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ACOBRI

Composite Bridge Predesign Software

User Manual
v 5.01

08/12/16

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ACOBRI User Manual (v5.01)

CONTENT

I INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 9
I.1 Aim of the document ..............................................................................................11
I.2 Introduction of the software ....................................................................................11
I.3 Warning..................................................................................................................11
I.4 Scope of application ...............................................................................................11
I.5 Computer configuration ..........................................................................................14
I.6 Installation and execution of the software ...............................................................14
I.7 Files management ..................................................................................................15
I.8 Normal and Expert modes ......................................................................................15
I.9 References.............................................................................................................15

II PRE-PROCESSOR ............................................................................. 17
II.1 General operations .................................................................................................19
Presentation of the software .............................................................................................. 19
Menu bar ............................................................................................................................ 19
Main toolbar ....................................................................................................................... 21
Graphic functions ............................................................................................................... 23
Options .............................................................................................................................. 24
Management of units ......................................................................................................... 26
II.2 Databases ..............................................................................................................26
Structural steel database ................................................................................................... 26
Shear stud database ......................................................................................................... 26
Profiled steel sheeting database ....................................................................................... 27
Abnormal load database .................................................................................................... 28
II.3 Input modules.........................................................................................................30
Starting window ................................................................................................................. 30
New bridge......................................................................................................................... 31
References ........................................................................................................................ 32
Superstructure parameters ................................................................................................ 32
Overhangs ......................................................................................................................... 37
Concrete slab parameters ................................................................................................. 38
Connection......................................................................................................................... 39
Reinforcement ................................................................................................................... 40
Concrete slab..................................................................................................................... 41
Precobeam connection .................................................................................................. 44
Materials ........................................................................................................................ 46
Connection at supports .................................................................................................. 47
Properties of concrete crossbeams ............................................................................... 49
Integral abutments ......................................................................................................... 52
Support beams .............................................................................................................. 53
Haunches at supports .................................................................................................... 53
Curved precobeams ...................................................................................................... 54
Diaphragms and changes in cross-section ................................................................... 57

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Gerber bridges ............................................................................................................... 59


Structural steel section .................................................................................................. 60
Footways and vehicle restraint systems ........................................................................ 62
Railway tracks................................................................................................................ 62
Maintenance walkways .................................................................................................. 64
Superimposed dead loads ............................................................................................. 65
Length of cracked regions ............................................................................................. 66
Live loads on footways .................................................................................................. 67
Truck load models ......................................................................................................... 68
Definition of the slow lanes ............................................................................................ 69
Loads on footbridges ..................................................................................................... 70
Train load models .......................................................................................................... 71
Support height adjustment and settlement .................................................................... 72
II.4 Definition of factors ................................................................................................73
Weighting factors for superimposed dead loads ............................................................... 73
Adjustment factors for road bridges................................................................................... 73
Partial factors for loads - Combination factors .................................................................. 74
Factors for Serviceability Limit States ............................................................................... 75
Factors for Ultimate Limit States ....................................................................................... 76
Factors for Fatigue Limit States ......................................................................................... 77
Calculation coefficients ...................................................................................................... 79
II.5 Options...................................................................................................................80
Prefabricated beams options ............................................................................................. 80
Filler beams options .......................................................................................................... 81
Precobeams options .......................................................................................................... 82
Calculation options ............................................................................................................ 84

III RUNNING CALCULATIONS AND VIEWING THE RESULTS............................ 87


III.1 Calculations process ..............................................................................................89
Running calculations ..................................................................................................... 89
Files management ......................................................................................................... 90
Calculation steps ........................................................................................................... 90
III.2 Preliminary pre-design report .................................................................................92
Preliminary predesign report ......................................................................................... 92
Editor functions .............................................................................................................. 92
Content of the report ...................................................................................................... 94
III.3 Post processor .......................................................................................................96
General operation .......................................................................................................... 96
Tool bar of the post-processing window ........................................................................ 97
Display options .............................................................................................................. 98
Image layers .................................................................................................................. 99
Display of the Grillage Model....................................................................................... 100
Influence lines .............................................................................................................. 101
Display of action effects ............................................................................................... 103
Display of envelope moments diagrams ..................................................................... 107
Display of design check ............................................................................................... 108
Display of shear connection ........................................................................................ 110

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Display of fatigue results ............................................................................................. 111


Editing results .............................................................................................................. 112
Graphic area ................................................................................................................ 114
Graphic functions of the mouse ................................................................................... 115

IV DESCRIPTION OF CALCULATIONS ...................................................... 117


IV.1 Material properties ...............................................................................................119
Steel characteristics .................................................................................................... 119
Slab concrete ............................................................................................................... 120
Concrete creep ............................................................................................................ 120
Modular ratios .............................................................................................................. 121
IV.2 Loads ...................................................................................................................122
General ........................................................................................................................ 122
Permanent loads.......................................................................................................... 123
Principles for live loads calculations ............................................................................ 130
Live loads on road bridges .......................................................................................... 132
Fatigue loads on road bridges ..................................................................................... 136
Specific loads for integral bridges................................................................................ 137
Live loads on railway bridges ...................................................................................... 141
Live loads on footbridges ............................................................................................. 143
Normal force and corrected moment distribution for integral bridges ......................... 145
Eigenmode................................................................................................................... 145
IV.3 Combinations of loads ..........................................................................................147
Road bridges ............................................................................................................... 147
Footbridges .................................................................................................................. 152
Railway bridges ........................................................................................................... 153
IV.4 Deck analysis .......................................................................................................156
Conventions ................................................................................................................. 156
Principles ..................................................................................................................... 157
Grillage model.............................................................................................................. 157
Effective width.............................................................................................................. 159
Support regions ........................................................................................................... 161
Characteristics of the model elements ........................................................................ 162
Influence lines .............................................................................................................. 169

V DESIGN CHECKS ............................................................................. 173


V.1 General ................................................................................................................175
V.2 Elastic properties of cross-sections ......................................................................176
Concrete in casting phase ............................................................................................... 176
Depth of the concrete slab ............................................................................................... 179
Uncracked concrete ......................................................................................................... 179
Cracked concrete............................................................................................................. 183
Cross-sections at concrete crossbeams ......................................................................... 186
V.3 Plastic properties of cross-sections ......................................................................187
Positive moments ............................................................................................................ 187
Negative moments ........................................................................................................... 189
Cross-sections at concrete crossbeams ......................................................................... 192

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Plastic shear resistance ................................................................................................... 193


V.4 Calculation of stresses under bending moments ..................................................195
Principles ......................................................................................................................... 195
Stresses for load cases without composite effect of the in-situ concrete ........................ 196
Stresses for load case with full composite effect............................................................. 197
Effect of the cracked concrete ......................................................................................... 197
V.5 Calculation of stresses under normal forces .........................................................198
General ............................................................................................................................ 198
Shrinkage or thermal load cases ..................................................................................... 198
Integral bridges ................................................................................................................ 199
V.6 Calculation of shear stresses ...............................................................................200
V.7 Calculation of stresses in Precobeams dowels .....................................................201
V.8 Moment reduction at intermediate supports of filler-beam decks ..........................202
Moment reduction under EN rules ................................................................................... 202
Moment reduction under EN rules and German National Annex .................................... 202
Application of the moment reduction ............................................................................... 202
V.9 SLS checks ..........................................................................................................203
Limitation of deflection ..................................................................................................... 203
Track twist on railway bridges ......................................................................................... 204
End rotation of railway bridge decks ............................................................................... 204
Minimum reinforcement ................................................................................................... 205
Minimum reinforcement for filler-beams .......................................................................... 206
Minimum reinforcement for Precobeams ........................................................................ 206
Slab cracking ................................................................................................................... 206
Stress limitation ............................................................................................................... 207
Stress limitation for top flanges at concrete crossbeams ................................................ 208
Stress limitation for filler-beam decks .......................................................................... 208
Stress limitation for Precobeams ................................................................................. 209
Shear connection ......................................................................................................... 210
Shear connection of Precobeams ............................................................................... 211
V.10 ULS checks ..........................................................................................................211
Connector shear resistance ......................................................................................... 211
Resistance to bending ................................................................................................. 212
Elastic resistance to bending of Precobeams ............................................................. 214
Position of the plastic neutral axis of filler-beam decks ............................................... 214
Resistance to vertical shear force ............................................................................... 214
Bending moment / shear force interaction ................................................................... 215
Shear buckling ............................................................................................................. 216
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................. 217
Horizontal shear in Precobeams dowels ..................................................................... 219
V.11 FLS checks ..........................................................................................................221
Limitation of the stress range ...................................................................................... 221
Calculation of the bending stress range in profiles...................................................... 223
Calculation of the bending stress range in reinforcement ........................................... 223
Calculation of the shear stress range in connection.................................................... 224
Calculation of the stress range in dowels (Precobeams) ............................................ 224
Damage equivalence factor for steel profiles .............................................................. 225

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Damage equivalence factor for steel reinforcement .................................................... 229


Damage equivalence factor for connection ................................................................. 231
Dynamic amplification factor for road bridges ............................................................. 233
V.12 Design of connection ............................................................................................234
SLS requirements ........................................................................................................ 234
ULS requirements ........................................................................................................ 234
Maximal density of connection .................................................................................... 235
Additional connection at concrete crossbeams ........................................................... 236

VI ANNEXES ....................................................................................... 237


VI.1 Directories and files management ........................................................................239
Installation directory ..................................................................................................... 239
Configuration directories .............................................................................................. 239
Working directory ......................................................................................................... 239
VI.2 Physical constants ...............................................................................................240
VI.3 Material ................................................................................................................240
Creep coefficient .......................................................................................................... 240
VI.4 Precobeams .........................................................................................................242
General design of Precobeams ................................................................................... 242
Description of the cross-sections................................................................................. 243
Limitations .................................................................................................................... 244
VI.5 Variable height .....................................................................................................246
Haunches ..................................................................................................................... 246
Curved Precobeams .................................................................................................... 246
VI.6 Finite element analysis .........................................................................................248
Location of nodes in the longitudinal direction ............................................................ 248
Location of nodes in the transverse direction .............................................................. 249
Numbering of the nodes .............................................................................................. 250
Numbering of the elements ......................................................................................... 250
VI.7 Integral abutments ...............................................................................................251
Intermediate parameters ............................................................................................. 251
Spring stiffnessess....................................................................................................... 253
Loads due to forces on the backwall of the abutment ................................................. 254
Normal force and corrected moments distribution....................................................... 255
Earth pressure coefficients .......................................................................................... 256

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CHAPTER I

I INTRODUCTION

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter I

I.1 AIM OF THE DOCUMENT

This Manual gives indications for the use of ACOBRI software. It is uptodate with version 4.01 of the
program. Even if it isn’t the main objective, technical specifications are also given. Nevertheless, this
document doesn’t constitute a guide for the design of composite bridges. Users are assumed to
understand the technical backgrounds of bridge design and of Eurocodes.

I.2 INTRODUCTION OF THE SOFTWARE

The purpose of the ACOBRI software is to help in the pre-design of the rolled-steel main beams of
composite steel and concrete bridges, in accordance with Eurocodes and National Annexes from
different countries. The software interface is generally simple and user-friendly, but because of its very
specific purpose, it is vital that users have the requisite knowledge on the design of composite bridges
and are familiar with the relevant design rules. It is the responsibility of the User to ensure that the
software is consistent with the problem to be solved by referring to the scope of application defined in
this Manual.
ACOBRI can be used only at the pre-design stage, in order to compare different technical solutions. In
so far as the program does not take sufficient account of all the parameters involved in the design of a
composite bridge, the results cannot be used directly in the final substantiation of bridge design.

I.3 WARNING

ACOBRI facilitates the preliminary engineering studies with respect to steel constructions. Based on
calculation methods complying with the principles of the applied standards, this software enables to
make a certain number of verifications in view of evaluating a solution for a pre-design. It does not
enable to analyse all situations and to make in an exhaustive way all relevant calculations needed for a
study of execution which requires in every case the advice of an external Engineering Office.
Given the complexity of the calculation methods, this software is only intended for professional users
active in the sector of steel constructions (who are fully aware of the possibilities, limits and its adequacy
thereof for specific practical cases). The User shall use the software under his own responsibility and at
his own risks.
ACOBRI may be used free of charge. No right is granted to the User of the software, the property and
intellectual rights of which continue to belong exclusively to ArcelorMittal Commercial Sections S.A. (or,
depending on the case, to the company of the ArcelorMittal Group who is owner of these rights.) No
warranty is granted to the User. ArcelorMittal Commercial Sections S.A. and/or any other subsidiaries
of the ArcelorMittal Group cannot be held liable for any loss or damage directly and/or indirectly
sustained as a result of the use of the software. The User undertakes to hold ArcelorMittal Commercial
Sections S.A. free and harmless from any claim and any direct, indirect and/or consequential damages,
in particular those resulting from an incorrect or inappropriate use or a use made for an inadequate or
inappropriate purpose of the software.

I.4 SCOPE OF APPLICATION

This chapter describes only the main applications of ACOBRI software. More specific details are given
in the description of data input in the pre-processor (see Chapter II).
ACOBRI can be used for the pre-design of the main beams of the superstructure of a composite (steel
and concrete) bridge. The bridges types covered are the following:
• road bridges,
• railway bridges,
• footbridges.

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Pre-design calculations are carried out according to Eurocodes EN rules, with the following choices for
Nationally Determined Parameters:
• recommended values,
• French National Annexes,
• German National Annexes,
• Italian National Annexes.
ACOBRI considers only straight bridges and addresses neither bridges curved in plan or elevation, nor
skew bridges.
The bridge dealt with can be built from simply supported beams resting on two supports, or continuous
beams over several spans, or succession of isostatic spans.
All the main beams are composite beams using I sections from the ArcelorMittal Sales programme.
ACOBRI can be used to pre-design the following types of beams:

• Conventional beams, with a concrete deck slab connected to the top flange of the beams.

Figure I-1: Conventional beams and slab superstructure

• Partially prefabricated composite beams


Use of partially prefabricated composite beams (steel beams with precast concrete panels
connected to the top flange in the shop) means composite action can be taken into account
during placement of the in-situ concrete of the topping.

Figure I-2: Superstructure with partially prefabricated composite beams

• Box girders
A superstructure using steel box girders is similar to the conventional beam and slab
superstructure, the only difference being that each I-beam is replaced by a box girder made
from two identical I sections whose flanges are welded together continuously along their edges.
The torsional stiffness of the main beams is thus considerably improved.

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Figure I-3: Superstructure with box girders

• Concrete filled box-girders


A superstructure with concrete-filled box girders is similar to the previous case. The I-sections
of each pair are set a slight distance apart and the void between them is filled with concrete,
which protects them against impacts.

Figure I-4: Superstructure with concrete filled box girders

• Filler-beam decks
A filler-beam deck is essentially a concrete slab with stiff longitudinal reinforcement made of
closely spaced rolled beams and transverse reinforcement made of steel bars. The steel beams
act as a support for the permanent formwork which is placed on the lower flanges. Transverse
reinforcing bars are threaded through holes drilled in the webs of the steel beams. Concrete fills
the space between beams and covers the upper flanges.

Figure I-5: Filler-beam deck

• Simple partially prefabricated Precobeam


Tee chord of a Precobeam is obtained by the cutting of a basic hot rolled profile. A simple
Precobeam is partially prefabricated in shop from a single chord, and the composite effect is
available for the pouring of in situ concrete.
Details about Precobeams design are given in Annex Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable..

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Figure I-6: Superstructure with simple Precobeams

• Double partially prefabricated Precobeam


A double Precobeam is partially prefabricated in shop from two chords, the space between the
chords being filled with concrete. The composite effect is available for the pouring of in-situ
concrete. According to the connection details, the composite action of the concrete between
chords can also be accounted for.
Details about Precobeams design are given in Annex VI.4.

Figure I-7: Superstructure with double Precobeams

For supports, ACOBRI offers the possibility to deal with concrete crossbeams at intermediate piers.
Given specific conditions, it is also possible to calculate bridges with integral abutments.

I.5 COMPUTER CONFIGURATION

ACOBRI runs on windows systems under 32 bits and 64 bits configurations. It is compatible with
Microsoft XP, Seven and Windows 8 systems.
Once installed, the program takes about 16 Mb of hard-disk space.

I.6 INSTALLATION AND EXECUTION OF THE SOFTWARE

ACOBRI is delivered with a package that should be run for the installation of the program. For 4.01
version, the installation package is the file “Install ACOBRI_v401.exe”.
By default, the program is installed in the directory “C:/Programs/ACOBRI401” (version 4.01), but this
directory can be modified by the User during the installation process. It is recommended to choose an
installation directory on “C” drive.
The installation procedure creates the following shortcuts:

• an icon is proposed on the desktop of the computer (icon )


• a directory “ACOBRI401” is created in the launch menu of windows, which contains shortcuts
for the program, the User Manual and the uninstall procedure.

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When the program is executed for the first time, the Configuration window is displayed, allowing the
setting of software parameters. All these parameters are saved in the configuration file.
It is to be noted that the preliminary design notes generated by ACOBRI cannot be directly saved in an
independent file. An application generating PDF files is required in order to be able to save theses pre-
design reports. The configuration window proposes an internet link for the “PDF Creator” freeware
product.

I.7 FILES MANAGEMENT

Indications for files and directories management are given in Annex VI.1.

I.8 NORMAL AND EXPERT MODES

ACOBRI can be used under two modes: by default, it is set with the Normal mode, where all parameters
are limited to the scope of application of the program. But it is possible to bypass some of these
limitations under the Expert mode, with full responsibility of the User. ArcelorMittal should be contacted
in order to run the Expert mode.

I.9 REFERENCES
[1] EN 1990: Eurocode - Basis of structural design - 2003
[2] EN 1990/A1: Eurocode - Basis of structural design – Annex A2 - 2006
[3] EN 1991-2: Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures - Part 2 : traffic loads on bridges 2004
[4] EN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3 : design of steel structures - Part 1-1 : general rules and rules for
buildings – 2005
[5] EN 1993-1-5: Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-5 : plated structural elements –
2007
[6] EN 1993-2: Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 2 : steel bridges – 2007
[7] EN 1994-2: Eurocode 4 - Design of composite steel and concrete structures - Part 2 : general
rules and rules for bridges - 2006

[8] RFCS RFS2–CT–2011–0026 Preco+: Design Guide – Prefabricated enduring composite beams
based on innovative shear transmission. 19/09/12. Preco+ Members, 2012
[9] CTICM DRV/126RCM-105/001-B: ACOBRI – Technical Manual for Precobeams.
[10] CTICM DRV/10-RID-118/001-B: ACOBRI – Technical Manual for Integral bridges.

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter II

CHAPTER II

II PRE-PROCESSOR

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter II

II.1 GENERAL OPERATIONS

Presentation of the software

Figure II-1: Main window

The main window of ACOBRI is organised through several components which allow the User to define,
modify, calculate and display the studied bridge. These components are, from top to bottom:
• a title bar;
• a menu bar, which gives access to menus “File”, “Display”, “Edit”, “Options” and “?”;
• the main toolbar, used to access the different input and processing modules;
• a graphic display area;
• a graphic toolbar, used to interact with the graphic display area;
• a status bar.

Menu bar
"File" menu
The “File” menu contains the following choices:
• “New…”: Re-sets data prior to processing a new bridge study. The “New” input module
is displayed.
• “Open…”: Opens an existing file.
• “Save”: Saves the existing file (name displayed in the status bar). If no name has yet
been given, the software opens the dialogue box where the User can enter one.
• “Save as”: Saves a file under a name to be entered by the User.
• Direct access to the 4 last opened or saved files.
• “Exit”: Exits the software.

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"Display" menu
The "Display" menu contains the following choices:
• “Cross-section”;
• “Elevation”;
• “Plan view”, these three first choices are used to select the type of view displayed in the
graphic area of the interface;
• “Display options”, used to define the level of information shown on the graphic displays of
the bridge.
All the graphic functionalities of the interface are described in greater detail in II.1.4

"Edit" menu
The “Edit” menu contains access to ACOBRI databases:
• “Stud catalogue”, edits the file containing the shear stud database;
• “PSS catalogue”, edits the file containing the database of profiled steel sheeting (PSS) for
concrete slabs;
• “Load model Catalogue”, edits the file in which the special vehicles are defined.
The “Edit” menu also contains graphic functionalities:
• “Copy image”, which places the image displayed in the graphic area in the clipboard; this
bitmap image can then be pasted and processed with other software;
• “Print image”, which prints the contents of the graphic area directly.

"Options" menu
The “Options” menu contains the following choices:
• “Langage” brings up the dialogue box for choosing the language to be used for the current
session (doesn’t modify the software configuration);
• “Units” brings up the dialogue box for choosing the units of force and length to be used for
the current session (doesn’t modify the software configuration);
• “Configuration …” displays the dialogue box for defining the parameters to be used for each
work session;
• “Factors” sub-menus, for the definition of the values of different factors required for the
bridge study.
• “Precobeams parameters”.
In expert mode, this menu also gives access to the following choices:
• “Scope of bridges”;
• “Calculation parameters”;

" ? " menu


The " ? " menu contains the following choices:
• “Help” for the access to User Manual;
• “About” displays information about the software and current version.

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Main toolbar
The input windows most frequently used for defining a bridge and its loading and for running calculations
and processing the results are accessible directly from the tool bar. The logical order in which these
modules are organized is from left to right. ACOBRI does authorize access to modules accessed
previously, but it must be remembered that any modification to data in one module might have
consequences on the data defined in a module further to the right on the tool bar.
Some modules, and thus the associated buttons, are available only under certain conditions, mainly the
bridge type.

File functions
gives direct access to the menu “File / Open”

gives direct access to the menu “File / Save”

Project parameters

Definition of project references

Definition of bridges
Definition of superstructure

Definition of the slab parameters

Definition of connection between the slab and the girders

Definition of the longitudinal reinforcement

Definition of material properties


Definition of stiffness of abutments and concrete crossbeams at intermediate
supports
Definition of the properties of concrete crossbeams

Definition of support beams

Definition of haunches at supports

Definition of curved precobeams

Definition of diaphragms and changes in cross-section

Definition of structural steel sections

Definition of cracked regions

Definition of support height adjustments and settlements

Definition of factors for the bridge study

Specific parameters for road bridges


Definition of footways and vehicle restraint systems

Definition of superimposed dead loads

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Definition of loads on footways

Location of slow lanes on the slab for the Fatigue Load Model

Definition of truck load models

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Specific parameters for footbridges


Definition of superimposed dead loads

Definition of service vehicles on footbridge

Specific parameters for railway bridges


Definition of railway tracks

Definition of superimposed dead loads

Definition of train load models

Definition of maintenance walkways

Calculation and post-processing of results


Calculation

Editing Pre-design report

Post-processing

Graphic functions
General functions
The graphic area of the main window can display three types of view of the bridge studied:
• a transverse cross-section of the bridge at a given position in the longitudinal direction,
• an elevation,
• a plan view.
The view can be changed by selecting the required view from the "Display" window or by using
one of the following three buttons in the graphic toolbar:
Selection of cross-section

Selection of elevation

Selection of plan view

When an elevation or a plan view is displayed, a cursor in the form of a vertical line appears,
indicating the position in the longitudinal direction of the cross-section displayed. This cursor
can be moved with the mouse, by holding the left button down. When the mouse button is
released, the display switches to the cross-section thus selected.
A double-click on the display of a cross-section switches from one view to another.
The "Display/Display options …" menu brings up a dialogue box for selecting certain display
options (dimensions, section labels, etc.).

Display options
The display options are used to select the information required to be shown on the graphic
displays.
The information that can be displayed on a cross-section view is:
• the position of the cross-section, displayed in the box in the top left-hand corner
• dimensions

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• diagrams of the deck surfacing


• superimposed dead loads
• lanes (road bridges) or tracks and ballast (railway bridges)
• section labels
• symbolic representation of the concrete contributing to the strength of the bridge.

Zoom functions
The zoom function is activated by holding down the left mouse button. The mouse cursor then
becomes a cross "+". The User must select the zone he wishes to zoom in on by holding down
the left mouse button and moving the mouse. When the button is released the zone selected
occupies the entire graphic area.
A double click on the left mouse button returns from the zoom to the initial representation.

Options
Language
In its current version, the software operates in English, German and French. The dialogue box
that appears when "Language…" in the "Options" menu is clicked is used to select the language
the software will use (in accordance with the translations available at the time of installation).
The language selected in this module applies only to the current session.

Figure II-2: Language choice

Units
When "Units…" in the "Options" menu is clicked, a dialogue box appears for selecting the unit
of force, the unit of length and the unit of dimension. It is in the units selected here that the data
will be entered in the different dialogue boxes, with the sole exception of stresses which are
always to be entered in MPa (i.e. N/mm2) (yield strength, for example).
By default, the units selected are the units defined in the Configuration menu. The units selected
in this module apply only to the current session.
Results are always displayed in fixed units, independent of the units selected here.

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Figure II-3: Choice of units

Configuration
The “Options / Configuration” menu displays a window for defining the parameters used in each
session.
This window comes up automatically the first time the software is run after installation.
There are four tabs in the menu:
- Parameters tab:
The Parameters tab is used to define the general parameters of the software: User
name, Company name, Software language, and Display size of the main window of the
interface.
- Directory tab:
The Directory tab is used to define the working directory. The working directory is the
default directory for all file opening and save operations.
The directory proposed when the software is first run is the directory “My Documents”.
It is recommended that a separate directory be created.
- Units tab:
The Units tab is used to define the units for defining lengths, dimensions and forces.
- PDF Creator tab:
To be able to save the Pre-design report as a file that can be edited independently of
ACOBRI, it is necessary to have software for creating files in PDF format. If the computer
on which ACOBRI is installed does not have such software, it is possible to install the
PDF Creator freeware. The PDF Creator tab display a link to an internet page where it
is possible to download this product. Any other equivalent product can be used.

Factors
The definition of nationally determined factors could be accessed from the Menu
Options/Factors or directly from the toolbar (see II.1.3).

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Management of units
The User can choose the units used for the definition of parameters:
The unit of force can be chosen among:
• newton (N)
• decanewton (daN)
• kilonewton (kN).
The unit of dimensions and lengths can be selected from:
• millimeter (mm)
• centimeter (cm)
• meter (m)
The general principle is to use uniform units for input. The units selected are displayed in the status bar
at the bottom of the main screen. If a unit is changed, the values displayed are converted automatically.
The choice of units can be made through the menu “Options / Units” for the current session of ACOBRI
or through the “Configuration” window for each use of the software.
Units in the Pre-design report are fixed and cannot be modified by the User, e.g.:
• mm for dimensions of the transverse cross-section,
• cm2 for the cross-sectional area,
• cm4 for moments of inertia,
• N/mm2 (MPa) for stresses,
• kN for forces and kNm for moments,
• etc.

Note: Internal units of the software are:


• lengths and dimensions: cm
• forces: daN
• masses: kg
All data stored in files (see III.1.2) are saved with these internal units.

II.2 DATABASES

Structural steel database


This is the database of rolled steel I sections from the ArcelorMittal sales programme. It contains the
dimensions of structural steel sections. It is a binary file that cannot be modified by the User.
Cross-section characteristics (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, etc.) are calculated by the
program in accordance with the dimensions.

Shear stud database


This file contains the characteristics of shear connectors (welded headed studs). It is simply a text file
in ASCII format that can be displayed with a conventional text editor (Windows Notepad, for example).
It can be modified and complemented by the User on condition that the same format is used.
The file can be edited by clicking on "Edit / Edit stud catalogue" in the "Edit" menu: the software uses
the Notepad text editor.
The first line is a brief reminder of the content of the file. It must not be modified.

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Every other line must contain:


• the label of the shear stud, which must end with a comma
• the total height of the stud, h
• the diameter of the shank, d0
• the diameter of the head, d1
• the thickness of the head, ht
• the yield strength of the connector steel, fy
• the ultimate tensile strength of the connector steel, fu

Figure II-4: Geometry of stud

All dimensions must be given in millimeters. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength must be
given in MPa (N/mm2). The decimal separator is the point.

Profiled steel sheeting database


This file contains the steel sheeting characteristics required. It is simply a text file in ASCII format that
can be displayed with a conventional text editor (Windows Notepad, for example). It can be modified
and complemented by the User on condition that the same format is used.
The file can be edited by clicking on "Edit PSS catalogue" in the "Edit" menu: the software uses the
Notepad text editor.
The first line is a brief reminder of the content of the file. It must not be modified. Every other line must
contain:
• the label of the profiled steel sheeting, which must end with a comma,
• the value of dimension b1,
• the value of dimension b2,
• the pitch e,
• the overall depth h of the PSS.
All dimensions must be given in millimeters. The decimal separator is the point.

Figure II-5: Geometry of profiled steel sheeting

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Abnormal load database


In the case of a road bridge, the User can choose to design the bridge for traffic corresponding to an
abnormal vehicle load. The abnormal load model is chosen from the window for the Definition of Truck
Load Models (see II.3.27), from a list of special vehicles defined in special file “UserLoads.db”. This is
an editable file in ASCII format. It can be edited using the "Edit / Edit Load Model catalogue" menu, or
with a standard text editor such as NOTEPAD, for example. It is located in the software working
directory. It already contains a certain number of load models and can be extended by the User to suit
requirements.
When a new version of ACOBRI is installed, it is possible either to keep the previous database or to
replace it by the one contained in the new installation package. The choice is given to the User at the
first execution of the new version.
This chapter describes the file’s format of the database.
Units and convention:
The load model must be defined with the following system of units:
• Lengths cm
• Point loads daN
• Uniformly distributed loads daN/cm2
Punctual forces and uniformly distributed surface loads are applied vertically, a positive value
meaning upward direction. Thus they must have a negative sign for the loads to be exerted
downwards.

General description:
A load model is defined by a set (block) of lines of instructions in the database. The first line of
the block always starts with the symbol #, followed by the name of the load model. This is the
name that will appear in the available choices in the Truck load model input module. The key
words are indicated afterwards in capital letters.

For example: #My load model

The symbol ! is used to introduce a comment on any instruction line. Any text after the symboll
! will thus not be interpreted.

For example: #My load model ! block defining My load model

Types of load models:


Abnormal load is defined by a set of point loads and/or surface loads.
The general format of the instruction block is as follows:

Ligne n° Instructions

Definition of the name


1
#Name of the load model
Definition of the number of point loads
2
PUNCTUAL LOADS 4
Definition of the number of surface loads
3
SURFACIC LOAD 2
Obligatory Instruction
4
TRANSVERSAL NUMBER IMPOSED 1

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Obligatory instruction
5
LONGITUDINAL NUMBER IMPOSED 1
Definition of point loads
6+i
PLOAD i fz=Force x=PositionX y=PositionY
Definition of surface loads
7+j
SLOAD j fz=Pressure x=x1 y=y1 x=x2 y=y2

Table II-1: Instructions of a block for the definition of an abnormal vehicule

Line no 2 can be omitted: this means that the load model includes no point loads. Identically,
line no 3 can be omitted when no surface load are to be considered. So at least one of the two
lines should be in the block of instructions.
The definition of the point loads (lines no 6+i) has always to be placed before the definition of
surface loads (lines no 7+i). It implies one line for each point load.
The definition of point loads requires one line for each point load. The definition of surface loads
requires one line for each surface load.

