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Casing vibration

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Vibration Assessments

tic re

Ar atu

le

Fe

Robert X. Perez approach for casing vibration readings in the

Rotating Equipment Engineer frequency range of 10 Hz to 1,000 Hz on machines

San Antonio, Texas operating at rotational speeds between 600 RPM and

12,000 RPM

A generalized machine evaluation approach for casing perplexing picture. Is there a way to generalize the approach

vibration measurements based on accepted assessment to vibration severity? The various guidelines for casing

methods is presented. Various assessment guides were vibration, such as those offered by ISO (Table 1), DLI, and

surveyed to develop a general method that enables users to Rockwell Automation, follow a similar mathematical

make better machine-specific decisions that account for pattern.

machine construction and criticality. A new dimensionless

Table 1. ISO Vibration Severity Table for Various Classes

number termed the severity level, S, is introduced that

allows consistent comparisons across diverse machine of Machines (after ISO 10816).

populations. The meaning and importance of newly

commissioned machinery are also described for vibration

criteria used both in the ISO Vibration Severity Tables and

in the new methodology presented here.

Traditionally, the commonly used vibration alarm level for

velocity was 0.3 IPSrms with a danger level of 0.5 IPSrms. It

was applied unconditionally to all general-purpose machines

and was an empirically-derived convenient rule of thumb

that was easy to remember and seemed to fit most situations.

A technical basis for this assessment was not available, but

it seemed to work.

Improvements to this rule of thumb involved the concept

that, if there is a reliable baseline vibration reading, the

alarm should be set at two or three times the baseline;

shutdown should be set at four times the baseline. This

methodology accounts for the fact that baseline amplitudes

vary greatly due to size, construction, load, and speed of the

machine.

It is known that casing vibration is a ratio of the internal

shaking force to machine dynamic stiffness and that

vibration is an indication of machine condition but is not an

absolute indicator. This article is an attempt to assemble all This article is an attempt to develop a generalized

the relevant factors required to make logical machinery approach for most common classes of machines. First, every

assessments and to develop a new methodology for casing- major vibration assessment level was assigned an integer

based evaluations. severity value and listed in a table next to the corresponding

acceptable ISO vibration amplitude (Table 2). Next the

General Vibration Guidelines vibration Severity Level (S) was plotted against a Vibration

A survey of the array of machine casing vibration reference Ratio (R). R is the ratio of ISO vibration limit (V) for the

tables and graphs used by vibration professionals provides a three (3) ranges (i.e., Newly Commissioned Machinery,

1

Vibrations Vol 27 No 4 December 2010

Unrestricted Operation, and Restricted Operation given in K=2.51. This leads to the following form for the severity

Table 1) to the vibration level expected for a Newly equation, which matches equation (1).

Commissioned Machine (a). A logarithmic curve fit was

performed on the data (Figure 1). The data in Table 2 (5)

closely fit the following equation.

The output from this equation determines the level of

(1) perceived vibration severity based on ISO vibration

guidelines. The severity levels are defined as follows:

Solve for the vibration ratio, R, to obtain the following <1 = newly commissioned levels

relationship. >1 but < 2 = watch for upward trends

>2 but < 3 = plan for repair

(2) >3 = failure imminent, prepare to shut down

Figure 2 can be used instead of performing this

All the guidelines reviewed closely fit an equation with the calculation to determine a severity level after the vibration

following general form. ratio (V/a) is known.

(3)

Evaluation Standard), and S is the dimensionless assessment

value termed the severity level. Note that in this form R is

defined as the ratio of the actual vibration amplitude

measured in the field (V) to the newly commissioned

machinery vibration amplitude (a).

Table 2 Numerical Severity Levels Based on ISO 10816

Part 1.

