
and scrap metal. In brief, the source material is mixed with an aqueous ammonia
leach solution and an oxidizing agent (preferably oxygen, air, or an oxygen
bearing gas). The ammonia solution can be fresh solution, solution recycled
from subsequent steps, or a mixture of both. The copper is converted to a soluble
ammine complex and iron available is oxidized to the insoluble oxide Fe2O3. All
sulfur in the ore is oxidized to sulfate. Then the PLS is mixed with lime (or
slaked lime) to precipitate the excess sulfate and simultaneously to facilitate the
separation of iron oxide. After separation of calcium sulfate, iron oxide and
unreacted material, mostly silica, the leach solution containing dissolved copper-
ammonia-sulfate is next ammoniated, or pressurized with, ammonia or aqueous
ammonia to precipitate an unsoluble copper complex ammine. The preferred
temperature range was about l5°-40 °C, and the preferred pressure range - 0.12-
0.35 MPa. Copper is generally precipitated (according to the inventor) as the
copper ammine sulfate monohydrate [Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O,
Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2SO4.H2O], and possibly [Cu(NH3)6SO4.H2O]. After a separation
step the precipitate passes to a decomposition step (heating to decompose the
ammine complex to solid CuSO4, NH3 and some H2O). The ammonia can be
recycled to ammoniation, washing or reacting (i.e., leaching) steps of the
process and the H2O is-recycled. The decomposition process should be either a
gradual heat process or a two-stage heat process to avoid some sulfate
decomposition. Decomposition for 30 minutes at 340 °C in a rotary furnace
followed by decomposition at 380 °C produces a solid material (anhydrous
copper sulfate). Fluid bed decomposition reduces the decomposition time and
temperature. Thus obtained solid copper sulfate can be reduced to elemental
copper by either of two methods: (a) electrowinning of an aqueous solution of
the salt (after dissolving in water) or (b) reduction with hydrogen (at
temperatures of 450 °C or higher) to copper powder. The obtained byproduct - a
concentrated stream of SO2 can be converted to sulfuric acid. The overall
chemical reaction is represented by the equation:
2 CuFeS2 + 11.5 O2 + 4 CaO → 2 CuSO4 + 4CaSO4 +Fe2O3 .
The reactions of the different steps are, as it follows:
2CuFeS2+12NH3+8.5O2 +2H2O → 2Cu(NH3)42++4SO42-+4NH4++Fe2O3
Cu(NH3)42++2SO42-+2NH4++CaO+H2O→Cu(NH3)42++SO42-+CaSO4+2NH4OH
NH3
Cu(NH3)42++SO42-+NH4OH+H2O → Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O+NH4OH

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 15


Cu(NH3)4SO4.H2O → 4NH3+CuSO4+H2O .
Ammonia pressure leaching in oxygenated NH3 + (NH4)2SO4 solution has
been pointed out as an effective process for leaching of shale middlings with
high pyrrhotite (FeS) content, allowing the recovery (at optimum conditions:
ammonia concentration > 1.5 M, ammonium sulfate concentration 50 g/L,
oxygen pressure: 1.27 MPa, 120 – 160 oC, 90–120 min) of Cu ( > 95 %), Ag (60
%), Ni (70 %), Co (30 %) and Zn (95 %), while Fe and As remain in the solid
[6]. Temperature, ammonia concentration, ammonium sulfate concentration,
oxygen pressure and stirring rate have been found as the key leaching parameters.
Proposed by the authors chemical equations describing the leaching are as
follows:
2Cu2S + 12NH3 + 4NH4+ + 5O2 → 4[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 2SO42- + 2H2O
CuS + 4NH3 + 2O2 → [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + SO42-
NiS + 6NH3 + 2O2 → [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + SO42-
2CoS + 10NH3 + 2NH4+ + 4.5O2 → 2[Co(NH3)6]2+ + 2SO42- + H2O
4FeS + 6NH3 + 9O2 + 4H2O → 2Fe2O3 + 2HSO4- + 2SO42- + 6NH4+.
An improved process for obtaining copper from copper sulfide has been
proposed [7]. It comprises the following steps: (1) treating the copper sulfide
with oxygen and an aqueous leaching solution of ammonium carbonate, to form
a leach liquor containing ammonia complexes of copper sulfate Cu(NH3)4SO4
and copper carbonate Cu(NH3)4CO3; (2) heating the leach liquor, while adding
calcium carbonate or calcium bicarbonate, to form gaseous ammonia and carbon
dioxide (gases recovering and recycling these gases to the leaching step); (3)
treating the leach liquor with a strongly alkaline material to precipitate sulfates
and form additional gaseous ammonia; and (4) recovering copper by dissolving
the ammonia complexes of copper sulfate and copper carbonate by H2SO4
addition, followed by electrowinning and cementation. In the leaching step,
temperature and pressure are not critical, the proposed ranges are 60 to 94 oC
and 0.03 to 0.7 MPa, preferably about 77 °C and about 0.35 MPa. In the
leaching step, any iron or iron sulfdes which are leached, such as the iron in
chalcopyrite, are converted to insoluble iron oxides, such as ferric oxide (Fe2O3).
The proposed technological scheme is presented in Fig. 3.
The leaching of refractory low grade complex copper ore has been studied
in ammonia-ammonium chloride solution [8]. The results have shown that
increase in temperature (until 70 oC), in concentration of ammonia (until 2
mol/L) and in concentration of ammonium chloride (until 3 mol/L) have
impacted favorably the leaching rate of copper oxide ores. But, leaching rate
decreases with increasing particle size and solid-to-liquid ratio. Actually,
following the above-mentioned classification, the leaching described in this

16 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Fig. 3. Flowsheet of an improved process for obtaining copper from copper
sulfide

work may be classified as "neutral", since being applied to oxide ores it does not
need oxidizing reagent.
Another example of "neutral" leaching is the dissolution of oxide copper
ore containing mainly malachite [9]. More than 98% of copper has been
effectively recovered at optimum leaching conditions for 120 min by leaching
with ammonia/ammonium carbonate solution (5 M NH4OH+0.3 M (NH4)2CO3)
at solid / liquid ratio = 1:10 g/mL, 25 oC, stirring with 300 rpm. During the
leaching copper dissolves in the form of Cu(NH3)42+ complex ion, whereas
gangue minerals do not react with ammonia.
The proposed electrokinetic processes for copper leaching could be also

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 17


classified as a "neutral" leaching [10]. Based on the electrokinetic processes
used for soil remediation, the technique suggested consists in the copper
dissolution by ammonia solution using an electric field. The ore is mixed with
NH4Cl / NH3 solution and it is inserted in a five compartment cell between two
ion exchange membranes. Then the system acts as an electrodialyser where the
ore represents the solution which should be demineralised. Ammonium crosses
the membrane from an adjacent compartment to increase the dissolution. An
oxidizing reagent is not needed to enhance the copper dissolution. A copper
extraction of 98 % was achieved in 400 h. However, the question with electricity
source and price still remains.
The reduction-roast ammonia leach process has been developed to recover
copper, nickel and cobalt from polymetallic sea nodules [11]. Sea nodules can
be described as oxidised ferro-manganese ore containing the mentioned
nonferrous metals in their oxide forms. These metal oxides are reported to occur
in the lattices of iron and manganese minerals. Therefore, breaking up of these
lattices by pyrometallurgical reduction is important. The sea nodules have been
roast reduced in the presence of solid, liquid or gaseous reductant to liberate the
valuable metal oxides from the phases of iron and manganese oxides. The
reduction operation also performs the metallization of copper, nickel and cobalt
from their oxides and facilitates subsequent ammoniacal leaching of these
metals. The roasted material has been wet ground with dilute ammoniacal
solution 50 g/L NH3 in presence of 25 g/L CO2. The obtained product has been
preconditioned with ammoniacal solution containing 200 g/L NH3 and 110 g/L
CO2 for 30 min in the absence of air in order to dissolve Fe–Ni and Fe–Co
alloys formed during roasting. During the two-stage leaching operation,
ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations of 125 and 62.5 g/L, respectively,
have been maintained and air has been sparged at the rate of 2 L/min. In the
ammoniacal leaching, the undesired metals such as iron and manganese have
been rejected in the residue and valuable metals such as copper, nickel and
cobalt are solubilised as their stable ammine complexes. Monitoring of redox
potential during first leaching stage can avoid cobalt losses with variation of
grade of nodules. Recycle leaching has been carried out to generate leach liquor
having suitable composition for the subsequent solvent extraction –
electrowinning operation. The average recovery of metals in 16 cycles of
leaching has been found to be 92% Cu, 90% Ni and 56% Co.
The further development of the nodules leaching process has been
reported later [12]. The aim has been to increase the cobalt recovery. The
modifications and developments have included (a) use of coal instead of fuel as
the reductant, (b) wet grinding in preconditioning of reduced nodules in
concentrated ammoniacal liquor in presence of surfactant, (c) precipitation of Fe
and Mn from the preconditioned liquor by air purging, and (d) use of NH3 –
(NH4)2CO3 as leaching system at room temperature and air presence. The

18 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


average metal recoveries of 92.5 % Cu, 91.5 % Ni and 71.3 % Co have been
achieved in seven cycles.

3. Leaching from technogenic waste


Feasibility study on the recovery of copper from an industrial
petrochemical sludge has been conducted [13]. Sludge is formed in the
wastewater treatment plant within the industrial park producing different
petrochemical products in Taiwan. It is classified as hazardous waste. Sequential
extraction has been used to determine the chemical forms of copper in the
sludge. To leach copper from the sludge, aqueous ammonia solution has been
used. It has been found that increasing the temperature and solid to liquid ratio
increases significantly the leaching efficiency of Cu (from 34 % at 20 oC and 10
g/L solid concentration to ca. 94 % at 25 oC and the solid concentration of 20
g/L). The leaching reaction has been completed within 6 h. Copper has been
mainly leached from both the organic-bound and residual fractions and to the
less extent from Mn oxides-bound fractions. The carbonates bound fraction of
Cu is stable. Results suggested that the ammonia-leaching technique possesses
the potential to recover metal from industrial sludges.
A method for leaching copper values from copper dross obtained from
pyro-metallurgical lead bullion by contacting finely-divided particles of the
copper dross with an aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate and ammonium
hydroxide has been patented [14]. Where copper is present in the furnace charge
of lead smelting it will always be present in the lead bullion, usually in amounts
of less than 3 weight % but possibly in amounts up to 15 weight %. Lead is
purified in kettles and thus copper containing dross is formed. Dross can be
smelted with iron and sulphur, for example in the form of pyrites, to form
bullion containing some copper and an iron-copper matte containing some lead.
This matte is then converted, the blister copper cast into anodes, and the anodes
refined electrolytically, as in conventional copper refning practice. However, the
setting up of a plant to operate such a process is scarcely economically. As a
best available technique, it has been proposed the copper dross to be treated in
an additional reverberatory furnace to form copper-rich matte and speiss and
these materials to be sent to copper smelter [15]. This also requires additional
spending for equipment and transport. The copper in copper dross appears to be
elemental or combined copper, for example, as copper sulphides or arsenides,
embedded in a matrix of de-copperized metallic lead. In the patented copper
leaching method [14] the leaching solution besides ammonium carbonate and
ammonium hydroxide contains sulphate ions. The mole ratio of carbonate to
sulphate in the leaching solution should be from 1:3 to 3:1. The presence of the
sulphate ions in the leaching solution is believed to give rise to the following
advantages: (a) A reduction in the ratio of impurity elements, particularly lead
and zinc, to copper in the leachate solution, (b) A reduction in the amount of

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 19


copper lost in the filter cake after filtration of the residue and (c) A lower partial
pressure of ammonia over the leaching solution. The preferred molar
proportions of ammonia to ammonium salt are 0.5 4.0 NH3 to l0 (NH4)2X,
where X is a carbonate and / or sulphate, but ratios of about 0.1 to 10:1 may be
used. The leaching can be carried out at a temperature between 20° and 100 °C.
The preferred pH value of the leaching solution is from 9.5 to 10.5. The copper
dross has to be vigorously agitated during the leaching process. Preferably the
leaching solution contains at least 5 grams of Cu2+ per liter, since it has been
found that the reaction proceeds more rapidly in the presence of cupric ions. The
leaching solution may be produced by carbonating ammoniacal liquor with
carbon dioxide, for example from a smelting furnace. Recovery of the copper
can be carried out by a solvent extraction process using hydroxy oxime reagents
from LIX series, dissolved in kerosene. From organic phase copper is re-
extracted back into an aqueous solution by contact with dilute sulphuric acid.
The organic reagent is recycled to the process. The aqueous copper sulphate
solution is utilized in the production of copper sulphate crystals by an
evaporation / crystallization process or as an electrolyte for the production of
cathode copper by electrowinning. Also copper powder can be recovered by
treatment with a reducing agent.

4. Kinetics of copper dissolution in ammoniacal solution


The kinetics of copper dissolution in ammoniacal solution has been
widely studied. Only several examples will be mentioned here. According to
some studies [8], the leaching of copper oxide ores in NH3-H2O-NH4Cl solution
can be described by the shrinking core model. According to this model, the
reaction takes place on the outer surface of the solid and this surface shrinks
toward the center of the solid as the reaction proceeds, leaving behind an inert
solid layer, named “ash layer”, around the unreacted shrinking core. The
leaching process is controlled by the diffusion of the lixiviant through the ash
layer around the shrinking unreacted core. The authors derived a mathematical
equation, describing the process kinetics, which equation involves the fractional
conversion of malachite, the lixiviant concentration (ammonia and ammonium
chloride), the solid-to-liquid ratio, the temperature, and the leaching time.
Ekmekyapar et al. [16] studied the dissolution kinetics of malachite ore in
ammonium chloride solutions and suggested that the dissolution rate is
determined by a mixed control (with both diffusion and kinetic limiting stages).
They have proposed a mathematical model to represent the reaction kinetics,
which model includes the reacted fraction of the solid, the ammonium chloride
concentration, the particle diameter, the solid to liquid ratio, the stirring speed,
the reaction temperature and the reaction time. Bingöl and coauthors [9] found
that the interface transfer and diffusion across the product layer control the
leaching of malachite in ammonia/ ammonium carbonate solution.