For example, the instructions generating Load Model 600/150 of Annex A of Eurocode are:

#Annex A - 600/150
PONCTUAL LOADS 24
TRANSVERSAL NUMBER IMPOSED 1
LONGITUDINAL NUMBER IMPOSED 1
LOAD 1 fz=-1875 x=0 y=0
LOAD 2 fz=-3750 x=0 y=60
LOAD 3 fz=-1875 x=0 y=120
LOAD 4 fz=-1875 x=0 y=150
LOAD 5 fz=-3750 x=0 y=210
LOAD 6 fz=-1875 x=0 y=270
LOAD 7 fz=-1875 x=150 y=0
LOAD 8 fz=-3750 x=150 y=60
LOAD 9 fz=-1875 x=150 y=120
LOAD 10 fz=-1875 x=150 y=150
LOAD 11 fz=-3750 x=150 y=210
LOAD 12 fz=-1875 x=150 y=270
LOAD 13 fz=-1875 x=300 y=0
LOAD 14 fz=-3750 x=300 y=60
LOAD 15 fz=-1875 x=300 y=120
LOAD 16 fz=-1875 x=300 y=150
LOAD 17 fz=-3750 x=300 y=210
LOAD 18 fz=-1875 x=300 y=270
LOAD 19 fz=-1875 x=450 y=0
LOAD 20 fz=-3750 x=450 y=60
LOAD 21 fz=-1875 x=450 y=120
LOAD 22 fz=-1875 x=450 y=150
LOAD 23 fz=-3750 x=450 y=210
LOAD 24 fz=-1875 x=450 y=270

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The instructions generating Load Model type D (280 t) of old French code are:

#Load model type D (280 t)


SURFACIC LOADS 2
TRANSVERSAL NUMBER IMPOSED 1
LONGITUDINAL NUMBER IMPOSED 1
LOAD 1 fz=-0.38568 x=0 y=0 x=1100 y=330
LOAD 2 fz=-0.38568 x=1800 y=0 x=2900 y=330

II.3 INPUT MODULES

Starting window
Each time ACOBRI is executed, a first window is proposed to the User in order to choice which study to
begin with:
• start a new project (with the same choice as in the window “New bridge”, cf. II.3.2);
• open a previous project through file explorer;
• open a previous project through the list of the ten last opened or saved file.

Figure II-6: Starting window

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New bridge
The “New bridge” module is accessed from the “File / New” menu.
When the User chooses to create a new project (File/New menu), a dialogue box appears for selecting
the fundamental options of the study to be addressed:
Type of bridge:
• Road bridge
• Railway bridge
• Footbridge

Design code:
In normal mode, all calculations are carried out according to Eurocode EN rules. The User can
define in this window which Nationally Determined Parameters will be considered by ACOBRI,
among one of the following options:
• Recommended values;
• French National Annexes;
• German National Annexes;
• Italian National Annexes.
In expert mode, an access to the design codes available in previous versions of ACOBRI is
possible (DIN Fachberichte 2009, Eurocode ENV, French code).

These choices cannot be modified subsequently. They appear in the status bar at the bottom of the
main window.
Note: This manual contains explanation and information concerning only the Eurocode rules. Explanation and
information for other codes should be found in previous revisions of the document.

Figure II-7: “New bridge” module

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References
The module for defining the references of the project is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar
This module is used to display and modify:
• the company name,
• the project name,
• the project reference,
• the user name,
• a comment.

This information will appear on each page of the pre-design report.


The default company and user names can be defined in the configuration window, so that it need not
be entered every time the software is used.

Superstructure parameters
The module for defining general parameters of the superstructure is accessed by clicking
on this button on the tool bar
This module is used to define the general geometry of the bridge superstructure. The User should define
the following parameters:

Type of beam:
• conventional composite beam,
• partially prefabricated composite beam,
• box girder (not active in version 4.01),
• concrete-filled box girder,
• filler-beam deck,
• simple partially prefabricated Precobeam,
• double partially prefabricated Precobeam.

Slab cross section parameters:


The parameters to be defined depend on the type of beam. These values apply along all the
length of the bridge.
For conventional composite beam, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:
• the slab’s width
• the slab’s depth (between 10 and 50 cm)
• the haunch’s depth (0 if no haunch, and between 0 and 30 cm)

Figure II-8: Deck dimensions for conventional composite beam

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For partially prefabricated composite beam, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:
• the slab’s width
• the slab’s depth (between 10 and 50 cm), including precast panel and in-situ concrete
• the precast panel’s depth
• the haunch’s depth (0 if no haunch, and between 0 and 30 cm)

Figure II-9: Deck dimensions for partially prefabricated composite beams

For box girder beams, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:
• the slab’s width
• the slab’s depth (between 10 and 50 cm)
• the haunch’s depth (0 if no haunch, and between 0 and 30 cm)

Figure II-10: Deck dimensions for box girders

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For concrete filled box girder beams, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:
• the slab’s width
• the slab’s depth (between 10 and 50 cm)
• the spacing between the two profiles of a box girder (between 0 and 50 cm)
• the haunch’s depth (0 if no haunch, and between 0 and 30 cm)

Figure II-11: Deck dimensions for concrete filled box beams

For filler-beam decks, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:


• the slab’s width
• the depth of the concrete cover of profiles (between 7 and 15 cm)
• the thickness of the permanent formwork between profiles (between 0 and 15 cm).

The distance between beams centers should not be greater than 100 cm.
The dimensions of both overhangs are defined in a specific window (button “Overhangs” – cf.
II.3.5).

Figure II-12: Deck dimensions for filler-beam decks

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For simple partially prefabricated Precobeams, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:
• the slab’s width
• the slab’s depth (between 10 and 50 cm) , including precast panel and in-situ concrete
• the precast panel’s depth
• the height of the concrete web
• the height of steel web encased in concrete.

Figure II-13: Deck dimensions for simple partially prefabricated precobeams

For double partially prefabricated Precobeams, the dimensions of the slab to be defined are:
• the slab’s width
• the slab’s depth (between 10 and 50 cm) , including precast panel and in-situ concrete
• the precast panel’s depth
• the height of the haunches, if any
• the spacing between the two profiles of a girder
• the height of steel web encased in concrete
Note: .the width of the haunch at slab (or the inclination of haunch faces) is defined in the Options for
Precobeams – see II.5.3.

Figure II-14: Deck dimensions for double partially prefabricated precobeams

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Annex VI.4 gives a detailed description of Precobeam cross-sections. It also describes the specific
limitations that may restrain the values of parameters defined by the User.

In all cases, the minimum slab’s width is 4 m for railway bridges and road bridges and 1 m for footbridges.

Transverse distribution of beams:


The transverse distribution of beams can be defined by clicking on the command "Transverse
distribution …" which opens a new dialog box where the User can define:
• the number of beams in longitudinal direction (minimum: 2; maximum: 20, except in the case of
filler-beam decks where the maximum number of beam lines is 50).
• the distance from the centerline of the outer beams to the edge of the slab.
When the contents of this dialog box are validated, the beam lines are positioned with a constant center
distance. The position of each beam line appears in the table and can be modified by simply clicking on
the corresponding cell.
For partially prefabricated beams (i.e. partially prefabricated composite beam, simple or double
precobeam), the positioning of the beams is realized so that each beam has a centered prefabricated
slab.

Figure II-15: “Transverse distribution” module

Number of spans and span lengths:


The number of spans should be between 1 and 20.
For each span, the User has to define the span length (between 5 and 50 m).
For railways bridges, when a single span bridge is defined, it is possible to specify that this span
is part a bridge made of a succession of simply supported spans. This option influences the
automatic calculation of the deflection limit according to EN rules (see V.9.1.2).

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Overhangs
This module for defining overhangs can be accessed only for filler-beam decks, by clicking on the button
“Overhang” in the “Superstructure Parameters” input module.
The “Overhang” input module is used to define the geometry of overhangs (wings) and the way in which
they are concreted.

Figure II-16: Overhang button

Geometry of overhangs:
The first tab of this module is used to define the left-hand and right-hand overhangs of the deck
slab, using the following parameters:
• mean thickness of overhang
• width of overhang.

Figure II-17: Overhang geometry

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Concreting of overhangs:
The second tab of this module is used to define the parameters for concreting the overhangs.
These parameters affect the calculation of dead load (see IV.2.2.1).
A first parameter serves to choose one of the following two options for the concreting of
overhangs:
• the overhangs are concreted at the same time as the main body of the slab (default option),
• the overhangs are concreted only once the concrete of the main body of the slab has set.
The calculations assume that each overhang is concreted using formwork suspended from the
two outermost beams on each side and bearing against one of the intermediate beams. The
system thus forms a lever-arm effect that compensates the eccentricity of the overhangs.

Figure II-18: Overhang formwork

The input module is used to select the intermediate beam line against which the formwork for
each overhang will bear. It may be any beam line other than the first three ones on each side of
the bridge. By default it is considered to be the fourth beam line (see Figure II-18).
If two overhangs have been designed—one on each side of the slab—, a formwork system
where the eccentricity is taken by the formwork itself (no thrust bearing against one of the
intermediate beams) can be used (see Figure II-19). This option is deactivated by default.

Figure II-19: Formwork for two overhangs without intermediate bearing point

Concrete slab parameters


The module for defining the main parameters of the slab is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
Note: This module is available only from version V4.04 of ACOBRI.

Profiled steel sheeting:


Profiled steel sheeting can be defined for the following types of beams:
• conventional beams,
• box girders,

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• concrete-filled box girders.


Definition of steel sheeting is not compatible with the presence of a haunch. When haunches
have been defined, this option is no more available.
When the option "Profiled Steel Sheeting" is chosen, the label of sheeting in the database is to
be chosen from a drop-down list. The command "Display…" can be used to display a
dimensioned diagram of the sheeting section.
The profiled steel sheeting selected is the same throughout the bridge.

Precast concrete deck panel:


A precast concrete deck panel can be defined for the following types of beams:
• conventional beams,
• box girders,
• concrete-filled box girders.
Precast concrete deck panels cannot be defined if there are haunches. When haunches have
been defined, this option is no more available.
When the option "Precast concrete deck panel" is chosen, the User must enter the thickness of
the panel. The precast concrete deck panel is the same throughout the bridge.
The definition of a precast concrete deck panel in this module is different to that of the "Partially
prefabricated composite beams" for in this case the precast panel serving only as permanent
formwork laid on site. It does not contribute to the strength of the beam, neither in the
construction phase nor in the in-service phase: the associated depth of slab is thus excluded
from the composite action considered during the calculations. The concrete of the permanent
formwork is taken into account in the calculations only in terms of mass.
The maximum thickness of the precast deck panels is half the total thickness of the slab.

Propping:
For propping beams while the slab concrete is poured on site, either of the following two options
can be chosen:
• no propping (default option),
• beams are fully propped throughout their length.

Overhangs effect during pouring of concrete:


For conventional deck slabs (not filler-beam decks), if the bridge has more than two beam lines
it can be specified whether the calculation of dead load must take account of the effects of
eccentricity of slab overhangs (see IV.2.2.1). This option is activated by default.

Transverse bending:
The User can specify if the envelope transverse bending moments in the slab are to be assessed
and displayed in the pre-design report. When selected, this option slightly increases the
calculation time.

Connection
The module for defining the connexion between the slab and the girders is accessed by
clicking on this button on the tool bar
Note: This module is available only from version V4.04 of ACOBRI. It is not available for fillerbeams and for
Precobeams (see II.3.10).

Shear connectors:
Shear connectors (if any) are identical throughout the bridge. They are Nelson type studs which
can be selected from a drop-down list of all the shear studs available in the database of the
program (see "Shear stud database", II.2.2).

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Once a stud is selected, its main characteristics are displayed.


By default, only one type of connector is considered, but it is also possible to add a second type.
In this case, a factor is to be defined to indicate the ratio of each connector type in their
distribution along the bridge. All the calculations involving the properties of studs are based on
average values weighted by this ratio. See V.10.1 for details.
Requirements for the studs dimensions are:
• the diameter should be between 15 and 25 mm
• the height should be at least equal to half the depth of the slab and not greater than this
depth.

Connection:
For each span, the User has to define the distribution of connectors along the beams. For the
selected span, this definition should be done for:
• the left edge beam
• the right edge beam
• all the intermediate beams (if any), assuming that the distribution of connectors is
equivalent for all these intermediate beams.
The distribution of connectors on a beam is defined by the number of connection zones
(between 1 and 3) and for each zone by:
• the length of the connection zone with the following restrictions: the sum of the lengths
of the connections zones should of course be equal to the span length, which
automatically controlled by ACOBRI. The length of connection zone could be less than
1 m.
• the number of studs for each rows of connection
• the spacing between two adjacent rows of connection (not less than 80 mm).

Copy functions:

Reinforcement
The module for defining the reinforcement of the slab is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar
Note: This module is available only from version V4.04 of ACOBRI. For any file created with a previous version
of the software, ACOBRI automatically generates the appropriate parameters for reinforcement,
considering two layers, a diameter of 20 mm for the top layer and 16 mm for the bottom layer.

This module is used to define the reinforcement layers of the slab. Each layer is defined by the two
following parameters:
• the diameter of the reinforcement bars
• the spacing between 2 adjacent bars
By default, two layers are to be defined: the top and the bottom layers. For each one, the concrete
coverage has to be entered. For all types of beams, the concrete coverage of the top layer is always
defined as the spacing between the layer axis and the upper face of the slab. But for the bottom layer,
the definition of the concrete coverage depends on the type of beams, as follows:
• filler beams: spacing between the bottom layer axis and the upper face of the lost formworks;
• partially prefabricated beams: spacing between the bottom layer axis and the lower face of the
precast slab;
• normal beams with non-participating precast panels: spacing between the bottom layer axis
and the upper face of the precast panels;
• normal beams with profiled steel sheeting : spacing between the bottom layer axis and the upper
face of the sheeting ribs;
• other types: spacing between the bottom layer axis and the lower face of the slab (any
haunch being neglected).

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For partially prefabricated composite beams, the bottom layer should always be located in the
prefabricated concrete slab.
For all types of beams but filler beams, it is possible to add a third layer of reinforcement. The two main
assumptions of this optional layer are:
• it is located at an equal distance of both top and bottom layers;
• for the calculations, it is not directly considered, but its area is equally divided and added to both
top and bottom layers.

Conventional beam
Conventional beam
with non-participating precast panels

Partially prefabricated beam Filler beam

Figure II-20: Definition of concrete coverage for reinforcement layers

For integral bridges, the User can specify if bent bars are used at abutments. In this case, the ratio
between the mandrel diameter and the bar diameter is to be entered. The minimal and default value of
this parameter is 15.
These options are used for the check of reinforcement at fatigue limit state (see V.11.1.2).

Concrete slab
The module for defining the slab’s characteristics is accessed by clicking on this button
on the tool bar
Note: This module is available only for previous version of ACOBRI (until version V4.03) and under Expert
mode when the associated option has been activated (from version V4.04)

This module is used to define:


• the shear connectors,
• the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement,
• profiled steel sheeting,
• precast concrete deck panels (permanent formwork),

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• propping of the beams while the slab is cast.

Figure II-21: Concrete slab input module

Shear connectors:
Shear connectors (if any) are identical throughout the bridge. They are Nelson type studs which
can be selected from a drop-down list of all the shear studs available in the database of the
program (see "Shear stud database", II.2.2).
Once a stud is selected, its main characteristics are displayed.
Distribution of shear studs is determined automatically by the program according to Eurocode
rules, in order to estimate the total number of connectors to be installed.
For filler-beam decks, no studs are required.
For Precobeams (simple or double), the connexion is provided by the dowels. A button is then
proposed in this module to open the “Precobeam connection” window (cf. II.3.10).

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Reinforcement:
Only longitudinal reinforcement is taken into account in the calculations carried out by ACOBRI.
The reinforcement area is defined by the ratio of reinforcement. Except for filler-beam decks, it
is possible to define two layers of reinforcement by giving:
• the total ratio of longitudinal reinforcement defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area
of reinforcement to the cross-sectional area of the slab,
• the distribution of the reinforcement, in percentage terms, between the top layer (defaults
to 66,7%) and the bottom layer (defaults to 33,3%),
• the position of the top layer relative to the top of the slab (i.e. the coverage of concrete on
the top of the slab),
• the position of the bottom layer relative to the bottom of the slab (i.e. the coverage of
concrete on the bottom of the slab).
In the case of filler-beam decks, a single layer of reinforcement is defined by the following
parameters:
• the reinforcement ratio, defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of reinforcement to
the cross-sectional area of slab above the beams (concrete cover; the concrete between
the beams is not taken into account).
• the position of the reinforcement relative to the top of the slab (reinforcement’s coverage of
concrete).
The distribution of longitudinal reinforcement is assumed identical throughout the
bridge.

Profiled steel sheeting:


Profiled steel sheeting can be defined for the following types of beams:
• conventional beams,
• box girders,
• concrete-filled box girders.
Definition of steel sheeting is not compatible with the presence of a haunch. When haunches
have been defined, this option is no more available.
When the option "Profiled Steel Sheeting" is chosen, the label of sheeting in the database is to
be chosen from a drop-down list. The command "Display…" can be used to display a
dimensioned diagram of the sheeting section.
The profiled steel sheeting selected is the same throughout the bridge.

Precast concrete deck panel:


A precast concrete deck panel can be defined for the following types of beams:
• conventional beams,
• box girders,
• concrete-filled box girders.
Precast concrete deck panels cannot be defined if there are haunches. When haunches have
been defined, this option is no more available.
When the option "Precast concrete deck panel" is chosen, the User must enter the thickness of
the panel. The precast concrete deck panel is the same throughout the bridge.
The definition of a precast concrete deck panel in this module is different to that of the "Partially
prefabricated composite beams" for in this case the precast panel serving only as permanent
formwork laid on site. It does not contribute to the strength of the beam, neither in the
construction phase nor in the in-service phase: the associated depth of slab is thus excluded
from the composite action considered during the calculations. The concrete of the permanent
formwork is taken into account in the calculations only in terms of mass.
The maximum thickness of the precast deck panels is half the total thickness of the slab.

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Propping:
For propping beams while the slab concrete is poured on site, either of the following two options
can be chosen:
• no propping (default option),
• beams are fully propped throughout their length.

Overhangs effect during pouring of concrete:


For conventional deck slabs (not filler-beam decks), if the bridge has more than two beam lines
it can be specified whether the calculation of dead load must take account of the effects of
eccentricity of slab overhangs (see IV.2.2.1). This option is activated by default.

Precobeam connection
This module is available only for bridges using Precobeams, by clicking on the button “Dowel
parameters” in the module for the slab definition.

Figure II-22: Button to access the Precobeam connection module

This module is used to define the specific parameters of the Precobeams connection.

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Figure II-23: Precobeam connection module

Dowels dimensions
The dimensions of dowels used in calculations are displayed. They cannot be modified in
Normal mode. See Annex VI.4.1

Transverse reinforcement
The shear forces between the steel member and the slab are transmitted through the cutting of
the profile and through the specific transverse reinforcement located at the cutting shapes.
The User has to define the following areas of transverse reinforcement, associated to one
spacing between two axis of the cutting:
• the area of the transverse reinforcement located between the waves of the cutting
(parameter Ab)
• the area of the transverse reinforcement located above the waves of the cutting (parameter
At)

Figure II-24: PrecoBeams connection

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Area At is used only when the confinement reinforcement is not sufficient. In standard configurations
of Precobeams bridges considered in ACOBRI, the confinement reinforcement is always assumed to
be correctly designed so that At is not used in the calculations. Calculation sheet gives indications for
the design of Precobeams reinforcement.
See Limitation C6 in Annex VI.4.

Detail category and cutting class


The detail category of the dowels for the fatigue design has to be chosen between 125 MPa and
140 MPa (see V.11.1.2). These detail categories are associated to cutting classes of the profile:
Class 3 for 125 MPa and Class 4 for 140 MPa.

Materials
The module for defining material properties is accessed by clicking on this button on the
tool bar

Structural steel for girders:


The structural steel is defined either as a steel grade chosen from a list or as a directly entered
yield strength. When a steel grade is chosen, the yield strength is calculated from the thickness.
This calculation is done with the maximum web or flange thickness of all the beams in the bridge.
Steel characteristics are the same for all the beams, for the entire length of the bridge.
The steel grades that can be chosen are:
• S235
• S275
• S355
• S355 HISTAR
• S460
• S460 HISTAR.
All sections in the ArcelorMittal catalogue can be supplied in the first three grades (S235, S275,
and S355). On the other hand, only certain sections are available in grades S460, S355
HISTAR, and S460 HISTAR.
By default, grade S460 steel is chosen for road bridges and grade S355 steel for footbridges
and railway bridges.

Steel for the strengthening plates:


The grade for the steel of the strengthening plates has to be chosen exclusively among the
following ones:
• S235
• S275
• S355 (default option)
• S460
The grade for the strengthening plates should be lower or equal to the grade of the girders steel.
The yield strength for the steel of the strengthening plates is calculated according to the grade
as a function of their maximal thickness.

Reinforcing steel:
The reinforcing steel is defined by its yield strength.
By default the yield strength of reinforcing steel is 500 MPa.

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Slab concrete:
The concrete of the slab is defined by the following characteristics:

• The compressive strength of the concrete, defined either by a class or by inputting its value
directly. By default a class C35/45 of concrete is used.
• Lightweight concrete may be chosen instead of normal-weight concrete. Normal-weight
concrete is the default type.
• The density of the concrete. The concrete density is 2500 kg/m3 by default.
• The deformation of the concrete due to drying shrinkage (see shrinkage load case in
IV.2.2.4); default value 200x10-6 generally but 600x10-6 for Precobeams.
• The thermal differential between the slab and the beams (see Thermal load cases in
IV.2.2.5); default value 10°C.
• The characteristic values for calculation of creep (see IV.1.3) can be entered by clicking on
the appropriate button in the "Materials" menu.

Figure II-25: Definition of parameters of the creep

Connection at supports
The “Connection input” module is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool bar
By default, the main beams of the bridge are assumed to be simply supported, with perfect continuity
over intermediate supports. The figure below shows the default static layout of a multispan bridge beam.

Figure II-26: Simply supported continuous beam

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Nevertheless, this assumption can be modified by the User. Through this module, it is possible to define:
• a continuity of the beams obtained by connections at intermediate supports (reinforced concrete
crossbeams);
• flexural stiffnesses at each intermediate supports between the continuous beam and the pier,
which may be provided by the partial restraint of the concrete crossbeam at the pier;
• flexural stiffnesses at each abutment;
• integral abutments, when the bridge comprises only one symmetrical single span.

Note: Concrete crossbeams are not available for filler beam decks.

Concrete crossbeams at intermediate supports:


For each intermediate piers individually, the User can define the presence of a concrete
crossbeam (see Figure II-27). In this case, some properties of these crossbeams are defined in
the next input module (see II.3.13).

Figure II-27: Schematic illustration of reinforced concrete crossbeam

Flexural rigidities at intermediate supports:


For each intermediate support, it is possible to define a flexural rigidity between the continuous
beam and the support, either with or without concrete crossbeams. The flexural stiffness defined
by the User is the stiffness for one main girder. The global stiffness for the liaison of the bridge
to the pier is thus obtained by multiplying by the number of girders.
No flexural stiffness can be defined for filler-beam decks.

Figure II-28: Definition of flexural stiffesses at supports

Note: these rigidities concern the supports and not the continuity of the beams.

Flexural rigidities at abutments:

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When abutments are not defined as integral abutments, it is possible to directly specify a flexural
rigidity of the connection of beams to the abutment. In this latter case, the flexural stiffness
defined by the User is the stiffness of the connection for one main girder. The global stiffness of
the connection to the abutment is thus obtained by multiplying by the number of girders.
When a flexural rigidity is thus defined for one abutment, the associated cross-section is treated
by ACOBRI as a cross-section upon intermediate support with concrete crossbeam.

Integral abutments:
For a single span symmetrical bridge, it is possible to specify integral abutments when the
following requirements are fulfilled:
• road bridge or footbridge;
• no filler beam decks.
When the option “integral abutment” is selected, the User should define all parameters in the
associated window (cf. II.3.13). ACOBRI then displays the global flexural stiffnesses, for the
symmetrical and anti-symmetrical configurations.
The User has also to define the concrete’s pouring sequence, between the two following options:
• either the slab and edges are poured together (option A)
• or the edges of the bridges are poured before the slab (option B)
Integral abutments require deep foundations (foundation piles).

Properties of concrete crossbeams


The “Concrete crossbeams” module is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool bar
When concrete crossbeams have been defined (see II.3.12), some properties of these crossbeams are
defined in this module:
• continuity of the beams for the pouring of concrete;
• definition of a mechanical continuity device between the top flanges.

Continuity of beams at intermediate supports with concrete crossbeams:


If the solution of concrete crossbeams at intermediate supports is adopted, the User has to
specify the conditions of continuity of the girders at these intermediate supports before the
concreting of the slab. It should be first mentioned that the beams are always assumed to be
continuous after the concreting.
The four available options of continuity are the followings ones:
• No continuity of the beams. It generally means that the concrete of crossbeams and of the
slab is poured at the same time. For this option, the calculation of the self-weight load case
is done considering the conditions indicated by Table II-2.

LOAD DEFORMATION
CONTINUITY
CASE SHAPE

Dead load Discontinuity of beams


of steel beams at supports with concrete
and concrete crossbeams

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No composite action for this load case

Table II-2: Dead load cases for crossbeams cast together with the slab

• Full continuity of the beams. It generally means that the concrete of crossbeams is poured
before the concrete of the slab, as well as a short part of the slab close to the supports;
• Partial continuity of the beams, obtained through a continuity device which links both top
flanges on both sides of the concrete crossbeams. This option is not available for
Precobeams.
• Partial continuity of the beams, obtained through a continuity device which links both top
flanges on both sides of the concrete crossbeams and through the continuity of the
reinforcement of the precast slab. This option is available only for Precobeams and partially
prefabricated beams.

When one of this three last options is chosen (either full or partial continuity), the flexural
stiffness of continuity connection is taken into account in the calculations for the casting phase.
Two dead loads are considered for the global dead loads of the bridge (see Table II-3):
1. the self-weight of the steel beams alone, for which there is no continuity at the supports
(simple supports) and
2. the self-weight of the concrete slab during the casting phase, for which continuity at
supports is taken into account.

LOAD DEFORMATION
CONTINUITY
CASE SHAPE

Dead load Discontinuity of beams


of steel beams at supports
Dead load Continuity of beams
of concrete at supports
No composite action for both these load cases

Table II-3: Dead load cases for crossbeams cast before the slab

Additionally the User has to enter the area of the continuity device which links the top flanges of
the girders at each side of the crossbeam. The area to be entered concerns the device at each
line of girder and each support. If no continuity device is to be considered, the User should enter
0.

It should finally be noted that the option of continuity has an effect only if the girders are not
propped during construction. On the contrary, if the beams are fully propped before and during
the concreting (see II.3.6), a single dead loading is considered, with the self-weight of the steel
beams and concrete slab. For this loading, there is full continuity of beams at supports with
concrete crossbeams and the composite effect is obtained (see Table II-4).

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LOAD DEFORMATION
CONTINUITY
CASE SHAPE

Dead load
Continuity of beams
of steel beams
at supports
and concrete
Composite effect

Table II-4: Dead load cases for fully propped beams

Mechanical continuity device between top flanges:


For cross-sections at intermediate piers with concrete crossbeams, it is possible to define the
presence of a mechanical continuity device between the top flanges (see Figure II-29). In this
case, following parameters have to be entered:
• the area of the continuity device (defined for one girder at one crossbeam and used for
every cross-sections at concrete crossbeams);
• the type of steel used for the continuity device, either plate steel or rebar steel;
• for plate steel, either the grade or a custom value for the yield strength;
• for rebar steel, the yield strength.
Chapter V.9.9 gives the rules for the checking of continuity device under SLS combinations.
Chapter V.3.3 gives the methods used to obtained the ultimate resistance of cross-sections at
intermediate piers with concrete cross-beams of ULS checking.

Figure II-29: Exemple of a mechanical continuity device between top flanges


realized with rebars

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Integral abutments
The module to define integral abutments is accessed by clicking the button “definition of integral
abutment” in the module “Connections at supports” (cf. II.3.12).
Two tabs should be completed in this module. It is to be noted that integral bridges in ACOBRI are
assumed to be symmetrical so that each parameter concerns both abutments.
To help the User to enter the correct values (equivalent horizontal spring stiffness of the soil and earth
pressure during summer), it is possible to use TEQUILA software, developed by RWTH and included in
ACOBRI set up package. A button is thus available to get access to TEQUILA.

Parameters defined in ACOBRI are sent in TEQUILA.


But results obtained in TEQUILA are not copied back in ACOBRI.

As two parameters are to be defined either for weak soil or for strong soil conditions (equivalent
horizontal spring stiffness of the soil and earth pressure resultant during summer), the User should
specify which one of the soil conditions will be considered during the calculations. It is important to note
that both calculations (one for each condition) might be required.

Definition of an abutment:
Following parameters are to be defined by User:

SYSTEM
lu Unsupported length; lu = la + unsupported pile length, so: lu ≥ la
khp Equivalent horizontal spring stiffness, pile foundation (one parameter for weak soil
conditions and one for strong soil condition)
ABUTMENT
la Height of abutment (it is assumed in ACOBRI that laC = la so that laC will not be entered
by the User)
wa Width of the abutment
Ea Young’s modulus of abutment (concrete)
Ia Second moment of area of the abutment
PILES
Ep Young’s modulus of the (steel) of piles
n Number of piles
Ip Second moment of area of a single pile of the foundation

Table II-5: Parameters for the definition of integral abutments

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Specific loads:
Specific load cases are considered for the analysis of a bridge with integral abutments, to take
account of the effects of the soil on the superstructure. The following parameters are used for
the calculation of these load cases:
SUPERSTRUCTURE
αT Coefficient of thermal expansion (default value 12 10-6). Not modifiable but in “Expert
mode”.
fdistr Factor for distribution of expansion to one abutment, by default 0,50 (*)
SPECIFIC LOADS
∆TSum Maximum variation of temperature during summer
∆TWin Maximum variation of temperature during winter
K0 Earth pressure coefficient, at rest
Ka Active earth pressure coefficient
Kp Passive earth pressure coefficient
K0,q Earth pressure coefficient for live loads
γsoil Specific weight of soil (Unit F/L3)
SSum Earth pressure resultant during summer (one parameter for weak soil conditions and
one for strong soil condition)
PARTIAL FACTORS
γs Partial factor for soil loadings

Table II-6: Parameters for the definition of specific load cases for integral bridges

Support beams
The “Support beams” module is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool bar.
For each support of the bridge, either abutment or intermediate support, it is possible to specify that all
the steel girders are supported by a transverse concrete cross beam, which is itself supported on the
final abutment or pile on two supports.
Once a support is selected, the User can specify if a concrete transverse beam is located between the
steel girders and the final support. If this option is activated, the User has to define the location of the
two supports the concrete transverse beam. These two locations are accounted from the left side of the
slab.
If transverse concrete support beams have been defined, the preliminary design report will give the
following results, for each load case and under ULS combinations:
• vertical reaction at each support
• bending moment of the transverse beam at each of its supports,
• bending moment of the transverse beam at each cross-section at steel girder axis

Haunches at supports
The “Haunches at support” module is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool bar.
It is used to define the potential haunches at abutments and/or intermediate support. This module is
available only for conventional composite beam and partially prefabricated beams (see II.3.4).

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For each span, the User can specify the presence of haunches at one of the supports or at both of them.
This definition applies to all the girders of the span. Finally, for each span, four configurations are
possible:
• straight beam (no haunch)
• haunch at the left end only
• haunch at the right end only
• haunches at both ends
Haunches can be defined at abutments as well as at intermediate supports.

Figure II-30: Possible configurations of hanches at supports

The dimensions of the haunches at calculated from the dimensions of the basic profile and can’t be
modified by the User. The formulas for these dimensions are:
• haunch height = 1.4 x basic profile at support
• haunch length = 4 x basic profile at support
For any other dimensions, the User has to contact the ACOBRI support.
See IV.4.6.3 for the characteristic of the main beam with haunches in the finite element modelisation.
See VI.5.1 for technical details.

Curved precobeams
The “Curved precobeams” module is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool bar.
It is available only for Precobeams.

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For each span, the User can specify the presence of curved precobeams. This definition applies to all
the girders of the span. When curved beams are selected, the curvature of the beams is defined as
follows, according to the type of precobeams.
Additional information is given in Annex VI.5.2.

