You are on page 1of 18

DOCUMENT TITLE:

PIPINGS
DOCUMENT NUMBER:
PA-GTM-17.2.17
REVISION:
1.0

DOCUMENT TYPE: CORRESPONDING ACTIVITY:


TRAINING MANUAL

PURPOSE:

To give a basic understanding of the piping system and its related parts

SCOPE:

The manual covers the different types of pipes, method of joining pipework, pipe
fittings, flanges and blinds

Copyright Ó 2000 Borouge


This document is the property of Abu Dhabi Polymers Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 6925 Abu
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates and Borouge Pte. Ltd. 438A Alexandra Road # 08-02,
Alexandra Tecnopark, Singapore 119967. All rights reserved. Neither the whole nor any
part of this document must be copied or used without the prior written consent of the
Company Chief Executives.
Issued By: Sign:

Mr.Jasem Al-Hammadi Original Signed by


PA-PE Mech.Maint.Engineer Jasem Al Hammadi
Date: 18th April,2001

Approved By: Sign:

Mr.Herman Aerts Original Signed by


Plant Availability Division Manager Herman Aerts
Date: 29th April, 2001

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 2 of 18

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION: 3

2 PIPING SYSTEM 3

3 TYPES OF PIPES 3

4 METHODS OF JOINING PIPEWORK 4

5 FLANGES 6

6 PIPE DIMENSIONS 10

7 PIPE FITTINGS 10

8 BLINDS 14

9 PIPE SUPPORT 16

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 3 of 18

1 INTRODUCTION:
There are many different types of pipework used throughout a large plant. It is
important that mechanical technicians are familiar with different piping
specifications.

2 PIPING SYSTEM
Any plant have large piping systems. all fluids and gases are moved from place to
place through piping systems. A piping system will include the following:
 Pipework: To carry the fluid from place to place.
 Pipe fittings: Fittings are used to join sections of pipework and control the
direction of flow.
 Valves: Valves control the amount and direction of flow, and shut off the
supply.
 Flanges: Flanges join lengths of pipework together, and connect pipework to
valves and fittings.
 Gaskets: Gaskets seal the joints in the system.

The size and material used for the pipework and fittings depends on the amount
and type of fluid to be moved in the system. The piping system can carry hot or
cold water, crude oil, refined products, chemical, gases etc. These fluids can be at
various temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. All part of the pipework system
must be correctly maintained.

3 TYPES OF PIPES
Although pipe is normally mode of steel, it can also be found in many other
different materials. The material is selected because of the product it has to carry
and the conditions it will be used in.

Types and uses of pipework


 Glass Pipe: Glass pipe is not often used because it is brittle. It is sometimes
used, however, for corrosive materials or food products. It is joined together by
compression type fittings or by special welding techniques.
 Plastic and fiberglass pipe: This type of pipe is used for water or other
corrosive products. It can be joined together using various methods, such as
glue, welding, fusion or threading.
 Brass and Copper pipe: This type of pipe is used in some chemical
processes, but is mostly used for pneumatic instrumentation. It is never used
for processes where the temperature is higher than 232 C. it can be joined by
threading, soldering, or with flanges or compression fittings.

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 4 of 18

 Aluminium pipe: This type of pipe is used in chemical processes where steel
can not be used. It is light and easy to handle. It can be joined by threads,
flanges or welds. Aluminum is very resistant to corrosion from atmospheric
conditions.
 Cast Iron pipe: This type of pipe is used for water, sewers and some chemical
processes. It must not be used where temperatures go above 232 C. It is very
brittle and should not be used where there is excessive vibration or shock
loads. Cast iron can be joined by threading, compression, bell and spigots,
and flanged fittings.
 Malleable Iron pipe: This type of pipe is used in many different operations. It
is very useful where there is expansion, contraction or shock loads. It is mostly
used in small size pipework and is joined by screwed fittings.
 Steel pipe: Steel is the most common type of pipe. It can be joined by
welding, threading, or by flanged joints. It has good resistance to vibration,
shock, low temperatures and fire.
 Stainless Steel pipe: This type of pipe is used in the same way as normal
steel pipe. The advantages of using stainless instead of normal steel pipe is, it
is stronger, lighter and more resistant to corrosion.