20 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


We would join the understanding that in fact, the dissolution process is
electrochemical in nature, which was proposed in the 1960s by Habasi [17] and
reconfirmed recently [18, 19].
The leaching of a mineral can be explained as electrochemical, i.e.
oxidation-reduction reaction. When a metal or a semi-conductor comes into
contact with an aqueous phase, containing a reagent (such as oxygen) with high
oxidation-reduction potential, this reagent acts as depolarizer (i.e. takes up
electrons, released by other reaction). The reaction releasing electrons is actually
the dissolution (oxidation) of the targeted metal (from virtually clean metal or
from ore, or concentrate). Both reactions can not proceed in practice without
each other. Whether anodic (dissolution) and cathodic (reduction) reactions will
proceed on separated micro-zones or on the same zone on the surface of the
dissolving solid material will depend on the mineral surface micro-
heterogeneity. The oxidized (dissolved) species (copper ions in our case) may
further participate in chemical reactions on the surface of the leached material,
mainly with the complex-forming reagents, but some equilibrium reactions can
also take place, as in the case with copper leaching:
[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + Cu ↔ 2[Cu(NH3)4]+
Concerning the theoretical equations derived to describe the
electrochemical nature of the dissolution processes at leaching, different
proposals are available due to different understanding of the meaning of the term
"mechanism" [18]. Joining the more common definition of mechanism of
reactions as the pathway by which the reaction occurs, we would accept as more
general and comprehensively considering different factors, the theoretically
derived equation [19] that describes sulfides leaching processes, and actually
takes into account the possibility of diffusion and chemical control of the total
leaching reaction. The former could be understood also as availability of the
oxidizing agent (which will be reduced) and the latter as availability of the
reagent, which facilitates the oxidation of the component which is being leached
(in the case of leaching with complexes forming, this is the complexing agent).
In this line, the rate of dissolution can be expressed by the equation:
Rate of dissolution = (k1 k2 A COx CCo ) / [k1 COx + k2 CCo] ,
where A is the surface area of the solid in contact with the liquid phase, COx is
the concentration of the oxidizing reagent (depolarizer), CCo is the concentration
of the complexing agent, k1 and k2 are rate constants of the reduction and the
complexation reactions, respectively. There are two borderline cases:
When the concentration of CCo is low the second term in the denominator
may be neglected in comparison with the first, and the rate equation simplifies to
Rate of dissolution = k2ACCo
i.e., the rate of dissolution in this case is only a function of the complexing agent

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 21


concentration.
When the concentration of CCo is high, the first term in the denominator
may be neglected in comparison with the second, and the rate equation
simplifies to:
Rate = k1ACOx
i.e., the rate of dissolution under these conditions depends only on the
concentration of the depolarizer.
Since the speciation of ammonia in aqueous solution is determined by pH,
it is expected that in general, the leaching efficiency is dependent on pH.
Acknowledging that the acidity constant of the (conjugate acid) NH4+(aq) equals
to 10-9.25, the major species in solution is NH4+(aq) when pH is lower than 9.3
[20]. The complexation reaction of Cu2+(aq) can occur only with NH3(aq), not with
NH4+(aq) [21].

5. Copper recovery from leachate - emphasis on solvent extraction


Generally, from PLS copper is recovered by one of the following
processes:
- Precipitation of Cu bearing compounds followed by their dissolution and
electrowinning;
- Chemical reduction with hydrogen, or with less noble metal;
- Direct electrowinning;
- Ion exchange with resins / elution, followed by electrowinining;
- Extraction / re-extraction, followed by electrowinining.
Examples for the first mentioned recovery route are presented in some
above-mentioned works [5, 7], and for the second - in [ 2, 5, 14].
The last technique (extraction / re-extraction / electrowinining) is mainly
applied nowadays in the practice. The technique was introduced in 1960s -
initially to extract copper from acidic PLSs.
5.1. Classical solvent extraction
The beta-diketones are preferred extraction reagents for copper from
ammoniacal solutions because of their low ammonia loading properties.
Different water-immiscible liquid hydrocarbon solvents can be used in the
copper recovery process to form the organic phase in which the extractant is
dissolved. These include aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons such as kerosenes,
benzene, toluene, xylene and the like. The choice of essentially water-
immiscible hydrocarbon solvents or mixtures for commercial operations
depends on a number of factors, including the plant design of the solvent
extraction plant, (mixer-settler units, extractors) and the like.
In the case of multicomponent solutions, extraction of metals can be
carried out in two ways. The first one is selective sequential extraction –

22 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


stripping, while the second one is co-extraction – selective stripping. Very often
it appears that the second method is more cost-effective, because it requires less
stages comparing to the first way of separation. The concept of co-extraction
(selective stripping) has been used in ammonia systems for Cu-Ni separation.
In general, extraction equilibrium between Cu2+ and a chelation extractor
can be presented as follows:
[Cu(NH3)42+](aq) + 2HR(org) ↔ CuR2(org) + 2NH4+(aq) + 2NH3(aq)
in which HR(org) represents extractor in the organic phase, CuR2(org) extractor-
copper complex in organic phase, [Cu(NH3)42+](aq) amine-copper ion complex in
aqueous phase. Considering that extraction reaction is reversible, it can be
expected that the increase of ammonia or ammonium ion concentration in the
aqueous phase will deteriorate extraction.
LIX63 (a water insoluble 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-dodecan-6-oxime in a
high flash point hydrocarbon diluent) was the first extraction agent used in
ammonia solution. It showed a high efficiency in the extraction of copper from
ammoniacal solutions, however, due to difficult stripping process, it was not
considered by the industry. Other extractor under study was the LIX64N
(cheaper than LIX63), which was commercially only used for the recovery of
copper from an ammoniacal solution in the Arbiter Process.
An organophosphorous acid extractor D-2-ethyl hexyl phosphate (P204)
has been synthesized and studied, however, due to its high solubility in alkaline
solution its commercial use in ammoniacal solution is impossible [4].
A beta-D-ketone extractor named LIX54 was developed later. It possess
high extraction potential for copper and a low loading capacity for ammonia,
and copper strip from it needes low concentrations of the acid. In 1995,
Escondida in Chile used this extractor for extracting copper from an ammoniacal
solution on a pilot scale. However, due to LIX54 deterioration (which might be
a result from the reaction between a keto-group of LIX54 and ammonia to
generate ketimine), the copper in loaded organic phase was difficult to back
extract. LIX54 was considered inappropriate for copper extraction from
ammoniacal solution under the pilot plant conditions and the plant was closed [22].
LIX973N that is a mixture of 5-nonylsalicylaldoxime and 2-hydroxy-5-
nonylacetophenone oxime, the salicylaldoxime being in excess with respect to
the former component, diluted in Iberfluid - a kerosene type reagent has been
studied for copper recovery from diluted ammoniacal-ammonium carbonate
media [23]. The loaded organic phase has been found to pick up some ammonia,
which can be selectively stripped at controlled pH.
Some studies have shown that LIX84 (2-hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenone
oxime) possesses higher loading capacity for copper and nickel than LIX64
(under identical conditions) accompanied by less ammonia extraction [24].
Moreover, since the extraction of copper does not vary considerably with pH,

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 23


while nickel extraction in 10 % LIX84 shows significant variation with pH, it is
possible to extract copper in preference to nickel from their mixed solutions,
leaving Co(III) in raffinate.
LIX84 – 40 vol.% diluted with kerosene, mainly aliphatic, has been
applied to ammoniacal–sulphate leach liquors obtained from a copper–nickel–
iron concentrate [25]. The leach liquor contained (in g/L) 13.8 Cu, 10.7 Ni, 90
NH4OH and 45 (NH4)2SO4. Two counter-current stages have been used at an
aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1 : 2. Copper and nickel have been co-
extracted quantitatively. Some ammonia has passed to organic phase and has
been removed (at 99 %) prior to nickel stripping in a single stage scrubbing step
using 6.6 kg/m3 H2SO4 solution. From the NH3-depleted organic, nickel was
selectively stripped in four counter-current stages at an A:O phase ratio of 2:1.
From the ammonia depleted and Ni-free loaded organic phase, copper has been
stripped in three counter-current stages at equal phase ratio using the spent
copper electrolyte containing 30 kg/m3 Cu and 180 kg/m3 H2SO4.
Studies have shown that by using 10% v/v (diluted with deodourised
kerosene) of the reagent LIX 984N, which is a 1:1 mixture of LIX 84 and LIX
860N (mixture of 5-dodecylsalicylaldoxime and 2-hydroxy 5-nonyl-
acetophenone oxime) both copper and nickel can be extracted from ammoniacal
/ ammonium carbonate medium [26]. Extraction of nickel is very sensitive to the
extractant concentration. By using an appropriate concentration of the
extractant, both metals are quantitatively extracted. Since some ammonia passed
to the organic phase, it is removed by a single stage pH-controlled scrubbing
with no loss of either metal. Selective nickel stripping from the ammonia free
organic phase has been achieved in three stages with nearly 10 g/L sulfuric acid.
The organic phase free from nickel has been subjected to stripping using 180
g/L of sulfuric acid in order to remove copper quantitatively. Thus, the
separation of the two metals has been accomplished.
Тhe chemical equation in the case when ammonia from aqueous phase
may be extracted in the form of [Cu(NH3)42+]R2(org) can be written as follows:
[Cu(NH3)42+](aq) + 2HR(org) ↔ [Cu(NH3)42+]R2(org) + 2H+(aq)
in which HR(org) represents extractor in the organic phase, [Cu(NH3)42+](aq) is the
amine-copper ion complex in aqueous phase and [Cu(NH3)42+]R2(org) is the
extraction compound of [Cu(NH3)42+] and extractor in the organic phase [4].
It has been found that the increase of pH of the aqueous phase or
extractant concentration in the organic phase is not necessarily beneficial for
extraction [27]. The reason for this is that both parameters favour ammonia
transfer to the organic phase. The type of hydroxyoxime extractant and diluent
and content of metal in the organic phase can also significantly contribute to
ammonia extraction. The observed phenomenon should be avoided. Otherwise,
at a contact of loaded organic phase containing ammonia with a spent electrolyte

24 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


used for re-extraction, ammonium sulfate (or carbonate, or chloride) can be
formed in liquors directed to electrowinning section.
Ammonia transfer to the organic phase represents the main disadvantage
of metals extraction from ammonia solutions. Scrubbing of the loaded organic
phase before stripping with spent electrolyte is usually applied to significantly
reduce ammonia concentration in strip liquors. To decrease ammonia extraction
in the organic phase compared to LIX84, stearically hindered beta-D ketone has
been synthesized and used [28]. In this study, under the temperature 25 oC, 30
min contact time of two phases, phase ratio of 1:1, Cu concentration of 3 g/L, 3
mmol/L total ammonia concentration, water pH of 8.43 and beta-D ketone
concentration in organic phase of 20 vol %, ammonia from the water phase has
been far less extracted by the organic phase (only 14.5 mg/L, while the copper
extraction rate was 95.09 % (a slightly less than with LIX 84).
An improvement in the process of recovery of copper from aqueous
ammoniacal solutions has been patented [29], where the copper values are
extracted from the aqueous ammoniacal solution by an organic phase comprised
of a diketone copper extractant dissolved in a water-immiscible organic
hydrocarbon solvent with addition (0.5 mole % with respect to the diketone) of a
catalytic amount of an hydroxy-aryl-oxime. Improved stripping results were
achieved by applying aqueous acidic stripping solution. The preferred solvents
are the aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons having flash points of at least 66 oC,
and solubilities in water of less than 0.1 weight % . The solvents are essentially
chemically inert. Representative commercial available solvents are ChevronTM
ion exchange solvent, EscaidTM 100 and 110, NorparTM 12; ConocoTM
C1214, Aromatic 150, etc.
Extraction of copper(II) from ammonia leach solutions generated in
pressure ammonia leaching of commercial flotation concentrate has been studied
[30]. The PLS (with pH 9.7) contained 8 g/L Cu(II), 0.58 g/L Zn(II), 15 mg/L
Ni(II) and 45 mg/L Co(II). The commercial extractants LIX84-I, LIX®984N
and LIX 54-100 have been tested. The active substance of LIX84-I is 2-
hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime. LIX®984N is a mixture of oximes: 5-
nonylsalicylaldoxime and 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime. The active
substance of diketone type extractant LIX 54-100 is 1-phenyldecane-1,3-dion.
Escaid®100, Exxsol D80 and toluene (POCh Gliwice) have been used as
diluents. Significant differences in extraction performance have been observed
for examined extractants. This applies particularly to the organic phase loading,
concentration of copper(II) in raffinates and number of theorethical stages
required to reach target extraction. The results clearly have indicated that in the
case of systems using hydroxyoximes extraction efficiency is much better than
for β-diketone reagent. The results have proved that extraction efficiency of
Cu(II) is also dependent on the type of diluent and is less favorable for the
systems with non-aliphatic diluents. It has been observed that transfer of

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 25


ammonia increases with the increase in aromatic compounds content in the
diluent. The ammonia extraction to the organic phase has been found to be
inversely proportional to extractant concentration in organic phase. The presence
of ammonia in the organic phase requires its elimination before stripping. It has
been found that the effectiveness of washing depends on acidity of scrubbing
solution and the number of washings.
Often copper leached from its dross as tetra-amino-copper(II)-carbonate
complex in the solution is further processed through a solvent extraction
process, using LIX-54 as a solvent and sulphuric acids as stripping agent to
generate copper sulfate solution of the desired grade. Due to limited availability
of LIX-54, performances of other solvents based on commercial cinnamate and
β-diketone groups have been evaluated [31]. Both solvents and LIX-54 have
been compared in fields of effective organic concentration, effective loading,
extraction kinetics, extraction isotherms, stripping activity. Arol-light has been
used as hydrocarbon diluent, studies have been conducted at ambient
temperature. The optimized lab-scale values are 20 % organics' concentration,
20 g/L Cu, 35 s, one theoretical stage for extraction and stripper acidity of 120
g/L respectively. Under these conditions, >98 % of copper has been extracted.
The performance of the new solvents has been tested at bench scale level in a
mixer-settler with parameters optimized at lab-scale experiments. Feed copper
concentration in PLS has been 10.7 g/L. Both the solvents have been found to
work effectively with extraction and stripping efficiencies being > 98 %. Based
on the results, β-iketone based solvent has been selected as a substitute for LIX
54-100. The changeover has shown a 33% increase in production volumes of
copper sulfate.
5.2. Liquid membrane extraction
Solvent extraction is the preferred technique for copper recovery from
PLSs since it offers many advantages such as absence of sludge formation,
greater ease and flexibility of operations, ability to handle wide range of feed
concentrations, choice of solvents to control selectivity of separation, etc.
With the depletion of high-grade ores along with a growing demand for
metals, the utilization of low-grade ore has gained interest in recent years. Their
leaching produces solutions with relatively low concentrations of valuable
metals. Despite state-of-the-art processes for metals separation, solvent
extraction for processing low-concentration solutions is no longer economical
due to the large amounts of solvent, extractant and strippant required and
sizeable equipment needed. For example, it has been found that the effectiveness
of solvent extraction significantly depends on the copper concentration in PLS.
A high copper extraction has been achieved by Alguacil and Alonso [32] from
an ammoniacal / ammonium sulphate medium, using the LIX54 as extractant in
two-extraction stages at an aqueous : ganic phase ratio of 2:1 and the copper
content has been reduced from 1 to 0.01 g/L. However, if the concentration of

26 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


copper in leach solution is lower (0.29–0.77 g/L), the use of two stages of
extraction and one stage of stripping only allows a 40–50% recovery of copper.
Coupled with this are the possibilities of solvent carry over, solvent
losses, inefficient stripping, etc. that lead to poor performance.
Compared to conventional solvent extraction, the liquid membrane
technology offers advantages such as the relatively small volume of organic
phase consumption, higher extraction efficiency of target metal ions from dilute
solutions, more effective separation of elements with similar properties,
simultaneous extraction and stripping within a single step, simple operation, and
ease of scale-up.
The liquid membrane (LM) system involves a liquid which is an
immiscible with the source (feed) and receiving (product) solutions and serves
as a semipermeable barrier between these two liquid and gas phases. Liquid
membrane separation is a rate-dependant process and the separation occurs due
to a chemical potential gradient, not by equilibrium between phases [33].
The bulk liquid membrane (BLM) consists of a bulk aqueous feed and
receiving phases separated by a bulk organic, water-immiscible liquid phase.
The feed and receiving phases may be separated by microporous supports or the
module configuration may be without microporous supports. Many BLM
technologies have been developed and tested in the last decade grounded on
membrane-based nondispersive (as the means for blocking the organic reagent
from mixing with the aqueous feed and strip solutions) selective extraction
coupled to permselective diffusion of solute-extractant complexes and selective
stripping of the solute in one continuous dynamic process. The systems
presented by the term membrane-based (or nondispersive) solvent extraction
describe, as a rule, dynamic LM processes in which the equilibrium-based
solvent extraction (forward and back) are only local processes taking place on
the interfaces of the immiscible phases (on the surface of membrane support).
Membranes in a contactor act as a passive (not selective) barrier and as a
means of bringing two immiscible fluid phases (such as an aqueous liquid and
an organic liquid) in contact with each other without dispersion. The phase
interface is immobilized at the membrane pore surface, with the pore volume
occupied by one of the two fluid phases that are in contact.
Liquid impregnated (or immobilized) in the pores of a thin microporous
solid support is defined as a supported liquid membrane (SLM). In the liquid are
the carriers that perform the required separation. The SLM takes a chemical
species from one side of the rigid membrane (the source phase) and carries it to
the other side (the receiving phase) through this liquid phase. The SLM may be
fabricated in different geometries. Instability in SLM is caused by the removal
of carrier or organic liquid from the pores of that membrane. There are two
possible ways for this to occur: carrier or solvent evaporation and a large