Simple precobeams:
hcw,m: Height of the concrete web at mid-span
hin,m: Height of steel chord encased in concrete web, at mid-span (dowels not accounted in
the distance).
hcw,s: Height of the concrete web at support
hin,s: Height of steel chord encased in concrete web, at support (dowels not accounted in the
distance).
These parameters should always satisfy to the following conditions:
hcw,m ≤ hcw,s
hin,m ≥ hin,s
If the two following conditions are satisfied, no curved beam is defined:
hin,s = hin,m
hcw,s = hcw,m
The variations of height are defined by:
• variation of the height of the concrete web: ∆hcw = hcw,s − hcw,m
• variation if the total height of the cross-section: ∆hf = hcw,s − hcw,m + hin,m − hin,s
It is assumed in ACOBRI that these variations are small when compared to the span length.
Following limits should be respected for the definition of curved simple precobeams, where L is
the span length:
• ∆hcw < 0,1 L
• ∆hf < 0,1 L

Figure II-31: Definition of curved simple precobeams

Double precobeams:
hhc,m: Height of the concrete haunch at mid-span
hhc,s: Height of the concrete haunch at support
These parameters should always satisfy to the following condition:
hhc,m ≤ hhc,s
If the following condition is satisfied, no curved beam is defined:

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hhc,m = hhc,s
The variations of height are defined by:
• variation of the height of the concrete haunch: ∆hhw = hhw,s − hhw,m
It is assumed in ACOBRI that these variations are small when compared to the span length.
Following limits should be respected for the definition of curved simple precobeams, where L is
the span length:
• ∆hhc < 0,1 L

Figure II-32: Definition of curved double precobeams

Figure II-33: Width of the concrete haunch along the curved beam

For all cross-sections along the span, the width of the lower face of the concrete haunch is constant and
given by (same relation as for straight beams):
l f = d sd + bf
where dsd is the spacing between steel chords (see Technical Manual for Precobeams) and bf is the
width of the flange.
For curved Precobeams, it is assumed that the width of haunch foot is also constant along the width
and given by:
l h = l f + ∆l hc
where ∆lhc is the additional width of the haunch at its base, to be defined by the User when curved
beams are specified (see “Precobeam options” in II.5.3 for the definition of this parameter).

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Diaphragms and changes in cross-section


The “Diaphragm and changes in cross-section” module is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
It is used to define the positions of changes in cross-section and the positions of diaphragms.

Figure II-34: Input of diaphragms and changes in cross-section of the bridge

To define or modify a diaphragm or a change in cross-section, the User should select first the span
concerned from the drop-down list or with the navigation buttons in the top left corner. The length of the
span selected is shown to the right of the drop-down list.
Note: This module cannot be accessed for filler-beam decks, because their rolled steel section is assumed to
be the same throughout the bridge. There are neither diaphragms nor flange-strengthening plates for
filler-beam bridges.

Changes in cross-section:
Cross-sections can be changed at any intermediate support. Up to two additional changes can
be defined for each span.
A change in cross-section can be defined at a distance between L/10 and 4 L/10 from the
nearest support, where L is the span length. These limits are indicated by the program. The
position of a cross-section change is defined for all beam lines: it therefore applies to the entire
superstructure section.

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A change in cross-section can mean there is a different structural steel section on each side,
but also that the same structural steel section is retained but has a strengthening plate beneath
the bottom flange on one side.
A change in cross-section is defined by its position from the left-hand support of the span
concerned.

Notes:
• For a given beam line, the clear web depth must be constant. The clear web depth is the distance
between the inside faces of the flanges. When the User defines the steel sections for a calculation, he
must ensure this condition is met.
• All intermediate supports are considered as points of cross-section change for the analysis.
• For filler-beam decks, all beam lines use the same rolled steel section, irrespective of the type of
calculation, and no strengthening plates can be added to the lower flange.

Figure II-35: Definition of the clear web depth

Diaphragms:
The position of intermediate diaphragms can be defined. In the superstructure model, this
means that there are elements added connecting the main beams to each other, with a degree
of restraint.
A button in the "Position of diaphragms" frame is used to add a diaphragm. The list of
diaphragms is displayed in a table showing their position relative to the left-hand support of the
span concerned. A second button serves to delete the last diaphragm from the list.
Up to 8 intermediate diaphragms can be defined for each span.
It is also possible to specify that each diaphragm of the bridge will act as a lateral restraint
against the lateral torsional buckling of the girders. This option applies for all the diaphragm of
the bridge, whatever the span.

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Figure II-36: Intermediate diaphragms

Gerber bridges
ACOBRI can deal with Gerber bridges. Gerber bridges are obtained by an isostatic span supported by
two adjacent cantilever spans.

Figure II-37: Principle of Gerber bridges

The “Gerber bridge” module can opened through the “Gerber bridge” button proposed in the
“Diaphragms and changes in cross-section” window.
A Gerber isostatic span is defined only by the location of its two ends about the bridge supports. So, it
is possible to define for each intermediate span of a bridge a Gerber isostatic span by defining these
two positions, provided that the following conditions are fulfilled:
• the adjacent left span doesn’t contain a Gerber span,
• the adjacent right span doesn’t contain a Gerber span,
• no Gerber span in an end span of the bridge.
Once a Gerber span is introduced, it will be taken into account in calculations by introducing hinges in
the grillage model at the two locations of the Gerber span’s ends.

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Structural steel section


The module for defining structural steel sections is accessed by clicking on this button on
the tool bar.
This module is used to define or modify the section of each segment of main beams. By default; no
section are proposed and it is necessary to define structural steel sections.

Figure II-38: Module for defining structural steel sections

In what follows, "segment" refers to the segment of a beam line between two changes in cross-section.
The input module is used to define the sections of all segments of a given span. Beforehand, therefore,
the span concerned should be selected from the drop-down list or using the navigation buttons to the
next or previous spans. The length of the span selected is displayed.
Defining the section of a segment consists in selecting the rolled steel I beam from the ArcelorMittal
catalogue and, if necessary, adding a strengthening plate beneath the bottom flange. The strengthening
plate is placed along the full length of the segment.
The module displays a schematic representation of the selected span, showing the beam lines and
cross-section changes. For each segment, a command button opens a new dialog box for selecting the
rolled steel section and for defining a strengthening plate. The segments selected are shown in red.
If required, a button applies the last section defined to the entire span, and another applies it to the entire
bridge.

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It should be noted that for a given superstructure cross-section:


• the edge beams have the same section (same rolled steel section, same strengthening plate),
• the intermediate beams have the same section (same rolled steel section, same strengthening
plate), which may differ from that of the edge beams.
For filler-beam decks the rolled steel section selected is applied to the entire superstructure. Flange-
strengthening plates cannot be defined.

Definition of structural steel section:


The dialog box "Definition of structural steel section" comprises two lists:
• a list of beam types (IPE, HE, etc.),
• a list of the sections in the beam type selected. The steel sections readily available are
shown in black and those available only on order are in red. All sections are available in
steel grades S235, S275 and S355. The sections available in steel grades S355 HISTAR,
S460, and S460 HISTAR are identified by the abbreviation HI.

Figure II-39: Module for selecting a hot rolled profile and its strengthening plate

The rolled steel section is shown to the right of the list, with dimensions in millimetres. The bottom frame
in the window summarizes the information on the steel section selected.
There is a check box for creating a strengthening plate underneath the bottom flange. When it is
activated, the width and thickness of the strengthening plate must be entered.
A section can be chosen rapidly by double clicking on the appropriate rolled steel section either in the
general frame of the ArcelorMittal catalogue or in the frame of sections already selected.

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Note: The steel of the strengthening plate is defined separately from the steel grade of the profile – see II.3.11.

Specific limitations are applied to Precobeams and may restrain the available profiles. See Annex VI.4.

Footways and vehicle restraint systems


The module for defining footways and vehicle restraint systems is accessed by clicking
on this button on the tool bar. It is available only for road bridges.
Footways:
Each footway (left and right) is defined by its width and overhang.

Width

Overhang

Figure II-40: Footway geometry

The width of a footway must be between zero and half the width of the deck slab. In addition,
the definition of both footways must leave at least one traffic lane. The default footway width is
1 m.
The overhang of a footway must be between -1 m and +1 m. A positive value means the footway
extends beyond the edge of the slab. A positive value must be less than half the width of the
footway. The default overhang is 0.

Vehicle restraint systems:


The presence of a vehicle restraint system must be confirmed for each side of the deck slab.
Once confirmed, its position is defined by the distance between the edge of the deck slab and
the inside face of the system.

Distance
to edge
of slab

Figure II-41: Geometry of vehicle restraint system

Bridge class:
For the Eurocode EN, the bridge class can be modified by the User. The default value is 1.

Railway tracks
The module for defining railway tracks is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool
bar. It is available only for railway bridges
This module is used to enter the following data specific to railway bridges:
• the number of tracks on the bridge (maximum number: 4);
• the position of the track centerline relative to the left-hand edge of the deck slab. The center
distance between two adjacent tracks must be greater than 3,50 m;

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• the characteristics of the ballast (mean thickness, position). As a simplification, the ballast
thickness is considered to be constant over the width defined;
• the uncertainty over the position of the tracks;
• the rails and sleepers.

The uncertainty over the position of tracks can be specified. Each load model for railway bridges (LM71,
SW0 and SW2) is positioned transversally in the most unfavourable manner, based on this uncertainty
and the position of the track centreline. The transverse positioning also takes account of the eccentricity
of loading, in addition to the uncertainty over the position of the tracks (IV.2.7.1 and IV.2.7.2).
The load applied by each track (rails and sleepers) is a permanent line load that is taken into account in
the superimposed dead load.
It should be noted that:
• the number of tracks is limited by the width of the deck. The minimum deck width for one track
is 3,50 m,
• the minimum center distance between two adjacent tracks is 3,50 m,
• the distance between the centerline of any track and any edge of the ballast must be greater
than 1,10 m.

Figure II-42: Railway tracks input module

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Maintenance walkways
The module for defining maintenance walkways is accessed by clicking on this button on
the tool bar. It is available only for railway bridges.

Figure II-43: Maintenance walkways input module

Walkway geometry:
On a railway bridge, a maintenance walkway can be defined on each side of the deck slab. A
maintenance walkway is defined by its width and overhang beyond the edge of the slab. If there
is no walkway, the walkway width is entered as zero.

Width

Overhang

Figure II-44: Walkway geometry

The width of a maintenance walkway must be between 0 and half the width of the deck slab. By
default there is no maintenance walkway (width: 0).
The overhang of a walkway must be between -1 m and +1 m. A positive value means the
walkway extends beyond the edge of the slab. A positive value must be less than half the width
of the walkway. The default overhang is 0.

Distributed load on maintenance walkways:


The live load on a maintenance walkway is exactly the same as that on a footway.
The distributed live load on maintenance walkways can be modified. It is identical for both
walkways and is applied over the entire length of the bridge.
In accordance with EN1991-2:2003 5.3.2.1, the default value for this load is 5 kN/m2.

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Superimposed dead loads


The module for defining superimposed dead loads is accessed by clicking on this button
on the tool bar.

The superimposed dead loads of deck surfacing or ballast, footways and maintenance walkways…
(SDL1) and the superimposed dead loads of deck furniture (SDL2) are filled in separately using the
appropriate tabs in the input module.

SDL1:
The User can enter the thickness and density of the materials used. Default values are given.
The elements to be defined are described hereunder.
For road bridges:
• waterproofing,
• road surfacing,
• footways (whose width - as given in the module for defining loads on footways - appears
automatically).

For footbridges:
• waterproofing,
• surfacing.

For railway bridges:


• waterproofing,
• ballast,
• maintenance walkways.

SDL2:
Permanent loads of deck furniture are defined by their position relative to the left-hand and right-
hand edges of the deck slab and by their magnitude per unit length. They are applied to the
entire length of the bridge. By default no such load is defined.
The deck furniture that can be defined is:
• pedestrian parapets,
• vehicle restraint systems (for road bridges and footbridges only),
• noise barriers (for railway bridges only),
• cornices,
• drains,
• utilities,
• other.

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Figure II-45: Module for defining superimposed dead loads for a road bridge

Length of cracked regions


The module for defining the length of cracked regions is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
This module is used to define the length of the cracked region of the deck slab on each side of
intermediate support lines, expressed as a percentage of the length of the span concerned.

Figure II-46: Lengths of cracked regions

The support region of an intermediate support is defined by default as a region whose length
corresponds to 15% of the length of the span on each side of the support line. In accordance with
Eurocode, the length of the cracked region can be modified when the ratio of the length of adjacent
spans is less than 0,6.
The length of support regions can be modified. If the condition of validity of the modification is not met
(ratio of lengths of adjacent spans greater than 0,6), a warning message is displayed but the modification
is taken into account all the same.

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Live loads on footways


The module for defining live loads on footways is accessed by clicking on this button on
the tool bar. It is available only for road bridges.

Figure II-47: Definition of live loads on footways

Loaded area:
The area of application of live loads on footways must be defined for each footway (left and
right), specifying the width and position of the area relative to the edge of the deck slab. By
default the loaded area of a footway covers the full width of the footway.

Live load:
The distributed live load on footways can be specified (by default 5 kN/m2, according to EN1991-
2:2003 5.3.2.1). The load is identical for both footways and applies to the full length of the bridge.

Combination factor:
The live loads on footways are combined with LM1 load models, in the frame of the load group
gr1a (see IV.3.1.2). Only a fraction of live loads on footways are considered in this load group
gr1a, and the default value for this fraction is 0.6. This value can be modified in this module.

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Truck load models


The module for defining truck load models is accessed by clicking on this button on the
tool bar. It is available only for road bridges.

Fatigue load model:


The number of trucks travelling in the slow lane(s) per year, with a default value of 106, has to
be defined, either directly by the User or by selecting a traffic category corresponding to a value
in Table 4.5 of EN1991-2:2003.
The mean weight of a truck travelling in the slow lane, has also to be entered by the User, which
defaults to 600 kN.
Finally, the User can specify the service life of the bridge (default value is 100 years).
Note: The number of trucks and the mean weight are required for the calculation of fatigue factor λ2. The
service life is used in calculations for fatigue factor λ3. See V.11.6.1 for the details of calculation.
For the check of reinforcement fatigue, the ratio of lorries on the slow lane is required (see
calculation of the equivalent damage factor in V.11.7.1).

Figure II-48: Definition of fatigue load models for road bridges

Abnormal loads:
The User can impose the circulation of an abnormal load on the bridge. In this case, a specific
live load will be added in the load cases during calculations (see IV.2.1 and IV.2.4.4). When the
abnormal load option has been activated (by default it is not), the User should specify:
• the special vehicle or load pattern, to be chosen among those defined in the abnormal loads
database (weight and width of the vehicle is then displayed – the width must be consistent
with the geometry of the bridge: the load model must fit entirely between footways and more
than 50 cm from the internal faces of the restraint systems);
• the specific dynamic coefficient to be applied to this load case (default value 1);

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• the User can also specify if the load model LM1 of Eurocode should be applied
simultaneously with the specific load model. In this case, the minimum spacing between the
specific load and the LM1 loads is 25 m (modifiable in expert mode only) (see Figure IV-9).
The User can define the combination coefficient to be considered for the superimposition of
LM1 loads to the abnormal loads (see definition of load group 5 in IV.3.1.2);
• lastly, the User can choose to add the footway loads with the combinations including
abnormal loads (see definition of load group 5 in IV.3.1.2).

Figure II-49: Definition of abnormal loads

Definition of the slow lanes


The module for defining the location of slow lanes is accessed by clicking on this button
on the tool bar. It is available only for road bridges.

Traffic directions:
The User can choose the type of circulation on the deck of the bridge among the three following
options: two directions (by default), one direction on LHS and one direction on RHS. The traffic
is assumed to flow according to the continent way.
A slow lane is associated to each direction of traffic. The LM3 fatigue load model runs on each
of the slow lanes that are defined by the traffic directions.

Location of slow lanes:


For each traffic direction, it is possible to define the location of the slow lane:
• either the location is automatically assessed by ACOBRI, as close as possible to the
footway or the restraint systems
• or the location of the medium axis of the slow lane is directly entered by the User, from
the left side of the slab.

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Two traffic directions One LHS direction One RHS direction


= = =
Two slow lanes One LHS slow lane One RHS slow lane

Figure II-50: Definition of the traffic directions

Distance between abutments and expansion joints:


By default, the expansion joints are assumed to be located directly above the abutment line.
Nevertheless, a gap can be introduced by the User. This value is used for the calculation of the
dynamic amplification factor under Fatigue Limit States (see V.11.7).

Note: Each road bridge contains at least one slow lane.

Loads on footbridges
The module for defining loads on footbridges is accessed by clicking on this button on
the tool bar. It is available only for footbridges.

Vehicle on bridge by error:


This frame serves to specify if accidental loading of the bridge due to the presence of a vehicle
on the deck is to be taken into account. The associated loading is defined in Eurocode EN 1991-
2:2003 5.6.3.

Service vehicle:
The User can choose to have a particular vehicle running on a footbridge. The vehicle is chosen
among the load models defined in the special file “Abnormal loads” database (cf. II.2.4).
By default there is no service vehicle on the footbridge.
The width and weight of the vehicle selected are displayed. Its width must be consistent with
the geometry of the bridge, i.e. less than the width of the deck slab minus 40 cm.

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Uniform loading:
The uniform live load considered for the bridge can be calculated according to one of the two
following options, to be chosen by the User:
• either according to Equation (5.1) of Eurocode EN 1991-2:2003, where the load is a
function of the loaded length (default option);
• or the load is constant (and thus doesn’t depend of the loaded length) and is defined by the
User (default value 5 kN/m2).

Figure II-51: Definition of footbridges loads

Train load models


The module for defining train load models is accessed by clicking on this button on the
tool bar. It is available only for railway bridges.

Dynamic factor Φ:
The frame “Dynamic factor” is used to determine the method for calculating the dynamic factor
Φ. This latter may be:
• either determined directly by the program, in accordance with the type of track maintenance
(careful or standard).
• or entered by the User.
By default, the program calculates factor Φ for careful track maintenance.
It should be remembered that for speeds in excess of 220 km/h, the dynamic factor must be
calculated on the basis of a dynamic study of the bridge and thus imposed by the User.

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Figure II-52: Definition of train load models

Coefficient for speed α:


This frame serves to specify the value of factor α, which defaults to 1,00 for normal lines and
1,33 for International freight lines. This factor is defined for:
• Load Models LM71 for ULS and SLS combinations
• SW0 loads (ULS combinations only).

Fatigue load models:


This frame is used to define the parameters of fatigue load models (see V.11.6.2):
• traffic mix, type “standard traffic” (EC MIX) or “traffic with 250 kN axles” (25 T MIX);
• traffic volume, in millions of tonnes per year per track;
• service life of the bridge;
• percentage of trains passing simultaneously.

Heavy rail traffic:


It is possible to specify if the heavy traffic load models SW0 and SW2 are to be considered in
the calculations.

Support height adjustment and settlement


The module for defining support height adjustments and settlements is accessed by
clicking on this button on the tool bar.
ACOBRI can take account of support height adjustment and settlement. In each case, the User has to
enter a value for each support line. The User can define two different load cases for settlements.

Note: Height adjustment or settlement is defined as positive downwards.


The definition of settlements load cases increases significantly the number of load combinations and
thus the calculation time.

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II.4 DEFINITION OF FACTORS

All the modules for the definition of factors could be accessed by the menu “Options /
factors” or directly by this button of the toolbar.

Weighting factors for superimposed dead loads


The “weighting factors” window is used to modify the factors for increased or reduced superimposed
dead loads SDL1 (see IV.2.2.2). The values of the active National Annex are proposed by default.

Figure II-53: Definition increased and reduced SDL1 factors

Adjustment factors for road bridges


The adjustment factors αQi (TS partial system of LM1 load model) and αqi and αqr (both for UDL partial
system) can be modified in the window “Adjustment factors”, by clicking on the associated cell (see
IV.2.4.2 for LM1 load models). The values of the active National Annex are proposed by default.
These adjustment factors can be defined for three separate classes of bridges. The adjustement factors
considered during calculations are those corresponding to the class of bridge defined by the User in the
module “Footways and vehicle restraint systems” (cf. II.3.21).

Figure II-54: Definition adjustment factors

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Partial factors for loads - Combination factors


The partial factors γ used for the ULS combinations of loads and the combination factors ψ0, ψ1, ψ2 and
ψ’1 can be modified in the “Combination factors” window. The values of the active National Annexes are
proposed by default.
The factors available, depending on the type of bridge, are:

Bridge type Partial factors for loads γ Combination factors ψ


o Permanent loads o Loads of group 1a, UDL type (2)
o Traffic loads o Loads of group 1a, TS type
o Other variable loads (1) o Loads of group 5
Road bridge
o Support height adjustment o Temperature loads
o Support settlement
o Shrinkage
o Permanent loads o Loads of group 1a
o Traffic loads o Loads of group 2
o Other variable loads (1) o Temperature loads
Footbridge
o Support height adjustment
o Support settlement
o Shrinkage
o Permanent loads o Loads of groups 11 to 17
o Traffic loads LM71 and SW0 o Loads of groups 21 to 27
o Traffic load SW2 o Loads of group 31
Railway bridge o Other variable loads (3) o Temperature loads
o Support height adjustment o Maintenance walkways loads
o Support settlement
o Shrinkage
(1) Other variable loads are temperature loads
(2) Including live loads on footways
(3) Other variable loads are temperature loads and maintenance walkways loads

Table II-7: Partial factors and combination factors

Figure II-55: Definition of combinations factors

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Factors for Serviceability Limit States


All factors required for the checking of SLS criteria can be modified by the User in the window “Factors
/ SLS”. The factors to be defined depend on the type of the bridge.

Partial safety factors:


The values to be entered are (all types):
γM,ser Partial safety factor for structural steel
γv Partial safety factor for shear resistance of connectors

Deflection limitation:
For road bridges and footbridges the value to be entered is the number by which the span is
divided to obtain the deflection limit.
For railway bridges, there are two possibilities:
• either deflection is checked according to Eurocode EN 1991-2, in which case the Deflection
limit to Span ratio is calculated in accordance with the speed of trains or in accordance with
the maximum deck acceleration which must not be exceeded; the maximum deck
acceleration is defined by Table A2.9 of EN 1990 according to the level of comfort to be
specified between “Very good”, “Good” or “Acceptable”;
• or deflection is checked against a constant Deflection limit to Span ratio defined by the
User.

Figure II-56: Definition of SLS factors for road bridges or footbridges

Limitation of track twist:


The frame for defining limitations on track twist is only available for railway bridges.
The limit on track twist depends on the speed of trains. A drop-down list proposes the range of
speeds to be taken into account.

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Figure II-57: Definition of SLS factors for a railway bridge

Factors for Ultimate Limit States


The partial safety factors γ used for the checking of ULS criteria can be modified in the window “Factors
/ ULS”. Default values are the proposed according to the active National Annexes.
The factors that can be modified are:
γM0: partial factor for steel cross-section resistance;
γM1: partial factor for resistance to instabilities;
γc: partial safety factor for concrete;
γs: partial safety factor for reinforcing steel.

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Figure II-58: Definition of ULS factors

Factors for Fatigue Limit States


The window “Factors / FLS” for defining Fatigue Limit State factors is only available for road and railways
bridges.

Fatigue loading:
The partial safety factor for fatigue loading γFf can be modified for each type of bridge and
beams.

Range of normal stresses in top flange:


For the checking of fatigue stresses in the top flange of profiles (only if the beams are not
Precobeams), the following parameters can be modified:
• the partial safety factor for fatigue strength γMf
• the detail category.

Range of normal stresses in bottom flange:


For the checking of fatigue stresses in the bottom fibers of profiles (only if the beams are not
Precobeams), the following parameters can be modified:
• the partial safety factor for fatigue strength γMf
• the detail category.

Range of stresses in Precobeams dowels:


For the checking of fatigue stresses Precobeams dowels (only if the beams are Precobeams),
the partial safety factor for fatigue strength γMf can be modified. The detail category is indicated
but is not modifiable. It depends only on the cutting class defined in the module for the
Precobeams connexion (see II.3.10)

Range of stresses in reinforcement:


For the checking of fatigue stresses in rebars, the partial safety factor for fatigue strength γsf as
well as the detail category can be modified.

Range of stresses in connectors:


For the checking of fatigue stresses in studs (only if the beams are neither Precobeams nor
filler-beams), the partial safety factor for fatigue strength γvf as well as the detail category can
be modified.

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Figure II-59: Definition of FLS factors

Figure II-60: Definition of FLS factors for Precobeams bridges

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Calculation coefficients
Calculation coefficients are automatically calculated by ACOBRI. It is then not recommanded to modify
them. Nevertheless, their modification is possible, but the User should be able to assess their effect on
the results.
Calculation coefficients for diaphragms:
The cross-section of diaphragms is not defined by the User. It is therefore not known when the
calculation is run. Calculation coefficients for diaphragms allow diaphragms to be taken into
account.
Coefficient for inertia: the moment of inertia of diaphragms is considered to be equal to the
product of the coefficient multiplied by the greatest inertia of the main beams.
Coefficient for mass: for the mass of diaphragms to be taken into account, their cross-sectional
area is taken to be the product of the coefficient multiplied by the largest cross-sectional area of
the main beams.
The usual value in ACOBRI for these two coefficients is 0.1.

Calculation coefficients for slab elements:


The moment of inertia of slab elements is weighted by a coefficient of between 0 and 1. Two
coefficients distinguish between longitudinal slab elements (parallel to the beams) and
transverse slab elements (perpendicular to the beams). The recommended value for these
coefficients is 1.0.
In the case of a filler-beam deck designed with Eurocode EN, the value of the coefficient for
transverse elements is 0.5, according to EN1994-2:2005 5.4.2.9.

Figure II-61: Types of elements in the Grille model

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II.5 OPTIONS

Prefabricated beams options


This input module is available through normal mode of the program, with the menu “Options / ACOBRI
parameters / Prefabricated beams” (Expert mode only).

Figure II-62: Parameters for the calculation of prefabricated beams

In this module are defined the options that are applied to all prefabricated type of beams, i.e. :
• partially prefabricated composite beam,
• simple partially prefabricated precobeam,
• double partially prefabricated precobeam.

Shrinkage load cases:


Two shrinkage load cases can be considered in the calculations for partially prefabricated
beams:
• the first shrinkage load case is associated to the concrete of the precast slab;
• the second shrinkage load case is associated to the concrete that is poured in-situ.
Nevertheless, the default option is set to one load case on the full slab which is calculated
considering the full depth of the slab, i.e. not considering the prefabrication stage. The User can
impose to have the two shrinkage load cases.

Stresses in precast deck under slab weight:


For partially prefabricated composite beams and for Precobeams, the dead load of concrete
poured in-situ generates a compression stress in the concrete of the precast panel (under
positive moment). As a simplification and by default, this normal stress is added to the
compression normal stresses in the concrete of the global deck, weighted by a stress factor kc
(by default equal to kc = 0.5). Calculation details are given in V.4.2 and more precisely by
equation (36).

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Under Expert mode, it is possible:


• not to consider the normal stresses in the precast panel as stresses in the concrete of
the slab (in this case, equation (36) is replaced by σc = 0).
• to modify the stress factor (denoted kc in equation (36)).

Stresses in reinforcement of the precast deck under slab weight:


For partially prefabricated composite beams and for Precobeams, the dead load of concrete
poured in-situ generates a tension stress in the longitudinal reinforcement of the precast panel
(under negative moment). Generally, an additional layer of longitudinal reinforcement is placed
in the in-situ concrete. As a simplification and by default, the normal stress in the precast
reinforcement obtained for the dead load case is added to the tension normal stresses in the
upper layer of the global deck, weighted by a stress factor kr (by default equal to kr = 1.0).
Calculation details are given in V.4.2 and more precisely by equation (37).
Under Expert mode, it is possible:
• not to consider the normal stresses in the precast reinforcement as stresses in the upper
layer of the slab (in this case, equation (37) is replaced by σr = 0).
• to modify the stress factor (denoted kr in equation (37)).

Filler beams options


This input module is available through normal mode of the program, with the menu “Options / ACOBRI
parameters / Filler beams”.

Figure II-63: Parameters for the calculation of filler beams

Moment reduction
For the checks of the cross-section at intermediate support, a moment reduction can be applied,
when the associated option is selected by the User.

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Under EN rules whatever the National Annex is but the German one, clause 5.4.2.9 (5) of EN
1994-2 is applied and thus a moment reduction of 15% can be considered for Class 1 cross-
sections.
Under EN rules with German National Annex, the moment reduction is obtained from DS 804,
804.4302, Chapter 2, Clause (7). It requires then the definition of the support beam width.
The calculation of the moment reduction is explained in V.8.

Second moment of area for the SLS effects of railway bridges


For railways bridges with filler beams deck, it is possible to increase the second moment of area
of the girders considered in the global analysis when the serviceability limit states are dealt with.
It is possible to select this option and, in Expert mode, to specify the factor to be applied. By
default, its value is 1.35.
By default the option is deactivated.
This option is applied only with EN rules.
The theoretical background for this optional method can be found in the PhD thesis “Zum
Einfluss baulicher Randbedingungen auf das dynamische Verhalten von WIB-
Eisenbahnbrücken“, Tim Rauert, RWTH Aachen, October 2011.

Maximum spacing of beams


It is possible to choose the maximum spacing between the girders centers:
• either 75 cm, according to EN requirements (EN 1994-2 6.3.1 (4))
• or 100 cm, according to the MIKTI research program.
In this latter case, the formula to assess the flexural rigidity of the girders is modified to take into
account the greater distances between girders (see IV.4.6.1).

Precobeams options
This input module is available through normal mode of the program, with the menu “Options / ACOBRI
parameters / Precobeams”.

General options:
For double Precobeams, the User can specify if the concrete between steel profiles acts in
composite stage or not. If the composite action is chosen, it implies that specific connection
devices are installed to actually link the concrete to the steel structure. This option influences
mainly the calculation of elastic and plastic properties of cross-sections (see V.2 and V.3
respectively). By default, the composite action is selected.
For both simple and double Precobeams, the User can choose to impose the check of bending
resistance under ultimate limit state only considering the elastic resistance, whatever the class
of the cross-section, this option being of course conservative. By default, plastic resistance is
authorized for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections.
In Expert mode only, the User can choose to take into account the resistance of concrete to Pry
out in the calculation of the horizontal shear resistance of dowels (see V.10.9). In Normal mode
and by default, Pry out is not considered.

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Composite action selected

Composite action neglected


Figure II-64: Composite action of the concrete between steel chords for double Precobeams

Limitations:
In Normal mode, the limitations for the design of Precobeams (see Annex VI.4) are displayed.
In Expert mode, it is possible to modify these limitations (under full responsibility of the User).

Calculations - Shear resistance of concrete web:


For the resistance of Precobeam cross-section to vertical shear forces, ACOBRI takes account
of the most favourable value of both shear resistances of the steel chords and of the concrete.
For simple Precobeams, the concrete part involved is the concrete web, and for double
Precobeams the concrete between chords is used.
For the concrete shear resistance, area of shear reinforcement (Asw/s) and angle of concrete
struts in compression (θ) are required (see V.10.5). By default, these parameters are set to the
following values:
Asw/s = 6.28 cm2/m
θ = 45°
These parameters can be modified by the User in Expert mode only.

Calculations - Elastic resistance under Ultimate limit states:


When elastic resistance is imposed for the ultimate resistance of double Precobeams, the limit
for normal stresses in the lower flange is obtained as the product of a stress factor by the yielding
strength of the profile (see). By default, this stress factor is set to 1.0. The value of this parameter
can be modified by the User in Expert mode only.

Calculations - Stress factors:


In Normal mode, the stress factors used for the calculation of stresses in dowels under bending
moment and shear force are displayed (see V.7). In Expert mode, it is possible to modify these
factors (under full responsibility of the User).