4 METHODS OF JOINING PIPEWORK


The method of joining pipework is very important. There are many different
methods. The method used will depend on the work it has to do. Some common
ones are as follows:
 Threaded joint (Figure 1)

Figure 1

 Compression joint (Figure 2)

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 5 of 18

Figure 2

 Welded joint (Figure 3)

Figure 3

 Tubing fitting (Figure 4)

Figure 4

 Flanged joint (Figure 5)

Figure 5

 Bell and spigot joint (Figure 6)

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 6 of 18

Figure 6

 Fused or glued joint (Figure 7)

Figure 7

 Mechanical joint (Figure 8)

Figure 8

5 FLANGES
Flange pipe is used in high pressure and hazardous chemical operations. There
are three main methods of joining flanges to pipework:
 Glued
 Welded
 Threaded
Flanged joints are required where pipelines and piping components need to be
disassembled for maintenance. No matter how the flanges are attached to the
pipe, the two flanges faces are bolted together. Gaskets are placed between the
flange faces to make sure there is no leakage.
For permanent joints, welding is used to join the two sections of pipe together. If
the pipework has to be separated, it must be cut.
Some of the standard types of flange faces are as follows:
 Welding neck (Figure 9)

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 7 of 18

Figure 9

 Lap joint (Figure 10)

Figure 10

 Slip-on (Figure 11)

Figure 11

 Threaded (Figure 12)

Figure 12
 Socket (Figure 13)

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 8 of 18

Figure 13

 Blind (Figure 14)

Figure 14

Flange face are also different. The shape of the face depends on how it is linked
together. If the two faces do not match then the joint will leak. Common flanged
faces are as follows:
 Raised face (Figure 15)

Figure 15
 Tongue and grooved (Figure 16)

Figure 16

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 9 of 18

 Large male and female (Figure 17)

Figure 17

 Flat face (Figure 18)

Figure 18

 Lapped face (Figure 19)

Figure 19
 Ring joint (Figure 20)

Figure 20

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 10 of 18

6 PIPE DIMENSIONS
There are four dimensions that are used to show the size of pipework (Figure 21),
they are:
 Length
 Wall thickness
 Inside diameter
 Out side diameter

Figure 21

The most common measurements on a piece of pipe are the outside and inside
diameters (OD and ID), and the nominal size.
Wall thickness is usually given as a schedule number. A schedule number is the
classification given to the thickness. The numbers range from 10 to 160. The
lower the number, the thinner the wall thickness. Common schedule numbers are
40, 80, 120 and 160.
Besides the OD, ID and wall thickness, the length of the pipe is also important. A
normal length of pipe is usually about 10 meters long.
The nominal size is a very important dimension. The nominal size is the
approximate size of the pipe.
 Under 300 mm (12”) diameter, the ID is used for the nominal size.
 Over 300 mm (12”), the OD is used

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 11 of 18

It is usually the nearest standard size. Normally the size of the pipe is referred to
using the nominal size and the schedule number.
The weight of a piece of pipe will vary according to the wall thickness and material
it is made from. Its weight is given for a 12” length.

7 PIPE FITTINGS
Pipe fittings are used to join sections of pipe together, or to change the direction of
flow. They can be made of the following materials:
 Steel
 Cast iron
 Bronze
 Copper
 Plastic
 Glass
Most fittings are available is screw or welded types although the flanged type is
also common. Welded fittings are classed as permanent.
The main function of a pipe fitting is:
 To join sections of pipe (coupling, union or nipple)
 To change the direction of flow (Elbow or “Y”)
 To change the size of pipe (reducer or bushing)
 To branch the line (tee or cross)
 To close the ends of pipe (plug or cap)

The most common types of fittings are as follows:


 Elbows: They allow pipe work to change direction at either a 90 degree
(Figure 22) or a 45 degree angle (Figure 23).