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 27


pressure difference across the membrane that effectively pushes the fluid out.
The hollow fiber and spiral wound modules are the mainly used SLM.
An emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) can be visualized as consisting of a
"bubble within a bubble". The inner most bubble is the receiving phase, and the
outer bubble is the separation "skin" containing the carriers. Anything outside the
bubble is the source phase. In an ELM set-up there would be huge numbers of
these bubbles. Initially, a water-in-oil emulsion is prepared by mixing a solvent
phase (diluent, extractant and surfactant) with a stripping aqueous phase. The
emulsion is then dispersed in the aqueous feed phase containing the solute to be
removed. During this contact the solute is transported through the membrane
towards the internal droplets of stripping phase. After permeation, the emulsion
is separated from the raffinate phase and the splitting of the emulsion is usually
performed by applying high voltage. The disadvantages of ELM are related to
the formation and stability of the emulsion: (a) Everything effecting emulsion
stability must be controlled, i.e. ionic strengths, pH, etc. (b) If, for any reason,
the membrane does not remain intact during operation, the separation achieved
to that point is destroyed, and (c) In order to recover the receiving phase, and in
order to replenish the carrier phase, the emulsion has to be broken down easily.
This is a difficult task, since in order to be used for the extraction the emulsion
has to be stable and measures have to be taken for its stabilization. These two
contradicting factors must be carefully balanced.
A non-dispersive solvent extraction (NDSX) processing using LIX 973N
in Iberfluid as copper extractant phase has been pointed as a technological
alternative for copper extraction from dilute copper ammoniacal / ammonium
carbonate medium [34]. In the NDSX processing, hollow fiber modules are used
as separation contactors in which a microporous hydrophobic membrane
separates two liquid phases. Metal extraction is performed in one module, in
which the aqueous feed phase flows through the tube side of the fibers and the
organic phase through the shell side, without phase dispersion, thus avoiding
emulsion formation and phase entrainment. A second module is used to perform
metal stripping from the loaded organic solution. Copper stripping is
accomplished using sulphuric acid solution. It has been found that aqueous pH,
ammonium carbonate concentration, copper concentration, extractant
concentration, organic phase volume barely impact the extraction, whereas the
module configuration (counter- or co-current) has a significant impact.
The recovery of copper from ammoniacal medium using NDSX with
hollow fibres as contactors and emulsion liquid membranes (ELM) has been
studied [35]. The β-diketone LIX54 has been used as an extractant. It has been
found that when the concentration of LIX54 was 0.2 mol/L and the initial
concentration of copper in the feed phase was 0.3 g/L the extraction process was
controlled by diffusion in the aqueous boundary layer. When the concentration
of LIX54 was in the range of 0.015–0.10 mol/L, the extraction process was

28 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion in the aqueous boundary layer.
The results, obtained by an integrated extraction-stripping process using two
hollow fibre contactors, have shown that practically all the copper content can
be removed from the ammoniacal feed solutions with low copper concentration
(1 g/L). Raffinates with marginal concentration of copper have been obtained.
The recovery of copper as high as 96–100% and concentration ratios of about
40-fold can be achieved. At this concentration range the application of
"classical" solvent extraction process requires a large amount of solvent. The
removal and the recovery of solute by applying the emulsion liquid membranes
have been slightly lower compared to the NDSX.
Yang and Kocherginsky [36, 37] have studied the removal and recovery
of copper from copper-containing ammoniacal solutions by developing a hollow
fibre SLM system. Kerosene has been used as the diluent and LIX54 has been
used as the carrier for copper. The optimum stripping phase concentration has
been found to be 2 MH2SO4. In this arrangement, the solute has been transferred
from the aqueous feed phase (lumen side) to the stripping phase (shell side)
through the fibre membrane impregnated with LIX54. The experimental results
have shown the possibility to reduce the concentration of copper of the aqueous
feed phase from several hundred mg/L to values lower than 5 mg/L. The
transport of the Cu-carrier complex through the hollow-fiber SLM has been
determined as the rate-limiting step of copper permeation through the hollow-
fiber SLM. The stoichiometry of the interfacial reaction taking place at the feed
phase / SLM interface can be described by the equation
Cu(NH3)4Cl2 + 2LIX  Cu(LIX)2 + 2NH4Cl + 2NH3 .
The interfacial reaction taking place at the SLM / stripping phase interface
can be described by the equation
Cu(LIX)2 + H2SO4  CuSO4 + 2LIX .
The authors used the same membrane module almost for one month. In
the first two weeks the mass transfer coefficient decreased by an half. But, in the
next two weeks, it had remained constant. This fact, together with the high area
of contact of the hollow fibre contactors led the authors to suggest the use of the
hollow fibre SLM system for industrial application.
A SLM system for the simultaneous and selective separation of copper,
cobalt, and nickel from ammonia / ammonium chloride solutions, using a two-
membrane-three-compartment cell (sandwich SLM) has been proposed [38].
The model uses two polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes both loaded
with 20 vol.% Acorga M5640 in kerosene. Acorga M5640 (a hydroxyoxime) is
one of the most widely-used salicylaldoxime derivatives applied as an extractant
on commercial levels because of its excellent extraction ability of copper in both
acidic and alkaline (ammoniacal) media. Experimental results have indicated

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 29


that from PLSs copper and nickel have been transported through the first
membrane into the central compartment (containing 5.0 g/L H2SO4), while
cobalt has remained in the first (feed) compartment. Then copper has continued
to penetrate through the second membrane into the third compartment
(containing 50.0 g/L H2SO4), while nickel has remained in the second
compartment. More than 99.5% of cobalt, 98.0% of nickel, and 98.9% of copper
have been separated into the three different compartments from a mixed feed
solution containing 100 mg/L of each of these three species with a transport time
of 36 h, thus showing that copper, nickel, and cobalt in ammonia solution can be
efficiently separated.
Extraction of copper from ammoniacal medium into ELM using LIX54
and LIX84-I as extractants has been studied [39]. The membrane phase
consisted of a paraffinic solvent (Shellsol T, Shell Chemical Ltd.), 2 wt.% of a
non-ionic surfactant (polyamine ECA 4360J, Essochem Europe Inc. or Span 80 -
sorbitan monooleate, ICI, Spain) and the extractant. The results obtained have
demonstrated the effectiveness of LIX54 and LIX84-I as extractants for copper
recovery from ammoniacal medium using ELM, however some problems
(associated with emulsion breakage) have been encountered with LIX84-I as
carrier.
Since LIX84-I (2-hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenone oxime) is a popular
copper extractant and is a stronger copper extractant than LIX54, experiments
have been carried out to develop a processes where LIX84-I could be effectively
used as carrier in ELMs for extraction of copper from ammoniacal /ammonium
sulfate solutions, with the aim to avoid the above-mentioned problems.
Kerosene, having boiling temperature range 152 °C – 271 °C, density of 821.3
kg/m3 and containing n-paraffins (27.1%), naphthenes (55.9%), aromatics (16%)
and olefins (1%), has been used as the membrane material and Span 80
(Sorbitan monooleate) - as the emulsifier [40]. The extraction process has been
very fast and almost quantitative extraction has been observed in most cases in
just two minutes contact between the feed and the emulsion phases. The optimal
pH for extraction has been found to be pH 8.1, which limited the free ammonia
transport through the membrane. It has been found that the loading capacity of
the membrane governed the extraction rates. High carrier concentration and treat
ratio (the ratio of continuous phase to emulsion) led to faster recoveries. Even
when copper concentration in feed solutions was >3000 mg/L, extraction with
ELMs containing 10% (v/v) LIX84-I in the oil phase and a treat ratio of 1:6
have resulted in almost 88% copper recovery in just three minutes of contact.
Other physico-chemical factors like stripping, diffusion of the oxime complex,
globule size and drop size distributions were of secondary importance in the
overall extraction process. These parameters become important only when
membrane loading approaches saturation. Attempts to enhance extraction
capacity of emulsions by increasing the stripping phase volume fraction have

30 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


not yield positive result. It has been found that the increase in carrier
concentration and emulsion hold up was always favorable for copper extraction.

6. Conclusion
Ammonia leaching of low grade copper-bearing ores, concentrates and
technogenic waste is becoming more important with the ores impoverishment,
requirements to deal with the technogenic waste and the increasing need of
metals.
The advantags of ammonia leaching over acidic leaching can be
summarized as follows:
 Leaching in the alkaline solution enables the use of ores with high
carbonation, which cannot be used in acidic leaching due to high
consumption of acid.
 Selective capacity for ores bearing iron and manganese in high amounts,
since these metals do not dissolve and do not form complexes in this
medium. The high solubility of iron and manganese in acidic media leads to
high consumption of reagents and a non-economic leaching process. In
addition, jarosite may be formed which could reduce the heap permeability in
heap leaching.
 Significant decrease, even practically elimination of problems associated
with equipment corrosion.
 Problems, associated with formation of non-filterable precipitates during pH
adjustment at acid leaching factory are avoided.
 Ammonia leaching is generally more appropriate for heap leaching of low-
grade ores and reservoir leaching of high grade ores, although this choice
also depends on the grade and the amount deposited, partially due to the
following:
- In ammonia leaching calcium carbonate is not dissolved, like it is the
case in acidic leaching, thus preventing additional use of acid and gypsum
precipitation, the latter eventually leading to reduction in the heap permeability.
- Ammonia does not react with different soluble ferrosilicates and / or
alumosilicates, thus formation of secondary compounds that could decrease the
heap permeability is avoided.
- Problems associated with heap washing, neutralization and long-term
monitoring to prevent acid runoff are minimized. Additionally, the residual
ammonia in the soil can act as fertilizer for growing plants.
Ammonia high evaporation ability posing more handling difficulties
during transportation and use and still lower capacity of market-available
reagents to extract copper from ammonia medium, compared to acidic one, can
be pointed as the major disadvantages of this leaching medium.
The above-presented and discussed examples of application of different
ammonia-based leaching solutions to various raw materials, under different

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 31


technological conditions, can be used as a basis for further studies and
applications of ammonia leaching to other copper-bearing raw materials, as well
as to other raw materials containing non-ferrous metals able to form stable
ammonia complexes. The presentation and discussions on the different liquid-
liquid extraction reagents and different techniques, applied to extract copper
from ammonia PLSs, may be useful basis and starting point in studies aimed at
finding the optimum way for recovery of non-ferrous metals from various liquid
phases.

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[10]. Sabba N., Akretche D. E. Selective leaching of a copper ore by an
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sea manganese nodules. Hydrometallurgy, 1999, vol. 53, 45–56.
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[13]. Chang C. J., Liu J. C. Feasibility of copper leaching from an industrial sludge
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- General processes and techniques, MR/GC/EIPPCB/ NFM_Draft_3 July
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[22]. Hui-ping H., Chun-xuan L., Xue-tao H., Qi-wen L., Qi-yuan C. Solvent
extraction of copper and ammonia from ammoniacal solutions using sterically
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[23]. Alguacil F.J. Recovery of copper from ammoniacal-ammonium carbonate
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[24]. Kumar V., Pandey B. D., Bagchi D. Application of LIX 84 for separation of
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[25]. Parija C., Sarma P.V. R. B. Separation of nickel and copper from ammoniacal
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[26]. Sridhar V., Verma J. K., Kumar S. A. Selective separation of copper and
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[27]. Jergensen G.V., Copper Leaching, Solvent Extraction, and Electrowinning
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[28]. Hu H.-p., Liu C.-x., Han X.-t., Liang Q.-w., Chen Q.-y. Solvent extraction of
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[29]. Virnig M. J., Sudderth R. B., Copper recovery process, US Patent 5,908,605,
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[30]. Ochromowicz K., Jeziorek M., Wejman K. Copper (II) extraction from
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[31]. Sombhatla S. S., Kumar A., Mashruwala S., Rokkam K. Kr., Akhilesh Shukla
A. Comparative study of organic solvents for extraction of copper from
ammoniacal carbonate solution. Hydrometallurgy, 2016, vol.166, 94–97.
[32]. Alguacil F. J., Alonso M., Recovery of copper from ammoniacal / ammonium
sulfate medium by LIX 54. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol, 1999, vol. 74, No.
12, 1171–1175.
[33]. Kislik V. S., Liquid Membranes Principles and Applications in Chemical
Separations and Wastewater Treatment, Ed., First edition, Amsterdam,
Elsevier, 2010.
[34]. Alguacil F. J., Navarro P. Non-dispersive solvent extraction of Cu(II) by LIX
973N from ammoniacal/ammonium carbonate aqueous solutions.
Hydrometallurgy, 2002, vol. 65, 77–82.
[35]. Gameiro L. F., Ismael M. R .C., M. Reis M. T. A., Carvalho J. M. R.
Recovery of copper from ammoniacal medium using liquid membranes with
LIX 54. Separation and Purification Technology, 2008, vol. 63, 287–296.
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[37]. Yang Q., Kocherginsky N. M., Copper removal from ammoniacal wastewater
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[39]. Gameiro L. F., Bento P., Ismael M. R. C., Reis M. T. A., Jorge M. R.,
Carvalho J. M. R. Extraction of copper from ammoniacal medium by
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[40]. Sengupta B., Bhakhar M. S., Sengupta R. Extraction of copper from
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34 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

ROUTING INFORMATION SECURITY IN THE LOCAL AREA


NETWORK OF ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS USING AN ENHANCED
DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL - EIGRP

Petar Boyanov1, Stiliyan Stoyanov2, Hristo Hristov3, Ognyan Fetfov1,


Tihomir Trifonov1
1
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY
OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES, KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKY UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN,
SHUMEN 9712, 115, UNIVERSITETSKA STR
E-mail: peshoaikido@abv.bg, o_fetfov@abv.bg, t.trifonov@shu.bg
2
SPACE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE - BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES
E-mail: stil717@yahoo.com
3
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY SYSTEMS, FACULTY OF
TECHNICAL SCIENCES, KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKY UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN,
SHUMEN 9712, 115, UNIVERSITETSKA STR
E-mail: hristov63@abv.bg

ABSTRACT:
In this paper a summarized simulation and providing security communication in the local
area network of academic department using an enhanced distance vector routing protocol -
EIGRP is made. Most of the professional system administrators and IT specialists have to use
and apply static and dynamic methods of information routing. Thereby, each network system
administrators, security professionals and network architects can use the free of charge
software network program Cisco Packet Tracer in order to design and simulate various types
of computer networks.

KEY WORDS: Cisco, Computer and network administrators, Dynamic routing, EIGRP,
Information, IPv4, LAN, Protocols, Routing, Security, Switch, Router.