Geometry - Width of the concrete web:


For simple Precobeams, it is assumed by default that the concrete web has the same width as
the flange of the steel chords. For very specific projects, it is nevertheless possible to have
different values of widths. In this case, and in Expert mode only, the User has to define the
supplement of width of the concrete compared to the flange’s width. A positive value means that
the concrete web is larger than the steel flange.

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bcw = bf + ∆b
Figure II-65: Definition of the width of the concrete web for simple Precobeams

Geometry - Width of the concrete haunch:


For double Precobeams, the widths of the concrete haunches are defined as follows. The width
of the haunch at its lower face dhwf is equal to the total width of the cross-section at the flanges,
i.e.:
dhwf = 2 bf + dfsd
where dfsd is the spacing between the two flanges ant bf the width of a flange.
The width of the haunch at its connection to the slab is denoted dhws and is calculated with the
following formula:
dhws = dhwf + ∆dh
where ∆dh is a distance defined by the user.
For straight beams, it is possible for the user to impose alternatively the inclination α the haunch
faces (about the horizontal axis). In this case, the distance ∆dh is obtained by:
∆dh = 2 dhc tan α
where dhc is the height of the concrete haunch.
See Annex VI.4.2 and Figure II-66 for the definition of the parameters.

Figure II-66: Definition of the width of the concrete haunch for double Precobeams

Calculation options
This option module is available only in Expert mode, through the menu “Options / Calculations
parameters”

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Figure II-67: Definition of calculations options

Young’s modulus for concrete:


It is possible to use the formulation of Eurocode ENV instead of EN for the calculation of the
Young’s modulus of concrete. The option is deactivated by default.

LT Buckling checks:
It is possible to impose the check of the resistance to LTB according to Eurocode ENV rules
instead of EN rules. The option is deactivated by default.

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CHAPTER III

III RUNNING CALCULATIONS AND VIEWING THE RESULTS

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III.1 CALCULATIONS PROCESS

Running calculations
Calculations can by executed by clicking on this button on the tool bar.
A dialog box is displayed where the User has to select his options.

Figure III-1: Window for the execution of calculations

Full calculation or partial calculation:


To reduce calculation time it is possible to select only partial calculation. This means that design
checks are run only for the cross-sections of interest: at supports, at changes in cross-section,
and mid-span. For full calculation, on the other hand, design checks are run for all cross-sections
of the model.
Generally speaking, full calculation is recommended.

Summary of results:
A summary of results can be displayed automatically once the calculation phase is completed.
It indicates the most unfavorable design criterion of the bridge and the cross-section where this
envelope value is obtained.

Design ratio:
The design ratio is used to define the maximum ratio (design criterion) the User wants to adopt
for the design of the bridge. The default value is 1.0. The design ratio must be between 0.5 and
1.0.

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Running calculations:
When the command "Run" is clicked, a window opens for monitoring the progress of the different
calculation phases (see III.1.3). The calculation time can vary, depending on the importance of
the problem being dealt with.
The calculation can be aborted but no results will be given. When the order is given to stop
calculations, the program completes the process under way. The response time may therefore
be a few seconds.

Files management
When a bridge is calculated, ACOBRI generates several files in which data and results are stored.

Data file:
Data is saved in a file with the extension .APM, e.g.: PROJECT.APM. This file can be edited
with a text editor such as Notepad. However, this is not recommended and the data must always
be entered or modified with ACOBRI and never directly in the data file.
Data is saved when the following operations are performed:
• File / Save Menu: for the first save, the User must enter the file name and directory. For
subsequent saves, the file name and directory are retained.
• File / Save As Menu: the User can modify the file name and directory.
• The calculation is run: data is saved before each calculation.

Results files:
A series of binary files is generated when a bridge design calculation is run. These files cannot
be edited and can be read only by the ACOBRI software, either when editing the Pre-design
report or when accessing the Post-processing module.
For the data file PROJECT.APM, the following binary files are generated:
• PROJECT.DBA: Finite element model
• PROJECT.LIF: Influence lines
• PROJECT.CPE: Permanent loads
• PROJECT.CEV: Live and fatigue loads
• PROJECT.VER: Design check

ACOBRI reads these files to edit the Pre-design report and for post-processing. Post-processing
and editing of the report are possible only if all these binary files are present in the working
directory and if they were generated by the same version of the program and for the same
calculation.
It is therefore advised that all the binary files of a project be kept so that the results can be
analyzed subsequently without having to run the calculation again. This is particularly useful for
large bridges which require a lot of computer time.

Calculation steps
The progress of the various phases of calculation is displayed in a monitoring window. The phases
already accomplished are white, the phases being calculated are yellow, and the phases yet to be
started are greyed out. The progress bar shows the progress of the phase being calculated.

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Phase already accomplished

Phase being calculated

Phases to be carried out

Progress bar

Figure III-2: Window for monitoring progress of calculations

The different calculation phases are:


• Data and model
The first stage in the calculation process consists in reading and analyzing the data defined by
the User. From this, the program will generate the list of loadings to be processed, define the
Serviceability Limit State and Ultimate Limit State combinations, and determine the geometry of
the Grillage model.
The results of this phase of calculation are saved in a binary file with the name extension .DBA.

• Permanent loads
In the next step the program processes each permanent load applied to the bridge. If necessary,
the stiffness matrix is recalculated in accordance with the concrete state and modular ratio
associated with the loading. The loading is then applied and the calculation performed,
determining the state of deformation and the internal forces and moments in the elements.
The results (deformations, internal forces and moments in the elements of the model, for each
permanent load) of this phase of calculation are saved in a binary file with the name extension
.CPE.

• Influence lines
The positioning of the live loads applied to a bridge is based on the principle of obtaining the
maximum effect on the variable studied. With ACOBRI, the variables studied are the bending
moment and the shear force. Loads can be positioned independently in the longitudinal and
transverse directions, given that for these variables there is no correlation between the effect of
the transverse position and the effect of the longitudinal position.
This phase of calculation determines the transverse influence lines (one per beam line) and the
longitudinal influence lines (for a design cross-section: one for the bending moment, one for the
shear force on the left of the section and one for the shear force on the right of the section).
The results of this phase of calculation are saved in a binary file with the name extension .LIF.

• Envelopes for live loads


Using the influence lines determined previously, the program processes each live load. For each
beam line and each design cross-section, the live load is positioned and the finite-element
calculation is performed to produce the maximum effect on the following variables: positive
bending moment, negative bending moment, positive left-hand shear force, negative left-hand
shear force, positive right-hand shear force and negative right-hand shear force. If it is
impossible to position the loads, the calculation is not carried out and a value of zero is adopted.
The results of this phase of calculation are saved in a binary file with the name extension .CEV.

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• Design checks
For each design cross-section, this phase checks the design criteria specific to the bridge and
to the code. It should be remembered that the number of shear connectors per unit length is
defined by the program.
The results of this phase of calculation are saved in a binary file with the name extension .VRF.

• Fatigue
This phase of calculation is carried out only for road bridges and railway bridges. For road
bridges, the load model travels in each slow lane. For each calculation position, the finite-
element solver determines the internal forces and moments in the bridge beams. For road
bridges and railway bridges which do not have a filler-beam deck, the design fatigue strength is
checked.
The results of this phase of calculation are saved in binary files with the name extensions .CEV
for internal forces and moments and .VRF for design checks.

III.2 PRELIMINARY PRE-DESIGN REPORT

The “Preliminary predesign report” can be edited and displayed on the screen by clicking
on this button on the tool bar.

Preliminary predesign report


A dialog box appears where the User can select the content of the Pre-design report. The elements that
can be chosen are:
• list of input data,
• list of loadings and load combinations,
• summary of masses,
• estimate of number of shear connectors (except for filler-beam decks and Precobeams),
• section properties,
• action effects for each loading,
• detailed results of design checks,
• reactions at supports
• other results
• summary of results,
• table of contents.
There may be as many as several hundred pages, depending on the case in question.
The predesign report is edited in the same language as the interface.

Editor functions
The Pre-design report editor is specific to the ACOBRI software. It cannot be used to modify the
document.

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Figure III-3: Report editor

The editor consists of:


• a menu bar
• a tool bar
• a display area with vertical scroll bar.

The menu bar is used to:


• print
• quit the editor
• get on-line help
• display the "About ..." box.
To save the preliminary pre design report, it is necessary to print it in a pdf printer tool. For this purpose,
the free tool “Pdf Creator” is suggested and a link to download it is proposed in the “Configuration”
window (see II.1.5).

The tool bar is used to (working from left to right):


display the first page of the document

display the previous page

display the following page

display the last page of the document

print all or part of the document

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The toolbar may also contain a drop-down list with the table of contents, for a direct access.

Content of the report


The various parts of the Pre-design report are described below. They can be edited if the relevant option
has been selected by the User (see III.2.1).
The Pre-design report is drawn up using fixed units, i.e. those most commonly used in practice:
• general dimensions of the bridge (spans) are in metres,
• bending moments are in kNm,
• stresses are in N/mm2 (or MPa),
• etc.
The Pre-design report is structured as follows:

Introduction:
The introduction to the Pre-design report includes a description of the software and the terms of
conditions.

List of input data:


A list of input data gives a reminder of all the data defined by the User.

List of load cases:


All the load cases processed by the software are listed. Each one is given a number and an
abbreviation used to identify the basic loads in the table defining combinations. With the sole
exception of self-weight, a modular ratio is given for each case.

List of combinations:
The list of combinations is given for ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states, in the
form of tables in which the partial factor and combination factor are given for each load identified
by a number and abbreviation referring back to the list of loadings. For Eurocode rules,
serviceability limit states are in different groups of combinations:
• characteristic combinations
• frequent combinations
• quasi-permanent combinations
• infrequent combinations.

Estimated quantities:
Estimated quantities of each material are given for each span. The quantities concern dead load
(beams, diaphragms, concrete) and superimposed dead loads (waterproofing, surfacing, etc.).
For all kinds of beams except those in filler-beam decks, the precamber shown corresponds to
the calculated mid-span deflection for the combination of nominal dead load, superimposed
dead load and concrete shrinkage load.

Estimated number of shear connectors:


An estimate of the number of shear connectors for each span and for each beam line is given
(option not available for filler-beam decks).
This estimate is increased by a flat rate of 30% of the calculation results obtained with the Post-
Processor. This increase takes account of fabrication practices.

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List of cross-sections of interest:


Results can be given for each beam line and for different cross-sections of interest along the
bridge. The different types of section of interest that can be chosen are:
• abutments
• intermediate supports
• cross-section changes
• mid-span sections.
Each cross-section is given a number which is used in the presentation of the results. For each
cross-section of interest, there are three types of results, presented as tables in the rest of the
Pre-design report, depending on the options selected:
• geometrical properties of the section
• maximum action effects for each loading
• envelope check criteria.

Properties of cross-sections:
The different properties of the cross-sections used in the analysis and design check are given
for different concrete conditions (fresh, cracked, or uncracked) and, in some cases, for different
modular ratios.

Action effects for each load case:


For each Permanent load case, the bending moment and right-hand and left-hand shear forces
are given for each cross-section of interest. The deflection is also given for each cross-section
of interest.
For Live load cases, the minimum and maximum moments are given for each cross-section of
interest. The shear force on the right and left of these sections is given. The last column of the
table shows the deflection.
For shrinkage and temperature effects, the following additional information is given: primary and
secondary moments, normal force in the concrete slab. The primary moment is by definition the
equivalent moment applied to the structure to take account of the effects envisaged. The
secondary moment is the difference between the global moment obtained and the primary
moment.
For road bridges the minimum and maximum action effects of the LM3 fatigue model are also
are edited for each slow lane.
For integral bridges, the normal forces in the beams due to the frame effect are also given.

Results of design checks:


The limiting criteria are given for each design check and limit state processed by the program,
in accordance with the code chosen. The tables contain:
• the name of the design check
• the maximum action effect (stress, bending moment, deflection, etc.)
• the acceptable limit of the code
• the design criterion (maximum-effect-to-limit ratio)
• the number of the combination or loading which produces the highest value for the criterion

Reactions:
Reactions at supports are given for each permanent load case. For live loads, these reactions
are the envelopes (minimum and maximum values) of the reactions obtained for all load
positions calculated.
The Pre-design report also specifies the envelope values (minimum and maximum) for reactions
at supports under characteristic SLS combinations.

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Other results:
The following results can also be given, depending on the type of bridge:
• the natural frequency of the principal bending mode, estimated using the Rayleigh method.
• the maximum bar diameter and maximum bar spacing.
• moments at supports with concrete crossbeams.

Summary of results:
Depending on the choice made, a summary of results can be displayed automatically at the end
of the calculations. The same summary can also appear at the end of the Pre-design report. It
gives the limiting criterion for the entire bridge and for each span in the case of a multi-span
bridge.

Table of contents:
The table of contents presents the different parts of the Pre-design report, with their page
numbers.

III.3 POST PROCESSOR

General operation
The module for Post-Processing results is accessed by clicking on this button on the tool
bar

Access conditions:
The calculation corresponding to the input data must have been completed and all binary result
files must be present in the working directory before the post-processing module can be
accessed.
Any change in the definition of the studied bridge removes the access to post-processing.

Post-processor window:
The Post-Processing module is a window consisting of:
• a tool bar for accessing all post-processing functions
• a graphic display area in which the results will be shown in graphic form.

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Figure III-4: Post-processing window

The image displayed when the Post-Processing module is opened represents the finite-element
model associated to the studied bridge.

Tool bar of the post-processing window


All the post-processing functions can be accessed from the tool bar of the window.

Closing post-processing:

closes the post-processing window and returns to the ACOBRI main window

Processing image displayed in graphic area:


copies the image to clipboard

prints the image

sets the image display options

manages the image layers

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Processing the calculation results:


opens the grillage model module

gives access the display of influence lines

opens the module for displaying or editing the action effects of each basic loads

opens the module for displaying the diagrams of envelope moments

opens the module for displaying or editing the design checks

opens the module for displaying fatigue results

opens the module for displaying shear connection

Processing the calculation results:

edits data or results, by a drop-down list

Display options
The “Display Options” module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
The Display Options module is used to modify image parameters in the graphic area of the Post-
Processor.

Figure III-5: Display Options module

Title and key:


The User can choose whether or not to display the title and key of the image. Their position on
the image can also be defined.

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Orientation:
When the image represents a 3D view, its orientation can be changed either by directly defining
the angles α and β, or by using one of the available buttons for producing one of the four
isometric perspectives, a plan view, or an elevation (see III.3.13).
This frame is not available for a 2D view.

Image size:
When the image represents a 3D view, the User can set the program up so that the scale of the
image shown on the screen is recalculated after each change in orientation and it fills the whole
screen. The "Automatic adjustment" box should be checked for this to happen.
When this option is not activated (default situation), the scale used after a change in orientation
is the same as that used before the change.
This frame is not available for a 2D view. The function is not active when zooming.

Screen background:
One of four background colours can be chosen.

Image layers
The “Layer management” module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
All the images displayed in the graphic area of the Post-Processor contain several layers. The layers to
be displayed can be selected. By default all layers are selected and therefore displayed.
This module is used to select or deselect the layers displayed by clicking on the appropriate option box.
The number and name of the layers depend on the image displayed.

Figure III-6: Layer Management module

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Display of the Grillage Model


The “Grillage Model” display module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on
this button on the tool bar.

Figure III-7: “Grillage Model” display module

Display options:
The display options of the model can be checked or unchecked by the User. The result is shown
in the graphic area of the Post-Processor immediately.
The available options are:
• Display elements in colour, coded depending on the type of element
• Display elements representing main beams with bold lines
• Display support symbols
• Display support labels (Ci for abutments and Pj for piers)
• Node numbering, in black
• Element numbering, in the colour of the elements
• Numbering of design cross-sections
• Labelling of beam lines

Model display:
When the Display Model button is clicked, the grillage model is plotted in the graphic area of the
Post-Processor. All the options for display of action effects defined previously are cancelled.

Editing model:
Clicking on the Edit Model button activates the window for choosing the loading group for which
the grillage model will be edited in the Post-Processor editing window (see chapter III.3.12).

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Influence lines
The “Influence Line” display module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.

The “Influence Lines” display module is used to display a longitudinal and/or a transverse influence line.
Influence lines can also be edited.

Figure III-8: “Influence Lines” display module

Longitudinal influence lines:


A longitudinal influence line corresponding to a given cross-section and variable can be
displayed. It is defined by the following parameters:
• The cross-section, defined by the span in which it lies and the node line number in the
span. These parameters can be modified by means of drop-down lists. Node lines are
identified by their number, where line No. 1 in a span corresponds to the origin support of
the span. To facilitate identification, special node lines (at supports and mid-span) are
indicated by arrows on each side of the cross-section.
• The bending moment My, the shear force Vz to the left and the shear force Vz to the right of
the section.
The influence line is displayed with the following display options (which can be modified by the
User):
• The influence line is displayed on the right-hand or left-hand edge of the bridge. By default
it is on the left-hand edge.
• Variations in the influence line can be amplified by a magnification factor (default value of
1).
A graphic tool bar is also proposed to modify the display options:
moves the selected cross-section for the longitudinal influence line to the left

moves the selected cross-section for the longitudinal influence line to the right

selects the bending moment for displaying the longitudinal influence line

selects the shear force to the left for displaying the longitudinal influence line

selects the shear force to the right for displaying the longitudinal influence line

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selects the maximal effect for the location of live loads on the bridge according to
the selected influence line
selects the minimal effect for the location of live loads on the bridge according to
the selected influence line

Figure III-9: Displaying the influence lines

Transverse influence lines:


A transverse influence line corresponding to a beam line selected from a drop-down list can be
displayed.
The influence line is displayed with the following display options (which can be modified by the
User):
• The influence line at the longitudinal location can be displayed at the origin of the bridge,
at the end of the bridge, or at the cross-section for the calculation of the transverse
influence lines. By default it is at the origin of the bridge.
• Variations in the influence line can be amplified by a magnification factor (default value of
1).
The cross-section for the calculation of the transverse influence lines can also be displayed.

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Display of action effects


The “Action effects” display module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.

Choice of loading:
A basic loading for which results will be displayed or edited can be chosen from a list. The list
comprises the following loadings:
• all permanent loads
• principal bending eigenmode
• all live loads
• for road bridges: fatigue loads in lanes, in accordance with the parameters defined in
the Truck load model input module.
In the frame in the top right-hand corner of the window is a reminder of the parameters
associated with the load selected:
• state of concrete (casting or in-service phase)
• type of loading (permanent, live, fatigue, or eigenmode)
• modular ratio, if applicable.

Display of results:
The data that can be displayed in the graphic area of the Post-Processor depends on the type
of loading selected.

Permanent loads:
Load displayed in the form of arrows (only forces, moments not being represented).
• Display of deflected shape. A colour scale can be used to represent deflection contours.
The deformation can be amplified by a magnification factor.
• Display of diagrams of internal forces and moments in the main beam elements, with a
choice of shear force, torsional moment, or bending moment. For loading due to shrinkage
and temperature effects, diagrams of primary and secondary moments are also available.
Diagrams can be displayed for a particular beam line or for all beam lines, using a colour
scale representing the intensity of action effects, and their amplitude can be augmented by
a magnification factor.
For the bending moment, the convention adopted has positive moments represented
downwards.
When a colour scale is used, a key gives the correspondence between the colours and the
range of values they represent. When several sets of information are selected to be displayed,
the key to the colours representing deflected shape takes priority over the key to the other
colours.

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Figure III-10: Action effects module for permanent load cases

Eignemode:
For the eigenmode, only the mode shape considered in calculation of the natural frequency can
be displayed. The natural frequency is shown in the key as a reminder.

Figure III-11: Action effects module for eigen mode

Live loads:
For live loads, the User can choose from two display modes by using option buttons:
• Envelope display mode
Only envelope diagrams are available, for the shear force, the bending moment, and the
deflection. These diagrams can be displayed for a given beam line or for all beam lines.
They can be shown with a colour scale representing the intensity of action effects, and their
amplitude can be augmented by a magnification factor.
For the shear force and the bending moment, the diagrams for a beam line show the
minimum and maximum plots generated for each design cross-section with the most
unfavourable load position.

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For the bending moment, the convention adopted has positive moments represented
downwards.

Figure III-12: Action effects module for live load cases – Enveloppe values

• Specific cross-section display mode


In this case the live load is positioned so as to produce the most unfavourable effect for the
transverse influence line (beam line) and longitudinal influence line (design cross-section
and variable) selected. A button in the window can be used to access the module for
selecting and displaying influence lines. If positioning is not possible, the result displayed
corresponds to the unloaded structure. The User must choose between positive and
negative effects.
It should be remembered that for calculation of envelope action effects, both directions of
travel are taken into account.
The data available for display is the same as for a permanent load:
o Display of loading – which shows the positioning
o Display of deflected shape
o Display of diagrams – shear force, torsional moment, bending moment.
When this display mode is adopted, a specific toolbar is added on the graphic area of the
post-processor, in order to directly change the cross-section or the influence lines (see
III.3.6).

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Figure III-13: Action effects module for live load cases – Values at specific cross-section

Fatigue loadings:
This mode allows the User to display the envelope diagrams for shear force and bending
moment under fatigue loads. These diagrams can be displayed for a given beam line or for all
beam lines. They can be shown with a colour scale representing the intensity of action effects,
and their amplitude can be augmented by a magnification factor.
The diagram for a beam line shows the minimum and maximum plots generated by the fatigue
load model travelling along the entire length of the bridge.
For the bending moment, the convention adopted has positive moments represented
downwards.

Figure III-14: Action effects module for live load cases – Fatigue loads

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Edition:
An "Edit" button can be used to access a drop-down menu indicating the information that can
be displayed in the Edit window of the Post-Processor, depending on the type of loading
selected.
• Permanent loads
o Displacements at model nodes
o Internal forces and moments in elements
o Reactions at restrained nodes of the model
o Reactions at supports

• Eigenmode
No information available. The frequency is displayed in the graphic area, together with the
first eigenmode shape.

• Live loads
Envelope display mode:
o Deflection envelope at nodes of main beams
o Envelope of internal forces and moments and coincident shear and moments at the
design cross-sections of the main beams. For integral bridges, coincident normal
force is given. For filler-beams decks, coincident vertical reaction at intermediate
supports are given.
Specific cross-section display mode:
As for permanent loads:
o Displacements at model nodes
o Internal forces and moments in elements
o Reactions at restrained nodes of the model
o Reactions at supports

• Fatigue loads
Envelope of internal forces and moments at the design cross-sections of the main beams.

Display of envelope moments diagrams


The “Moments Diagram” display module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking
on this button on the tool bar.
In this module, the User selects:
• the type of combinations among the following choices
o SLS combinations
o Characteristic SLS combinations
o Quasi permanent SLS combinations
o Frequent SLS combinations
o ULS combinations
• the file of girders
After these choices, ACOBRI displays the associated diagrams of envelope moments.
When Characteristic SLS combinations have been chosen, the User can also impose to display the
intersection of the diagram of minimal envelope moments with the cracking moments at supports. This
latter is obtained as (see EN 1994-2: 2005 § 5.4.2.3):
M crack = k cr W c f ctm
where: Wc is the flexion modulus of the concrete slab (for live loads)
fctm is the limit of tensile strength of concrete (see IV.1.2)

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kcr is a factor, either 1 or 2, to be chosen by the User.

Display of design check


The “Design check” display module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
The Design check module is used to choose a criterion for checking the bridge and to either edit it or
display it as a diagram.

Limit states:
The list of limit states for which the bridge has been designed is displayed in the corresponding
frame. The User must select the limit state for which he wishes to display a design criterion.

Design criteria:
The list of criteria available for the limit state selected is shown. The User must select the design
criterion he wishes to display or edit. The text zone beneath the list gives the loads or load
combinations for which the criterion has been calculated.

Beam lines:
The list on the bottom left is where the User chooses the main beam line for which he wishes to
display or edit the design criterion. All beam lines can also be selected.
In the case of railway bridges, certain criteria are calculated for rail tracks and not for beam
lines. This is the case, for example, for the deflection or twist of tracks. In this case, the list of
beam lines is replaced by the list of tracks.

Figure III-15: Action effects module for live load cases – Fatigue loads

Displaying a design criterion:


Once a design criterion has been selected, a diagram can be plotted by clicking on the “Diagram”
button. The criterion is then shown as a curve for the Calculated Value / Limit Value ratio versus
the position of the design cross-section on the longitudinal axis of the bridge. The expressions

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of the calculated value and of the limit value are given for each criterion in the chapter V of this
manual.
The position of each support is shown by its x value, by its name (Ci for an abutment, Pj for an
intermediate support), and by a vertical line of the same colour as the x-axis. The position of
any changes in cross-section, as defined in the “Diaphragms and Changes in cross-sections”
input module (see II.3.15), is shown by vertical orange lines.
When all beam lines are selected, each curve for a given beam line is a different colour.
In the case of a calculation in partial mode, it is not recommended that the diagram for a criterion
be plotted, since the number of points obtained for determining the curve is too small.

Figure III-16: Exemple of a check diagram

Editing a design criterion:


When the Edit button is clicked, the design criterion selected is detailed in the Edit window of
the Post-Processor. For each design cross-section, the following information is given, for the
maximum Calculated value /Limit value ratio:
• the cross-section index
• the calculated value of the action effect
• the limit value given by the code
• the Calculated value / Limit value ratio
• the load or combination for which the ratio is maximum.

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Display of shear connection


The “Shear connection” module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this
button on the tool bar.
The module is not accessible if no data on connection is available. This button is then
displayed on the tool bar. This is the case for instance for filler-beam decks.

Figure III-17: Shear connection module

The Shear connection module is used to edit information or to display diagrams.

Diagrams:
When the Diagram button is clicked, a plot is displayed in the graphic area of the Post-
Processor, with on the x axis the longitudinal position of the cross-sections of the beam line
selected and, on the y axis, the number of shear studs per unit length. The number of connectors
is also given for each segment displayed (each step on the plot). The total number of shear
connectors in each span of the beam line is given below the curve.
The position of each support is shown by its x value, by its name (Ci for an abutment, Pj for an
intermediate support), and by a vertical line of the same colour as the x-axis. The position of
any changes in cross-section, as defined in the “Diaphragms and Changes in cross-section”
input module, is shown by vertical orange lines.
The diagrams displayed give the values for the minimal connection as assessed by ACOBRI
(see V.12) and also the connection defined by the User (see II.3.7).

Editing:
When the Edit button is clicked, the Edit window shows the total number of shear connectors to
be installed for each beam line in each span.

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Figure III-18: Shear connection diagram

Display of fatigue results


The “Fatigue” module of the Post-Processor is accessed by clicking on this button on the
tool bar.
The module is not accessible if no data on connection is available. This button is then
displayed on the tool bar. This is the case for instance for filler-beam decks.

The “Fatigue” module can be used to display diagrams illustrating the available information on fatigue
calculations or to edit that information.

Data available:
For all bridges subject to fatigue checking, the Fatigue module of the Post-Processor provides
access to the following data:
• Stress variations due to the fatigue load model
• Detail categories

Stress variations due to fatigue load model:


Stress variations due to the fatigue load model are available for each path travelled by the load
model:
• each slow lane for road bridges, as defined in the Truck load model input module,
• each track for railway bridges.

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These stress variations, calculated in accordance with the code applied, are available for the
top fiber and for the bottom fiber of the beam (bottom flange or strengthening plate, as
applicable).
When the Diagram button is clicked, the curve can be plotted either as maximum and minimum
stress envelope or directly as the difference between the envelope stresses.

Detail category:
The detail categories required for verifying stress variation criteria under fatigue loading can be
superimposed on the stress variation envelope.

Figure III-19: Fatigue module

Editing results
Clicking on this button on the tool bar brings up a menu for editing several data and
results.

Figure III-20: Edit menu

Materials:
The “Materials” menu displays the characteristics of the materials used for the calculations (Edit
window of the Post-Processor).

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Masses:
The “Masses” menu displays the summary of masses for the superstructure, surfacing and deck
furniture (Edit window of the Post-Processor).

Cross-sections:
The “Cross-sections” menu displays the values of a characteristic of a cross-section in the
longitudinal direction (Edit window of the Post-Processor). A window for choosing the
characteristic, and possibly also the state of the associated concrete and the beam line, is
displayed. The data that can be displayed depends on the type of bridge, the type of beam.

Finite Element model:


This menu displays the characteristics of the finite element model (Edit window of the Post-
Processor). For this there is a window for choosing the state of the associated concrete and the
modular ratio.
With the Post-Processor, the characteristics of the finite element model can be displayed in the
Edit menu. It is also possible to access this function by using the appropriate command button
in the “Grillage Model Display” module (see III.3.5).
This brings up a window with a table for choosing the basic loading for which the model will be
edited. When a particular loading is clicked, all the loadings for which the same model is used
are highlighted in yellow.
Editing the model gives the following information:
• Coordinates of the nodes of the model in the global coordinate system
• Connectivity and characteristics of the bar elements.

Figure III-21: Window for selecting the load case

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Graphic area
Images:
Two different types of images can be displayed in the graphic area of the Post-Processor:
• a 3-dimensional view generated by the Grillage Model, Influence Lines, or Action Effects
modules. The data and the results are displayed on a 3D representation of the Grillage
Model
• a 2 dimensional view generated by the Design check, Fatigue, or Shear connection
modules. The results are displayed in the form of curves for the different positions of cross-
sections.
All these images are characterized by the properties described in the following paragraphs.

Layers:
All the images displayed in the graphic area of the Post-Processor contain several
superimposed layers. The layers are specific to the image represented and are regenerated for
each new graphic representation.
The advantage of having layers is that the User can select the layers of an image to be displayed
on the screen and compose a graphic output in accordance with his needs. In addition, it makes
it easier to distinguish different curves from each other when they are superimposed (e.g. in the
case of representation of a design check of the beam lines of a perfectly symmetrical bridge).
The layers displayed on the screen can be chosen from the “Manage Image Layers” module
(see III.3.4).

Title and key:


A title is displayed on each image represented in the graphic area, indicating the name of the
data file and the title of the graphic representation.
A key is displayed on each 3D image.
The User can choose whether or not to display the title and key and can modify their position in
the image. These functions are available in the “Display Options” module (see III.3.3).

Orientation:
For 3 dimensional views, the perspective displayed on the screen is based on the two angles α
and β defining the axis of observation of the structure in the global coordinate system.

Figure III-22: Orientation of the image - Definition of angles α and β

The orientation can be modified with the mouse (see III.3.14) or from the “Display Options”
module (see III.3.3).

Zoom:
Any part of the image can be zoomed by using the mouse left button (see III.3.14).

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Graphic functions of the mouse


The images displayed in the graphic area of the post-processor window can be handled with the mouse.
The functions available are "zoom" (left button) and "orientation" (right button).

Zoom:
To zoom in on part of the image, simply select the zone by holding the left mouse button down
and moving the mouse to form a 'box' over the area to be enlarged.

Figure III-23: Zooming in on part of the image

Several successive zooms can be done. A double click on the right mouse button zooms back
to the previous zoom level. A double click on the left button redisplays the entire image.

Orientation:
When the image displayed represents a 3D object, the orientation of the object can be modified
by holding down the right mouse button and moving the mouse.

When the right button of the mouse is held down, the icon appears to show that the
function is available.

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Figure III-24: Changing orientation with mouse

Horizontal movement of the mouse changes angle α. Vertical movement changes angle β.
A double click on the left mouse button returns to the initial orientation.
The orientation can also be modified from the Display Options module (see III.3.3).

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CHAPTER IV

IV DESCRIPTION OF CALCULATIONS

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IV.1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Steel characteristics
The modulus of steel defaults to E = 210 000 N/mm2 (see VI.2).
For hot rolled profiles, the User can either specify a yield strength or select a steel grade (see II.3.11).
If so, any reduction in the yield strength of the structural steel complies with standard EN 10025.
The following table presents the yield strengths fyp (in MPa) used in the calculations for different steel
grades and thicknesses. The thickness taken into account for calculations is the maximum thickness of
all the main structural steel sections in the bridge (tf thickness of the flange and tw thickness of the web).
The corresponding yield strength applies to all steel profiles of the main beams, irrespective of their
actual thickness.