Severity Description Severity Level ISO Limit (>75 kw or 100 HP machines) Vibration Ratio

(S) ISO 10816-1-1995 R=(V/a)

Newly Commissioned 1 0.1 1

Figure 2. Chart for Generalized Approach to Casing

Machinery

Unrestricted Operation 2 0.25 2.51

Vibration Assessments (ISO 10816 Part 1).

a) Restricted Operation

3 0.62 6.30 (Note: This evaluation graph is valid only if used for machines operating

b) Plan for repair

a) Damage Occurs 3+ >0.62 >6.30 with rotational speeds between 600 RPM and 12,000 RPM and only applies

b) Prepare to shutdown

to overall (unfiltered) casing vibration readings in the frequency range of

10 Hz to 1,000 Hz.)

Example #1

The measured vibration value on a 10 HP centrifugal pump

is 0.23 IPS (0 to peak) in the inboard, horizontal position. If

the newly commissioned value for this same location was

0.065 IPS (0-peak), the severity number is

indicates that plans should be made to repair the machine at

some time in the future. Because the vibration severity is not

close to a value of 3, time is available to plan and perform

the repair. However, the time available will depend on the

Figure 1. Plot of Vibration Ratio versus Severity Level nature of the fault as determined by vibration analysis.

(based on ISO 10816 Part 1).

Example #2

Solving for S yields the following general relationship. Assume the same information from Example #1. Calculate

the vibration ratio, which is

(4) V\a = 0.23\0.065 = 3.53. Refer to Figure 2 and read the

corresponding severity level directly for a vibration ratio of

Study of the ISO Evaluation Standard data revealed that 3.53, which is about 2.4. This is similar to the result in

all the classes of machines closely fit Equation (4) when Example #1.

2

Vibrations Vol 27 No 4 December 2010

Advantages of the Generalized Approach repair. The Low criticality line will yield a severity level of

There are several advantages in this generalized approach. It 2.2, which is just barely above the plan to repair line.

can be used for a wide variety of casing vibration Therefore, by altering the value of K, the level of

assessments; i.e., it can be used for machine types not conservativeness can be varied.

included in the ISO Severity Standard. It can be applied if

the newly commissioned machinery level of a given Conclusions

machine is known. It can also be used to customize A generalized vibration assessment methodology has been

vibration guidelines for unique machines. It can also be used developed. It is necessary to know 1) the field vibration

for the overall vibration level method (the ISO guide), as level (V), 2) the new commissioned level (a), and 3) the

well as for the spectral approach (the DLI guide). (Note: For criticality level (K). The severity level of a machine can be

a guide based on the evaluation of spectral peaks, the new determined by using Equation (6). By including the

commissioned value, a, is the level of the peak in question criticality criteria (K), criticality can be accounted for in

at the time of commissioning.) order to determine an appropriate path forward when

Another advantage is that this method allows the use of a addressing high or rising machine vibration levels. The same

single, standard severity scale (0 to 4) that applies across all dimensionless severity (S) scale introduced here can be

equipment types. This means that operators and analysts applied to most classes of machines monitored using casing

can use the same severity scale to evaluate and rate all of vibration readings.

their machines.

Refer to Equation (4). The following question can be asked:

Should the factor K change depending on machine

criticality? It makes sense that the more critical the machine, Use these criteria only if they make sense for your

the more conservative the evaluation criteria should be. In equipment types and criticality levels. In some cases, it may

other words, the factor K should decrease as machine be necessary to use an even smaller K value than those

criticality increases. listed. If there is doubt, contact the original equipment

The following values of K are suggested for the various manufacturer.

levels of criticality:

K = 2.51 for general purpose or low criticality machines

K = 2.00 for larger but spared machines (medium criticality)

K = 3.0.5 or 1.73 for high criticality machines

Figure 3 shows the way in which the slope of severity

level versus vibration ratio line varies with changing

criticality factors. Note that the High and Medium criticality

lines are more conservative than the Low criticality line.

Assessments (based on ISO Evaluation Standard).

for a calculated vibration ratio of 3. The High criticality line

will result in a severity level of 3, which means failure is

imminent, prepare to shut down. The Medium criticality line

will yield a severity level of 2.6, which means plan for a

3

Vibrations Vol 27 No 4 December 2010

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