1. Introduction
Securing the transmitted routing information in the local area network of
academic departments is very important task and aim for each network system

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 35


administrators, security professionals and network architects. Building and
maintaining a specific local area network (LAN) of academic departments has to
be simulated using the specialized software program called “Cisco Packet Tracer”.
This program consists of many network tools that can simulate the transmitting
network process of secured routing information between the hosts in small or
large computer networks [33, 35, 37, 39]. The software program is designed and
implemented primarily for students and academic lecturers who use different
network devices of Cisco Systems Corporation [4, 14]. Thereby, each academic
lecturer or student have to possess in-depth knowledge and skills in the designing
and maintaining of various types of computer network using the enhanced
distance vector routing protocol - EIGRP [15, 41, 44].
This paper is structured as follows. First, in section 2, a related work for the
use the routing protocol EIGRP is made. After that, in section 3, a sophisticated
implementation of the software program called “Cisco Packet Tracer” version
6.2.0.0052 into the server operating system Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
is performed. The achieved results are presented in section 4. The conclusions and
recommendations are made in section 5.

2. Related work
In [1] the EIGRP as fast routing protocol based on distance vectors by is
analyzed. In [2] performance Evaluation of secured versus non-secured EIGRP
routing protocol by Al-Saud, K. A., Tahir, H. M., El-Zoghabi, A. A., and Saleh,
M. is made. In [3] analysis of RIPv2, OSPF, EIGRP configuration on router using
cisco packet tracer by Archana, C. is made. In [10] introduction to enhanced IGRP
(EIGRP) by Farinachi, D is illustrated. In [47] simulation based performance
analyses on RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF Using OPNET is comparative analyzed. In
[46] performance analysis of dynamic routing protocol EIGRP and OSPF in IPv4
and IPv6 network by Chandra Wijaya is illustrated. In [40] dynamic routing
protocol implementation decision between EIGRP, OSPF and RIP based on
technical background using OPNET modeler by Thorenoor, S. G. is made. In [48]
performance analysis of RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF using OPNET by Xu, Don, and
Ljiljana Trajkovic is made. The other citations in this paper are based on specific
performance analyses, IP configuration and network solutions.

3. Experiment
The experiment in specialized computer network laboratory in the Faculty
of technical sciences is made. The used free of charge software program called
“Cisco Packet Tracer” version 6.2.0.0052 which is owned by Cisco Systems, Inc.
The host has used server operating system - Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
x64. Initially was necessary to be enumerated the network devices and hosts. The
simulated local area network using Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(EIGRP) has consisted of the following items [30, 31, 32, 33]:

36 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


 8 personal computers (PC-PT).
 7 Server machines (Server-PT).
 13 Laptops (Laptop-PT).
 Several Copper Straight-Through UTP cables cat.5e
 Two Copper crossover UTP cables cat.5e.
 3 Serial Smart DCE DB60 cables;
 One router - Cisco 2911 Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 2621XM Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 1841 Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 2901 Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 2811 Modular Router.
 4 Generic Printer machines.
 1 switch - Cisco Multilayer Switch WS-C3560-24PS.
 4 switches - Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT.
 1 IP phones - Cisco IP Phone 7960.
 Four academic departments (CCT, IL, Geodesy and MSS).
 One Central Equipment Room (CER).
 3 racks for the CER.
 Six working table for the staff.
 One complete scheme of the entire network.
 One Packet Tracer Cloud Server for Internet.
 One Access Point-PT-N.
 One generic Smartphone-PT.
 One generic TabletPC-PT.

The computer network in the program environment of Cisco Packet Tracer


6.2.0.0052 is simulated. On fig.1 the common logical scheme of the whole
computer network is shown. The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(EIGRP) [41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48] was activated in the configuration of the
routers [1, 2, 16, 30, 31, 32, 33].

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 37


Fig.1. Common logical scheme of the whole computer network of the
academic departments

As is known in the network practice each network device as a router


consists of determinate numbers of network interfaces [21, 22, 23, 25, 32,]. In this
communication scenario the router called “Central Router” has got configured
interface Fast Ethernet (Fa0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 6.6.6.0/24 and
interface Fast Ethernet (Fa0/1) with network number ID (Net ID) - 9.9.8.0/24. The
third interface is Serial (Se0/1/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 2.2.2.0/24.
The fourth interface is Serial (Se0/1/1) with network number ID (Net ID) -
8.8.8.0/24. The fifth interface is Serial (Se0/3/0) who is directly connected to the
Internet Cloud. The last configured interface is Fast Ethernet (1/0) with network
number ID (Net ID) - 4.4.4.0/24.
The router called “Department CCT Router” has got configured interface
Serial (Se0/3/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 2.2.2.0/24 and second
configured interface Gigabit (Gig0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) -
1.1.1.0/24. The name CCT is an abbreviation of Communication and Computer
Technologies.
The router called “Department IL” has got configured interface Fast
Ethernet (Fa0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 3.3.3.0/27 and other interface
Fast Ethernet (1/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 4.4.4.0/24. The name IL
is an abbreviation of Engineering Logistics.
The router called “Department Geodesy” has got configured interface Fast
Ethernet (0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 5.5.5.0/24 and other configured
interface Fast Ethernet (0/1) with network number ID (Net ID) - 6.6.6.0/24.

38 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


The router called “Department MSS” has got configured interface Serial
(Se0/0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 8.8.8.0/24 and other configured
interface Gigabit (Gig0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 7.7.7.0/24. The
name MSS is an abbreviation of Management of Security Systems [4, 41, 48].
The network with Net ID 1.1.1.0/24 consists of one Cisco Multilayer
Switch WS-C3560-24PS and one Cisco 2911 Modular Router. In this switch are
connected three Laptops (Laptop-PT), one Generic Printer machine, one Cisco IP
Phones 7960, one Access Point-PT-N with connected to it one generic smartphone,
one tabletPC and one personal computer with wireless card. The Server CCT is
also connected to the multilayer switch. The network 1.1.1.0/24 is private local
area network and its IPv4 Default Gateway is 1.1.1.1/24 and in this case this is
the configured network address of interface Gigabit (Gig0/0) in router called
“Department CCT Router”. The capacity of this network is 254 real hosts. The
connection between the Cisco multilayer switch and the hosts with several Copper
Straight-Through UTP cables cat.5e and one copper crossover UTP cable cat.5e
is made. The connection between the router „ Department CCT Router” and the
multilayer switch again with Copper Straight-Through UTP cable cat.5e is made
[11, 13, 14, 21, 26, 27, 28,].
The network with Net ID 3.3.3.0/24 consists of one Cisco 2621XM
Modular Router and one Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT. In this case in the switch
are connected two personal computers, four laptops and one server machine called
“Server IL”. The capacity of this network is 254 real hosts. The connection
between the Cisco switch and the hosts with several Copper Straight-Through
UTP cables cat.5e is made. The connection between the router called „Department
IL” and the switch again with Copper Straight-Through UTP cable cat.5e is made
[6, 36, 37, 45, 46, 47].
The network with Net ID 5.5.5.0/24 consists of one Cisco 2811 Modular
Router and one Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT. In this case in the switch are
connected five personal computers, three laptops, one generic printer machine and
one server machine called “Server Geodesy”. The capacity of this network is 254
real hosts. The connection between the Cisco switch and the hosts with several
Copper Straight-Through UTP cables cat.5e is made. The connection between the
router called „Department Geodesy” and the switch with Copper crossover UTP
cable cat.5e is made.
The network with Net ID 7.7.7.0/24 consists of one Cisco 2901 Modular
Router and one Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT. In this case in the switch are
connected four laptops, one generic printer machine and one server machine
called “Server MSS”. The capacity of this network is 254 real hosts. The
connection between the Cisco switch and the hosts with several Copper Straight-
Through UTP cables cat.5e is made. The connection between the router called
„Department MSS” and the switch with Copper crossover UTP cable cat.5e is

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 39


made. The configured network devices and the third racks in Central Equipment
Room (CER) are illustrated in fig. 2.

Fig. 2. The physical network devices installed in the racks

4. Results
In the command line interface of each router the network administrators
must enter the command “router eigrp 9999”. The number 9999 means that is the
number selected autonomous system [9, 10, 18, 19, 20, 35]. After applying other
specific network commands in the command line interface of each host, then all
routers are able automatically to discoverer each other although there is additional
subnetting in the whole local area network of the academic departments [5, 6, 7,
8, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17].
One of the most important features of this routing protocol is related to the
fact that EIGRP can be configured to transmit routing information with
authentication process between its neighbor’s routers. Other very important
feature is the encryption of the transmitted routing information [28, 30, 31, 36,
38]. Most of the network system administrators, security professionals and
network architects must know that process of the authentication does not encrypt
the whole routing table of each router [20, 24, 26, 27, 29].
The successful executed command ping from host called “PC2 G” to host
called “Smartphone CCT” with IPv4 address 1.1.1.10/24 on fig. 3 is shown.

40 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Fig.3 Successful executed command ping from host called “PC2 G” to
host called “Smartphone CCT” with IPv4 address 1.1.1.10/24

In order to verify that configuration of the routing protocol EIGRP are


correctly applied each network administrator must enter the following commands
[47, 48]:
 IP-EIGRP interfaces;
 IP-EIGRP neighbors;
 IP-EIGRP Topology Table;
 IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics.
The first command IP-EIGRP interfaces shows the following information:
 IP-EIGRP interfaces for autonomous system 9999;
 Interface;
 Peers;
 Xmit Queue Un/Reliable;
 Mean SRTT;
 Pacing Time Un/Reliable;
 Multicast Flow Timer;
 Pending Routes.
The second command IP-EIGRP neighbors shows the following
information:
 H (The number of connected adjacency routers);
 IPv4 address;
 Interface;
 Hold time;

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 41


 Uptime;
 Smooth Round Trip Timer (SRTT);
 Retransmit Interval (RTO);
 Queue Count;
 Sequence Number.
The successfully execution of these commands on fig. 4 is shown.

Fig. 4. Successfully execution of IP-EIGRP interfaces and IP-EIGRP neighbors


commands

Fig. 5. Successfully execution of IP-EIGRP Topology Table

42 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Fig. 6. Successfully execution of IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics

5. Conclusion
Thanks to the achieved results of the conducted research experiment in this
paper each network system administrators, security professionals and network
architects can obtain detailed statistical information for the transmitted routing
information among all hosts and network devices in the simulated local area
network of academic departments using an enhanced distance vector routing
protocol - EIGRP. On the other hand program is a powerful tool for designing and
simulating small and large computer networks with different routing protocols.

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Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

SECURITY ROUTING SIMULATION THE LOCAL AREA NETWORK


OF ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS USING A LINK-STATE ROUTING
PROTOCOL - OSPF
Petar Boyanov1, Stiliyan Stoyanov2, Hristo Hristov3, Ognyan Fetfov1,
Tihomir Trifonov1
1
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY
OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES, KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKY UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN,
SHUMEN 9712, 115, UNIVERSITETSKA STR
E-mail: peshoaikido@abv.bg, o_fetfov@abv.bg, t.trifonov@shu.bg
2
SPACE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE - BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES
E-mail: stil717@yahoo.com
3
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY SYSTEMS, FACULTY OF
TECHNICAL SCIENCES, KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKY UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN,
SHUMEN 9712, 115, UNIVERSITETSKA STR
E-mail: hristov63@abv.bg

ABSTRACT:
In this paper a summarized simulation and providing security communication in the
local area network of academic department using a link-state routing protocol - OSPF is
made. Most of the professional system administrators and IT specialists have to use and apply
static and dynamic methods of information routing. Thereby, each network system
administrators, security professionals and network architects can use the free of charge
software network program Cisco Packet Tracer in order to design and simulate various types
of computer networks.

KEY WORDS: Cisco, Computer and network administrators, Dynamic routing,


Information, IPv4, LAN, Protocols, OSPF, Routing, Security, Switch, Router.

1. Introduction
Securing the transmitted routing information in the local area network of
academic departments is very important task and aim for each network system
administrators, security professionals and network architects. Building and
maintaining a specific local area network (LAN) of academic departments has to
be simulated using the specialized software program called “Cisco Packet
Tracer”. This program consists of many network tools that can simulate the
transmitting network process of secured routing information between the hosts

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 47


in small or large computer networks [13, 14, 33, 35, 37, 39]. The software
program is designed and implemented primarily for students and academic
lecturers who use different network devices of Cisco Systems Corporation [4, 5,
14]. Thereby, each academic lecturer or student have to possess in-depth
knowledge and skills in the designing and maintaining of various types of
computer network using the a link-state routing protocol - OSPF [8, 15, 41, 44].
This paper is structured as follows. First, in section 2, a related work for
the use the routing protocol OSPF is made. After that, in section 3, a
sophisticated implementation of the software program called “Cisco Packet
Tracer” version 6.2.0.0052 into the server operating system Windows Server
2008 R2 Enterprise is performed. The achieved results are presented in section
4. The conclusions and recommendations are made in section 5.
2. Related work
In [42] a survey on the RIP, OSPF, EIGRP routing protocols by
Vetriselvan, V., Pravin R. Patil, and M. Mahendran is made. In [5] method and
system for exchanging routing information by Boden, Edward Barnes, Paul
Albert Gebler Jr., and Franklin Alfred Gruber is analyzed. In [3] analysis of
RIPv2, OSPF, EIGRP configuration on router using cisco packet tracer by
Archana, C. is made. In [14] evaluation of OSPF and EIGRP routing protocols
for IPv6 by Hinds, Alex, Anthony Atojoko, and Shao Ying Zhu is made. In [47]
simulation based performance analyses on RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF Using
OPNET is comparative analyzed. In [46] performance analysis of dynamic
routing protocol EIGRP and OSPF in IPv4 and IPv6 network by Chandra
Wijaya is illustrated. In [40] dynamic routing protocol implementation decision
between EIGRP, OSPF and RIP based on technical background using OPNET
modeler by Thorenoor, S. G. is made. In [48] performance analysis of RIP,
EIGRP, and OSPF using OPNET by Xu, Don, and Ljiljana Trajkovic is made.
The other citations in this paper are based on specific performance analyses, IP
configuration and network solutions.
3. Experiment
The experiment in specialized computer network laboratory in the Faculty
of technical sciences is made. The used free of charge software program called
“Cisco Packet Tracer” version 6.2.0.0052 which is owned by Cisco Systems,
Inc. The host has used server operating system - Windows Server 2008 R2
Enterprise x64. Initially was necessary to be enumerated the network devices
and hosts. The simulated local area network using a link-state routing protocol -
OSPF has consisted of the following items [9, 12, 15, 30, 31, 32, 33]:
 8 personal computers (PC-PT).
 7 Server machines (Server-PT).
 13 Laptops (Laptop-PT).
 Several Copper Straight-Through UTP cables cat.5e
 Two Copper crossover UTP cables cat.5e.
48 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017
 3 Serial Smart DCE DB60 cables;
 One router - Cisco 2911 Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 2621XM Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 1841 Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 2901 Modular Router.
 One router - Cisco 2811 Modular Router.
 4 Generic Printer machines.
 1 switch - Cisco Multilayer Switch WS-C3560-24PS.
 4 switches - Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT.
 1 IP phones - Cisco IP Phone 7960.
 Four academic departments (CCT, IL, Geodesy and MSS).
 One Central Equipment Room (CER).
 3 racks for the CER.
 Six working table for the staff.
 One complete scheme of the entire network.
 One Packet Tracer Cloud Server for Internet.
 One Access Point-PT-N.
 One generic Smartphone-PT.
 One generic TabletPC-PT.
The computer network in the program environment of Cisco Packet
Tracer 6.2.0.0052 is simulated. On fig.1 the common logical scheme of the
whole computer network is shown. The link-state routing protocol - OSPF [41,
42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48] was activated in the configuration of the routers [1, 2, 16,
29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 45].