S355 S460
Thickness (mm) S235 S275 S355 S460
HISTAR HISTAR
t ≤16 mm 235 275 355 460
16 < t ≤ 40 mm 225 265 345 440 460
40 < t ≤ 63 mm 215 255 335
355
63 < t ≤ 80 mm 215 245 325
430
80 < t ≤ 100 mm 215 235 315 450
100 < t ≤ 150 mm 195 225 295

Table IV-1: Yield strength according to the grade and the thickness

If strengthening plates have been defined, the specific yield strength fys is used in calculations for
these plates. This yield strength applies to all strengthening plates. It should be noted that according to
ACOBRI limitations, fys is always less or equal than fyp.
Specific cases:
• when the steel grades of girders and of the strengthening plates are identical, the same value
of the yield strength is used for both girders and plates, as the minimal value of the two yield
strengths calculated separately.
• when the yield strength of girders is directly imposed by the User, the value of the yield strength
of the plates is limited by the upper value equal to the girders yield strength.
The yielding strength of steel for the reinforcement is directly defined by the User (see II.3.11). It is
denoted fyr hereafter.
Following notations are adopted for the document:
fyp: yielding strength of the profiles steel
fys: yielding strength of the strengthening plates steel
fyr: yielding strength of the reinforcement steel

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Slab concrete
According to the class of concrete defined by the User, the compressive strength of concrete fck is
obtained from the following table:

Class
fck (N/mm2)
of concrete
20/25 20
25/30 25
30/37 30
35/45 35
40/50 40
45/55 45
50/60 50

Table IV-2: Class of concrete and compressive strength

When defined directly by the User, the compressive strength of concrete is the value entered.
The tensile strength ftj of concrete is obtained from the following relations:
• For normal-weight concrete: ftj = 0,3 (fcj)2/3
• For lightweight concrete: ftj = 0,3 (fcj)2/3 η
where η = 0,3 + 0,7 (ρconcrete/2400)
ρconcrete = concrete density
The option normal / lightweight concrete and the density are defined by the User in the “Material” module
(see II.3.11).

Concrete creep
Concrete creep parameters, described hereunder, affect the calculation of steel/concrete modular ratios.
They can be modified by the User, in the creep parameters input window, which is accessed by clicking
on a button in the “Materials” module (see II.3.11).

Relative humidity:
The relative humidity RH is defined as a percentage, anywhere between 0% and 100%. The
default value is 80%.
Creep multiplier ψ:
The creep multiplier ψ may be modified for shrinkage loads, permanent loads, and imposed
displacements. For live loads it is fixed (ψ = 0).
Any modified value of the creep multiplier ψ must be between 0 and 2. The default values are
those given by Eurocodes, as shown in the following table.

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Load case ψ

Shrinkage 0,55

Permanent loads 1,1

Imposed displacements 1,5

Live loads 0

Table IV-3: Default ψ values

Modular ratios
Each basic loading is assigned a modular ratio which depends on the state of the concrete (casting
phase or in-service phase) and the type of load applied (permanent or live load).
The modular ratio is given by the following formula (from Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 5.4.2.2):

m = n0 (1 + ψ φt) (1)

where: n0: modular ratio for short term loading


φt : creep coefficient, depending on t0 and RH (see Annex VI.3.1)
ψ: creep multiplier, defined for each load case (see Table IV-3)
t0: age of concrete, in days, at time of loading (see Table IV-4)
RH: relative humidity (%)

Load case t0 (days)

Shrinkage 1
Permanent loads 45
Imposed displacements 45
Live loads 45

Table IV-4: Values of t0

The values of modular ratios are calculated for each load case (either permanent or live load) where the
concrete is in-service phase. For load cases associated to the in-situ casting of concrete, the modular
ratio is calculated only if necessary, i.e. for partially prefabricated composite beams and for Precobeams.

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IV.2 LOADS

General
Following types of loads are considered in ACOBRI for the design of a bridge:
• permanent loads,
• live loads,
• fatigue loads.
In addition, the natural frequency for the principal bending mode is calculated for each bridge studied.
Each loading is processed by the program in accordance with its type. The results of processing
(deflections, deflected shapes, internal forces and moments, etc.) can be edited or displayed on the
screen using the “Action Effects” module of the Post-Processor (see III.3.7). A detailed synthesis of
results is also available in the Predesign report (see III.2).

Permanent loads:
The permanent loads likely to be exerted on a bridge are:
• the self-weight of the bridge
• the weight of deck surfacing or ballast etc.
• the weight of deck furniture
• concrete shrinkage (except filler-beam decks)
• temperature effects
• support settlements and height adjustments.

Live loads:
Live loads are generated automatically in accordance with the type of bridge:

ROAD BRIDGES RAILWAY BRIDGES FOOTBRIDGES

Load Model 1 Load Model LM71 Footbridge loads


Loads on footways Load Models SW Service vehicle
Abnormal load Loads on maintenance walkways Vehicle on bridge by error

Table IV-5: Live loads

Fatigue loads:

ROAD BRIDGES RAILWAY BRIDGES FOOTBRIDGES

Fatigue Load Model 3 LM 71 -

Table IV-6: Fatigue loads

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Specific loads for integral bridges:


When the bridge is supported by integral abutments (see II.3.13), 7 specific load cases are
considered by ACOBRI to take account of the effects of abutments on the bridge:
• Forces acting on both abutments simultaneously
o A0: Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure at rest
o ASum: Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure during summer time
o AWin: Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure during winter time

• Forces acting on one or both abutments (for road bridges only).


o AUDLl Effect of the UDL load case on the left embankment
o AUDLr Effect of the UDL load case on the right embankment
o ATSl Effect of the TS load case on the left embankment
o ATSr Effect of the TS load case on the right embankment

Permanent loads

IV.2.2.1 Dead load


Dead load covers the mass of the structural elements of the bridge, i.e. the main beams, the diaphragms,
and the concrete deck slab.

State of the slab’s concrete – composite action:


• Unpropped beams
Dead loads are calculated for concrete in the casting phase, i.e. when only the main steel beams
contribute to structural resistance. In the case of partially prefabricated composite beams or
Precobeams, the precast deck panel is taken into account. Main steel beams are continuous
over intermediate supports, unless concrete crossbeams have been defined.
• Propped beams (fully propped throughout their length) during the concrete casting phase
Dead loads are calculated for concrete in the in-service phase, taking account of the modular
ratio for the permanent loads of the bridge (SDL1). If concrete crossbeams have been defined,
the main beams are considered to be continuous over intermediate supports, irrespective of the
phasing of crossbeam concreting (see Table II-4 p 51).

Unpropped beams – Case of concrete crossbeams:


When the User has defined at least one concrete crossbeam for an intermediate support, using
the “Connections at supports” input module (see II.3.12), the processing of dead load by the
program depends on the crossbeam concrete placement timing chosen by the User:
• Crossbeams cast before deck slab
In this situation, the dead loading must be divided into two separate loadings (see Table
II-3 p 50):
- weight of the main beams, for which beams are not continuous at intermediate supports
with crossbeams,
- weight of the slab, for which beams are continuous at intermediate supports with
crossbeams.
• Crossbeams cast at same time as deck slab
If the concrete crossbeams are cast at the same time as the deck slab, the main beams
are not continuous at the time of casting; they are hinged at intermediate supports with
crossbeams (see Table II-2 p 50)

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Effect of integral abutments:


For the load case self-weight, the three options are to be considered, according to the
parameters defined by the User (see II.3.6 and II.3.12):
• Option A: the superstructure is not propped during erection and the slab and edges are
poured together, so that no frame effect is to be taken into account neither in the FEM grid
model (spring stiffnesses equal to 0) nor in the treatment of internal forces. Actually, normal
force in the girder is 0 and there is no moment shifting.
• Option B: the superstructure is not propped during erection and the slab is poured after the
edges. Two load cases are to be considered. The first one deals with the dead load of the
steel beams before the pouring and no frame effect is active. The second load case is the
dead load of concrete, where the frame effect is active (when the concrete of the slab is
poured). In this case, the normal force and the moment shifting are to be assessed, by using
the procedure described in Annex VI.7.4, where:
o prefabricated beams
Parameters K2,m and K3,m (see VI.7.1) calculated considering the composite
effect, with the modular ratio for long term actions.
o other types of beams
Ksym = -2 (non composite section)
K3,m calculated with Asup the sum of the area of the steel girder only
• Option C: the superstructure is propped during erection. The consequence is that the
composite action and the frame effect are fully effective for the self-weight load case.

Standard deck overhang:


For a deck associated to all types of beam but filler-beams, the procedure described hereunder
is adopted to deal with deck overhang during the pouring of concrete, provided the two following
conditions are fulfilled:
• the bridge gets at least three main girders;
• the associated option has been selected in the “Concrete slab” definition module (see
II.3.6).

Figure IV-1: Overhang in the case of standard deck

Let mov be the mass per unit length of overhang (red zone in Figure IV-1):

mov = ρconcrete Eslab a (2)

For the overhang on the left-hand side of the slab, this mass per unit length is supported by the
first two beam lines, and as a result of equilibrium:
mov-1 = mov (a + 2 b) / 2 b
mov-2 = - mov a / 2 b

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The same calculation is carried out for the overhang on the right-hand side of the slab.
These masses add to the masses of the parts of the slab between the outer beams.

For a twin-girder bridge, no special treatment is necessary.

Filler-beam deck overhang:


If a filler-beam deck has no overhangs (option deselected in the “overhang” module – see II.3.5),
no special calculation is performed; the lateral concrete cover is negligible.
If a deck overhang has been designed (option selected in the “overhang” module – see II.3.5),
it is assumed that it is cast on formwork bearing against the first two edge beams and an
intermediate beam – see Figure IV-2.

Figure IV-2: Bearing of overhang formwork

The lever-arm effect between the edge beams and the intermediate beam is used to counter
the moment due to the overhang. The dead loads case takes account of the equilibrium obtained
for distributing the loads due to the weight of the overhang.
If the bridge is designed with two overhangs and the formwork is not designed to bear against
intermediate beams, the weight of each overhang is distributed equally between the two outer
beams on each side – see Figure IV-3.

Figure IV-3: Formwork with continuous support beam

This procedure is applied for both options for the concreting phase of the overhangs.

Dead load of filler-beam deck’s overhang:


If the overhangs are to be concreted once the concrete of the deck slab has hardened (this is
not the default option, see option in “overhang” module, in II.3.5), the dead load is divided in two
load cases:
• dead load of the concrete slab, except the weight of overhangs;
• dead load of the overhangs, where the composite effect is considered and calculated with
the modular ratio for permanent loads.

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In all cases, the estimated quantities given in the Pre-design report are calculated for the entire
deck slab, including overhangs.
The parameters for concreting the overhang (placement and propping) can be modified in the
“Overhang” module (see II.3.5).

Distribution of the slab weight:


By default, the weight of the slab is distributed on the main girders according to the mid-spacing
of beams. For partially prefabricated beams, the distribution is done proportionally to the
prefabricated slab width.

IV.2.2.2 Superimposed dead load SDL1


Depending on the bridge type, SDL1 may include the following loads:

Weighting factor
Weight source
Road bridges Footbridges Railway bridges

Waterproofing 1.0 1.0 1.0

Surfacing 1.0 1.0

Footways 1.0

Ballast 1.0

Rails and sleepers 1.0

Maintenance walkways 1.0

Table IV-7: SDL1 loads

In combinations of actions, a distinction is made between increased SDL1 and reduced SDL1. The
weighting factors given in the following tables depend on the bridge type. These factors can be modified
by the User from the Options / Factors / Weighting factors menu (see II.4.1).

Weighting factor
Codes Weight source
Railway
Road bridges Footbridges
bridges

Waterproofing 1.20 1.20 1.20

Surfacing 1.40 1.40

Footways 1.00
Eurocode EN
Ballast 1.30

Rails and sleepers 1.00

Maintenance walkway 1.00

Table IV-8: increased SDL1 factors

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Weighting factor
Codes Weight source
Railway
Road bridges Footbridges
bridges

Waterproofing 0.80 0.80 0.80

Surfacing 0.80 0.80

Footways 1.00
Eurocode EN
Ballast 0.70

Rails and sleepers 1.00

Maintenance walkway 1.00

Table IV-9: reduced SDL1 factors

IV.2.2.3 Superimposed dead load SDL2


The superimposed dead load due to deck furniture (SDL2) covers the mass of the various equipment
items installed on the bridge.
The User defines the loads per unit length for each of these furniture items in the “superimposed dead
load” input module – see II.3.24.

Railway
Deck furniture Road bridges Footbridge
bridges

Pedestrian parapets X X X

Cornices X X X

Drains X X X

Utilities X X X

Vehicle restraints X X

Noise barriers X

Other X X X

Table IV-10: Deck furniture for different types of bridge

IV.2.2.4 Concrete shrinkage


Loading due to concrete shrinkage takes account of shrinkage as the concrete of the deck slab dries.
The slab is assumed to be cast in a single phase. The phasing of the concrete pouring along the bridge
is not taken into account.
This loading does not apply to filler-beam decks. Temperature effects are taken into account by specific
loads, see IV.2.2.5.

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Finite-element calculation:
The effect of concrete shrinkage is taken into account in the form of a diagram of equivalent
moments applied to each main beam of the bridge. These applied moments are referred to as
primary moments in what follows.
For a given cross-section, the applied primary moment is given by:

Mprim = NShrink δG
(3)
NShrink = εShrink Eb Ab
where:
NShrink Normal force in the concrete slab due to shrinkage
εShrink Strain characterizing the shrinkage (concrete shortening). This value is defined
by the User in the “Materials” module – see II.3.11.
δG Vertical difference between the centre of gravity of the composite section and
the centre of gravity of the slab
Eb Young's modulus of concrete
Ab Area of the concrete slab to be considered for the cross-section studied. The
slab width taken into account is the effective width used in the calculation of
internal forces and moments – see IV.4.4.1.
Shrinkage effects in partially prefabricated composite beams and Precobeams are calculated
with a conservative margin, taking the total depth of the slab (precast part + site-cast part).

Partially prefabricated beams:


For partially prefabricated beams (including precobeams), two shrinkage load cases can be
considered:
• the first one is associated to the concrete of the precast slab:
o Ab is calculated considering the precast slab depth;
o δG is obtained considering the composite section made of the steel profile and
the precast slab;
• the second one is associated to the concrete poured in-situ:
o Ab is calculated considering the depth of concrete poured in-situ;
o δG is obtained considering the centre of gravity of the full composite section and
the centre of gravity of concrete poured in-situ.
The calculation with two load cases for the shrinkage of concrete assumes that the concrete in-
situ is poured long enough after the casting of the preslab. If not, only one load case for the
shrinkage of the full slab should be considered. This latter option is activated by default. The
user can impose the two load cases for the shrinkage of concrete in the window “options /
ACOBRI parameters / prefabricated beams” (cf. II.5.1).

IV.2.2.5 Temperature effects


Two different loadings are applied to take account of the effects of a temperature differential between
the concrete slab and the steel beam.
These loadings do not apply to filler-beam decks.

Simplified temperature loading +∆T:


The temperature distribution used is a simplified pattern: the slab has a uniform temperature
∆T°C higher than the uniform temperature of the steel beam.

Simplified temperature loading -∆T:


The temperature distribution used is a simplified pattern: the slab has a uniform temperature
-∆T°C higher than the uniform temperature of the steel beam.

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Figure IV-4: Simplified temperature distributions

Finite element calculation:


Temperature loads are taken into account in the same way as shrinkage loads, according to
relations (3), considering a concrete strain given by:

εThermal = - αT ∆T (4)

where: αT coefficient of thermal expansion = 1.0x10-5 /°C


∆T temperature differential, defined in the Materials module (see II.3.11).

Modular ratio:
Temperature effects are considered as a short term action.

IV.2.2.6 Support settlements and support height adjustment

General case:
The loads due to settlement of supports and height adjustment are considered as permanent
loads if the User has defined them in the appropriate module (see II.3.31).
The effects of support settlement and support height adjustment are calculated by imposing the
corresponding displacements at the nodes of supports.

Specific treatment integral bridges:


When integral abutments are defined, a specific treatment is carried out to deal with support
settlements. The settlement δ is applied directly in the finite element simulation, considering the
model with anti-symmetric springs. The effects on the girders are then calculated directly by
ACOBRI.

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Settlement δ

-Mδ

+Mδ

Figure IV-5: Support settlements

For comparison purposes, the bending moment at the ends of the main girders can be assessed
by the following formula (not used in ACOBRI):

6 δ EI ms
Mδ =
  EI 
( ) 6 Lsup
Lsup 2 1 + 2 p  abut − 1 4 p 2 − 6 p + 3  +
(5)
 EI
 ms   ρ ϕ,anti

Where:
Lsup,cr
p=
Lsup
c ϕ,anti
ρ ϕ,anti =
E I ms
Ims is the sum of the second moments of area of the girders at mid-span.
Iabut is the sum of the second moments of area of the girders at abutment (if girders are
not the same at both abutment, an average value will be considered).
Lsup,cr and Lsup: see VI.7.1
Cϕ,anti: see 0

Principles for live loads calculations

IV.2.3.1 General cases


For bridges without integral bridges, the following process is currently acting in ACOBRI to deal with live
loads. Considering a cross section at location x, the live load is located on the bridge according to the
longitudinal and the transverse influence lines (see IV.4.7.1), to produce the maximum effect for the
studied parameter (Moment or shear force). The FEM calculation gives then the value of the bending
moment or the shear force, according to the studied effect.

IV.2.3.2 Case of integral bridges


To deal with integral abutments, the specific following treatment of loads is included.
The grid model considered for the FEM calculations includes the cϕ,sym symmetric restraints (see 0).

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F Cross section
cϕ,sym

x0 x

Figure IV-6: Live loads on integral bridges

Considering a cross section at location x, the live load is located on the bridge according to the
longitudinal and transverse influence lines, as calculated in IV.4.7.2.
Each single force of this load is corrected according to its position on the bridge by the coefficient kmgc.
This coefficient is defined by the following relations, where x0 is the location of the force (see Figure
IV-6):

(ρ ϕ,sym Lsup + 4)2 − 4 A( x, x 0 )


k mgc ( x, x 0 ) =
(Lsup ρ ϕ,anti + 6) (Lsup ρ ϕ,sym + 2) B( x, x 0 ) (6)
and k mgc ( x, x 0 ) ≤ 2

where:
c ϕ,sym
ρ ϕ,sym =
E Ims
c ϕ,anti
ρ ϕ,anti =
E Ims
Ims is the sum of the second moments of area of the girders at mid-span.
A( x , x 0 ) = ρ ϕ, sym ρ ϕ, ant i F1 ( x , x 0 ) + 3 ρ ϕ, sym F2 ( x , x 0 ) + ρ ϕ, anti F3 ( x , x 0 ) + F 4 ( x , x 0 )

B ( x, x 0 ) = ρ ϕ, sym 2 F1 ( x, x 0 ) + 2 ρ ϕ, sym G 2 ( x, x 0 ) + F4 ( x, x 0 )

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For x ≤ x0:
( )(
F1 ( x , x 0 ) = x L sup − x 0 L sup + 2 x 0 x L sup − x 0 )
F2 ( x , x 0 ) = L sup (2 x − x 0 )

4 x0 2 x
F3 ( x, x 0 ) = 2 Lsup x − Lsup x 0 + 2 x 0 2 + 2 x x 0 −
Lsup
F4 ( x, x 0 ) = 12 x

2 x02 x
G2 ( x, x 0 ) = 4 Lsup x − 2 Lsup x 0 + x 0 2 + x x 0 −
Lsup

For x > x0:


(
F1( x, x 0 ) = 2 Lsup 2 − x 0 Lsup − 3 x L sup + 2 x 0 x x 0 )
(
F2 ( x , x 0 ) = L sup L sup − 2 x + x 0 )
4 x0 2 x
F3 ( x, x 0 ) = Lsup 2 + 3 Lsup x 0 − 2 x 0 2 − 6 x x 0 +
Lsup
(
F4 ( x , x 0 ) = 12 L sup − x )
2 x0 2 x
G2 ( x, x 0 ) = 2 Lsup 2 − 3 Lsup x − x 0 2 + 3 Lsup x 0 − 3 x x 0 +
Lsup
After the global analysis for the cross section (x), the following processes is carried out:
− if the force is shear force, no specific treatment is required
− if the moment is studied, the shift of moment is calculated according to IV.2.9, so that the final
moment to be saved includes this shift. The associated value of NIIsup,i is also saved for the next
checking of the cross-section, as the concomitant normal force associated to the
maximum/minimum bending moment.

Live loads on road bridges

IV.2.4.1 Definition of traffic lanes

Carriageway width:
The carriageway width is the distance between the kerbs of footways or between the inner faces
of road restraint systems. All these items are defined by User – see II.3.21.

Figure IV-7: Carriageway width

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Traffic lanes:
Traffic lanes are defined in accordance with the width of the carriageway, based on the rules in
the following table:

w nlanes Llane Lresidual

w < 5,4 m 1 3m w–3m

5,4 m ≤ w < 6,0 m 2 w/2 0

6,0 m <= w Int(w / 3) 3m w - nlanes x 3 m

Table IV-11: Definition of traffic lanes

where: w Width of the carriageway


nlanes Number of lanes
Llane Lane width
Lresidual Width of remaining area

The transverse positioning of lanes is not permanent. Lanes can be immediately adjacent to
each other or separated by remaining areas. Lanes are positioned on the carriageway according
to transverse influence lines in order to obtain the most unfavourable effect for the studied
component.

IV.2.4.2 Load Model 1 – LM1

Reference: Eurocode EN 1991-2 4.3.2.

Description:
Load model LM1 is the combination of the two partial systems TS and UDL, described hereafter.

TS partial system:
A tandem system is located on each lane, centrally placed along the lane axis. The weight of
each axle of the tandem on a lane is: α Q Qk . Values of Qk axle loads are defined in Table IV-12.
They are constant and cannot be modified by the User. Default values of the adjustment factors
αQ are given in Table IV-13. They can be modified by the User (see II.4.2).

Bridge axis direction

Figure IV-8: Tandem system

Lane No. i Axle load Qk(kN)

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Lane No. 1 300

Lane No. 2 200

Lane No. 3 100

Other lanes 0

Table IV-12: Axle loads of TS system

Eurocode (EN
Bridge class and ENV)

αQ1 αQi i > 1

Class 1 1,00 1,00

Class 2 1,00 1,00

Class 3 1,00 1,00

Table IV-13: Default values of adjustment factors αQ

UDL partial system:


The UDL partial system is a set of loads uniformly distributed across the carriageway.
Each traffic lane is loaded by the uniformly distributed load α qi qik , where:
• lane No. 1: qik = 9,0 kN/m2
• other lanes: qik = 2,5 kN/m2
• remaining area: qr = 2,5 kN/m2

The α factor is modifiable by the User (see II.4.2) and its default value according to the active
National Annexes is given in the following Table, whatever the class of the bridge:

German Other
NA NA
αq1 1.33 1.0
αq2 2.4 1.0
αqi≥3 1.2 1.0
αqr 1.2 1.0

Table IV-14: Default values of adjustment factors αq

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IV.2.4.3 Loads on footways

Reference: Eurocode EN 1991-2 5.3.2.1.

Description:
A uniformly distributed load is applied on the footways of a road bridge or the maintenance
walkways of a railway bridge so as to produce the maximum effect envisaged. The default value
of this load is 5 kN/m2. It can be modified by the User (see II.3.26).

Position:
Longitudinally, the loaded areas are chosen so as to be most critical, between the zeros of the
active longitudinal influence line.
Laterally, each loaded area on the footway (or maintenance walkway) is loaded across its entire
width if the effect produced is unfavourable.

Parameters:
For a road bridge, the uniform load applied to the footways and the laterally loaded area of the
footways can be modified in the module for defining live loads on footways (see II.3.26). By
default, the footways are loaded across their entire width.
For a railway bridge, the uniform load applied on the maintenance walkways can be modified in
the maintenance walkway definition module (see II.3.23). The maintenance walkways are
loaded across their entire width.

IV.2.4.4 Abnormal loads

Reference: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 4.3.4

Description:
An abnormal traffic load (live load) may be used on the bridge. To do this, the User must check
this option in the “Truck load definition” module (see II.3.27), then select the special vehicle
required from the drop-down list.
Special vehicles are defined in the Abnormal loads database, a file that the User can edit and
modify (see II.2.4). By default, this database contains the following special vehicles, from Annex
A of EN 1991-2: 600/150, 900/150, 1200/150, 1200/200 and 2400/240.
A specific dynamic amplification factor is applied to the abnormal loads. By default, this
parameter is set to 1, but the User can modify it (see II.3.27).
The abnormal loads can also be superimposed to the LM1 load model, if the associated option
has been selected by the User. In this case, the abnormal load is positioned first, according to
the active longitudinal influence line. Secondly, UDL and TS partial load models are applied,
considering an exclusion zone corresponding to the lanes occupied by the abnormal vehicle
and up to 25 m in front and behind it. In this case, the “Abnormal Load” case contains these
3 loads pattern, considering the combination coefficient for partial loads UDL and TS (see II.3.27
and IV.3.1.2).

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Figure IV-9: Simultaneous application of abnormal vehicle and Load Model LM1

Fatigue loads on road bridges


Reference: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 4.6.4

Description:
The effects of actual road traffic on the bridge are represented by travelling of a single truck at
the centre of a slow lane. This truck has 4 axles and weighs 480 kN, i.e. 60 kN per wheel.

Figure IV-10: Truck for the fatigue load model LM3

The truck is symmetrical. Its effects on the bridge are therefore not affected by the direction of
travel. This truck travels on the bridge in the slow lanes (at center axis) defined by the User (see
II.3.28). All possible locations of the truck along the bridge are considered, with a step of around
1 m.

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Specific loads for integral bridges


When the bridge is supported by integral abutments (see II.3.13), 7 specific load cases are considered
by ACOBRI to take account of the effects of abutments on the bridge:
• Forces acting on both abutments simultaneously
o A0 Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure at rest
o ASum Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure during summer time
o AWin Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure during winter time
• Forces acting on one or both abutments (for road bridges only).
o AUDLl Effect of the UDL load case on the left embankment
o AUDLr Effect of the UDL load case on the right embankment
o ATSl Effect of the TS load case on the left embankment
o ATSr Effect of the TS load case on the right embankment
Actually, load cases AUDL and ATS are related to live loads UDL and TS of the load model LM1 (see
IV.2.4.2). Insofar as these cases are dealt with unmoving forces, they are ranked in ACOBRI among
permanent load cases for convenience.

IV.2.6.1 Effect of the foundation system at rest


This load case is represented in ACOBRI by the following loads to be applied at each end of the bridge:
• One normal force (constant along the bridge) N0,Soil
• One moment (constant along the bridge) M0,Soil
This load case is considered as a permanent load case. Its modular ratio is the same as for
superstructure load cases.
N0,Soil and M0,Soil are calculated according to Annex VI.7.3.1 (symmetric, N IIA , M IIA ), considering:
kF coefficient of location of resulting force with kF = 1/3
S the resultant force of earth pressure, as defined by:

1 2
S = S0 = K 0 γ soil l a w a (7)
2
kF, γsoil, la and wa are parameters of the integral abutments, defined by the User (see II.3.13).

IV.2.6.2 Effect of the foundation system during summer time


The load case ASum is the combination of two load cases:

ASum = ASum,Soil + ASum,Thermal

The load case ASum,Soil is defined in ACOBRI by the following loads to be applied at each end of the
bridge:
• One normal force (constant along the bridge) NSum,Soil
• One moment (constant along the bridge) MSum,Soil
NSum,Soil and MSum,Soil are calculated according to Annex VI.7.3.1 (symmetric, N IIA , M IIA ), considering:
kF coefficient of location of resulting force with kF = 1/3
S = SSum – S0 where SSum is defined by the User (see II.3.13) and S0 is defined by Eq (7).

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The load case ASum,Thermal is defined in ACOBRI by the following loads to be applied at each end of the
bridge:
• One normal force (constant along the bridge) NSum,Therm
• One moment (constant along the bridge) MSum,Therm
With:

I δN
NSum, Therm = NST +
δδN
1−
δN
(8)
I δM
M Sum,Therm = M ST +
δδN
1−
δN
Where:
MI = -K2,m ∆I
∆I = αT ∆TSum Lsup f distr
∆TSum: Maximum variation of temperature during summer as defined by the User

3 I  ∆I 
I
N ST = M ST K 1 − K 4 
2  I
M ST 
 
I
δM = − K 2, m K 3, m N ST

3  I 
K 3,m N ST
δN = δM K 1 − K 4 
2  δM 
 
δδM = − K 2, m K 3, m δN

3  K 3,m δN 
δδ N = δδ M K 1 − K 4 
2  δδ M 
For coefficients, see VI.7.1

The loads NSum,Therm and MSum,Therm are global loads and have to be distributed in the girders of the
beams, proportionally to their axial and flexural rigidity respectively.
MSum,Therm represents the global moment in the girders. If applied in the FEM model, it should be
corrected to take into account the rotational springs at the ends of the girders, by:

  L1 L2 
MSummer, Therm = MSum,Int 1 + cϕ,sym  +  (9)
  
 Esup Isup,eff,cr E sup Isup, eff 

where:
L1 = Lsup,cr
L2 = Lsup /2 – Lsup,cr
The load case ASum is considered as a thermal load case. Its modular ratio is the same as for other
thermal load cases.
For Lsup,cr and Lsup, see VI.7.1

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IV.2.6.3 Effect of the foundation system during winter time


The load case AWin is the combination of two load cases:

AWin = AWin,Soil + AWin,Thermal

The load case AWin,Soil is defined in ACOBRI by the following loads to be applied at each end of the
bridge:
• One normal force (constant along the bridge) NWin,Soil
• One moment (constant along the bridge) MWin,Soil
NWin,Soil and MWin,Soil are calculated according to Annex VI.7.3.1 (symmetric, N IIA , M IIA ), considering:
kF coefficient of location of resulting force with kF = 1/3
S = Swin – S0 the resultant force of earth pressure, as defined by

1 2
Swin = K a γ soil l a w a (10)
4

The load case AWin,Thermal is defined in ACOBRI by the following loads to be applied at each end of the
bridge:
• One normal force (constant along the bridge) NWin,Therm
• One moment (constant along the bridge) MWin,Therm
NWin,Therm and MWin,Therm are calculated as NSum,Therm and MSum,Therm respectively by replacing ∆TSum by
∆TWin in the previous formulas.
The load case AWin is considered as a thermal load case. Its modular ratio is the same as for other
thermal load cases.

IV.2.6.4 Effect of the UDL load case on the left embankment


The distribution of normal force in the bridge due to UDL load case on the left embankment is linear
from NUDL,l,l to NUDL,l,r, where:

NUDL,l,l = NUDL,l,sym + NUDL,l,anti


NUDL,l,r = NUDL,l,sym – NUDL,l,anti

The distribution of bending moment in the bridge due to UDL load case on the left embankment is linear
from MUDL,l,l to MUDL,l,r, where:

MUDL,l,l = MUDL,l,sym + MUDL,l,anti


MUDL,l,r = MUDL,l,sym – MUDL,l,anti

NUDL,l,sym and MUDL,l,sym are obtained from Annex VI.7.3.1 considering:

kF coefficient of location of resulting force: kF = 1/2


S the resultant force of earth pressure, as defined by

1
S= SUDL (11)
2
Where:

SUDL = ∑ RUDL,i + RBasic (12)

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RUDL,i is the resulting force for the UDL load case applied on lane i of the UDL load model, with:
RUDL,i = K0,q wi la qi,k
K0,q, la as defined by the User (see chapter II.3.13)
wi width of the lane no i
qi,k load value on lane no i, according to LM1 (either EN or DIN)
RBasic is the resulting basic force acting on abutment:
RBasic = K 0,q (w abut − Σw i ) l a q rk,basic
qrk,basic is the load on the remaining area (cf. Table 4.2 of EN 1991-2)
NUDL,l,anti and MUDL,l,anti are obtained from Annex VI.7.3.2.
The load case AUDL,l concerns the live loads. Its modular ratio is then the same as for other live load
cases.