Figure 22

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 12 of 18

Figure 23

 Tee: Allows pipe to branch in two directions. It can also b considered as the
joining of three pipes (Figure 24)

Figure 24

 Cross: A cross allows pipe to branch in three directions, or the joining of four
different pipes (Figure 25)

Figure 25

 Bushing: Bushing is threaded inside and outside to allow large pipe to be


connected to smaller pipe. The inside and outside thread dimensions come in
different sizes (Figure 26)

Figure 26
 Cap: A cap is a threaded fitting that screws directly onto a pipe to close it off
(Figure 27)

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 13 of 18

Figure 27
 Plug: A plug is a solid threaded fitting which screws into another fitting to plug
an opening (Figure 28)

Figure 28

 Coupling/Sockets: They are used to join two sections of pipe (Figure 29)

Figure 29

 Nipple: A nipple is a short section of threaded pipe which usually fits between
two different pipe fittings. They can vary from 5 to 25 mm in length (Figure 30)

Figure 30

 Reducer (concentric and eccentric): The function of a reducer is to change


the diameter from a larger pipe size to a smaller pipe size. This is done to
reduce the volume, or to increase the pressure in the pipe. They come in
various sizes (Figure 31)

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 14 of 18

Figure 31
 Union: A union is a coupling which comes a part into two sections. It allows
two sections of pipe to be disconnected (Figure 32)

Figure 32

 “Y” fitting: A “Y” fitting allows two branches to go off at 45 degrees to each
other (Figure 33)

Figure 33
 Return bend: A return bend allows a pipe to return parallel to itself (Figure 34)

Figure 34

8 BLINDS
A blind is a circular metal plate that can be placed between two flanges to stop the
flow. It is used to isolate a section of the plant, usually for maintenance work. A

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 15 of 18

spacer is placed between the flanges to allow for the thickness of the blind. It is
removed when the blind is to be used.
There are three types of blinds

 Blank blind (Figure 35)

Figure 35

 Spectacle blind (Figure 36)

Figure 36
 Blind flange (Figure 37)

Figure 37

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 16 of 18

To insert a blind remove the spaces between the flanges. Place the blind between
the circle of the flange bolts, then insert the gasket. The flange bolts are tightened
to make a leakproof seal (Figure 38)

Figure 38

9 PIPE SUPPORT
Pipe must be supported to keep it in a straight line and prevent it from sagging.
Sagging pipes put strain on the fittings, causing them to leak. A pipe support must
hold the pipe, but allow it some freedom for thermal expansion. Pipe can be
supported and fastened to the floor, walls, ceiling or to pillars.
There are many different types of pipe support, each one is used for a particular
job. Some common ones are as follows:
 Spring hangers: this type absorbs vibration (Figure 39)

Figure 39

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 17 of 18

 Adjustable swivel pipe roll: Roll type supports allow the pipe to move as it
expands and contracts due to heat (Figure 40)

Figure 40
 Single hook (Figure 41):

Figure 41

 Ring and bolt hanger (Figure 42):

Figure 42

 Adjustable clevis and band hanger (Figure 43):

Figure 43

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.
Doc. No.: PA-GTM-17.2.17 Rev.: 1.0

File name: Piping –17.2.17

Document Title: Pipings Page 18 of 18

 Adjustable pipe roll stand (Figure 44):

Figure 44

The spacing of pipe hangers is very important. Although the space varies
according to the size and weight of the pipe, 3 meters is correct for simple pipe
hangers.
Pipe hangers and supports must be included in any preventive maintenance
program. This is important because of the possibility of vibration or corrosion.

ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT. If using hardcopy, the user must confirm the current revision via the EDMS.