Fig.1. Common logical scheme of the whole computer network of the academic
departments

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 49


As is known in the network practice each network device as a router
consists of determinate numbers of network interfaces [21, 22, 23, 25, 32,]. In
this communication scenario the router called “Central Router” has got
configured interface Fast Ethernet (Fa0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) -
6.6.6.0/24 and interface Fast Ethernet (Fa0/1) with network number ID (Net ID)
- 9.9.8.0/24. The third interface is Serial (Se0/1/0) with network number ID (Net
ID) - 2.2.2.0/24. The fourth interface is Serial (Se0/1/1) with network number ID
(Net ID) - 8.8.8.0/24. The fifth interface is Serial (Se0/3/0) who is directly
connected to the Internet Cloud. The last configured interface is Fast Ethernet
(1/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 4.4.4.0/24 [7, 21, 33, 35, 36, 40].
The router called “Department CCT Router” has got configured interface
Serial (Se0/3/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 2.2.2.0/24 and second
configured interface Gigabit (Gig0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) -
1.1.1.0/24. The name CCT is an abbreviation of Communication and Computer
Technologies [9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 19, 22, 23].
The router called “Department IL” has got configured interface Fast
Ethernet (Fa0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 3.3.3.0/27 and other
interface Fast Ethernet (1/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 4.4.4.0/24. The
name IL is an abbreviation of Engineering Logistics.
The router called “Department Geodesy” has got configured interface Fast
Ethernet (0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 5.5.5.0/24 and other
configured interface Fast Ethernet (0/1) with network number ID (Net ID) -
6.6.6.0/24 [1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 39, 41].
The router called “Department MSS” has got configured interface Serial
(Se0/0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 8.8.8.0/24 and other configured
interface Gigabit (Gig0/0) with network number ID (Net ID) - 7.7.7.0/24. The
name MSS is an abbreviation of Management of Security Systems [4, 41, 48].
The network with Net ID 1.1.1.0/24 consists of one Cisco Multilayer
Switch WS-C3560-24PS and one Cisco 2911 Modular Router. In this switch are
connected three Laptops (Laptop-PT), one Generic Printer machine, one Cisco
IP Phones 7960, one Access Point-PT-N with connected to it one generic
smartphone, one tabletPC and one personal computer with wireless card. The
Server CCT is also connected to the multilayer switch. The network 1.1.1.0/24 is
private local area network and its IPv4 Default Gateway is 1.1.1.1/24 and in this
case this is the configured network address of interface Gigabit (Gig0/0) in
router called “Department CCT Router”. The capacity of this network is 254
real hosts. The connection between the Cisco multilayer switch and the hosts
with several Copper Straight-Through UTP cables cat.5e and one copper
crossover UTP cable cat.5e is made. The connection between the router „
Department CCT Router” and the multilayer switch again with Copper Straight-
Through UTP cable cat.5e is made [11, 13, 14, 21, 26, 27, 28,].
The network with Net ID 3.3.3.0/24 consists of one Cisco 2621XM
Modular Router and one Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT. In this case in the
50 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017
switch are connected two personal computers, four laptops and one server
machine called “Server IL”. The capacity of this network is 254 real hosts. The
connection between the Cisco switch and the hosts with several Copper Straight-
Through UTP cables cat.5e is made. The connection between the router called
„Department IL” and the switch again with Copper Straight-Through UTP cable
cat.5e is made [6, 36, 37, 45, 46, 47].
The network with Net ID 5.5.5.0/24 consists of one Cisco 2811 Modular
Router and one Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT. In this case in the switch are
connected five personal computers, three laptops, one generic printer machine
and one server machine called “Server Geodesy”. The capacity of this network
is 254 real hosts. The connection between the Cisco switch and the hosts with
several Copper Straight-Through UTP cables cat.5e is made. The connection
between the router called „Department Geodesy” and the switch with Copper
crossover UTP cable cat.5e is made.
The network with Net ID 7.7.7.0/24 consists of one Cisco 2901 Modular
Router and one Cisco Switch WS-C2960-24TT. In this case in the switch are
connected four laptops, one generic printer machine and one server machine
called “Server MSS”. The capacity of this network is 254 real hosts. The
connection between the Cisco switch and the hosts with several Copper Straight-
Through UTP cables cat.5e is made. The connection between the router called
„Department MSS” and the switch with Copper crossover UTP cable cat.5e is
made. The configured network devices and the third racks in Central Equipment
Room (CER) are illustrated in fig. 2.

Fig. 2. The physical network devices installed in the racks


JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 51
4. Results
The name OSPF is an abbreviation of Open Shortest Path First protocol.
Its aim is to replace the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). It consists of
following important features [45, 46, 47, 48]:
 classless routing protocol;
 very fast convergence;
 scalability;
 Dijkstra’s shortest path first (SPF) algorithm;
 Administrative Distance (AD) of 110.
One of the most important features of this routing protocol is related to the
fact that OSPF can be configured to transmit routing information with
authentication process between its neighbor’s routers. Other very important
feature is the encryption of the transmitted routing information [28, 30, 31, 36,
38]. Most of the network system administrators, security professionals and
network architects must know that process of the authentication does not encrypt
the whole routing table of each router [20, 24, 26, 27, 29].
The encapsulated OSPF message includes data link frame header, IP
packet header, OSPF packet header and OSPF packet type-specific data. The
OSPF packet types are:
 0x01 Hello;
 0x02 Database Description (DD);
 0x03 Link State Request;
 0x04 Link State Update;
 0x05 Link State Acknowledgement.
In the command line interface of each router the network administrators
must enter the command “router ospf 11229”. The number 11229 means that is
the number selected process ID [9, 10, 18, 19, 20, 35]. After applying other
specific network commands in the command line interface of each host, then all
routers are able automatically to discoverer each other although there is
additional subnetting in the whole local area network of the academic
departments [5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17].
The successful executed command ping from host called “Laptop12”
located in department MSS to host called “Tablet PC CCT” with IPv4 address
1.1.1.8/24 located in department CCT on fig. 3 is shown. From host called
“Laptop12” has sent 8 ICMP Echo request packets to the target host. The
following ICMP Echo reply packets have arrived back to host called
“Laptop12”:
Request timed out;
Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=8ms TTL=125;
Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=125;
Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=34ms TTL=125;
Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=25ms TTL=125;

52 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=9ms TTL=125;
Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=38ms TTL=125;
Reply from 1.1.1.8: bytes=32 time=43ms TTL=125;

Fig.3 Successful executed command ping from host called “Laptop12” to host
called “Tablet PC CCT” with IPv4 address 1.1.1.8/24

In order to verify that configuration of the routing protocol OSPF is


correctly applied each network administrator must enter the following
commands [47, 48]:
 OSPF process ID number ;
 OSPF border and boundary router information;
 OSPF database summary;
 OSPF interface information;
 OSPF neighbor list of the routers;
 OSPF virtual link information.

The first command OSPF process ID number shows the following


information:
 routing process “ospf 11229” with ID 9.9.9.1;
 supporting only single TOS routes;
 minimum and maximum LSA arrival times;
 external flood list length;
 number of areas in the selected router;
 number of interfaces in this area;
JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 53
 authentication process and etc.

Fig. 4. Successfully execution of OSPF process ID number command

Fig. 5. Successfully execution of OSPF database summary and OSPF neighbor


list of the routers commands

54 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Fig. 6. Monitoring the successfully transmitted control information about the
adjacency events between the routers

5. Conclusion
Thanks to the achieved results of the conducted research experiment in
this paper each network system administrators, security professionals, network
architects and IT experts can obtain detailed statistical information for the
transmitted routing information among all hosts and network devices in the
simulated local area network of academic departments using a link-state routing
protocol - OSPF. On the other hand the program called cisco packet tracer is a
powerful tool for designing and simulating small and large computer networks
with different routing protocols.

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58 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

RESTRICTIONS ON THE DECENTRALIZATION OF RENEWABLE


ENERGY IN BULGARIA

Ralitsa Nikolova
SOFIA UNIVERSITY “ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI”
E-mail: ralitzanik@gmail.com

Abstract: The promotion of decentralized systems for renewable energy is one of the key
moments in the proposals for a new EC energy policy. In the recent years, despite the
encouragement by the law, their development has been restricted which has required rethinking
both the existing incentives and overcoming some barriers. This article identifies these barriers
existing before the development of the decentralized renewable energy production in Bulgaria
and provides recommendations on how these could be overcome based on the good practice of
the other countries.

Key words: Renewable energy sources, Hybrid system, administrative barriers.

Promoting decentralized systems for renewable energy production is the


focus of the proposed legislative amendments to the energy policy of the
European Commission (EC) by 2030. The objectives on the new ten-year horizon
are entirely in the spirit of the Paris Agreement signed on December 12, 2015.
The Agreement contains a plan of action to limit global warming well below 2°
C. It covers the period from 2020 onwards. [1]

In the context of this objective, one of the main instruments on which EC


relies is the increase of the renewable energy share in the final energy
consumption of EU by 27%. One of the mechanisms by which this shall be
achieved is through encouraging the independent production of this type of energy
by more households, which will result in greater decentralization of the energy
system.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 59


This article aims to review the Bulgarian legislation and the secondary
legislation in this area, in order to discover the weaknesses that hinder the
development of the decentralized renewable energy production in Bulgaria and
give suggestions on how they can be overcome.

1. Types of energy capacity in the electricity system of Bulgaria

There are a variety of capacities for electricity generation in Bulgaria,


however the lignite power plants still have their predominant share. The chart
below shows the distribution capacity by types of power plants by 2015.

Fig 1: Share of installed energy capacity (MW)

Although the capacity of the installed photovoltaic power facilities is more


than 1,000 MW, their electricity production is much less effective, especially
when compared to the conventional power plants. In terms of renewable energy,
the main reason for this is the unstable character of the photovoltaic energy which
totally depends on the external weather conditions. Therefore, the energy from the

60 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


photovoltaic plants constitutes approx. 9% of the total energy production in the
country A major share of this percentage is produced by plants over 5 MW that
are prevalent in the installed photovoltaic facilities and which can be seen in the
following table. [2]

Table 1 Share of solar power plants according to their installed capacity

Data show that the plants with installed capacity up to 5 kWp and those from
5-30 kWp, which can be installed on roofs of buildings in an urban area, have
negligible share. Therefore, it can be assumed that this is the share of the solar
technologies used for the needs of households and companies, which can help
achieving the EU objectives for greater decentralization of the power system. For
larger buildings, larger photovoltaic facilities with a maximum capacity of 200
Kwp could be installed, however this study shall focus on energy facilities up to
30 KW.

2. How the Bulgarian legislation encourages the utilization of decentralized


energy production

The legislation that regulates the accession, buying and promoting


renewable energy in Bulgaria is the Energy from Renewable Energy Sources Act
(EREA) adopted in 2011 with subsequent revisions. Some of the texts give
specific advantages to the energy facilities for electricity production from
renewable sources with a total installed capacity up to 30 kW and up to 200 kW.
These are summarized in the following table. For the purposes of this study, these
shall be assessed against the legislative requirements for the other types of
renewable sources.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 61


Table 2: Legislative provisions for energy facilities from renewable sources up to
30 kW according to EREA
Requirements to renewable energy sites over Requirements for renewable energy sites up to
200 KW 30 and 200 KW

(biomass plants not considered)

Investment intentions for the construction of The provision does not apply to the
energy facilities for electricity production construction of energy facilities for
from renewable sources are preceded by an electricity production from renewable
assessment of the available and estimated sources with a total installed capacity up to
potential of the respective energy resource. 30 kW, including on roofs and facades of
buildings and on real estates within urban
areas;

Installing new capacities shall follow the 10- There are no limits to the annual capacity of
year plan for network development of the accessing power plants with a total installed
system operator, determinable annually. capacity up to 30 kW or less, which are
planned to be built on roofs and facades and
on properties in urban areas;

Upon submitting an application for Not applicable


accession, a guarantee of BGN 5 000 shall
be deposited for the requested MW capacity.

There is no deadline for issuing a statement A statement for accession shall be issued
within 30 days upon receiving the request. A
pre-accession contract shall not be
concluded. Upon request for a contract for
accession, the distribution company shall
provide a draft contract within 30 days.

The accession of the new power facility The accession point for the power plant up to
shall be within the borders of the property or 30 kW shall be within the building where it
in close proximity, and the costs shall be shall be installed, as long as its capacity does
covered by the owner of that facility. not exceed that of the building, which should
not require additional expense.

Not valid for plants up to 200 KW

Accession fee for a power plant is


individual, including the construction costs
for the accession facilities to the relevant
distribution network, and is determined by
the methodology adopted by the Energy and
Water Regulatory Commission under the
relevant regulation.

62 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


The operator of the electric power Energy production from plants to 30 KW
transmission or distribution grid shall cannot be restricted but should follow a
restrict remotely or with a dispatch order the timetable. The accession contract should
energy supplied, when the transmission contain the penalties due by the operator in
capacity of the network has been exceeded. case of restrictions to production mode.

Since 2015, no preferential rates for Electricity from renewable sources is


renewable energy plants with a capacity of purchased at a price specified by EWRC, as
over 30 KW have been provided. of the date of application for complete
installation of the electricity production unit.

The producer of electricity from renewable Not applicable


sources with installed capacity over 200 kW
provides data transmission in real time to
the operator of the transmission or
distribution grid for the electricity delivered
at the accession point, as well as a remote
control of this power unit.

The legislative requirements related to the energy capacity from renewable


sources to 30 KW show that the majority of them have been introduced with the
legislative amendments adopted in 2012 and 2015. The reason for this is that
together with the concessions for this type of power plants, restrictions on greater
energy capacity from renewable sources have been adopted, excluding those up
to 30 kW.
As regards the requirements for accession of energy capacity facilities to
30 Kw, the Law on Spatial Planning (LSP) also provides certain concessions.
These facilities have been moved from third to sixth category for construction.
This, according to Art. 147 does not necessitate approval of investment projects
for the issuance of a building permit [3]- "installation of plants producing
electricity, heating and/or cooling from renewable sources with a total installed
capacity up to 30 kW including existing buildings in urban areas, including on the
roof and their façade and in their own territory." For construction objects of sixth
category, there are also no requirements for applying for a permit for use issued
by the National Construction Supervision Directorate or by the
municipality. Concessions provided by the Law on Spatial Planning with the
higher construction category for energy facilities from renewable sources to 30
kW shall save about 2-3 months for their construction, the interviews conducted
with the Bulgarian Solar Association recently revealed.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 63


3. Restrictions of the secondary legislative framework
Regarding the accession of energy facilities up to 30 kW, the Energy from
Renewable Sources Act refers to the secondary legislative framework [4] whose
rules have been composed by the Energy and Water Regulation Commission
(EWRC), imposing certain restrictions on the development of decentralized
systems for renewable energy. For the purposes of this article, there are interviews
carried out with companies involved in installing such electricity facilities and
representatives of the industry associations. Based on them, the following
restrictions have been classified which greatly prevent the more widespread
development of renewable energy plants by up to 30 Kw.

Table 3: Restrictions on the decentralized renewable energy roofing systems in


the secondary legislative framework
Regulatory framework Implementation Restriction

The distribution system From the interviews with the Insufficient control on the
operator may reasonably experts and the stakeholders, implementation of the
refuse to add the site to the it can be concluded that there requirements of the
network within the requested are many cases in which the secondary legislative and
deadline and to propose a distribution companies have regulatory frameworks and a
new date for negotiations. unreasonably refused lack of sanctions for non-
accession to small compliance.
photovoltaic power plants
(there are examples of
rejected projects with a
capacity of 4 kW/p). In such
cases, after appealing before
EWRC, the accession
procedures have been
resumed but in most cases
the delays of about 12
months caused to the project
activities have made it
impossible for the realization
of the planned investments
due to changes in the pricing
components of the
installations.