IV.2.6.5 Effect of the UDL load case on the right embankment


The same procedure is applied as for AUDL,l

IV.2.6.6 Effect of the TS load case on the left embankment


The distribution of normal force in the bridge due to TS load case on the left embankment is linear from
NTS,l,l to NTS,l,r, where:

NTS,l,l = NTS,l,sym + NTS,l,anti


NTS,l,r = NTS,l,sym – NTS,l,anti

The distribution of bending moment in the bridge due to TS load case on the left embankment is linear
from MTS,l,l to MTS,l,r, where:

MTS,l,l = MTS,l,sym + MTS,l,anti


MTS,l,r = MTS,l,sym – MTS,l,anti

NTS,l,sym and MTS,l,sym are obtained from Annex VI.7.3.1 considering:

kF coefficient of location of resulting force: kF = 1/2


S the resultant force of earth pressure, as defined by

1
S= STS (13)
2
Where:

S TS = ∑ RTS,i (14)

RTS,i is the resulting force for the TS load case applied on lane i of the TS load model, with:
RTS,i = K0,q b1 la qek,i
K0,q, la as defined by the User (see chapter II.3.13)
b1 and l1 define the area where TS load is applied: b1 = 3 m and l1 = 5 m
2 α Qi Qik
q ek,i =
b1 l 1
Qi,k load value on lane no i, according to TS/LM1 load model (either EN or DIN)

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NTS,l,anti and MTS,l,anti are obtained from Annex VI.7.3.2.


The load case ATS,l is considered as a live load. Its modular ratio is the same as for other live load cases.

IV.2.6.7 Effect of the TS load case on the right embankment


The same procedure is applied as for ATS,l

Live loads on railway bridges

IV.2.7.1 Load model LM71

Reference: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 6.3.2

Description:
Load Model 71 represents the static effect of normal rail traffic. It is applied successively to each
track of the bridge.

Longitudinal load pattern:


The load arrangement along a track and the characteristic values are as shown on the figure
below.

Figure IV-11: Load model LM71

This load model can be broken down and be applied only in the parts of the influence line
producing maximum effect on the variable studied.

Transverse load arrangement:


For each track, the loading line chosen is the most critical, bearing in mind the uncertainty over
the position of tracks, defined in the “Railway tracks” input module (see II.3.22).
Once the location of the track has been assessed by the program, the loads of LM71 model are
applied at the centres of the two rails, using a gauge of 1,435 m. The effect of eccentricity of
loading is also taken into account if it is unfavourable, in accordance with the diagram below.

Figure IV-12: Eccentricity of vertical loads

where: Qv1, Qv2 Loads on rails

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Qv1 + Qv2 Load on track


Qv2 / Qv1 = 1,25 Maximum vertical load ratio
s Track gauge (1,435 m)
e Eccentricity of vertical loads: e = s / 18

IV.2.7.2 Load models SW

Reference: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 6.3.3

Description:
SW/0 represents the static effect of normal rail traffic whereas SW/2 represents the static effect
of heavy rail traffic. These load models are applied successively to each track on the bridge,
according to the options chosen by the User (see II.3.30).

Longitudinal load arrangement:


The load arrangement along a track is as shown on the figure below

Figure IV-13: SW Load Models

The characteristic values of the vertical loads are given in the table below:

Load model qvk (kN/m) a (m) c (m)

SW/0 133 15.0 5.3

SW/2 150 25.0 7.0

Table IV-15: Coefficients for the SW Load models

These load models cannot be broken down, even to be applied to parts of the influence line
producing the maximum effect.

Transverse load arrangement:


For each track, the loading line chosen is the most critical, bearing in mind the uncertainty over
the position of tracks, defined in the “Railway tracks” input module (see II.3.22).
A possible eccentricity of vertical loads is also considered. The loads on a railway track are
applied at the axis of each rail, for a gauge of 1,435 m. The loads eccentricity is taken into
account if it is unfavourable, in accordance with the diagram below. The eccentricity is defined
according to the railway track axis, according to the same principle as for LM71 load model (see
Figure IV-12 p 141).

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IV.2.7.3 Dynamic factor for railway loads

Reference: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 6.4.5.2

Dynamic effects exerted on a bridge (due to the speed of trains, irregularities in wheels or rails,
resonance of the bridge) are taken into account with a dynamic factor Φ applied to Load Models LM71
and SW (SW/0 and SW/2).
Calculation of this factor depends on the type of track maintenance, as defined in the “Train load model”
input module (see II.3.30). It can also be entered directly by the User in the same module. When the
automatic assessment is chosen, the following relations are applied:

• Careful track maintenance Φ = 0,82 + 1,44 / (LΦ1/2 - 0,2) and 1,00 < Φ < 1,67 (15)
• Standard track maintenance Φ = 0,73 + 2,16 / (LΦ1/2 - 0,2) and 1,00 < Φ < 2,00 (16)
In these relations, LΦ is the determinant length, defined by:

LΦ = k Lm (17)
where: Lm mean span length
k Coefficient depending on the number of spans n, from the following table:

n 1 2 3 4 ≥5

k 1,0 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5

Table IV-16: Coefficient k for the calculation of the dynamic factor

Note: For speeds greater than 200 km/h a complete dynamic study must be carried out to determine the actual
dynamic factor (see EN1991-2:2003 6.4.5.1). This factor can then be applied.

IV.2.7.4 Live loads on maintenance walkways


The live loads on maintenance walkways of a railway bridge are exactly the same as the live loads on
footways of a road bridge (see IV.2.4.3).

Live loads on footbridges

IV.2.8.1 Live load on footbridges

References: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 5.3.2.1

Description:
According to the option chosen in the “loads on footbridge” module (see II.3.26), one of the
following method is applied to assess live loads on footbridges deck.

According to Eurocode:
The live load on footbridges is a system of uniformly distributed loads placed on the bridge so
as to produce the maximum effect on the variable studied. The uniformly distributed load is
given by the following formulas (from Eq (5.1) in EN 1991-2):
q = [ 2,00 + 120 / (L + 30) ] (in kN/m2)
and: 2,5 kN/m2 ≤ q ≤ 5,0 kN/m2
where: L is the aggregate length of loaded areas

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Load imposed by the User:


The live load has a constant value and is imposed on the bridge according to the unfavourable
effect in the longitudinal influence line. The default value of the constant load is 5 kN/m2 and
can be modified by the User.

Position:
Longitudinally, the areas to be loaded are defined as the combination of areas between zeros
of influence lines producing the maximum effect on the variable studied.
Laterally, the areas to be loaded are determined for each case so as to produce the maximum
effect envisaged.

IV.2.8.2 Vehicle on footbridge by error

References: Eurocode EN1991-2:2003 5.6.3

Description:
The accidental loading corresponding to the presence of a vehicle on a footbridge by error is
treated as a live load. It is taken into account only if specified in the module for input of live loads
for footbridges (see II.3.29).
This loading consists of a vehicle with two axles, 40 kN and 80 kN respectively, as shown in the
following diagram:

Figure IV-14: Accidental loading of footbridges

Position:
Longitudinally, the vehicle is positioned on the footbridge so as to produce the maximum effect
on the variable studied. Laterally, the vehicle is positioned to produce the maximum effect on
the variable studied.
The vehicle is not symmetrical. For longitudinal positioning, the more unfavourable orientation
of the vehicle is considered.
Laterally, the centreline of a wheel of the vehicle must be at least 20 cm from the edge of the
slab.

IV.2.8.3 Service vehicle


It is possible to envisage a service vehicle travelling on a footbridge as a live loading. To do this, the
User selects the appropriate option in the “loads on footbridge” module (see II.3.26), then chooses the
required vehicle from the drop-down list. The service vehicle is defined in the abnormal load database
(see II.2.4).
The load of a service vehicle is not modified by any dynamic amplification factor.
Longitudinally the vehicle is positioned so as to produce the maximum effect on the variable studied.
Laterally the vehicle is positioned so as to produce the maximum effect on the variable studied, but must
be at least 20 cm from the edge of the deck slab.

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Normal force and corrected moment distribution for integral bridges


For an integral bridge submitted to a load case, either static or live, normal forces have to be assessed
form the result of the FEM calculations. To take account of the frame effect of integral abutments, the
distribution of bending moments in the superstructure has also to be shifted.
This process is applied to all load cases, except support settlements (see IV.2.2.6) and specific loads
for integral bridges (see IV.2.6).
The general method, applied for each load calculations, is described in Annex VI.7.4.

Eigenmode
ACOBRI calculates the natural frequency of the principal bending mode of all types of bridges.

Principle:

The frequency calculation is based on the Rayleigh method, assuming equivalence of the first
eigenmode shape and of the static deflected shape of the bridge under the effect of all the forces
acting at nodes Fi:
Fi = (-1)j mi g
where: i node index
mi mass at node indexed i
j span index
Masses considered are the nominal masses of:
• the main beams,
• the concrete slab,
• waterproofing, surfacing, footways, ballast, rails and sleepers, maintenance walkways
when relevant
• diaphragms.
Masses associated to vertical live loads are not considered.

Figure IV-15: Loading assumption for static calculation of mode shape

Modular ratio:
The eigenmode shape is determined with the characteristics of the concrete for short-term
actions.

Rayleigh method:

Once this static load case has been applied, the eigen frequency is obtained with the following
relation:

1
T = = 2π
∑F δ i i
2

(18)
f g ∑F δ i i

where: T, f: respectively period and frequency of eigen mode


δi : deflection at node i

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Note: For railways bridges with filler beams decks, when the User has chosen to increase the second moment
of area of the main girder by a factor (see filler beams options in II.5.1), this factor is not considered
directly in the model but used after the analysis by dividing all the deflection by this factor.

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IV.3 COMBINATIONS OF LOADS

References: Eurocode EN1990 Annex A2

Combinations of basic loads (permanent and live loads) are applied in accordance with the type of
bridge.

Road bridges

IV.3.1.1 Symbols for loads


In the description of the combinations, the following symbols are used for loads and partial coefficients:
G Permanent loads, taking account of:
• The total weight of the bridge, alternately increased and reduced. The total weight
comprises the self-weight of the bridge and the superimposed dead load (SDL1 - weight
of deck surfacing or ballast etc., and SDL2 - weight of deck furniture).
• Support height adjustment, if defined by the User.
Q Live loads, equal to the component actions of either group gr1a or group gr5 for road
bridges.
SH Shrinkage loads
Combinations with shrinkage loads are not applied to filler-beam decks.
For partially prefabricated load cases, SH is replaced by SH1 + SH2, for the two shrinkage
load cases (cf. IV.2.2.4).
GTA1 Loads due to first support settlement load case, when defined by the User.
GTA2 Loads due to second support settlement load case, when defined by the User.
Tk Temperature loads
Temperature loads are not applied to filler-beam decks.
γG Partial factor for permanent loads.
The values of γG are different for:
• usual permanent loads
• loads due to support height adjustment
• loads due to support settlement (γG,TA)
• shrinkage of concrete (γs)
γQ Partial factor for live loads (see II.4.3).
The values of γQ are different for:
• traffic actions
• other variable actions (thermal)
ψ0, ψ1, ψ2 and ψ’1 : Combination factors (see II.4.3)
Combination factors are defined separately for:
• the UDL type live loads of group 1a (including loads on footways)
• the TS type live loads of group 1a
• the live loads of group 5
• the temperature loads
For integral bridges, following symbols are also used:
A0 Effect of the foundation system on the superstructure at rest
Aseason either ASum or AWin, i.e. effect of the foundation system on the superstructure during summer
or winter time

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For Aseason, the ψ factors are equal to the ψ factors for thermal load TK
γAseason has to be understood as follows:
either: γs ASum,soil + γQ ASum,Therm
or: γs AWin,soil + γQ AWin,Therm
where γs is the partial factor for soil loadings and γQ the partial factor for thermal loadings.

Note: The symbol ± in the combination means that two combinations with both “+” and “-“ signs are considered.

IV.3.1.2 Load groups


Two load groups are considered for road bridges, combining live loads on the bridge in accordance with
the following table:

Group Live load Factor

LM1 1.0
1a Footways ktr
Abutments loads* 1.0
Abnormal load 1.0
LM1 – UDL kUDL
5
LM1 – TS kTS
Footways ktr

(*) for integral bridges only

Table IV-17: Load groups for road bridges

The coefficient ktr for the part of loads on footway to be considered in group 1a are set by default to 0.6.
This value can be modified by the User (see II.3.26).
For integral bridges, group1a also contains the effect of UDL and TS loads on abutments. In this case,
the general pattern for the load group1a is the following one:

UDL + AUDLL + AUDLR +TS + ktr TR


UDL + AUDLL + AUDLR + ATSL + ktr TR
UDL + AUDLL + AUDLR + ATSR + ktr TR

where: UDL is the effect of partial load model UDL


TS is the effect of partial load model TS
FT is the effect of live load on footways
AUDLL and AUDLR are the effects of UDL partial load model on the left and right abutments
respectively
ATSL and ATSR are the effects of TS partial load model on the left and right abutments respectively
For the group 5, if LM1 load model is superimposed to the abnormal load, only a part of the partial loads
UDL and TS are considered, respectively kUDL (by default 0.40) and kTS (by default 0.75). These values
can be modified by the User (see II.3.27). For the group 5, effect of the live load on the footways is
considered only if the associated option has been selected.

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IV.3.1.3 SLS Combinations

Characteristic SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q
Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk + SH
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q ± GTA
Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q + SH ± GTA

Frequent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk
Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + SH ± GTA

Quasi-permanent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + ψ2 Q
Σ (G) + ψ2 Tk
Σ (G) + ψ2 Q + SH
Σ (G) + ψ2 Tk + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + ψ2 Q ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ2 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ2 Q+ SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ2 Tk + SH ± GTA

The only quasi-permanent combinations considered are those for which the factor ψ2 of the load
Q or Tk considered is not zero.

Infrequent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk
Σ (G) + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + ψ'1 Q + ψ1 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ'1 Q + ψ1 Tk + SH ± GTA

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IV.3.1.4 ULS combinations

Σ (γG G) + γQ Q
Σ (γG G) + γQ Q + γG,R SH
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (γG G) + γQ Q ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γQ Q + γG,R SH ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH ± γG,TA GTA

IV.3.1.5 SLS combinations for integral bridges

Characteristic SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q
Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q + SH

Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0 Aseason
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Aseason
Σ (G) + A0 + Aseason + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Tk
Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0 Aseason + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Aseason + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + Aseason + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Tk + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q + SH ± GTA

Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0 Aseason ± GTA


Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Aseason ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Aseason + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0 Aseason + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Tk + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Aseason + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + Aseason + ψ0 Q + ψ0 Tk + SH ± GTA

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Frequent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2 Aseason
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2 Aseason + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2 Aseason ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2 Aseason + SH ± GTA

Quasi-permanent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Q
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Tk
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Aseason
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Q + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Tk + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Aseason + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Q ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Aseason ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Q + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Tk + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ2 Aseason + SH ± GTA

The only quasi-permanent combinations considered are those for which the factor ψ2 of the load
Q or Tk considered is not zero.

Infrequent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + SH
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1 Aseason
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1 Aseason + GR

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1 Aseason ± GTA
Σ (G) + A0 + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1 Aseason + SH ± GTA

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IV.3.1.6 ULS combinations for integral bridges

Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q + γG,R GR
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q + γAseason
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q + γG,R SH + γAseason
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γAseason
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH + γAseason
If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q + γG,R SH ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q + γAseason ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Q + γG,R SH + γAseason ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γAseason ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γs A0 + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH + γAseason + γG,TA GTA

Footbridges
The same combination pattern applies for footbridges as for road bridges. In these combinations, for
footbridges, the symbol Q represents the live loads and is equal to the component actions of either
group gr1a or group gr2. These two load groups considered for footbridges, combining live loads on the
bridge, are defined in accordance with the following table:

Group Live load Factor

1a Live loads on footbridges 1,0

2 Service vehicle 1,0

Table IV-18: Load groups for foot bridges

Combination factors are defined separately for:


• the live loads of group 1
• the live loads of group 2
• the temperature loads

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When an accidental presence of vehicle on the footbridge has been imposed by the User (see II.3.29),
the additional following ULS combinations are added to the previously defined list:
Σ (G) + Ad + ψ2 Tk
Σ (G) + Ad + ψ2 Tk + SH

Additionally, if support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been
defined:
Σ (G) + Ad + ψ2 Tk ± GTA
Σ (G) + Ad + ψ2 Tk + SH ± GTA

Where: Ad Accidental loads (presence of a vehicle on a footbridge by error).

Railway bridges

IV.3.3.1 Symbols for loads


In the description of the combinations, the following symbols are used for loads and partial coefficients:
G Permanent loads, taking account of:
• The total weight of the bridge, alternately increased and reduced. The total weight
comprises the self-weight of the bridge and the superimposed dead load (SDL1 - weight
of deck surfacing or ballast etc., and SDL2 - weight of deck furniture).
• Support height adjustment, if defined by the User.
Q Live loads, taken from load groups gr11, gr16, gr21, gr26 and gr31.
SH Shrinkage loads
Combinations with shrinkage loads are not applied to filler-beam decks.
For partially prefabricated load cases, SH is replaced by SH1 + SH2, for the two shrinkage
load cases (cf. IV.2.2.4).
GTA1 Loads due to first support settlement load case, when defined by the User.
GTA2 Loads due to second support settlement load case, when defined by the User.
Tk Temperature loads
Temperature loads are not applied to filler-beam decks.
QP Live loads on maintenance walkways, if defined.
γG Partial factor for permanent loads.
The values of γG are different for:
• usual permanent loads
• loads due to support height adjustment
• loads due to support settlement
• shrinkage of concrete (γs)
γQ Partial factor for live loads (see II.4.3).
The values of γQ are different for:
• actions of Load Models LM71 and SW0
• actions of Load Model SW2
• other variable actions (temperature effects)
ψ0, ψ1, ψ2 and ψ’1 : Combination factors (see II.4.3)
Combination factors are defined separately for:
• the loads of groups gr11 to gr17
• the loads of groups gr21 to gr27
• the loads of group gr31
• temperature loads

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γP Partial safety factor for live loads on maintenance walkways, taken as the value of γQ for
other variable actions (can be modified by the User - see II.4.3).
ψ0,P, ψ1,P, ψ2,P : Combination factors for live loads on maintenance walkways. Their values can be
modified by the User (see II.4.3).

IV.3.3.2 Load groups


Load groups are combinations of rail traffic on the tracks. These combinations are defined in the
following table.

Number of
Group Track LM71 + SW0 SW2
tracks

11 Ti 1,0 0
1 track
16 Ti 0 1,0

Ti 1,0 0
21
Ti 1,0 0
2 tracks
Ti 1,0 0
26
Ti 0 1,0

≥3 tracks 31 All tracks 0,75 0

Table IV-19: Load groups for railways bridges

"LM71 + SW0" means the envelope of these two actions and not the sum.
When a bridge has more than one track, all possible combinations of groups acting on one, two, or three
tracks are considered.

IV.3.3.3 SLS combinations

Characteristic SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0,P QP
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q
Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0,P QP + SH
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0,P QP ± GTA
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q ± GTA
Σ (G) + Q + ψ0 Tk + ψ0,P QP + SH ± GTA
Σ (G) + Tk + ψ0 Q + SH ± GTA

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Frequent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2,P QP


Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2,P QP + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2,P QP ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ1Q + ψ2 Tk + ψ2,P QP + SH ± GTA

Quasi permanent SLS combinations:

Same combinations as road bridges

Infrequent SLS combinations:

Σ (G) + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1,P QP


Σ (G) + ψ'1Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1,P QP + SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (G) + ψ'1 Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1,P QP ± GTA
Σ (G) + ψ'1 Q + ψ1 Tk + ψ1,P QP + SH ± GTA

IV.3.3.4 ULS combinations


Σ (γG G) + γQ Q + ψ0,P γP QP
Σ (γG G) + γQ Q + ψ0,P γP QP + γG,R SH
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH

If support settlement load case GTA (GTA being either GTA1 or GTA2) has been defined:
Σ (γG G) + γQ Q + ψ0,P γP QP ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γQ Q + ψ0,P γP QP + γG,R SH ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q ± γG,TA GTA
Σ (γG G) + γQ Tk + γQ ψ0 Q + γG,R SH ± γG,TA GTA

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IV.4 DECK ANALYSIS

Conventions
This chapter defines the terms used to study a bridge with ACOBRI.

Figure IV-16: Terminology

Coordinate system:
The coordinate system used to configure the bridge and with which the Grillage model is built is
defined as follows:
• The origin of coordinates is at the intersection of the left-hand edge of the bridge and the
origin abutment.
• The X axis is directed from the origin abutment to the end abutment.
• The Z axis is vertically upwards.
• The Y axis is horizontal, directed so that the coordinate system is right-handed.

Bridge edges:
The left-hand and right-hand edges of the bridge are defined as follows:
• The left-hand edge is the edge on the side of decreasing Y coordinates.
• The right-hand edge is the edge on the side of increasing Y coordinates.

Support identification:
Supports (abutments and piers) are identified by a tag comprising a letter and a number. Letter
A is for an abutment and P for a pier. The number is the sequence number of the supports
counted from the origin abutment "0". Consequently, for a three-span bridge, the abutments will
be A0 and A3 and the supports will be P1 and P2.

Sides of a design cross-section:


The left-hand side of a design cross-section is on the side of the origin abutment and the right-
hand side on the side of the end abutment. This configuration is used in particular to distinguish
the shear forces in the cross-section.

Moments:
By convention, a positive moment (sagging moment) is a moment which tends to compress the
concrete slab, and a negative moment (hogging moment) is a moment which tends to crack the
slab.

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Principles
The effects of load cases on the bridge are solved by ACOBRI using a finite element solver. Details
about the Grillage model are given in IV.4.3 and in Annex VI.5.
Each cross-section at the location of a node in the longitudinal direction of the bridge is a potential cross-
section to be studied. Among these cross-sections, the sections of interest are distinguished and defined
by:
• supports of the bridge (abutments and piers)
• mid-spans
• changes in cross-section
• connections with diaphragms
• limits of support regions
When a full calculation is performed, all cross-sections are calculated by ACOBRI. On the contrary, for
partial calculations, only sections of interest are calculated. The full calculation is generally
recommended.
In the preliminary predesign report, the results are given only for the section of interest, even though all
section are calculated. The post-processor gives access to the results for all the calculated cross-
sections.

Grillage model
This chapter gives some information about the grillage finite element model used in the solver of
ACOBRI.

Main coordinate system:


The main coordinate system is the right-handed orthonormal coordinate system in which the X-
axis is parallel to the longitudinal centreline of the bridge, the Y-axis is parallel to the lateral axis
of the bridge, and the Z-axis is vertically upwards.

Geometry:
The behaviour of the complete structure of the bridge is represented by a finite element model
using only bar elements, including the deck. The grillage model reproduces both the composite
effect of the main beam and the shell effect of the slab:
• the main beam are represented by bar elements in the longitudinal direction, which
characteristics take account of the composite effect (if any, according to the state of the
concrete for the load case)
• the concrete slab is modelled by a serie of longitudinal and transverse bar elements,
which reproduce the shell effect of the deck
All the elements of the model are located in a single horizontal plane.
The maximum length of longitudinal bar elements ranges between 1.0 m for standard bridges
to 1.60 m for very long bridges. In the area of haunches (see II.3.15), these limits are reduced
by a ratio 0.7.
In the transverse direction, the maximum length of bar is 1.0 m. Additionally a span contains at
least 10 elements for each longitudinal line.
The geometry of the model can be completely accessed by the User (but not modified) in the
Post Processor module (see III.3.5).

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Figure IV-17: Example of grillage model

Local coordinate system of elements:


The local coordinate system of an element is defined as follows:
• local axis x is the same as the longitudinal axis of the element (so for the grillage model,
it may be either the X direction of the global coordinate system or the Y axis);
• local axis y is horizontal;
• local axis z is vertical.

Elements:
ACOBRI uses a uniaxial 2-nodes bar as finite element. This element has three degrees of
freedom at each end, expressed here in the local coordinate system of the element:
• vertical displacement uz
• rotation rx
• rotation ry
The forces and moments calculated by the solver at each end of one element are thus the
following ones:
• the vertical shear force (FZ);
• the torsional moment (MX)
• the bending moment (MY).
Finally, it is important to note that axial displacement ux is not taken into account, and thus the
normal forces in elements are not calculated by the finite element solver. ACOBRI takes account
of the normal forces only through analytical processes, for the following situations:
• the shrinkage load case;
• the thermal load cases;
• all load cases for integral bridges.

Characteristics:
Some indications for the calculation of element characteristics are given in the chapter
Characteristics of model elements (see IV.4.6).

Boundary conditions:
The degrees of freedom of the main beams nodes at supports (abutments and piers) meet the
following conditions, expressed in the global coordinate system:
• vertical displacement UZ is restrained
• rotation RX is free
• rotation RY is generally free; however, an elastic restraint is taken into account when
stiffnesses have been defined by the User at the supports and for integral bridges. For
integral bridges, stiffnesses are assessed directly by ACOBRI (see Annex VI.7.2).

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Figure IV-18: RY rotations conditions at supports

As an exception, UZ vertical displacement are fully restrained for all nodes for the dead loads
when fully propped beams are considered during the pouring of concrete (see II.3.6).
When a Gerber isostatic span has been defined by the User, hinges are introduced in the finite
elements model at the location of the isostatic span’s ends.

Figure IV-19: Gerber isostatic span’s modelisation

Effective width
The characteristics of cross-sections (moments of inertia, section moduli, etc…) are calculated taking
into account the effective width of the concrete slab.

IV.4.4.1 Global analysis


For the global analysis, the effective widths of the concrete slab linked to a beam’s cross-section are
calculated with the following relations. The characteristics of the finite elements in the grillage model are
based upon these effective widths.
For beams connected to the slab with stud connectors, the relation is:

li
d i = b0 + k b (19)
4
where: di is the effective width
li is the span’s length
kb is a factor equal to 0.85 for an end span and to 0.7 for an intermediate span
b0 is the maximum spacing between two studs on the upper flange.
Half the effective width is limited by the available width, either the spacing to the deck edge or half the
spacing to the adjacent main girder.

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Figure IV-20: Effective widths of slab for global analysis

In ACOBRI, the studs are not defined by the User but by the program. Thus, the following assumptions
are made for the calculation of the spacing b0:
• there is at least two studs for each row of connection;
• the external stud is located at a distance of the flange’s outer edge equal to 1.25 dc, where dc is
the diameter of the stud (type of stud is defined by the User, see II.3.6).
Thus, the formula for b0 is one of the following, according to the type of beam (but Precobeams):
• single beams: b0 = bf − 2.5 d c
• box girders (welded flanges): b0 = 2 bf − 2.5 d c
• concrete filled box girder (unwelded flanges): b0 = 2 bf + s − 2.5 d c
where bf is the flange’s width and s the spacing between flanges for concrete filled box girders.

Figure IV-21: Spacing of studs b0

For Precobeams, the same relation (19) is used, considering:


• b0 = 0 for single partially prefabricated Precobeam
• b0 = dsd for double prefabricated Precobeam, where dsd is the spacing between the two chords
of the beam.

Figure IV-22: Distance b0 for double prefabricated Precobeams

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Finally, for filler-beam decks, the effective width of slab associated to each beam is defined as the sum
of the halve distances to adjacent beams (or the distance to the deck’s edge).

Figure IV-23: Effective width for filler-beams

IV.4.4.2 Section analysis – Calculation of stresses

Reference: Eurocode EN1994-2:2006 5.4.1.2

The characteristics of cross-sections (section moduli, moment resistances, etc..) used for design checks
are calculated from the effective concrete slab widths defined below.

Figure IV-24: Effective widths for design’s checks

The widths beff are obtained from the relations of 5.4.1.2 in EN 1994-2, using the same values of b0 as
in IV.4.4.1.
For filler-beams deck, the same definition of effective width is used as for global analysis.

Support regions
For all bridge types, support regions are defined in the Grillage model at each intermediate support.
In these regions, the effect of concrete cracking at supports is taken into account, if required. The edges
of these regions are cross-sections of interest.
For integral bridges or for bridges where rotational stiffness has been imposed at abutments (see
II.3.12), support regions are also defined for the abutments, with the same rule as for intermediate
piers.

Dimensions of support regions:


The support region at an intermediate support is defined by default as the area to a distance of
15% of the span distance on each side of the support line.

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Figure IV-25: Support regions

The length of the cracked region can be modified when the ratio of lengths of adjacent spans is
less than 0.6 (see II.3.25). If the condition governing the validity of this modification (ratio of
lengths of adjacent spans) is not met, a warning message is given but the modification can be
made nonetheless.

Dealing with support regions in global analysis:


For all bridge types, the inertia of main-beam elements in the grillage model in a support region
(cracked region) is calculated assuming a negative moment, i.e. without taking account of the
slab, but taking account of reinforcement.

Characteristics of the model elements


For the type of bar elements used in ACOBRI, the element characteristics necessary for the solver are
their bending moment of inertia, Iy, and torsional moment of inertia, It. These characteristics are
calculated by ACOBRI in accordance with the type of element, the state of the slab concrete, and the
modular ratio, m (see IV.1.4).
The 4 different types of elements used in the model are:
• elements representing main beams
• elements representing the concrete slab
• elements representing diaphragms
• elements representing crossbeams at supports

IV.4.6.1 Inertia of main beam elements


The inertia of the main beams elements in the finite element model are obtained according to the
principles explained in V.2, considering:
• the effective width of the slab
• the effective depth of the slab
• the modular ratio or/and the relevant state of concrete associated to the load case
• cracked concrete in support regions and uncracked concrete outside support regions
As an exception, the characteristics of the main beams elements for filler-beams deck considering the
composite effect (i.e. all load cases except self-weight during the pouring of concrete) are obtained using
the following relation (see Figure IV-26):
I = I2 + kFB (I1 – I2)
with : I1 the inertia of the cross-section considering the steel profile and the full depth of concrete
I2 the inertia of the cross-section considering the steel profile and the depth of concrete in
compression for sagging moment.

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kFB interpolation factor, as a function of sw the maximum distance between beam axis, given
by (sw in cm):
kFB = 0.5 if sw ≤ 75 cm
100 − s w
k FB = 0.45 + 0.05 if 75 < sw ≤ 100 cm
25

In these calculations, the lost formwork is always neglected. No longitudinal reinforcement are neither
considered.

