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# 1.

INTRODUCTION

Brief description
Modal analysis is the study of the dynamic properties of systems in the frequency
domain. Examples would include measuring the vibration of a car's body when it is attached
to a shaker, or the noise pattern in a room when excited by a loudspeaker.

Classically this was done with a SIMO (single-input, multiple-output) approach, that is, one excitation
point, and then the response is measured at many other points. In the past a hammer survey, using
a fixed accelerometer and a roving hammer as excitation, gave a MISO (multiple-input, single-
output) analysis, which is mathematically identical to SIMO, due to the principle of reciprocity. In
recent years MIMO (multi-input, multiple-output) have become more practical, where partial
coherence analysisidentifies which part of the response comes from which excitation source. Using
multiple shakers leads to a uniform distribution of the energy over the entire structure and a better
coherence in the measurement. A single shaker may not effectively excite all the modes of a
structure.
Typical excitation signals can be classed as impulse, broadband, swept sine, chirp, and possibly
others. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The analysis of the signals typically relies on Fourier analysis. The resulting transfer function will
show one or more resonances, whose characteristic mass, frequencyand damping can be estimated
from the measurements.
The animated display of the mode shape is very useful to NVH (noise, vibration, and
harshness) engineers.

Modeshape
In applied mathematics, mode shapes are a manifestation of eigenvectors which describe the
relative displacement of two or more elements in a mechanical system or wave front .

Frequency analysis
The power spectrum of a time series describes the distribution of power into
frequency components composing that signal. According to Fourier analysis, any physical
signal can be decomposed into a number of discrete frequencies, or a spectrum of The

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power spectrum of a time series describes the distribution of power into
frequency components composing that signal. According to Fourier analysis, any physical
signal can be decomposed into a number of discrete frequencies, or a spectrum of
frequencies over a continuous range. The statistical average of a certain signal or sort of
signal (including noise) as analyzed in terms of its frequency content, is called
its spectrum.frequencies over a continuous range. The statistical average of a certain signal
or sort of signal (including noise) as analyzed in terms of its frequency content, is called
its spectrum

The spectral density of a fluorescent light as a function of optical wavelength shows peaks at atomic transitions,
indicated by the numbered arrows.

The voice waveform over time (left) has a broad audio power spectrum (right).

## List of Components Required:

1) sensors such as transducers (typically accelerometers, load cells) or non contact
via a Laser vibrometer, or stereophotogrammetric cameras.
2) data acquisition system and an analog-to-digital converter front end
(to digitize analog instrumentation signals)
3) host PC (personal computer) to view the data and analyze it.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

## 1) P Stoica & R Moses (2005). "Spectral Analysis of Signals"

In vibration monitoring, the spectral content of measured signals give information on the wear
and other characteristics of mechanical parts under study. In economics, meteorology,
astronomy and several other fields, the spectral analysis may reveal “hidden periodicities” in the
studied data, which are to be associated with cyclic behavior or recurring processes.

## 3) College, Erik Cheever, Swarthmore. "Vibration Animations"

These pages give a brief introduction to the use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors to
study vibrating systems for systems with no inputs. MatLab code is also included on the
"Vibrating Systems" page.
Analyzing a system in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors greatly simplifies
system analysis, and gives important insight into system behavior. For example, once
the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system above have been determined, its motion
can be completely determined simply by knowing the initial conditions and solving one
set of algebraic equations.
Before you begin, you should be familiar with matrix fundamentals (notation, addition,
multiplication, inversion, solving sets of linear equations...)

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4) Bobkov, K. K.; Bubnov, M. M.; Aleshkina, S. S.; Likhachev, M. E. (22 May 2018). "Long-term
mode shape degradation in large mode area Yb-doped pulsed fiber amplifiers"
Experimental observation of long-term output mode shape degradation in pulsed Yb-
doped fiber amplifiers is reported for the first time. The process occurs in large mode
area Yb-doped fibers and is caused by the formation of the long period grating
responsible for power transfer from the fundamental mode to the first high-order mode.
The linkage between the process and photodarkening was revealed

2.OBJECTIVE
.
THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT IS TO FIND OUT THE NATURAL
FREQUENCY OF THE AUTOMOTIVE PART WHICH IS THE FUSE BOX MOUNTED
IN THE UPCOMING MODEL OF MARUTI SUZUKI BALENO CAR.

4. METHODOLOGY

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5. REFERENCES

## 1. College, Erik Cheever, Swarthmore. "Vibration

Animations". lpsa.swarthmore.edu.
2. ^ Bobkov, K. K.; Bubnov, M. M.; Aleshkina, S. S.; Likhachev, M. E.
(22 May 2018). "Long-term mode shape degradation in large mode
area Yb-doped pulsed fiber amplifiers". Laser Physics Letters. 14 (1):
015102. doi:10.1088/1612-202X/14/1/015102 – via Institute of
Physics.
2. P Stoica & R Moses (2005). "Spectral Analysis of Signals"(PDF).
3. ^ P Stoica & R Moses (2005). "Spectral Analysis of Signals"(PDF).
4. ^ P Stoica & R Moses (2005). "Spectral Analysis of Signals"(PDF).
5. ^ Gérard Maral (2003). VSAT Networks. John Wiley and
Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-86684-9.
6. ^ Michael Peter Norton & Denis G. Karczub (2003). Fundamentals of
Noise and Vibration Analysis for Engineers. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49913-2.
7. ^ Michael Cerna & Audrey F. Harvey (2000). "The Fundamentals of
FFT-Based Signal Analysis and Measurement" (PDF).
8. ^ Alessandro Birolini (2007). Reliability Engineering. Springer.
p. 83. ISBN 978-3-540-49388-4.
9. ^ Oppenheim; Verghese. Signals, Systems, and Inference. pp. 32–4.
10. ^ Jump up to:a b Stein, Jonathan Y. (2000). Digital Signal
Processing: A Computer Science Perspective. Wiley. p. 115.
11. ^ Hannes Risken (1996). The Fokker–Planck Equation:
Methods of Solution and Applications (2nd ed.). Springer.
p. 30. ISBN 9783540615309.
12. ^ Fred Rieke; William Bialek & David Warland (1999). Spikes:
Exploring the Neural Code (Computational Neuroscience). MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0262681087.

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13. ^ Jump up to:a b Scott Millers & Donald Childers
(2012). Probability and random processes. Academic Press. pp. 370–
5.
14. ^ The Wiener–Khinchin theorem makes sense of this formula
for any wide-sense stationary process under weaker hypotheses:
does not need to be absolutely integrable, it only needs to exist. But
the integral can no longer be interpreted as usual. The formula also
makes sense if interpreted as involving distributions (in the sense
of Laurent Schwartz, not in the sense of a statistical Cumulative
distribution function) instead of functions. If is
continuous, Bochner's theorem can be used to prove that its Fourier
transform exists as a positive measure, whose distribution function is
F (but not necessarily as a function and not necessarily possessing a
probability density).
15. ^ Dennis Ward Ricker (2003). Echo Signal Processing.
Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-7395-3.
16. ^ Robert Grover Brown & Patrick Y.C. Hwang
(1997). Introduction to Random Signals and Applied Kalman
Filtering. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-12839-7.
17. ^ Storch, H. Von; F. W Zwiers (2001). Statistical analysis in
climate research. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-
01230-0.
18. ^ An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise,
Wilbur B. Davenport and Willian L. Root, IEEE Press, New York,
1987, ISBN 0-87942-235-1
19. ^ William D Penny (2009). "Signal Processing Course, chapter
7"

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