64 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


When generating capacity, According to stakeholders, Ability to interpret the
which is greater than the there are a number of requirements. Need for
capacity allowed, the examples of unsubstantiated clarification of the texts.
accession point may not be indication of a remote point
close to where the of accession of renewables to No price caps for accession.
commercial measurement the networks, which
unit is installed. significantly raises the
investment costs, making the
implementation of the
projects impossible and the
investors having no legal
procedure with which to
appeal.

The prices for accessing


renewables to the grid are
unreasonably inflated.

For sites for renewable In this case, the provision, Restricting the
energy production to be prevents the development of decentralization of electricity
joined to the distribution hybrid systems that can production facilities.
network, no "island mode„ is operate without being
allowed. connected to the distribution
network.

Besides the restrictions contained in the secondary legislative framework,


there are also restrictions associated with the adaptation of this framework to the
general legislation.

According to the interviews conducted with the stakeholders, the power


supply companies speculate with omission to reveal the requirement of ERSA for
a 30-day period to complete the procedure of the Rules on the terms and
conditions for accession to the transmission and distribution networks. This leads
to delays in providing purchase contracts, accession agreements and additional
agreements with producers of renewable energy with nearly a year. There have
also been cases when plants of 5 and 30 kWp, which have already been built, had
no purchase contracts and the plants respectively cannot produce energy.

Another restriction within the secondary legislative framework is the lack of


so-called "net metering". This means installation of small generating facilities
allow accounting with two-way metering, thereby levelling the amount of the
energy produced and the energy consumed for a certain period of time. As there
is no specific definition in European legislation, but some autors [5] define "net

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 65


metering" as the scheme in which the generation facility is connected inside the
network of a consumer and produces electricity for both, simultaneous and post
consumptions. In cases where the generation exceeds the consumption, the
surplus energy is discharged into the electric system. This excess energy can be
recovered in those times when consumption exceeds generation, and it is not
enough with the power generated. Net metering scheme usually uses the electrical
system as a " Back – up".

This solution has been used in many EU countries. According to the experts,
the small decentralized systems are sufficiently advanced both technologically
and in terms of safety, and it is high time for them to be regarded as an inherent
part of the indoor electricity systems of the urban, industrial and agricultural
buildings and facilities. Currently, their status is almost equivalent to the major
electricity facilities and this significantly impedes their further distribution.

Conclusion:
The restrictions on the decentralized systems for production of renewable
energy in Bulgaria have been mainly identified in the secondary legislative
framework, creating administrative risk for the development of this type of
systems. This can be overcome both by changing the secondary legislative
requirements and adapting them to those of the primary legislation and through
further facilitation of the administrative regimes.
The construction of small power capacity facilities can be offset largely by
the transition from licensing to registration regime for their legalization. Such a
positive example has already been used in Germany where the construction of
such facilities requires only submitting a notification to the specialized state
institution, and the distribution companies are obliged within one month to
provide a signed contract thereto.

The use of decentralized electricity production systems shall become


increasingly popular issue within the context of the new EU legislative initiatives
in the field of renewable energy. However, they will not give specific answers on
how the national governments to achieve the goals but will rather leave each
Member State to decide how this should be done. In this regard, it is important for
Bulgaria to overcome the administrative obstacles imposed by the bylaws, which
shall ease the development of hybrid systems for renewable electricity in people’s
homes.

66 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


References:

[1]. European Comission, Proposal for a Directive on the promotion of the use
of energy from renewable sources, November, 2016.
[2]. Operational data for the electrical balance, Electricity System Operator
[3]. Law on Spatial Planning (LSP), Art. 147, p.14
[4]. Regulation 6 "To add electrical energy producers to the electric power
transmission and distribution networks", Energy and Water Regulation
Commission
[5]. Mediterranean energy regulators, Study to evaluate net-metering systems in
mediterranean country, June 2014.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 67


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

THE SHORTEST PATH PROBLEM IN


LOGISTICS

Andrey Bogdanov

KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKI UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN, SHUMEN 9712, 115


UNIVERSITETSKA STR.
anbog@abv.bg

Abstract: The shortest path problem is one of the fundamental network flow problems.
A large number of problems from diverse areas such as routing in telecommunication
networks are an intrinsic part of this problem. The report examines different algorithms to
solve this major problem for logistics.

Кеу wards: logistics management, Shortest Path Problems, algorithm.

I. Introduction
There is wide variety of problems that go under the name „Shortest Path
Problems“. In graph theory, the shortest path problem is the problem of finding
a path between two vertices (or nodes) in a graph such that the sum of the
weights of its constituent edges is minimized.
The problem of finding the shortest path between two intersections on a
road map (the graph's vertices correspond to intersections and the edges
correspond to road segments, each weighted by the length of its road segment)
may be modeled by a special case of the shortest path problem in graphs.
Furthermore, the shortest path formulation can also serve as a submodel in
larger, more complex models, such as, for example, in determining an optimal or
near-optimal integer solution to the set covering formulation of the capacitated
vehicle routing problem [2].

II. Exposition
A linear programming problem formulation for shortest path problem is
given in the following, which represents the shortest path problem as a
minimum cost network flow problem in which one unit of flow is sent from the
source s to the t. Thus, all vertices except s and t are transshipment vertices with
one unit of flow entering and leaving. The variable xij denotes the flow on arc (i,
j), and the cost of sending one unit flow on arc (i, j) is given by cij.

68 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


min c x
( ij )A
il ij (1)

x
( sj )A
sj 1 (2)

 x
( ij )A
ij  x
( ij )A
ij 0
(3)
j  V /(ij )
 x
( ij )A
ij  1 (4)

An optimal solution to this linear program may be obtained by standard


linear programming solvers. However, many more effective algorithms are
available for different kinds of shortest path problem.
Different algorithms are presented in this subsection, which determine the
shortest paths from one source vertex to all other vertices on a directed graph.
The first two are label setting algorithms and the last one is a label correcting
algorithm [1]. They are based on an important property of shortest paths on a
directed graph with no negative length cycles.
The vertices of an acyclic graph can be ordered such that if (i, j) ∈ A, then i
< j. Such an ordering is referred to as topological ordering. The shortest paths
from the source vertex 1 to all other vertices can be found by examining all
nodes one by one in topological ordering because the shortest path to vertex i+1
can only go through the vertices 1, ..., i. Thus, in iteration i, we scan all arcs (i,
j) emanating from i, and update the path length d(j) from vertex 1 to vertex j by
min {d(j), d(i) + cij}.
Dijkstra’s algorithm finds the shortest paths from one vertex to all other
vertices of the graph with nonnegative arc lengths [2], and it allows for directed
cycles in the graph. The algorithm assigns one of the two types of labels to each
node: the permanent distance label and the temporary distance label.
For a given source node in the graph, the algorithm finds the shortest path
between that node and every other [5]. It can also be used for finding the
shortest paths from a single node to a single destination node by stopping the
algorithm once the shortest path to the destination node has been determined.
For example, if the nodes of the graph represent cities and edge path costs
represent driving distances between pairs of cities connected by a direct road,
Dijkstra's algorithm can be used to find the shortest route between one city and
all other cities [4].
In both algorithms the shortest path from an origin vertex to a destination
vertex can be obtained by terminating the algorithm once the destination vertex
has been reached. This is a basic feature of the label setting algorithms.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 69


The Ford-Bellman-Moore algorithm allows for arbitrary arc lengths and is
a label correcting algorithm with a refined version [2, 4]. The graph can have
negative arc lengths provided that no negative length cycle exists. A dynamic
list of vertices called the queue is maintained, and initially, the only element of
the queue is the source vertex s. Furthermore, d(s) = 0, and d(j) = ∞ for all other
vertices j.
Like Dijkstra's Algorithm, Ford-Bellman is based on the principle of
relaxation, in which an approximation to the correct distance is gradually
replaced by more accurate values until eventually reaching the optimum
solution. In both algorithms, the approximate distance to each vertex is always
an overestimate of the true distance, and is replaced by the minimum of its old
value with the length of a newly found path. However, Dijkstra's algorithm uses
a priority queue to greedily select the closest vertex that has not yet been
processed, and performs this relaxation process on all of its outgoing edges; by
contrast, the Ford-Bellman algorithm simply relaxes all the edges. The algorithm
may be improved in practice (although not in the worst case) by the observation
that, if an iteration of the main loop of the algorithm terminates without making
any changes, the algorithm can be immediately terminated, as subsequent
iterations will not make any more changes. With this early termination
condition, the main loop may in some cases use many fewer than d(s) − 1
iterations, even though the worst case of the algorithm remains unchanged.
Floyd–Warshall algorithm is an algorithm for finding shortest paths in a
weighted graph with positive or negative edge weights (but with no negative
cycles) [6]. A single execution of the algorithm will find the lengths (summed
weights) of the shortest paths between all pairs of vertices. Although it does not
return details of the paths themselves, it is possible to reconstruct the paths with
simple modifications to the algorithm. The algorithm is also known as Floyd's
algorithm or the WFI algorithm.
The Viterbi algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the
most likely sequence of hidden states – called the Viterbi path – that results in a
sequence of observed events, especially in the context of Markov information
sources and hidden Markov models. The algorithm has found universal
application in decoding the convolutional codes used in both CDMA and GSM
digital cellular, dial-up modems.
A generalization of the Viterbi algorithm, termed the max-sum algorithm
(or max-product algorithm) can be used to find the most likely assignment of all
or some subset of latent variables in a large number of graphical models, e.g.
Bayesian networks, Markov random fields and conditional random fields. The
latent variables need in general to be connected in a way somewhat similar to an
HMM, with a limited number of connections between variables and some type
of linear structure among the variables. The general algorithm involves message

70 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


passing and is substantially similar to the belief propagation algorithm (which is
the generalization of the forward-backward algorithm).
The shortest path problem can be solved using the solver in Excel.
For this purpose to find the shortest path from node S to node T in an
undirected network. Points in a network are called nodes (S, A, B, C, D, E and
T). Lines in a network are called arcs (SA, SB, SC, AC, etc).
The model we are going to solve looks as follows in Excel (fig. 1) [8].

Fig. 1 Output data to solve the task.

To formulate this shortest path problem, the following three questions must
be answered [8].
- What are the decisions to be made? For this problem, we need Excel to
find out if an arc is on the shortest path or not (Yes=1, No=0). For example, if
SB is part of the shortest path, cell F5 equals 1. If not, cell F5 equals 0.
- What are the constraints of these decisions? The Net Flow (Flow Out -
Flow In) of each node should be equal to Supply/Demand. Node S should only
have one outgoing arc (Net Flow = 1). Node T should only have one ingoing arc
(Net Flow = -1). All other nodes should have one outgoing arc and one ingoing
arc if the node is on the shortest path (Net Flow = 0) or no flow (Net Flow = 0).
- What is the overall measure of performance for these decisions? The
overall measure of performance is the total distance of the shortest path, so the
objective is to minimize this quantity.
Explanation: The SUMIF functions calculate the Net Flow of each node.
For node S, the SUMIF function sums the values in the Go column with an "S"
in the From column. As a result, only cell F4, F5 or F6 can be 1 (one outgoing

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 71


arc). For node T, the SUMIF function sums the values in the Go column with a
"T" in the To column. As a result, only cell F15, F18 or F21 can be 1

Fig. 2. Solution of the task with Excel

Conclusion: SADCT is the shortest path with a total distance of 11.


A minor modification of Dijkstra’s algorithm is applied to generate the
shortest paths from every vertex of a graph to a single vertex, called the sink.
This time the distance label d(i) is associated with the path length from vertex to
sink. Assume that the distance label for vertex is declared as permanent.

III. References:
[1]. Ahuja R. K., Mehlhorn, Orlin J. B. Faster algorithms for the shortest path
problem. Journal of ACM, 37:213–223, 1990.
[2]. Cherkassky B. V.; Goldberg, Andrew V.; Shortest paths algorithms: theory
and experimental evaluation. Mathematical Programming. 73: 2000.
[3]. Dijkstra E. A note on two problems in connection with graphs. Numerische
Mathematik, 1:269–271, 1959
[4]. Hoffman K. L., Padberg M. Solving airline crew scheduling problems by
branch-and-cut. Management Science, 39:657–682, 2003.
[5]. Pape U. Implementation and effciency of algorithms for the shortest route
problem. Mathematical Programming, 7:212–222, 2004.
[6]. Shimbel, A. Structure in communication nets. Proceedings of the
Symposium on Information Networks. New York, NY: 2003
[7]. Zwick, Uri All pairs shortest paths using bridging sets and rectangular
matrix multiplication, Journal of the ACM, 49: 2002.
[8]. http://www.excel-easy.com/examples/shortest-path-problem.html

72 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

CONSUMPTION OF OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES


1
Almira Daulbayeva A, 2 Margarita Filipova
1
NARXOZ UNIVERSITY, ALMATY, KAZAKHSTAN
E-mail: almira_geo@mail.ru
2
BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCESRUSE UNIVERSITY “ANGEL KANCHEV”,RUSE,
BULGARIA

Abstract: The destruction of the ozone layer, it is an extremely serious problem for
mankind. Therefore, a number of international agreements were adopted to reduce the
production and use of particularly aggressive halocarbons and finding replacement by other
substances. The article describes the trend of consumption of ozone-depleting substances in
Kazakhstan over the past fifteen years.

Keywords: ozone layer, ozone-depleting substances, hydrochlorofluorocarbon, methyl


bromide.

Introduction
The ozone layer in the stratosphere is an essential component of the Earth's
atmosphere. It protects human, fauna and flora from damaging by the shortwave
ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ozone is destroyed by reactions with certain ozone-
depleting substances (ODS) under the influence of UV radiation. ompounds that
cause significant ozone depletion include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon
tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs),
hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) and methyl bromide. They are used as
solvents, refrigerants, blowing agents, degreasing agents, aerosol propellants,
fire extinguishers (halons) and agricultural pesticides (methyl bromide). The
degree of impact of ODS on the ozone layer depends on its chemical
characteristics [1].
Ozone absorbs a significant portion of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun,
thus protecting all life on Earth and simultaneously heating the respective layers
of the stratosphere, that are the parts of the atmosphere. Halocarbons
destruction of atmospheric ozone, therefore, leads to a cooling effect on the
atmosphere. However, halocarbons have their own absorption bands in the
infrared spectrum and therefore, are greenhouse gases. Most halocarbons have a
twofold impact on the atmosphere: destroying the ozone layer, cool it, but

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 73


absorbing the outgoing long-wave radiation of the Earth and the atmosphere, it
is heated. The second effect - heating of the atmosphere is considerably stronger
than cooling [2, 3].

Methodology
The object of study is the consumption of ozone-depleting substances in
Kazakhstan over the last decade. For the main research methods are selected
physical-statistical, comparative - analytical, mathematical treatment of
empirical data.
In the capacity of the initial data were used the materials of statistical
collections ARKS "Environmental protection and sustainable development of
Kazakhstan" [4].

Results and Discussion


In October 2001, at the meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol with
respect to Kazakhstan, it was decided to reduce the consumption of CFCs, to
create a system for licensing the import and export of ODS , to introduce a ban
on imports of ODS-using equipment, stop the consumption of carbon
tetrachloride and methyl chloroform, etc. [5]
For the implementation of the commitments was accepted the decree by the
Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated January 8, 2004 № 19 "On
approval of the list of environmentally dangerous economic activities and the
Rules for their compulsory state licensing" on the basis of which introduced the
licensing of import / export of ozone-depleting substances and products which
contain them in connection with the implementation of the Republic of
Kazakhstan obligations under the Vienna Convention for the protection of the
ozone layer and the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone
layer. Also, by this decree were introduced the licensing works using ozone-
depleting substances, as well as repair, installation, equipment maintenance,
operating on ozone-depleting substances [6].
Then, by the Decree dated June 22, 2005 № 617 "On amendments to the
Decree of the Government of Kazakhstan dated June 10, 2003 № 681" was
introduced a ban on the import of ozone-depleting substances (CFCs, halons,
cherehhloristogo hydrocarbon, metilhloforma) on the territory of Kazakhstan
and the goods if they contain ozone-depleting substances (refrigerators, freezers,
air conditioners, heat pumps, aerosol products) [1].
It should be noted that out of all ozone-depleting substances which are
consumed, the largest part belongs to methyl bromide and
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (Figure 1-2).