Figure IV-26: Properties of elements for filler-beams

Note: For railways bridges, it is possible to select the option where the second moment of area of the girders
of filler beams deck are multiplied by a factor (default value 1.35), when considering the serviceability
limit states (see Filler beams options in II.5.1). Actually in ACOBRI, this factor is not applied directly in
the model but to the effects considered for the serviceability limit states (by acting then as a dividing
factor):
• deflection (see V.9.1)
• track twist (see V.9.2)
• end rotation (see V.9.3)

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IV.4.6.2 Torsion constant of main beam elements


Torsion constants of main beam elements are based upon the following relation, which gives the torsion
constant for a hot-rolled profile:

2 3 1 3 t  r  4
I t,pro = ( bf − 0 .63 t f ) t f + ( ht − 2 t f ) t w + 2 w  0 .145 + 0.1 c  d (20)
3 3 tt  tf 

( rc + t w / 2 ) 2 + ( r c + t f ) 2 − r c 2
with: d =
2 rc + t f

Figure IV-27: Dimensions of a hot-rolled profile

The torsion constants of main beam elements are obtained as follows:


• Conventional composite beam and partially prefabricated composite beam
3
1 3 1 L e tc
I t = I t,pro + br t r + (21)
3 6 m
where: br, tr are the dimensions of the strengthening plate, if any
L is the effective width of concrete for global analysis (see IV.4.4.1)
m is the modular ratio for the considered load case
etc is the depth of concrete to be considered, given by:
• in support region (concrete assumed cracked):
etc = 0
• outside support region:
etc = 0 for conventional beam under dead load without composite effect
etc = eprec for prefabricated beam before composite effect of in situ concrete
etc = eslab for other load cases

Figure IV-28: Parameters for torsion constants of conventional and prefabricated beams

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• Box girder
2 3
bf (ht − t f ) 2 1 3 1 L e tc
It = 2 + br t r +
bf ht − t f 3 6 m (22)
+
tf tw

where: etc is the depth of concrete to be considered, given by:


• in support region (concrete assumed cracked):
etc = 0
• outside support region:
etc = 0 for conventional beam under dead load without composite effect
etc = eslab for other load cases

Figure IV-29: Parameters for torsion constants of box girders

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• Concrete-filled box girder


3
2 3 1 L e tc
I t = 2 I t,pro + br t r + (23)
3 6 m
where: etc is the depth of concrete to be considered, given by:
• in support region (concrete assumed cracked):
etc = 0
• outside support region:
etc = 0 for conventional beam under dead load without composite effect
etc = eslab for other load cases

Figure IV-30: Parameters for torsion constants of concrete filled box girders

• Filler beam deck


3
1 L e tc
I t = I t,pro + (24)
6 m
where: etc is the depth of concrete to be considered, given by:
etc = 0 for conventional beam under dead load without composite effect
etc = eslab for other load cases, neglecting the depth of lost formworks

Figure IV-31: Parameters for torsion constants of filler beams

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• Simple Precobeam

[ ] 1 L e 
3
1
It = (hmr − t f ) t w 3 + bf t f 3 + br t r 3 +  tc  (25)
3 6 m 

hmr: see Annex VI.4
etc: see partially prefabricated composite beams above

• Double Precobeam

[ ] 1 L e 
3
2
It = (hmr − t f ) t w 3 + bf t f 3 + br t r 3 +  tc  (26)
3 6 m 
 
hmr: see Annex VI.4.1
etc: see partially prefabricated composite beams above
Note: Concrete between chords is neglected.

IV.4.6.3 Variable height


For conventional beams or partially prefabricated beams, if haunches have been defined by the User
(see II.3.15), the characteristics of the main beam elements in the area of haunches are calculated
considering the height of the cross-section at the middle of the element (i.e. the average value of heights
at both ends of the element).

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IV.4.6.4 Concrete deck elements


The characteristics of these elements are given by:

b e3
I y = k1 k 2
12 m
(27)
b e3
I t = k1 k 2
6m
where: b Width of the concrete deck element, defined as the sum of the half-distances to the lines
of parallel elements or to the edge of the slab.
e Slab thickness taken into account. For cantilevered slab elements, the mean thickness
of the overhang is considered.
k1 Calculation coefficient for the inertia of slab elements. The recommended value is 1.0,
except in the case of filler-beam decks where a factor of 0.5 is imposed by Eurocode
for tranverse slab elements.
The value of this factor can be modified in the Calculation Coefficient input module (see
II.4.7), which could be very useful for analyzing the distribution effects of the slab.
However, it is recommended that the default values of the program are retained;
they should only be modified if one is fully aware of the consequences.
k2 Calculation coefficient taking account of the position of longitudinal elements relative to
the main beams.
For transverse elements, k2 = 1.
For longitudinal elements:
• k2 = 0.01 if the element is within the effective width of a main beam. This amounts
to overlooking the element, for its global stiffness has already been taken into
account in the characteristics of the elements of the main beam.
• k2 = 1 if the element is not located in the effective width of the main beam.

Note: The concrete deck elements are coloured grey in the graphic window of the Post Processor.

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IV.4.6.5 Diaphragm elements


The characteristics of these elements are given by:
Iy = kdia,I Iy.mb,max
It = kdia,I It.mb,max (28)
S = kdia,S Smb,max
where: Iy.mb,max Maximum bending moment of inertia of the main-beam elements in the model.
It.mb,max Maximum torsional moment of inertia of the main-beam elements in the model.
kdia,I Calculation factor for the inertia of diaphragm elements. This factor can be modified
in the Calculation Coefficients input module (see II.4.7). The default value is 0.1 in
general, and 1.0 for filler-beam decks.
S Cross sectional area of the diaphragm element, used to calculate mass.
Smb,max Maximum cross sectional area of main-beam elements
kdia,S Calculation coefficient for the cross sectional area of diaphragm elements. This
factor can be modified in the Calculation Coefficients input module. Its default value
is 0.1.

Note: Diaphragm elements are coloured blue (or purple when they merge with a change in cross-section) in
the graphic window of the Post Processor.

IV.4.6.6 Crossbeam elements at supports


Crossbeam elements at supports are transverse elements located at each support (abutments and
piers), only between main beams. Overhangs at supports are represented by concrete slab elements.
In most cases, the inertia characteristics of these elements are calculated in the same way as for
diaphragm elements.
In the case of filler-beam decks, all the transverse elements at supports are calculated in the same way
as transverse slab elements. The inertia of elements between main beams is additionally weighted by
the calculation coefficient for inertia kdia,I.

Note: Crossbeam elements at supports are coloured green in the graphic window of the Post Processor.

Influence lines

IV.4.7.1 General cases


Influence lines enable live loads to be placed so as to obtain the maximum effect for a given cross-
section of a beam line. The variables studied are the bending moment and shear force.
A design cross-section always corresponds to a node in the grillage model. It is considered that the
bending moment varies little between the two main-beam elements connected to the node studied.
Which amounts to saying that the torsional moment of inertia of transverse elements is low compared
to the bending moment of inertia of main-beam elements. There is therefore no need to distinguish
between the moment on the left-hand side of the cross-section and that on the right.
On the contrary, it is possible that there is significant shear force variation between the two elements,
especially at the intersections with supports, diaphragms, or at points where loads are applied. A
distinction must therefore be made for the shear force, depending on the side it comes from. In what
follows, the terms 'left-hand shear force' and 'right-hand shear force' will be used, following the
convention adopted previously.
For the variables studied (bending moment and shear force), it is assumed in ACOBRI that there are no
interactions between the transverse position and the longitudinal position. The notion of influence

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surface can therefore be reduced to a combination of transverse influence lines and longitudinal
influence lines.

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Transverse influence lines:


The transverse influence line considered for a beam line is defined as the load quantity
introduced into the beam line for a load positioned transversally on the deck slab. This load
quantity is measured in ACOBRI as the bending moment in the cross-section of the beam
considered.

Figure IV-32: Transverse influence line

ACOBRI calculates a transverse influence line for each beam line. This calculation is performed
with the full bridge model, with concrete in its in-service phase, and with the modular ratio for
short-term loads.
Transverse influence lines can be displayed with the “Influence lines” module of the Post-
Processor (see III.3.6). The display convention adopted is that the curve is plotted downwards
when the effect on the beam is sagging and upwards when the effect on the beam is hogging.

Longitudinal influence lines:


For each cross-section studied, ACOBRI calculates an influence line for each variable to be
taken into account, i.e. the bending moment, left-hand shear force, and right-hand shear force.
Of course there is no influence line for the left-hand shear force at the origin abutment, nor for
the right-hand shear force at the end abutment.

Influence line
for moment
Cross-
section
studied

Figure IV-33: Longitudinal influence line

ACOBRI calculates the longitudinal influence lines with a special model taking account of only
one beam line, assuming that for a given design cross-section and a given variable, the

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influence line varies little from one beam line to another. This calculation assumes the concrete
to be in its in-service phase and uses the modular ratio for short-term loads.
Longitudinal influence lines can be displayed with the “Influence lines” module of the Post-
Processor (see III.3.6). Sagging moments are shown by lines curving downwards and hogging
moments by lines curving upwards.

IV.4.7.2 Integral bridges


In ACOBRI, the longitudinal influence line is obtained by the circulation of a Unit Load (FU) along a
predefined beam.
For integral bridges, this unit load Fu is split in two load cases (cf. Figure below):
- the symmetric load case (two symmetric forces Fu/2), calculated with the symmetric restraint
cϕ,sym at both ends of the girder;
- the anti-symmetric load case (two anti-symmetric forces Fu/2 and –Fu/2), calculated with the
anti-symmetric restraint cϕ,anti at both ends of the girder.

FU
Girder i

x
=

FU/2 FU/2 cϕ,sym,i

x x

FU/2 x cϕ,antisym,i

x FU/2

Figure IV-34: Calculation of the longitudinal influence line

The transverse influence lines are calculated with the same process as the current one for the general
cases, considering the grid model with the cϕ,sym symmetric restraints (see Annex VI.7.2).

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CHAPTER V

V DESIGN CHECKS

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V.1 GENERAL

Limit states are referred to in what follows by their abbreviations:


• SLS Serviceability Limit States
• ULS Ultimate Limit States
• FLS Fatigue Limit States
According to the type of beams and to the type of bridge, the following criteria are checked by ACOBRI:

Conventional beams, partially prefabricated composite beams, box girders or concrete-filled box
girders:

Footbridge Road bridge Railway bridge


Deflections
- Track twist
- End rotation of deck
SLS Minimum reinforcement
Slab cracking
Stress limitation
Shear connection
Resistance of cross-sections to bending
Resistance of cross-sections to vertical shear
ULS
Bending moment/shear force interaction
Buckling
FLS - Stress variations

Table V-1: Checks for the standard beams

Filler-beam decks:

Footbridge Road bridge Railway bridge


Deflections
- Track twist
- End rotation of deck
SLS
Minimum reinforcement
Cracking
Stress limitation
Resistance of cross-sections to bending
ULS
Resistance of cross-sections to vertical shear
FLS - Stress variations

Table V-2: Checks for filler-beam decks

Bridges with Precobeams:

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Footbridge Road bridge Railway bridge


Deflections
- Track twist
- End rotation of deck
SLS Minimum reinforcement
Cracking
Stress limitation
Horizontal shear force in dowels
Resistance of cross-sections to bending
Resistance of cross-sections to vertical shear
ULS
Bending moment/shear force interaction
Horizontal shear in Precobeam dowels
FLS - Stress variations

Table V-3: Checks for Precobeams

V.2 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-SECTIONS

This chapter gives the general method used in ACOBRI to calculate the elastic properties of the main
beams cross-sections properties: second moment of area and inertia moduli.

Concrete in casting phase


• If the cross-section is not partially prefabricated (i.e. conventional composite beam, box girder,
concrete-filled box girder, filler-beams):
The cross-section properties are obtained as the profile (+ strengthening plate if relevant) cross-
section properties, whatever the sign of bending.

Figure V-1: Elastic properties of conventional composite beam or filler beams before pourring

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Figure V-2: Elastic properties of box griders or concrete filled box griders before pourring

• If the cross-section is a partially prefabricated composite beam:


For uncracked concrete, properties are calculated considering the concrete of the precast slab
under compression and neglecting the reinforcement layer in the precast slab. Concrete of the
haunch, if any, not taken into account.
For cracked concrete, properties are calculated considering the reinforcement layer in the
precast slab and neglecting the concrete of the precast slab under compression.
The state cracked/uncracked of the concrete is assessed according to the principles described
in V.4.1, assuming the state of the precast panel is the same as the state of the slab concrete.

Figure V-3: Elastic properties of prefabricated composite beams


before pourring of in situ concrete

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• If the cross-section is a simple Precobeam:


The same principles are applied as for partially prefabricated composite beam, considering
additionally that:
- for uncracked concrete, the part of concrete web above the neutral axis is considered;
- for cracked concrete, the part of concrete web below the neutral axis is negelected.

Figure V-4: Elastic properties of simple Precobeams


before pourring of in situ concrete

• If the cross-section is a double Precobeam:


The same principles are applied as for partially prefabricated composite beam, considering
additionally that:
- the concrete of the haunch (if relevant) is always neglected, whatever the state of concrete;
- for cracked concrete, the part of concrete between steel webs chords and below the neutral
axis is considered, if the associated option has been chosen by the User.

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Figure V-5: Elastic properties of double Precobeams


before pourring of in situ concrete

Depth of the concrete slab


For the calculation of elastic properties of composite beam, but filler beams, the depth of the concrete
slab is calculated according to the following instructions:
• For the casting phase, only the depth of the prefabricated slab is considered if any;
• For other cases, complete depth of the slab is considered,
- minus the depth of non-participating precast panels if any,
- minus the height of the rib of profiled steel sheeting if any
• Concrete haunches are not considered.

Uncracked concrete
When the composite effect of the in-situ concrete can be accounted for, the cross-section properties are
obtained by the following principles:
• Conventional composite beam
Concrete of the haunch, if any, not taken into account.
Reinforcement not taken into account

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Figure V-6: Elastic properties of conventional composite beam under positive moment

• Partially prefabricated composite beam


Concrete of the haunch, if any, not taken into account.
Reinforcement not taken into account
Both in-situ concrete and precast concrete assumed to have the same Young’s modulus

Figure V-7: Elastic properties of partially prefabricated composite beam


under positive moment

• Box girder
Concrete of the haunch, if any, not taken into account.
Reinforcement not taken into account

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Figure V-8: Elastic properties of box girder under positive moment

• Concrete-filled box girder


Concrete of the haunch, if any, not taken into account.
Concrete between profiles not taken into account
Reinforcement not taken into account

Figure V-9: Elastic properties of concrete filled box girder under positive moment

• Filler beam deck


Reinforcements not considered
Concrete above the neutral axis taken into account

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Figure V-10: Elastic properties of filler-beam under positive moment

• Simple Precobeam
Reinforcement in compression zone not taken into account
Reinforcement in tension zone not taken into account
Concrete in compression taken into account, including concrete web if relevant

Figure V-11: Elastic properties of simple Precobeam under positive moment

• Double Precobeam
Reinforcement in compression zone not taken into account
Concrete of the haunch and concrete between steel chords not taken into account
Concrete in compression taken into account

Figure V-12: Elastic properties of double Precobeam under positive moment

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Cracked concrete
When the composite effect of the in-situ concrete can be accounted for, the cross-section properties are
obtained by the following principle
• Conventional composite beam
Concrete above neutral axis not taken into account. Concrete of the haunch neglected.

Figure V-13: Elastic properties of conventional composite beam under negavive moment

• Partially prefabricated composite beam


Concrete above neutral axis not taken into account. Concrete of the haunch neglected.

Figure V-14: Elastic properties of partially prefabricated composite beam


under negative moment

• Box girder
Concrete above neutral axis not taken into account. Concrete of the haunch neglected.

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Figure V-15: Elastic properties of box girder under negative moment

• Concrete-filled box girder


Concrete between profiles and concrete of the haunch not taken into account
Concrete above neutral axis not taken into account.

Figure V-16: Elastic properties of concrete filled box girder


under negative moment

• Filler beam deck


Cracked concrete not taken into account
Lost formwork not taken into account
One layer of reinforcement above the profile considered

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Figure V-17: Elastic properties of filler-beam under negative moment

• Simple Precobeam
Concrete in compression in the concrete web not considered
Reinforcement in compression not considered
Cracked concrete non considered

Figure V-18: Elastic properties of simple Precobeam under negative moment

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• Double Precobeam
Concrete in compression in the concrete web considered, if the associated option has been
selected by the User.
Cracked concrete non considered

Figure V-19: Elastic properties of double Precobeam under negative moment

Cross-sections at concrete crossbeams


Except for the checking of lateral torsional buckling (see V.10.8), elastic properties of cross-section at
concrete cross-beams under negative moments (cracked concrete) are obtained considering the
following parts of the section:
• the lower flange;
• the strengthening plate of the lower flange, if any,
• the reinforcement layers (according to the state of concrete)
• the continuity device between top flanges, if any (see II.3.7)
For the calculation of the section properties and for the assessment of stresses, the reinforcement layers
and the continuity device are all assumed to be located at the same location. This latter is the centroid
of the three parts.
The top flange, the fillets and the web are not considered.

Figure V-20: Elastic properties of conventional composite beam under negavive moment
at concrete crossbeam

Note: Cross-sections at abutments of integral bridges are treated as cross-sections at concrete crossbeams.

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V.3 PLASTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-SECTIONS

Positive moments
• Conventional composite beam
Concrete of the haunch neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected.

Figure V-21: Positive plastic moment for conventional composite section

• Partially prefabricated composite beam


Concrete of the haunch neglected
Reinforcement in compression not considered
Both concrete of in-situ slab and precast slab assumed to have the same properties

Figure V-22: Positive plastic moment for partailly prefabricated composite section

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• Box girder
Concrete of the haunch neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected.

Figure V-23: Positive plastic moment for box girders

• Concrete-filled box girder


Concrete of the haunch and concrete between profiles neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected.

Figure V-24: Positive plastic moment for concrete filled box girders

• Filler beam deck


Concrete below the plastic neutral axis neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected. Reinforcement in cracked zone neglected.

Figure V-25: Positive plastic moment for filler-beam decks

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• Simple Precobeam
Concrete below the plastic neutral axis neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected.
Reinforcement in concrete web neglected.
Both concrete of in-situ slab and precast slab assumed to have the same properties

Figure V-26: Positive plastic moment for simple precobeams

• Double Precobeam
Concrete of the haunch and concrete between profiles neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected.
Both concrete of in-situ slab and precast slab assumed to have the same properties

Figure V-27: Positive plastic moment for double precobeams

Negative moments
• Conventional composite beam
Concrete of the haunch neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected.

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Figure V-28: Negative plastic moment for conventional composite section

• Partially prefabricated composite beam


Concrete of the haunch neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected, if relevant.

Figure V-29: Negative plastic moment for partailly prefabricated composite section

• Box girder
Concrete of the haunch neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected, if relevant.

Figure V-30: Negative plastic moment for box girders

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• Concrete-filled box girder


Concrete of the haunch and concrete between profiles neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected, if relevant.

Figure V-31: Negative plastic moment for concrete filled box girders

• Filler beam deck


Concrete above plastic neutral axis (tension zone) neglected.
Concrete below plastic neutral axis (compression zone) considered.
Reinforcement in compression neglected, if relevant.
Lost formwork neglected.

Figure V-32: Negative plastic moment for filler-beam decks

• Simple Precobeam
Concrete above plastic neutral axis (tension zone) neglected.
Concrete of web below plastic neutral axis (compression zone) neglected.
Reinforcement in compression neglected, if relevant.

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Figure V-33: Neagtive plastic moment for simple precobeams

• Double Precobeam
Both concrete of in-situ slab and precast slab neglected when above plastic neutral axis.
Concrete in-between the two webs and above the fillet is taken into account, if the associated
option has been selected by the User.
Concrete of the haunch neglected.

Figure V-34: Negative plastic moment for double precobeams

Cross-sections at concrete crossbeams


Except for the checking of lateral torsional buckling (see V.10.8), plastic properties of cross-section at
concrete cross-beams under negative moments (cracked concrete) are obtained considering the
following parts of the section:
• the lower flange;
• the strengthening plate of the lower flange, if any,
• the reinforcement layers (according to the state of concrete)
• the continuity device between top flanges, if any (see II.3.12 and II.3.13)
In this calculation, the stress considered in the continuity device (if any) is obtained according to the
type of steel used for the device, as follows:

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• rebar steel: fyd / γc, where fyd is the yield strength defined by the User and γc is the partial
factor for rebars;
• plate steel: fyd / γM0, where fyd is the yield strength according to the following table and γM0
is the partial factor for structural steel.
Steel grade Yield strength fyd (MPa)

S235 235
S275 275
S355 355
S460 460
Custom As defined by the User

Table V-4 : Yield strength for plate steel used as continuity device

The top flange, the fillets and the web are not considered.

Note: Cross-sections at abutments of integral bridges are treated as cross-sections at concrete crossbeams.

Figure V-35: Plastic properties of conventional composite beam under negavive moment
at concrete crossbeam

Plastic shear resistance


References: Eurocode EN1993-1-1:2005 6.2.6

The plastic resistance to vertical shear force is given by:

Av f yp
VplRd = (29)
3 γ M0

where: VplRd Plastic design resistance to shear force


fyp Yielding strength of the profile’s steel (see IV.1.1)
γM0 Partial factor for ULS (see II.4.5)

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Av Shear area, given by:

Conventional composite beam, partially prefabricated composite beam,


filler-beam deck,
Av = A − 2bf t f + (t w + 2rc ) t f (30)
Box girders, concrete filled box girders
Av = 2 [A − 2bf t f + (t w + 2rc ) t f ] (31)
Simple Precobeams
Av = (hmr − t f ) t w (32)
Double Precobeams
Av = 2 (hmr − t f ) t w (33)

bf, tf dimensions of a flange


tw thickness of the web
rc radius of the fillet
A gross area of the steel profile only (strengthening plate neglected)
hmr height of Precobeam steel chords for the resistance (see VI.4.2)

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V.4 CALCULATION OF STRESSES UNDER BENDING MOMENTS

Some checks require the calculation of stresses in different fibers of cross-sections, whatever the type
of combinations. The present chapter details these calculations.

Principles
In ACOBRI, stresses in cross-sections are calculated at 4 different fibers:
• general cross-sections:
- upper fiber of the steel profile (upper flange)
- lower fiber of the steel profile (either lower flange or strengthening plate)
- upper layer of longitudinal reinforcement (tensile stresses)
- upper fiber of concrete slab (compressive stresses)
• Precobeams cross-sections:
- stresses in the dowels
- lower fiber of the steel profile (either lower flange or strengthening plate)
- upper layer of longitudinal reinforcement (tensile stresses)
- upper fiber of concrete slab (compressive stresses)
Stresses are calculated for combinations of loads, as the sum of stresses obtained for each individual
load cases weighted by combinations factors.
By convention, it assumed here that tensile stresses are positive.
Stresses are always calculated according to the following steps, except filler-beams:

1. Calculation of stresses in the upper fiber on concrete, considering uncracked concrete


2. Checking the state of concrete:
General case:
- if σc > 0 (i.e. the stress in concrete is tensile stress), the uncracked assumption is verified
- if σc < 0, the concrete should in fact be considered as cracked
3. Calculation of stresses for all fibres considering the state of concrete (cracked/uncracked).

For filler-beams, the following procedure is adopted:

1. Calculation of the bending moment MEdr under the combination of loads and neglecting the
moment for dead load cases without composite effect
2. The state of concrete is defined according to the sign of MEdr: MEdr > 0 means uncracked
concrete on the upper fiber of the slab and MEdr < 0 means cracked concrete.
3. Calculation of stresses for all fibres considering the state of concrete (cracked/uncracked).

In this document, the following symbols are adopted:


σft Normal stresses in top fibre of the steel profile
σfb Normal stress in bottom fibre of beam (bottom flange or strengthening plate as
applicable)
σc Compressive stress in top fibre of concrete slab
σr Tensile stress in top layer of reinforcement (without the part due to the effect of concrete
in tension, given by relation (42)).
σdow equivalent stress in dowels of Precobeams due to the effect of the global bending
moment and of the horizontal shear force.

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Stresses for load cases without composite effect of the in-situ concrete
For the dead load cases, where the in-situ concrete is being poured, assuming unpropped conditions,
the composite effect cannot be accounted for, except for the precast slab of prefabricated beams when
relevant.
Note: These formulas also apply for the shrinkage load case associated to the precast slab of partially
prefabricated beams (cf. IV.2.2.4).

For these load cases, normal stresses are obtained with the following relations:
Fiber Normal stress under bending moment
M
Upper flange (*) σ ft = (34)
W ft

M
Lower flange σ fb = (35)
W fb

Cross-section without precast slabs


Upper slab - concrete σc = 0
Upper layer reinforcement σr = 0
Cross-section with prefabricated precast slabs
cracked concrete: σc = 0
Upper slab - concrete M (36)
uncracked concrete: σc = kc
W cp

M
cracked concrete: σr = kr
Upper layer reinforcement Wrp (37)
uncracked concrete: σr = 0
(*): not relevant for Precobeams

where: M bending moment in the cross-section for the load case


Wft elastic moduli of inertia of the cross-section, for the upper fiber of the steel profile (upper
flange). For partially prefabricated cross-section, this characteristic takes account of the
state of concrete.
Wfb elastic moduli of inertia of the cross-section, for the lower fiber of the steel profile (either
lower flange or strengthening plate). For partially prefabricated cross-section, this
characteristic takes account of the state of concrete.
Wcp elastic moduli of inertia of the upper face of the precast slab.
kc factor for the sum of precast concrete stresses with in-situ concrete stresses. In
ACOBRI, kc = 0.5. This value can be modified in Expert mode only. In Expert mode also,
it can be chosen not to add the stresses in precast slab to the stresses in the upper face
of the final slab. In this case, σc = 0 (see II.5.4).
Wrp elastic moduli of inertia of the reinforcement layer of the precast slab, which is generally
the lower layer of reinforcement of the final deck.
kr factor for the sum of stresses in precast concrete reinforcement with the stresses in
upper layer of the final deck. In ACOBRI, kr = 1. This value cannot be modified, even in
Expert mode. In Expert mode, it can however be chosen not to add the stresses in
precast reinforcement layer to the stresses in the reinforcement upper layer of the final
slab. In this case, σr = 0 (see II.5.4).

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Stresses for load case with full composite effect


For any load case, either dead or live, with full composite effect of both precast (when relevant) and in-
situ concrete, normal stresses due to bending moment are obtained with the following relations:
Fiber Normal stress under bending moment
M
Upper flange (*) σ ft = (38)
W ft

M
Lower flange σ fb = (39)
W fb

cracked concrete: σc = 0
Upper slab - concrete M (40)
uncracked concrete: σc =
Wc

M
cracked concrete: σr =
Upper layer reinforcement Wr (41)
uncracked concrete: σr = 0
(*): not relevant for Precobeams

where: M bending moment in the cross-section for the load case


Wft elastic moduli of inertia of the cross-section, for the upper fiber of the steel profile (upper
flange), taking account of the state of concrete.
Wfb elastic moduli of inertia of the cross-section, for the lower fiber of the steel profile (either
lower flange or strengthening plate), taking account of the state of concrete.
Wc elastic moduli of inertia of the upper face of the final deck, for uncracked concrete
conditions.
Wr elastic moduli of inertia of the reinforcement upper layer of the final deck, for cracked
concrete conditions.
Note: For shrinkage and thermal load cases, normal stresses are calculated considering the hyperstatic
moment (secondary effect).

Effect of the cracked concrete


For cracked composite sections, an additional term is added to stresses in the rebars, calculated
according to the following relation:

f ctm
σ r ' = σ r + ∆σ where ∆σ = 0.4 (42)
α st ρ r

where: fctm Concrete tensile strength (see ftj in IV.1.2)


ρr Reinforcement ratio
αst Ratio taking account of the characteristics of the composite section, overlooking
concrete in tension and the characteristics of the profiled steel sheeting, if any. See EN
1994-2 7.4.3 (3).

Ac I c
α st = (43)
As I s

Ac, Ic Area and second moment of area of the composite section under negative moment.
As, Is Area and second moment of area of the steel section alone.

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Note: For cross-sections at intermediate piers with concrete crossbeams, the properties of the composite
section are calculated according to V.2.5. The properties of the steel section are obtained by considering
the lower flange, the strengthening plate of the lower flange if any and the continuity device between
upper flange if any.

V.5 CALCULATION OF STRESSES UNDER NORMAL FORCES

General
In ACOBRI, normal forces in cross-sections may occur for the following situations:
• Shrinkage load cases (see IV.2.2.4)
• Thermal load cases (see IV.2.2.5)
• All load cases for integral bridges

Shrinkage or thermal load cases


For shrinkage or thermal load cases, normal stresses in cross-section under normal forces are
calculated according to the following relations:
Fiber Normal stress under normal force
N
Upper flange (*) σ ft = (44)
Acomp

N
Lower flange σ fb = (45)
Acomp

cracked concrete: σc = 0

Upper slab - concrete  1  (46)


σc = N 
1
uncracked concrete: −
m A 
 comp Aslab 

N
cracked concrete: σr =
Upper layer reinforcement Acomp (47)
uncracked concrete: σr = 0
(*): not relevant for Precobeams

where: N normal force in the cross-section for the load case, given by relation (3).
Acomp equivalent composite area of the cross-section, taking account of the state of concrete.
Aslab area of the concrete slab.
m modular ratio associated to the load case

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Integral bridges

V.5.3.1 Stresses for load cases without composite effect of the in-situ concrete
For the dead load cases, where the in-situ concrete is being poured, assuming unpropped conditions,
the composite effect cannot be accounted for, except for the precast slab of prefabricated beams when
relevant.
For these load cases, stresses under the normal forces generated by the frame effect of integral bridges
are obtained with the following relations:

Fiber Normal stress under normal force


N
Upper flange (*) σ ft = (48)
Asection

N
Lower flange σ fb = (49)
Asection

Cross-section without precast slabs


Upper slab - concrete σc = 0
Upper layer reinforcement σr = 0
Cross-section with prefabricated precast slabs
cracked concrete: σc = 0
Upper slab - concrete kc N (50)
uncracked concrete: σc =
m Asection

N
cracked concrete: σr = k r
Upper layer reinforcement Asection (51)
uncracked concrete: σr = 0
(*): not relevant for Precobeams

where: N normal force in the cross-section for the load case, given by relation (3).
Acomp equivalent composite area of the cross-section, taking account of the state of concrete.
m modular ratio associated to the load case
k c, k r factors to take account for precast slab, whose values are described in V.4.2.

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V.5.3.2 Stresses for load case with full composite effect


For any load case, either dead or live, with full composite effect of both precast (when relevant) and in-
situ concrete, normal stresses in cross-section under normal forces due to the frame effect of integral
abutments are calculated according to the following relations:

Fiber Normal stress under normal force


N
Upper flange (*) σ ft = (52)
Acomp

N
Lower flange σ fb = (53)
Acomp

cracked concrete: σc = 0
Upper slab - concrete N (54)
uncracked concrete: σc =
m Acomp

N
cracked concrete: σr =
Upper layer reinforcement Acomp (55)
uncracked concrete: σr = 0
(*): not relevant for Precobeams
where: N normal force in the cross-section for the load case, given by relation (3).
Asection relevant area of the cross-section:
• for cross-section without precast slabs: Asection is the area of the steel profile (and
strengthening plate if relevant)
• for cross-section with precast slabs: Asection is the equivalent composite area of the
cross section taking account of the steel profile (and strengthening plate if relevant) and
of the precast slab, with the associated modular ratio.
m modular ratio associated to the load case

V.6 CALCULATION OF SHEAR STRESSES

For all cross-sections, the shear stress under vertical shear force VEd is obtained by:

VEd
τ= (56)
Av

where Av is the shear area of the cross-section, as defined in V.3.4.


Additionally, for box girder only, the shear stress under torsional moment MT is obtained by (Bredt
formula):
MT
τ= (57)
2Se

where 2 S e is calculated with: 2 S e = 2 bf tw (Ht – tf).

Note: For the calculation of shear stresses in box girders under live loads, concomitant values of shear force
and torsional moment are taken into account.

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V.7 CALCULATION OF STRESSES IN PRECOBEAMS DOWELS

The stresses in the steel dowels are obtained by the general following relation:

V Sy My
σ dow = k fL + k fG zd (58)
tw I y Iy

Where: tw is the thickness of the web profile


V is the shear force and M the bending moment in the cross-section
Iy is the second moment of area
zd is the spacing between the dowel base and ENA of the composite section
Sy is the static moment of the steel section about the ENA of the composite cross-section
kfL is the stress concentration factor for local dowel action
kfG is the stress concentration factor for global bending
The values of kfL and kfG factors are defined according to the rule (National Annexes) and to the limit
state.
Default values presented in Table V-5 are used in ACOBRI.