74 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Figure 1 - Consumption of methyl bromide (calculated level of the substance in


tonnes) from 2000 to 2015

120

100

80

60

40

20

Figure 2 - Consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (calculated level of the


substance in tonnes) from 2000 to 2015.
As can be seen from figures 1-2 the highest is the consumption of methyl
bromide, falls on 2007-2009 to 67.2 tonnes, followed by a sharp decrease. A
somewhat different picture can be observed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons
where its the largest consumption falls on 2006 -2011, with a peak of 110 tonnes
in 2010. Then comes a decrease, and a fairly high increase in 2013 to 83.3 tons.
In general, the total consumption of ozone-depleting substances from 2000
to 2015., you can look at the following picture (Figure 3).

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 75


700

600

500

400

300

200

100

-100

ODS Линейна (ODS)

Figure 3. Consumption of ozone-depleting substances (calculated level of the


substance in tonnes) from 2000 - 2015.
Since 2000, it has been a significant decrease in the consumption of ozone-
depleting substances.
If in 2000 was consumed 597,9 tons of ODS , while in 2005 this figure
amounted to 40 tons. Then from 2005 to 2010 there was a slight increase to 128
tonnes and then decline again, which showed the volume of ODS consumption
was reduced to 31.5 times.

Conclusion
The result of the researches revealed the consumption of ozone-depleting
substances on the territory of Kazakhstan.
In 2015, the volume of consumption of ozone-depleting substances in the
Republic amounted to 13.5 tonnes of ODS. Since 2000, there has been a
significant reduction in the consumption of ozone-depleting substances. If in
2000 were consumed 597.9 tonnes of ODS , then in 2015 the volume of
consumed ODS was reduced to 44.3 times.

References
[1]. United Nations European Economic Commission "Environmental
performance and based on their evaluation reports" Eastern Europe,
Caucasus and Central Asia, New York and Geneva, 2007
[2]. Tiedtke M.A comprehensive mass Них Scheme for cumulus parametrization
on large scale models. M. Wea. Rev. 117, 1, 1989, pp. 779-800.

76 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


[3]. Forster C, Stohl A., Wind P. and Benedictow A. Intercontinental air pollution
transport.// Transboundary acidification, eulrophication and ground level
ozone in Europe/ MSC-W status Report №1, Oslo, Norway, 2005, 49 p.
[4]. Collection "Environmental protection and sustainable development of
Kazakhstan" , 2015
[5]. National report on the Vienna convention for the protection of the ozone
Layer and the Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer
in 2008 MEP RK. Astana, 2009. - 27 p.
[6]. The Coordination Centre for Climate Change
http://www.climate.kz/rus/?m=html&cid=21

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 77


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENT FOR


PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND
ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE SUCCESS

Hristo Krachunov, Elena Kindzhakova*


SUMY STATE UNIVERSITY UKRAINE, 40007, SUMY, STR. RIMSKY-KORSAKOV, 2
E-MAIL: euro_expert@abv.bg
*TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY – VARNA BULGARIA, 9010, VARNA, STR. STUDENTS, № 1
E-MAIL: elenakindjakova@abv.bg

Abstract: Situation analysis is made before the current study. Staging is described and
target of the research problem is determined. Common structure and principles for designing
and implementing integrated management systems (IMS) are given. Information base of
integrated systems for sustainable development (SD) and environmental protection (EP) in
manufacturing plants is briefly described. Two main groups of IMS elements are differentiated
- basic and upgrading. Models of IMS are graphically represented. Modeling of production
systems for achieving sustainable success (SS) by applying the principles of sustainable
development (SD) is presented. Information flows for appro-placement and logistics processes
are formed. Indexes and indicators for evaluation of activities for achieving sustainable success
are defined. Scientific applied results are synthesized. Findings and conclusions are made.

Keywords: integrated management system (IMS), sustainable development (SD),


environmental protection (EP), basic and upgrading elements, sustainable success (SS)

1. Introduction
Integrated systems (IS) are an excellent management tool for any organization.
Customer and assistants satisfaction increases with them as define clear
organization objectives. This leads to increased opportunities for access to
national and international markets. Therefore, they are widely disseminated.
Perhaps this trend will continue and integrated management systems (IMS) will
replace all single systems where is possible. [1, 2]
Establishment of an IMS from existing systems is more difficult than planning
it from scratch. The general development rule is: as bigger organization is, the
less organizational processes have to be included to reduce its complexity. It is
important to integrate these processes which have the greatest strategic
importance to the organization. In order to be effective an IMS should be carefully

78 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


planned and requires a lot of time and effort. Well planned IMS can increase
efficiency and employee motivation. [1]
For the paper purposes industrial enterprises are considered as organizational
systems which are capable of achieving sustainable success (SS) at the expense
of satisfying the needs and expectations of all stakeholders by applying the
sustainable development (SD) objectives and principles of long-term basis.
Organizational systems - small, medium and large, production and non-
production work in constantly changing conditions. This suggests continuous
implementation of monitoring and analyzing the organizational environment to
detect, assess and manage risk situations related with stakeholders and their needs
and expectations. [3, 4]
The procedure for analyzing and assessing contain approaches and models,
which are used in world analysis practice - self-assessment / evaluation - synthesis
of improvements, basics of self-assessment organizing, tools that applying to the
processing and analysis of self-assessment results and on the basis of them
defining the need to plan and implement improvements to develop the
organization management system.

2. Situation analysis before the current study


The following findings and conclusions can be made from the analysis of
research on the problem:
1) Very small percentage of the surveyed enterprises (about 15-20%) has
implemented integrated management systems for environmental quality under
ISO 14000.
2) The predominant components of integrated systems for SD are to manage
production and economic processes and activities (about 90%), next social
problems (40%), and the environmental problems (20%).
3) A large proportion of production enterprises do not have, in general,
component of environmental management (about 80%).
4) The degree of integration is low, because each component has its primary
database. The greatest benefit of integration occurs, when different components
use a single database and uniform indicators for components.
5) More complex and large manufacturing plants have structures built on 2, 3
and even 4 levels, located at different sites and areas, which (from the known
cases) are not reported in the integration of components.
6) The influence of neighboring establishments in terms of industrial zones
indicate very inaccurately or not recorded at all.
3. Staging and target-setting of research problem
Research problem, subject and object of study are formulated from preliminary
studies on the issue as follows:
1) Object and subject of study: Study object is the integration and interaction
between management bodies of SD of manufacturing enterprises in terms of

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 79


industrial zones and supervisory authorities for EP and working environment
protection for achieving their SS. Study subject is condition improvement of the
information base for sustainable growth and success of manufacturing enterprises
through integrated management of environment and working environment.
2) Research problem: Methodology, which is good enough to optimize
structure and management of integrated systems for EP and SD by modeling
techniques and structural synthesis in terms of industrial enterprises and industrial
zones absent in our famous theory and practice. Aims and targets of the study are
defined as follows:
3) Aim: Informational, legal - economic and methodological basis for
synthesis of structural schemes of integrated systems for EP and SD in terms of
production enterprises be developed and experimented.
4) Targets: A literature review and analysis of the current situation at
European, national and regional level to be made and problems and unfinished
targets to be identify; A methodology for integrated systems modeling for SD and
EP in production enterprises to be developed; A database and an algorithm and a
program for synthesis of structural schemes of integrated systems for SD and EP
to be developed; Experimental verification of the database and algorithm for
synthesis of structural schemes.
5) The survey methodology is based on the use of methods for modeling
complex systems, IMS models optimization by parametric and structural
optimization, statistical methods of data processing and analysis, synthesis and
optimal compromise solutions and others.

4. Common structure and principles for IMS designing and


implementing
Common structure of MS: If an organization has certified Quality management
system (QMS) and / or Environmental management system (EMS) and / or
Occupational health and safety management system (OHSAS), it can be
developed by adding necessary processes to meet the requirements of standards
for EMS and / or QMS and / or OHSAS [1, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Which MS will be a leading
(at the base of the IMS) depends on the activities of the company (organization),
but the common structure will remain the same (Fig. № 1- schemes 1.2, 1.3, 2.1,
2.3, 3.1, 3.2). Those IMS are considered "double types classical schemes" for the
purpose of this development.
All MS should cover the following processes to be integrated in a common
system:
1) Development of documents and control;
2) Training employees;
3) Risk Assessment;
4) Internal audit of elements in the IMS,;
5) Management review of the entire IMS;

80 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


6) Corrective actions.

5. Information base of integrated systems for SD and EP in


manufacturing plants
5.1. Basic elements: The most massive developed and deployed MS
among IMS according to International standards are: (Fig. № 1 – basic
elements):
 ISO 9001 – Quality management systems (QMS);
 2 - ISO 14001 – Environmental management systems (EMS);
 3 - BS OHSAS 18001 – Occupational health and safety management
systems (OHSAS).
For the purpose of the development these systems will be called "basic
elements" of IMS.
5.2. Upgrading elements: Other frequently developed and deployed MS
with the basic elements are (Fig. № 1 – upgrading elements):
 4 - ISO 45001 – Health and safety at work management systems [9];
 5 - SA 8000 – Requirements for Corporate Social Responsibility [10];
 6 - ISO 26000 – Guidance on Social Responsibility [11];
 7 - ISO 31000 – Risk management systems [12];
 8 - GMP – Good manufacturing practice [14];
 9 - ISO 5001 – Energy management systems [13];
 10 - ISO 22000 – Food safety management systems [14];
 11 - HACCP – Hazard analysis and critical control points [14];
 12 - IFS Food – Standard for auditing the quality and safety of food
products [15];
 13 – BRC - Standards for food safety, consumer goods, packaging and
materials for packaging, storage and distribution [16];
 14 - GLOBALG.A.P – GLOBAL Good Agricultural Practices [14];
 15 - PASS 220 - Food safety. Prerequisite programmes on food safety for
food manufacturing [14];
 16 - ISO 27001 – Information security management systems [17];
 17 - ISO 28000 – Supply chain security management systems [18];
 18 - ISO 20000-1 – Services management systems [2];
 19 - ISO 9004 – Managing for the sustained success of an organization – A
quality management approach [4].

6. Methodology for modeling of integrated systems for SD and EP in


industrial enterprises
6.1.Modeling methodology
Modeling methodology represents a comprehensive and systematic analysis
and synthesis of activities and processes in the production system in accordance
with predefined objectives and indicators. The modeling and resulting model

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 81


should give a general presentation on the effectiveness of production system and
the level of sustainable success (SS) achievement as a result of management
processes. Production system should use modeling as opportunities for
improvement, establish priorities and develop action plans to reach a SS by the
principles of SD and innovative approach. SS models contain valuable
information for analysis and synthesis of management decisions. Moreover SS
model can become a tool for training and proper presentation of the production
system and stimulate interest and motivation of all stakeholders. [19, 20]
6.2.General rules for successful functioning of production systems
Successful production system assumes the following:
 Understanding and satisfying the needs and expectations of stakeholders;
 Conducting monitoring of the production environment;
 Detection of possible areas / processes, which require improvement and
innovation;
 Defined and deployed the strategy and the policy;

Fig. № 1: Basic elements and types structural schemes of IMS for SD and environmental
protection

 Defined and structured the objectives;


 Implemented process and resources management;
 Ensured trust and mutually beneficial relationships with stakeholders.
Figure 2 shows an exemplary production system model to achieve SS and
essential information flows to setting targets and processes and resources
management. [4, 20, 21, 22, 23]

82 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


7. Scientific-applied results
1) A database and legal - economic framework for the optimal functioning of
integrated systems for SD and EP in production enterprises are created;
2) A methodology for modeling of integrated systems for SD and EP in
industrial enterprises is developed;
3) An algorithm and a program for synthesis and optimization of structural
schemes of integrated systems for SD and environmental quality management are
developed in terms of industrial enterprises;
4) Types structural schemes of two or more levels of integrated systems for
environmental quality management and SD are developed;
5) A SWOT analysis of the types structural schemes of integrated systems for
environmental quality management and SD is prepared.
6) This paper builds upon IMS models of manufacturing plants with the
application possibilities of ISO 9004:2009 in their management for achieving SS
by applying SD principles;
7) The modeling methodology can evolve and adapt to the characteristics and
strategies for development, for all industry sectors and sub of modern industrial
production. The model of Fig. № 2 can be specified for each production company
/ organization for the purpose of managing its SS by SD principles.
8. Users of results
 Production enterprises (small, medium and large) in drafting their strategies
and action plans on EP, protection of work environment and sustainable economic
development and competitiveness;
 Small, medium and large municipalities and mayoralties with industrial
areas in drafting their strategies and action plans for sustainable regional
development and EP;
 Different social communities and NGOs with activity subject similar to the
studied problems;
 In all educational forms of employees of production enterprises, civil
society, NGOs, municipalities, middle and high schools and universities.
9. Findings and conclusions
1) A variety of international standards for MS is created. They aim continuous
improvement. By them can be achieved certification;
2) The standards have a similar pattern of performance and they can be integrated
into a common management system;
3) The integration of MS is a very good mechanism to prevent adverse effects on
all aspects of SD;
4) The implementation of IMS, instead of two or three or more separate systems
running on same model and with largely overlapping input is much more cost-
effective for any organization;

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 83


5) Deploying of these MS brings a variety of benefits and advantages for any
organization;

Fig. 2. Production system (organization) model for achieving sustainable success by IMS
sustainable development

84 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


6) In terms of SD and environmental protection most effectively is not just the
introduction of IMS in an enterprise, but its coordinated management between
any one entity and its environment, in which there may be another organization,
again having an impact and accordingly implemented IMS for SD and
environmental protection;
7) Created database base and legal framework are harmonized with Bulgarian and
international law in building IMS of production plants;
8) They are suitable for setting up a computer managing system for SD and
environmental protection in terms of manufacturing enterprises IMS;
9) International standards groups, which are used, cover all components of SD of
production systems and environmental protection and working environment
protection and provide a good prerequisite for synthesis of appropriate IMS
structural schemes.

References
[1]. Weiß, P., Bentlage, J. Environmental Management Systems and
Certification. The Baltic University Press, BeraCon
Unternehmensentwicklung, Cologne, Germany, ISBN 91-975526-3-1, 2006
[2]. CONSEJO - Consultant on development and implementation of
management systems ISO. Briefing Notes for ISO standarts. © 2015
Consejo.bg., last review on August 26, 2015 by http://www.consejo.bg
[3]. Krachunov, Hr. Sustainable development of production systems. Kolor
Print, Varna, ISBN 978-954-760-222-9, 2010.
[4]. ISO. ISO 9004:2009 – Managing for the sustained success of an organization
– A quality management approach (IDT). © ISO, 2010.
[5]. TÜV NORD Bulgaria Ltd. ISO 9001 certification. Last review on August
26, 2015 by http://www.tuv-nord.com/bg/bg/system-certification/iso-9001-
536.htm
[6]. TÜV NORD Bulgaria Ltd. ISO 14001 certification. Last review on August
26, 2015 by http://www.tuv-nord.com/bg/bg/system-certification/iso-
14001-540.htm
[7]. Dogy Ltd. BS OHSAS 18001. Last review on August 26, 2015 by
http://www.gbotev.com/main/pages/System/systems_18001.htm
[8]. TÜV NORD Bulgaria Ltd. OHSAS 18001:2007 /OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS/. Last review on
August 26, 2015 by http://www.tuv-nord.com/bg/bg/system-
certification/ohsas-18001-544.htm
[9]. ISO. ISO 45001 - Briefing Notes. © ISO, 2015
[10]. TÜV NORD Bulgaria Ltd. Certificates SA 8000/BSCI, SA 8000:1997 -
Requirements for Corporate Social Responsibility. Last review on August
26, 2015 by http://www.tuv-nord.com/bg/bg/system-certification/sa-8000-
bsci-568.htm

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 85


[11]. ISO 26000. 2015, September 12. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Last
review on August 26, 2015 by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_26000
[12]. ISO. ISO 31000:2009 Risk management – Principles and guidelines. © ISO,
2009
[13]. Bulgarian Institute for Standardization (BIS). BSS EN ISO 50001:2011 -
Energy management systems. Requirements with guidance for use. 2011
[14]. TÜV NORD Bulgaria Ltd. Certificates ISO 22000/HACCP. Last review on
August 26, 2015 by http://www.tuv-nord.com/bg/bg/system-
certification/iso-22000-haccp-548.htm
[15]. Dogy Ltd. IFS – International Standard for Food Safety. Last review on
August 26, 2015 by
http://www.gbotev.com/main/pages/System/SUBH/systems_IFS.htm
[16]. Dogy Ltd. BRC* /BRC Global Standard/. Last review on August 26, 2015
by http://www.gbotev.com/main/pages/System/SUBH/systems_BRC.htm
[17]. TÜV NORD Bulgaria Ltd. Certificates ISO 27001. Last review on August
26, 2015 by http://www.tuv-nord.com/bg/bg/system-certification/iso-
27001-552.htm
[18]. Dogy Ltd. ISO 28000:2007 - Specification of security management systems
of the supply chain. Last review on August 26, 2015 by
http://www.gbotev.com/main/pages/System/systems_28000.htm
[19]. Kindzhakova, E., Krachunov, Hr. Development and analysis of typical
structural patterns of integrated systems for environment quality
management and sustainable development. International journal
„Sustainable development“, ISSN 1314-4138, 2016.
[20]. Kindzhakova, E., Krachunov, Hr. Information base and legal framework for
optimal functioning of integrated systems for sustainable development and
environmental protection in manufacturing plants. UNITECH’16 – Gabrovo,
2016.
[21]. Bulgarian Institute for Standardization (BIS). BSS EN ISO 9001:2015 -
Quality Management Systems - Requirements. 2015.
[22]. ISO. ISO 14001:2015 - Systems for environmental management -
Requirements with guidance for use. © ISO, 2015.
[23]. The OHSAS Project Group. OHSAS 18001:2007 - Occupational health and
safety management systems – Requirements. © OHSAS Project Group,
ISBN 978 0 580 50802 8, 2007.

86 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

CARCINOMA HEPATIS AND BLOOD GROUP AFFILIATION

Velislav Todorov, Volodia Georgiev*, Maria Boycheva**, Cvetan Minkov,


Rada Georgieva, Milen Boichev**,

SOFIA UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF BIOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY AND


ANTHROPOLOGY, *DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS, 8 DRAGAN TZANKOV STR.,
SOFIA, BULGARIA
**KONSTANTIN PRESLAVSKY UNIVERSITY OF SHUMEN, FACULTY OF NATURAL
SCIENCE, DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY,115 UNIVERSITETSKA STR, SHUMEN,
BULGARIA

ABSTRACT: The article discusses the results of a study of 94 patients (72 male and 22
female) suffering from Ca hepatis. The connection between the condition and the blood group
affiliation according to the ABO systems and the Rhesus factor is traced. A comparison with
the control group of healthy Bulgarian population reveals a significant increase (р<0,01) in
the number of patients with blood type A, and a smaller increase in AB blood type. A decrease
in the number of patients is seen in the other groups, especially group 0 (р<0,01). The studies
show that male patients predominate (3,23 times more than the female)), which supports the
findings of previous documented research. In the Rh system the values are almost equal to
those of the control group. We assume that belonging to blood type A might be one of the risk
factors in the development of Ca hepatis.

KEY WORDS: blood type systems ABO and Rhesus factor, Ca hepatis

Among the causes for an onset of a disease are not only the environmental
factors and the way of life, but also the hereditary features of the organism. In
order to get a better understanding of the impact of these factors a study was
undertaken of the relation between blood type and the appearance of Ca hepatis
in patients. On the basis of previously researched socially-significant diseases it
was assumed that patients' blood type affiliation to AB0 system can turn out to
be, probably indirectly, one of the risk factors for the outbreak and development
of the disease. The conducted studies confirmed a higher disease incidence in
patients with blood type A as compared with the control group of healthy
people.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 87


Aim of the study:
To find out if the patients' blood type affiliation to AB0 system and Rhesus
factor is linked to the appearance and development of Ca hepatis.

Material and methods:


The study was performed on 94 patients suffering from Ca hepatis (72 male
and 22 female). The patients' blood group and Rhesus factor were identified and
the results were compared with the data obtained from a control group of
healthy representatives of the Bulgarian population [1]. The patients were
diagnosed and treated in the oncology ward of the Fifth City Hospital in Sofia.
The comparison was made by means of χ2 criterion.

Results and discussion:


The data of the study are presented in table 1 and figure 1 and 2.

Table 1. Frequency of the blood types from systems AB0 and Rhesus factor in
patients with Ca hepatis and the control group (%)
Blood types O A B AB Rh+ Rh-

Patients with Ca hepatis n 9 65 12 8 80 14


n 94 % 9,57 69,15 12,76 8,52 85,11 14,89
Control group n 342 472 184 82 916 164
n 1080 % 31,67 43,70 17,04 7,59 84,81 15,19

AB0 system
The results of the study of patients' blood type show the following
distribution of blood types in terms of their frequency of occurrence: blood type
0 - 9,57%, blood type A - 69,15%, blood type B - 12,76%, and blood type AB -
8,52%. The figures for the control group are: blood type 0 - 31,67%, type А -
43,70%, type В - 17,04%, and type АВ - 7,59%. Data comparison reveals
distinctive and significant increase (р<0,01) in the figures for type A (by 25,45%
to 69,15%), and a small increase in the figures for type AB (by 0,93%). In the
other blood types there is a significant (р<0,01) decrease in type 0 (by 22,10% to
9,57%), and less significant decrease in type B (by 4,28%) – table1 and figure 1.

88 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


% 80
69,15
70
60
50 43,7
Patients
40 31,67 with Ca
30 hepatis
17,04
20 12,76
9,57 8,52 7,59
10 Control
0 group
Blood type 0 Blood type A Blood type B Blood type AB

Figure 1. Frequency of the blood types from system AB0 in patients with Ca
hepatis and the control group (%)

Rhesus factor system

This system does not display any significant differences between the
figures for the control group of healthy people (Rh+ - 84,81%) and (Rh– -
15,19%), and the patients with Ca hepatis - (Rh+ - 85,11%) and (Rh– - 14,89%).
The difference in Rh+ and Rh– is 0,30% (р>0,1) – table 1 and figure 2.

% 90 85,11 84,81
80
70
60
50 Patients with Ca
40 hepatis
30 Control group
20 14,89 15,19
10
0
Rh+ Rh-

Figure 2. Frequency of the blood types from system Rhesus factor in patients
with Ca hepatis and the control group (%)

Ca hepatis is the 8th most frequently occurring malignant disease in the


world. It is characterised by high malignancy and poor prognosis. Every year
this carcinoma causes the death of 662 000 [2] to 1 million people [3]. About
half of the lethal cases are registered in China [2]. Research shows that the
figures for this carcinoma for Bulgaria are 3,9/100000 – 0,9% of all malignant
diseases [4].

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 89


Significant differences in the disease distribution have been registered in
different regions of the world. In the USA the number of affected people varies
in different states from 1 to 4/100000, whereas in Africa and South-East Asia
the number is 150/100000 respectively. In the above-mentioned continents this
carcinoma is responsible for 50 % of all disease cases [3]. It is the most
frequently occurring cancer in Subsaharan Africa and South-East Asia [5]. In
Europe and the USA the disease is in the increase too [3]. Whereas in Europe
and the USA the onset of the disease is between the fifth and the sixth decade of
life, in Asia and Subsaharah Africa - it is between the puberty and the third or
fourth decade of life [5, 3].
There is a significant gender difference in the disease distribution. It is
more frequent is man than in women [5]. According to [3], the ratio is 76,59%
for men 23,41% for women. Dimitrov et al [4] registered 11,3/100000 or 2,5%
cases of the disease in men and 5,4/100000 or 0,9% in women. According to [3],
the main reasons for the outbreak of the disease are:
1. Liver cirrhosis - in 60-90% of cases;
2. Chronic alcohol abuse;
3. Chronic infection with the viruses of Hepatitis B and C;
4. Contact with exogenous toxic substances - arsenic and pesticides;
5. Prolonged use of contraceptives;
6. Specific carcinogenic substances - aflatoxin, nitrosamine.
Some authors add non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [6], type 2 diabetes [7] and
hemophilia [8] to the above list of causes. In some cases the disease can also be
caused by tumor metastases in adjacent organs [9].
It is thought that the aflatoxin enters human organism with some foods
such as peanuts and corn infected with Aspergilus flavus [6].
Alter [10] points out that the people infected with hepatitis C amount to
25% of all people infected with Са hepatis.
The microscopic analysis of the disease reveals three different forms:
1. Multi-cellular-nodular - in 65% of the cases with a lot of tumor nodules.
2. A massive single tumor - in 30% of the cases;
3. Diffuse-infiltrative - in 5% of the cases.
This carcinoma gives metastases in the regional lymph nodes, bones, liver
veins and the peritoneum [3]. The life span after diagnosing the disease is very
limited. In China it is 5,9 months, while in Subsaharan Africa it is only 3 months
[9].
In microscopic terms, the disease can be high in tumors, weakly
differentiated and anaplastic [3].
The treatment of the carcinoma is operative - through liver resection and
transplantation. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy do not have a significant effect.
For all studied types of carcinoma there is a significantly higher frequency
in patients with blood type A as compared with the control group [Todorov,

90 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


1998-1999] [1]. These are Са uteri - р<0,01, Са ovarii - р<0,01, Са glandulae
mammae - р<0,01, Са glandulae prostatae - р<0,01 [11], Са pancreatis - р<0,01
[12], Са penis и Са testis - р<0,001 [13]. In Са ventriculi and Са coloni there is
an increase in the number of patients with blood type A, although without
significant differences [11]. In some carcinoma types there is an increase in the
number of infected people with blood type 0 in comparison with the control
group: Са vulvae - р<0,05, [14], Melanoma maligna - р<0,05 [15] and Са renis -
р<0,00 [16].
In an earlier work of Timčeva et al [17] we have traced the link between
Cirosis hepatis and Hepatis hronica (two of the risk factors for Ca hepatis) and
the blood type affiliation of patients. It was found that they are more common in
men (cirrhosis – 72,22% which is 2,78 times more often) and hepatitis –
61,78%, i.e. 1,68 times more often than in women. There are also significant
differences from the control group - р<0,05. A slight increase was detected in
patients with AB blood type suffering from Hepatis hronica, which is also
present in Ca hepatis.
All healthy people are exposed in one way or another to most of the risk
factors which trigger Ca hepatis. However, only a small number of them fall
victim to this carcinoma. This fact makes us assume that there must be a certain
predisposition for the onset of the disease. One such risk factor can be patients'
belonging to blood type A and, with a smaller probability - belonging to blood
type AB.

Conclusions:
1. There is a significant increase in the number of patients with blood type
А (р<0,01) suffering from Ca hepatis, in comparison with the control group of
healthy people.
2. It is assumed that having blood type A is one of the risk factors for Ca
hepatis, which also creates a predisposition for developing the disease as a result
of other risk factors.

References:
[1]. Todorov, V. Promene antropolośkih karakteristika u toku starenija,
Disertacija doktora nauka, Beograd, 1998-1999, 72-77.
[2]. Cancer – February 2006 – World Health Organization, Retrieved 2007-05-
24.
[3]. Hadzhiminev, V. Liver carcinoma. 2016. Ars Medica, Medical Faculty,
Varna.
[4]. Dimitrova, N., M. Vukov, M. Valeriev. Cancer morbidity in Bulgaria.
National Hospital of Oncology, 2013, vol. ХХII, 60.
[5]. Kumar, V., N. Fausto, A. Abbas (editors). Robbins&Cotran Pathologic
Basis of Disease (9th edition), Saunders, 2003, 914-917.

JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017 91


[6]. Waite, D. L., F. Kanwal, H. B. El-Serag. Association between nonalcoholic
fatty liver disease and risk for hepatocelular cancer, based on systematic
review, Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology, 2012, 10 (12), 1342-59.
[7]. El-Sarag., B. Hashem, H. Hampel, F. Javadi – 20 Feb 2006 – The
association between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic
review of epidemiological evidence “Clinical Gastroenterology and
Hepatology 4(3):369-380.doi 10.1016/j.cgh 2005.12.007.PMID 16527702.
Retrieved 2011-02-12. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for
HCC. Hoverer, more research is required to examine issues related to the
duration and treatment of diabetes, and conforming by diet and Obesity.
[8]. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com /doi/10.1002/ajh.23947/ abstract
[9]. Kumar, V., N. Fausto, A. Abbas (editors). Robbins&Cotran Pathologic
Basis of Disease (9th edition), Saunders, 2015, 870-875.
[10]. Alter, M. J. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection, WJG, 2007,
13(17), 2436-2441.
[11]. Maksimova, S., V. Todorov, A. Timčeva. Sistemi krvnih grupa AB0 I
Rezus factor kod nekih obolenja od socialnog značaja, Glasnik
antropolškog društva Jugoslvije, 1997, 33, 119-124.
[12]. Todorov, V., S. Maksimova. Povezanost izmejdu krvnih grupa AB0 I
Rezus factor I pojave carcinoma pankreasa, Glasnik antropološkog društva
Srbije, 2010, 45, 187-190.
[13]. Maksimova, S., V. Todorov, K. Yanev, P. Panchev. Neoplasms and blood-
type affiliation to AB0 and Rhesus factor systems. Andrology, 2009, 4, 9-
11.
[14]. Todorov, V., S. Maksimova. Krvnogrupni system AB0 i Rezus factor kod
pacijentkinja sa karcinomom vulvae, Glasnik antropološkog društva Srbije,
2011, 46, 179-181.
[15]. Todorov, V., M. Boichev, Tz. Minkov, V. Georgiev, N. Paraskova, M.
Boycheva. Bloodgroup affiliation in Melanoma maligna patients, Journal
scientific and applied research, 2015, 8, 41-46.
[16]. Todorov, V., S. Maksimova, V. Hristova. Karcinom mokračne besike i
krvne grupe, Glasnik antropološkog društva Srbije, 2008, 43, 72-74.
[17]. Timčeva, A., S. Maksimova, V. Todorov. Raspodela krvnih grupa AB0 i
Resus factor kod pacijenata sa cirzom jatre i hroničnim hepatitom, Glasnik
antropolškog društva Jugoslvije, 1988-1989, 34, 203-207.

The present study is conducted with the financial help of Project № РД-08-
125/06.02.2017, fund “Scientific studies” of Konstantin Preslavsky University of
Shumen.

92 JOURNAL SCIENTIFIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH Vol. 11, 2017


Journal scientific and applied research, vol. 11, 2017
Association Scientific and Applied Research
International Journal

Original Contribution ISSN 1314-6289

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