Limit states
SLS+ULS FLS
National Annexes kfL kfG kfL kfG
Recommanded values,
7.95 1.5 6.45 1.5
German and Italian NA
French NA 7.69 1.54 7.21 1.54

Table V-5: Default values of stress concentration factors for Precobeams

Note: kfL and kfG cannot be modified by the User under normal mode. In Expert Mode, it is possible to define
other values for these parameters through the Menu “Options/Precobeams parameters” (see II.5.1).

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V.8 MOMENT REDUCTION AT INTERMEDIATE SUPPORTS OF FILLER-BEAM DECKS

For filler beam decks, a moment reduction can be applied for the checks of the cross-sections at
intermediate support, when the associated option has been chosen by the User (see II.5.1).
It should be noted that this moment reduction is applied only for the checks. The reduction is not
considered when moments or stresses are displayed in the post-precessor. For each check at
intermediate support, the Calculation report gives the reduction (in %) considered.

Moment reduction under EN rules


Under EN rules but the German National Annex, the moment reduction at intermediate support is
obtained by applying the clause 5.4.2.9 (5) of EN 1994-2. It is thus applied only for Class 1 cross-section
under hogging moment and the reduction ratio is ρM = 15%. In any other case, no moment reduction is
applied.
This moment reduction concerns only the ultimate limit states, and thus the criteria (94) to (97) in chapter
V.10.2. It is not applied for SLS and FLS checks.

Moment reduction under EN rules and German National Annex


Under EN rules with German National Annex, the moment reduction at intermediate supports of filler-
beam decks comes from DS804, 804.4302, Chapter 2, Clause (7). It is applied for all three limit states
SLS, ULS and FLS. It is obtained from the following relation:

Ra
∆M = (59)
8
Where: R is the vertical reaction at support for the combination of loads under checking. For live loads,
the reaction is the concomitant value for the maximal moment at support (see III.3.7 to display
these values).
a is the width where the reduction occurs, given by:
a =w +h (60)
w is the width of the transverse support beam
h is the height of the steel profile
Note: If the reaction at support implies an uplift (or traction), ∆M = 0

Finally, the reduction factor is obtained by:

∆M
ρM = (61)
Ms

Where Ms is the sum of moments for the combination of loads under checking.
This reduction ratio is limited to an upper limit of 15%.
Note: If the moment at support is positive, ρM = 0

Application of the moment reduction


The reduction ratio is applied either to moments or to stresses according to the criterion. It is indicated
in the calculation report (Results of Design Checks – see III.2.3).

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V.9 SLS CHECKS

Limitation of deflection

V.9.1.1 Road bridges, footbridges


For each design cross-section, the following criterion is checked:
δ
≤ ηmax (62)
L

where: δ Beam deflection


L Length of span in which the studied cross-section is located
ηmax Limit with default value of 1/500. It can be modified in the “SLS factors input” module
(see II.4.4).

This check is performed for the following live loads:


• Road bridges: Load Model 1 (UDL + TS)
• Footbridges: Footbridge load

V.9.1.2 Railway bridges

References: Eurocode (EN) EN1990/A1:2006 A2.4.4.3.2

Check:
At each design cross-section, for each rail track, the following criterion is checked:
δ
≤ ηmax (63)
L

where: δ Deflection of the bridge at the track centreline


L Length of the span in which the cross-section is located
ηmax Limit of deflection.
The deflection limit ηmax can be:
• either automatically determined according to EN1990/A1:2006 A2.4.4.3.2, from the
length of the span, the speed of trains, and the comfort level required, quantified by the
vertical acceleration of the deck,
• or directly imposed by the User.
The first option is the default option. Settings can be modified in the “SLS factor” input module
(see II.4.4).
This check is carried out for the live load Φ LM71.

Automatic definition of the deflection limit:


When the deflection limit is automatically defined by the program, according to EN rules, the
following process is performed:
1. Calculation of the deflection limit according to Figure A2.3 in EN 1990-A2 4.4.3.2,
considering the span length L and the trains speed as defined by the User (see II.4.4).
2. This deflection limit is multiplied by a coefficient kgb to take account of the geometry of the
bridge:
kgb = 1 if single span from a bridge made of a succession of isostatic spans (see option
in II.3.4)
kgb = 0.7 if single span bridge or a bridge with two continuous spans
kgb = 0.9 continuous bridge with three or more spans.

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3. This deflection limit is then divided by the limit of vertical acceleration accepted for comfort;
this vertical acceleration is assessed from the level of comfort defined by the User (default
value very good comfort associated with av = 1 m/s2; see II.4.4), according to Table A2.9 in
EN 1990.
4. Finally, this deflection limit can never be less than 1/600.

Track twist on railway bridges


References: Eurocode EN1990/A1:2006 A2.4.4.2.2

At each design cross-section of railways bridges, for each rail track, the following criterion is checked:
g < glim (64)
where: g Track twist, measured over a distance of 3 m, due to the action of load Φ LM71
glim Twist limitation, determined in accordance with the speed V of trains:
• for V < 120 km/h glim = 4,5 mm
• for 120 < V < 220 km/h glim = 3,0 mm
• for V > 220 km/h glim = 1,5 mm
The default speed range is 120 < V < 220 km/h and this range can be modified in the “SLS factor” input
module (see II.4.4).

Figure V-36: Definition of the track twist


s = track gauge = 1 435 mm

End rotation of railway bridge decks


At each end of railways bridge (at the abutments), for each track, the following criterion is checked:

θ < θlim (65)


where: θ Angular rotation of the deck, measured at the center axis of the track, due to the action
of load Φ LM71.
θlim Rotation limit, determined as follows:
• for single-track bridges: θlim = 6,5x10-3 rad.
• for bridges with two tracks or more: θlim = 3,5x10-3 rad.
Note: This criterion is not checked at the ends of any Gerber isostatic span.

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Minimum reinforcement
This chapter doesn’t apply for filler beam decks.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 7.4.2

At each cross-section of main girders, the minimum reinforcement area criterion of Eurocode is checked
through the following relation:

f tj
ρ r ≥ 0.9 k c k (66)
σs

where: σs is the maximum stress permitted in the reinforcement immediately after cracking. Its
value is obtained from Table V-6 below (which is equivalent to the Table 7.1 of EN 1994-
2, considering wk = 0.2 mm), for a maximum bar diameter Φ∗ equal to the diameter of
the upper layer of reinforcement, as defined by the User (see II.3.8).
ρr is the reinforcement ratio (which is equal to the area of reinforcement in the cross-
section divided by the area of concrete)
k = 0.8
kc is a factor which takes account of the stress distribution within the section immediately
prior to the cracking and is given by (from Equation 7.2 of EN 1994-2)):

1
kc = + 0. 3 ≤ 1 (67)
1 + hc /(2 z 0 )

hc is the effective depth of the concrete slab (excluding haunches, ribs and non composite
precast panels).
z0 is the vertical distance between the centroid of the uncracked concrete slab and the
uncracked composite cross-section (see V.2.2), obtained for the modular ratio for short
term loading (see IV.1.4)

σs Maximum bar diameter Φ∗


(MPa) (mm)
160 25
200 16
240 12
280 8
320 6
360 5
400 4

Table V-6 : Maximum bar diameters

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Minimum reinforcement for filler-beams


This chapter applies only for filler beam decks.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 7.5.3

At each cross-section of main girders, the minimum reinforcement area criterion of Eurocode is checked
through the following relation:

min(c st , d eff )
ρ r ≥ 0.01 (68)
c st

where: ρr is the reinforcement ratio (which is equal to the area of reinforcement in the cross-
section divided by the area of concrete above profile)
cst is the concrete coverage of the profile (height of concrete above profiles)
deff is the effective depth of concrete given by: deff = c + 7.5 Φs
c is the concrete coverage of the upper layer of reinforcement
Φs is the diameter of rebars, taken equal to Φs = 16 mm

Minimum reinforcement for Precobeams


For Precobeams, criterion described in V.9.4 is applied. Additionally, the following minimal
reinforcement for the dowels is calculated and given by ACOBRI in the calculation sheet:

Confined reinforcement for girders:


The minimum confinement reinforcement for girders is given by:
0 .3 P
As,conf ≥
f sd

Dowel reinforcement:
The minimum reinforcement of dowel (area Ab – see Figure VI-5 p 242) is given by:
0 .5 P
Ab ≥ and Ab ≥ 1 cm 2 (see limitation C6 in Annex VI.4)
f sd

Slab cracking
References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 7.4.3
For all frequent SLS combinations and for each cross-section of the main girders, ACOBRI assesses the
maximal bar diameter and the maximal spacing between rebars required by Eurocodes. If the concrete
is cracked, the stress σr in reinforcement is calculated (see V.4), considering the effect of the cracking
of concrete (see V.4.4).
The maximum bar diameter is obtained with this stress from Table V-6. The maximal spacing of rebars
is obtained with this same stress from Table V-7 below (which is equivalent to the Table 7.2 of EN 1994-
2, considering wk = 0.2 mm).
Both values of Φmax and emax are given in the predesign report. If the cross-section is never cracked for
all frequent SLS combination, the mention “No cracking” is displayed instead.
Predesign report also indicates as synthesis the most unfavorable values of Φmax and emax obtained in
all cross-sections.

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σs Maximum spacing of rebar


(MPa) emax (mm)
160 200
200 150
240 100
280 50

Table V-7 : Maximum spacing of rebars

Stress limitation
This chapter doesn’t apply for filler-beam decks and for Precobeams.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 7.2.2

For each cross-section for the main beams, following criteria are checked:
• Characteristic combinations
f yp f yb
Normal stress in the profile σ ft ≤ and σ fb ≤ (69)
γ Mser γ Mser

f yp
Shear stress in profile τw ≤ (70)
3 γ Mser

Interaction of normal stresses and f yp f yb


σ Vft ≤ and σ Vfb ≤ (71)
shear γ Mser γ Mser

Concrete compressive stress σ c ≤ 0.6 f ck (72)

Tensile stress in reinforcement σ r ≤ 0.6 f yr (73)

• Quasi permanent combinations

Concrete compressive stress σ c ≤ 0.45 f ck (74)

where: σft Normal stresses in top fiber of the steel profile (top flange)
σfb Normal stress in bottom fiber of beam (bottom flange or strengthening plate as
applicable)
τ Shear stress in beam
σVft Von Mises stress in top fiber of beam
σVfb Von Mises stress in bottom fiber of beam (bottom flange or strengthening plate as
applicable)
Von Mises stresses are calculated for the maximum bending moments and the
corresponding shear force values and for the maximum shear force values and the
corresponding bending moments. They are calculated where the web meets the
flanges.
σc Compressive stress in top fibre of concrete slab
σr Tensile stress in top layer of reinforcement, including the part of concrete in tension,
given by relation (42) (see V.4.4).

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fyp Yield strength of structural steel (profile – see IV.1.1)


fyb Yield strength of structural steel for the bottom fiber:
• without strengthening plate: fyb = fyp
• with strengthening plate: fyb = fys
fck Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
fyr Yield strength of reinforcing steel
γM,ser Partial factor for SLS, with default value of 1,00. It can be modified from the Options /
Factors / SLS menu (see II.4.4).
Note: For partially prefabricated composite beams, ACOBRI does not check the stresses in the concrete of the
precast part. This concrete is usually a higher strength class.

Stress limitation for top flanges at concrete crossbeams


This chapter doesn’t apply for filler-beam decks and for Precobeams.

References: see II.3.12 and II.3.13 for the definition of concrete crossbeams.

For cross-sections at intermediate piers with concrete crossbeams, the criterion (69) for top flanges is
replaced by:
Normal stress in the top flange or σ ft ≤ σ lim (75)
mechanical continuity device
where σlim is the limit stress defined as follows:
• if no mechanical continuity device has been defined between top flanges,
f yp
σ lim =
γ Mser
but all stresses σft are equal to zero.
• if mechanical continuity device has been defined between top flanges, the value given by
ACOBRI for top flanges (σft) is in fact the stress in the continuity device. The limit stress σlim
depends upon the type of steel for this device:
o rebar steel: σ lim = 0.6 f yd , where fyd is the yield strength defined by the User.
f yd
o plate steel: σ lim = , where fyd is the yield strength obtained according to the
γ Mser
Table V-4.

Stress limitation for filler-beam decks


This chapter is applied only for filler beam decks.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 7.2.2

For each cross-section for the main beams, following criteria are checked for characteristic SLS
combinations:

f yp f yp
Normal stress in the profile σ ft ≤ and σ fb ≤ (76)
γ Mser γ Mser

Concrete compressive stress σ c ≤ 0.6 f ck (77)

Tensile stress in reinforcement σ r ≤ 0.6 f yr (78)

Same symbols as in V.9.8.

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Tensile stress in reinforcement also includes the effect of cracked concrete (see V.4.4).

Stress limitation for Precobeams


This chapter is applied only for Precobeams.

References: Design Guide Preco+

For each cross-section for the main beams, following criteria are checked:
• Characteristic combinations

f yb
Normal stress in the profile σ fb ≤ (79)
γ Mser

f yp
Stresses in the dowels σ dow ≤ 1.3 (80)
γ Mser

Concrete compressive stress σ c ≤ 0.6 fck (81)

Tensile stress in reinforcement σr ≤ 0.6 f yr (82)

• Quasi permanent combinations

Concrete compressive stress σ c ≤ 0.45 fck (83)

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Same symbols as in in V.9.8, with:


σdow Stress in the dowel, obtained according to V.7
Tensile stress in reinforcement also includes the effect of cracked concrete (see V.4.4).
Note: Precobeams are partially prefabricated composite beams. ACOBRI does not check the stresses in the
concrete of the precast part. This concrete is usually a higher strength class.

Shear connection
This chapter doesn’t apply for filler beam decks and for Precobeams.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.6 and 6.8.1

For each cross-section for the main beams, following criteria are checked, for characteristic
combinations:

G ≤ k s n c PRd (84)
where: G Slip between slab and beam as a result of shear force under SLS combinations, given
by the expression:
S
G = VEd (85)
I

VEd Shear force in the cross-section under the characteristic combination of loads
S 1st moment of the homogenous effective area of the slab, determined relative to the
neutral axis of the composite section.
I Second moment of area of the composite section.
Both S and I parameters are calculated considering The width of slab considered is the
effective width for stress calculation
Note: The ratio S/I may differ between two load cases, according to the state of concrete (pouring or
after pouring) and the modular ratio. On the other hand, this parameter is always assessed
considering uncracked concrete. Thus, the slip G is calculated for each individual load cases
and finally summed, taking into account the combination factors.
nc Number of shear studs per unit length
ks factor, whose value is equal to:
• Recommended values: ks = 0.75
• French, German and Italian NA: ks = 0.6
PRd Design shear resistance of connectors (see V.10.1).

The number of shear studs per unit length, nc, is determined by the program from the definition of beams
connection (see II.3.7).

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter V

Shear connection of Precobeams


This chapter applies only for Precobeams.
The horizontal shear force transmitted by dowels PLD,ser is checked under characteristic combinations to
avoid concrete failure modes, using the following relation:

(
PLD ,ser ≤ min 0 .7 Psh ; Pcyc ) (86)
where: Psh is the ultimate load for the shearing of the concrete dowel (see V.10.9);
Pcyc is the shear resistance to avoid structural loosening under cyclic loads, given by:
Pcyc = 3.1 fck hd tw
V Sy
PLD,ser is the horizontal shear force in the dowel, obtained by: PLD,ser = ex
Iy
V is the vertical shear force in the cross-section
hd, ex dimensions of the dowels (see Annex VI.4.1)

V.10 ULS CHECKS

Connector shear resistance


This chapter doesn’t apply for filler beam decks and for Precobeams.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.6.3.1

The design shear resistance PRd of a connector is given by (units: mm, N, MPa):

PRd = min (PRd1, PRd2 )

fcj E cm
where: PRd1 = 0.29 α d c 2
γv (87)

π dc 2
PRd2 = 0.8 fu
4 γv

where: dc Diameter of shear stud


hc Total height of the stud
fcj Concrete compressive strength
Ecm Concrete secant modulus of elasticity, obtained with (in MPa):

Ecm = 9500 (fcj + 8)1/ 3 (88)

fu Ultimate tensile strength of connector steel,


γv Partial factor for design shear resistance of headed studs. The default value is 1.25. It
can be modified in the “SLS factor” input module (see II.4.4).
α Coefficient whose value is given by:

if 3 ≤ hc / dc ≤ 4 : α = 0,2 + 0,2 hc / dc
(89)
if 4 ≤ hc / dc : α=1
dc, hc, fu as defined in the stud database (see II.2.2), according to the definition made by User
(see II.3.6).

When only one type of connectors has been defined for the bridge, the design shear resistance PRd
used in calculations is directly given by relation (87) from the properties of the studs.
On the contrary, when two types of connectors A and B are defined by the User, the design shear
resistance PRd used in calculations is defined by:

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter V

PRd = ρ PRdA + (1 − ρ) PRdB (90)


where: PRdA in the shear resistance of connector type A, as given by (87)
PRdB in the shear resistance of connector type B, as given by (87)
ρ is the proportion of type A connectors in the total number of connector and (1-ρ) the proportion
of type B connectors in the total number of connector

See II.3.7 for the definition of connectors.

Resistance to bending
This chapter doesn’t apply to Precobeams if the elastic resistance has been imposed by the User (see
II.5.1). In this latter case, V.10.3 is applied.

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.2.1

Sagging moment:
For each cross-section of the main beams, following method is adopted for the checking of the
resistance to sagging bending moment (positive moment, MEd > 0):
Class 1 or 2:

M Ed ≤ β M plRd (91)

Class 3:

f yp f yb
σ ft ≤ and σ fb ≤ (92)
γ M0 γ M0

Class 4:

f yp f yb
σ ft ≤ and σ fb ≤ (93)
γ M0 γ M0

where: MEd Bending moment in the cross-section for the ULS combination
MplRd Positive bending moment (see V.3)
β Weighting factor, given by:
For steel grades S420 and S460 or if fyp ≥ 420 MPa (yielding strength directly
imposed by the User – see II.3.11):
- if criteria x/h <0.4 is met:
β is calculated from Figure 6.2 of EN 1994-2.
- if criteria x/h <0.4 is not met:
elastic verification of bending according to equation (94)
For other cases:
β=1
σft, σfb Normal stresses in top fibre of the steel profile and in bottom fibre of beam
(bottom flange or strengthening plate as applicable) respectively, calculated
with the gross-cross section properties (class 3) or with the effective cross-
section properties (class 4) for uncracked concrete (see V.4)
fyp Yield strength of structural steel (profile)
fyb Yield strength of structural steel for the bottom fiber:
• without strengthening plate: fyb = fyp
• with strengthening plate: fyb = fys
fyp, fys see IV.1.1

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γM0 Partial factor for design resistance of cross-sections (see II.4.5).

Hogging moment:
For hogging moment (MEd < 0), following criteria are adopted:
Class 1 or 2:

M Ed ≤ M plRd (94)

Class 3:

f yp f yb
σ ft ≤ and σ fb ≤ (95)
γ M0 γ M0

Class 4:

f yp f yb
σ ft ≤ and σ fb ≤ (96)
γ M0 γ M0

Class 3 for the web and class 1 or 2 for the flanges:

M Ed ≤ M plRd20tw (97)

where: MEd Bending moment in the cross-section for the ULS combination
MplRd Negative bending moment (see V.3)
MplRd20tw Negative bending moment, taking account of the reinforcement in
tension and neglecting cracked concrete, plus taking account of the effective
part of the web, i.e. 20 tw ε (see EN 1993-1-1 6.2.2.4)
σft, σfb Normal stresses in top fibre of the steel profile and in bottom fibre of beam
(bottom flange or strengthening plate as applicable) respectively, calculated
with the gross-cross section properties (class 3) or with the effective cross-
section properties (class 4) for cracked concrete (see V.4)
fyp, fyb idem sagging moment

Note 1: For filler-beams decks under hogging moments, a moment reduction can be applied at intermediate
support cross-sections (see V.8).
Note 2: For the calculation of MEd used for the checking of Class 1 or 2 cross section, under sagging or
hogging moments, the total effect (primary and secondary effects) is considered for the shrinkage and
thermal load cases.

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter V

Elastic resistance to bending of Precobeams


This chapter applies only to Precobeams if the elastic resistance has been imposed by the User
(see II.5.1).
For each cross-section for the main beams, following criteria are checked under ULS combinations:

f yb
Normal stress in the profile σ fb ≤ k Pr (98)
γ M0

fck
Concrete compressive stress σc ≤ (99)
γc

f yr
Tensile stress in reinforcement σr ≤ (100)
γs

where: same notations as in previous chapters, but:


kPr is a factor for the limitation of normal stresses in the steel chord. Its default value is kPr = 1.
It can be modified in Expert mode only (see II.5.1).

Position of the plastic neutral axis of filler-beam decks


For Class 1 and 2 sections, the position of the plastic neutral axis of filler-beam decks must comply with
the condition (cst ≤ xpl -tf) of the clause 6.3.1 (2) of EN 1994-2 (i.e. the plastic neutral axis should not be
located in the concrete coverage nor in the upper flange). If this condition is not met for all the sections
studied, a warning message is given in the chapter ‘Summary’ of the Pre-design report.

Resistance to vertical shear force


References: Eurocode EN1993-1-1:2005 6.2.6

For each cross-section of the main beams except Precobeams, following criterion is checked:

VEd ≤ VplRd (101)

where: VEd Design shear force under ULS combination


VplRd Plastic design resistance to shear force as given in V.3.4

For each cross-section of the main beams of Precobeams, following criterion is checked:

(
VEd ≤ max VplRd, Vconc,Rd ) (102)

where: VEd Design shear force under ULS combination


VplRd Plastic design resistance to shear force of the steel chord as given in V.3.4
Vconc,Rd Shear resistance of the concrete web (for simple Precobeams) or of the concrete
between profiles (for double Precobeams), given by:
Vconc,Rd = min(VRd ,s ;VRd ,max )

Asw
VRd,s = z fywd cot(θ)
s
0 .85 fck
0.75 bcw z
γc
VRd ,max =
tan( θ) + cot( θ)

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter V

θ Angle of concrete struts in compression


Asw/s Area of shear renforcement
θ and Asw/s are two constant parameters, which can be modified only in Expert mode (see II.5.1).
Their default values in ACOBRI are:
θ = 45°
Asw
= 6.28 cm 2/m
s
fywd = 0.8 fsk / γs
z is the spacing between the mid plane of the slab and the cutting axis

Bending moment / shear force interaction


References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.2.2.4

For each cross-section for the main beams, following criterion is checked:

• if VEd / Vpl,Rd ≤ 0.5, no interaction (criterion = 0)


(103)
• if VEd / Vpl,Rd > 0.5, interaction is checked by: MEd ≤ M VplRd

where: VEd Design shear force under ULS combination


VplRd Plastic design resistance to shear force as given in V.3.4
MEd Design bending moment under ULS combination
MVpl,Rd Plastic resistant moment considering the influence of shear force, obtained as described
in V.3.1, V.3.2, V.3.3 respectively and by considering a reduced yielding strength in the
fillet and in the web, given by:

fyred = ρ fyp
2
 V  (104)
ρ = 2 Ed − 1
 Vpl,Rd 

This plastic resistance is considered whatever the class of the cross-section is.
This check is carried out considering firstly the maximum bending moment and the associated shear
force and secondly the maximum shear force and the associated bending moment.

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Shear buckling
References: Eurocode EN1993-1-5:2005 5 and 7.1

In ACOBRI, checking of the resistance of a cross-section to shear buckling is based on the following
approach:
bw η
• if ≤ 72 No verification of shear buckling : η3 = 0
tw ε
bw η
• if < 72 two criteria are checked:
tw ε
VEd
o Shear force criterion: η3 = ≤1
VbRd
o Interaction criterion:
- if 0,5 > η3: ηc = 0
M Ed
- if 0,5 < η3 ≤ 1: η1 =
M plRd

M fRd  M 
si η1 ≤ : η c = η1 + 1 − fRd  (2 η 3 − 1) 2 ≤ 1
M plRd  M plRd 

where: bw, tw Web depth and thickness


235
e Material coefficient: ε=
f yp

fyp Yield strength of structural steel


η η = 1.20 if fyp ≤ 460 MPa and η = 1.00 else
VEd Shear force in cross-section
Vb.Rd Shear resistance, given by the following formula:

b w t w f yp
VbRd = χ w (105)
3 γ M1

χw: Reduction factor, obtained by:

0 .83
for λ w ≤ : χw = η (106)
η

0 .83 0.83
for λ w > : χw = (107)
η λw

λw Reduced slenderness, given by:

f yp
λ w = 0.76 (108)
τ cr

τcr: critical stresses for elastic buckling of plate under pure shear, given by:

τ cr = k τ σ E (109)

kτ buckling factor: kτ = 5.34 (unstiffened web)

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σE Euler stresses, calculated according to EN1993-1-5:2006, A1:

2
E  bw 
σE = π 2   (110)
2 t
12 (1 − ν )  w 
MEd Bending moment at cross-section
Mpl.Rd Plastic moment of cross-section, whatever the classe
MfRd Plastic moment of a cross-section comprising only flanges.
γM1 Partial safety factor for the resistance to instabilities (see II.4.5).
This check is carried out considering firstly the maximum bending moment and the associated shear
force and secondly the maximum shear force and the associated bending moment.

Lateral torsional buckling


References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.4

In ACOBRI, the LTB checks are carried out for the girders under negative moments, assuming that
sagging cross-sections are not submitted to TL buckling because of the slab. LTB checks for the
construction stage are not considered.
The check of a cross section of Class 1, 2 or 3 under negative moment is carried out according to the
following criterion:

MEd ≤ Mb,Rd = χLT MRd (111)

Where MEd: is the bending moment in the cross section


MRd: is the resistant moment of the cross section, according to the class of the section,
calculated with the partial coefficient γM1:
Class 1 or 2: MRd = Mpl,Rd (plastic resistant moment – see V.3)
Class 3: MRd = Mel,Rd (elastic resistant moment – see V.2)
χLT: is the reduction factor, calculated according to EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.2, i.e. the following
relation:
1
χLT = et χLT ≤ 1
φLT + φLT 2 − λLT 2

[
φLT = 0,5 1 + α LT ( λ LT − 0,2) + λ LT 2 ]
αLT: is the imperfection factor, which is equal to 0.34 (if h/b>2) or 0.21 (if h/b ≤2), according
to the reduction curves a or b imposed by Table 6.4 of EN 1993-1-1.
M Rk
λ LT is the reduced slenderness, given by: λ LT =
M cr
MRk is the resistant moment of the cross-section, calculated according to the class of the
section and with the characteristic values of the material properties.
Mcr is the critical moment for LT buckling; it is based on the "continuous inverted U-frame”
model, according to EN 1994-2 §6.4.2; it is calculated with the following relation (cf. ENV
1994-1-1 B.1.2 (4)).

k c C4  2
Mcr = G I + k s L  E I (112)
L  at π 2 
a afz

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For cross-section with a Class 4 web, the check of LT buckling is done by verifying the buckling
resistance of the lower flange of the beam (under compression) considered alone. The associated
criterion is:

NEd ≤ Nb,Rd (113)

where: NEd is the maximal normal force in the lower part of the cross-section under consideration. NEd
is obtained as NEd = σinf A0inf, where σinf is the normal stress in the lower flange (considering the
various stages of the beam) and A0inf is the area of the lower part of the cross-section.
The lower part of the cross-section to be considered contains the lower flange (its effective part),
its strengthening plate if defined (its effective part), and one third of the lower part of the web
under compression. Thus, A0,inf is obtained by:
1 4−π 2
A0,inf = bf, eff t f +  h wc t w + rc 
3 2 

Figure V-37: Lower flange under compression


Definition of hwc

Nb,Rd is the buckling resistance of the lower flange (in the plane of the flange), which is calculated
with:

Nb,Rd = χ A0inf fy / γM1 (114)

fy is the lowest of the yield strengths fyp and fys (steel of the profile and the strengthening plate,
when defined, respectively).
χ is the reduction factor calculated according to EN 1993-1-1 chapter 6.3.1, with the c curve
(α = 0,49) and from the reduced slenderness of the flange:
A0,inf f y
λ=
N cr
Ncr is the critical buckling axial force of the part of flange under consideration, which is calculated
as follows, according to relations (6.12) and (6.14) of EN 1993-2:
π 2 E I 0.z
N cr = mLT
l2
l is the length of lower flange between lateral restraints: it can be either the span length, or the
spacing between the cross section and the adjacent diaphragm, if they have been defined by
the User as acting like lateral restraints.
I0,z is the second moment of area of lower part of the cross section under consideration.
mLT is a buckling coefficient taking into account the elastic restraint of the U frame and the
distribution of moment between two lateral rigid restraints. mLT is given by relation (6.14) of
EN 1993-2, as the minimum of the two following values:

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ACOBRI User Manual – Chapter V

3+2ϕ
m1 = 1 + 0,44 (1 + µ ) ϕ1,5 + γ
350 − 50 ϕ

  µ 
m 2 = 1 + 0,44 (1 + µ ) ϕ1,5 +  0,195 +  0,05 +  γ
  100  

ϕ is a factor for the distribution of the moment between lateral supports, given by:

ϕ=2
(1 − M 2 / M1 )
1+ µ
M1 is the moment MEd in the cross-section under consideration
M2 is the maximal value between 0 and the moment at the adjacent lateral restraint.

µ is a factor for the distribution of shear force, given by: µ = V2 / V1


V2 is the shear force at the adjacent lateral restraint (concomitant value for M2)
V1 is the shear force at the adjacent lateral restraint (concomitant value for M1)
V1 and V2 in absolute values.
γ is a factor considering the elastic restraint by diaphragms. It is considered equal to 0 in these
relations (diaphragms are considered only if rigid).

Note: For cross-sections at abutments of integral bridges or at intermediate piers with concrete crossbeams,
the checking of lateral torsional buckling is carried out considering the full cross-section and not the
reduced cross-section described in V.2.5 and V.3.3.

Horizontal shear in Precobeams dowels


This chapter applies only to Precobeams.

References: Preco+ Design Guide [8]

The horizontal shear in dowels is verified under ULS combinations according to the method defined in
Preco+ Design Guide:

VhEd ≤ Pdow,Rd (115)

V Sy
Where: VhEd is the horizontal shear force acting in a dowel, obtained by: Vh,Ed = ex
Iy
Pdow,Rd is the shear resistance of a dowel, obtained by:

Pdow ,Rd =
1
γV
(
min Psh ; Ppl )
If the pry-out of concrete is also to be considered (in Expert mode, through Menu “Options /
Precobeams parameters” – see II.5.1):

Pdow ,Rd =
1
γV
(
min Psh ; Ppl ; Ppo )
Psh is the ultimate load for the shearing of the concrete dowel, given by:
Psh = ηD e x 2 fck (1 + ρ D )
ex is the spacing between two dowels axes (see Annex VI.4.1)
ηD is a reduction factor for the area of the concrete dowel, given by:
ηD = 3 – ex/180
ρD is a ratio defined by
E s Ab
ρD =
E cm AD

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Es is the Young Modulus of steel


Ecm is the Young Modulus of concrete
AD is the area of concrete dowel, given by: AD = 0.2 ex2
Ab is the sectional area of reinforcement per dowel (see Figure VI-5 p 242)
Ppl is the shear resistance of the steel dowel, given by:
Ppl = 0.25 f y e x t w

Ppo is the resistance for the Pry-out of concrete (generally not used), given by:
Ppo = 90 χ x χ y h 1po.5 f ck (1 + ρ D,i )

hpo is the height of the pry-out cone, given by:


h po = min (c o + 0.07 e x ; c u + 0.13 e x )

co is the concrete coverage above the composite dowel


cu is the concrete coverage beneath the composite dowel
The calculation of co and cu according to the Precobeam type is indicated in Table V-8.

Precobeam Type co cu
Simple dcw + esl – hic – hd hic = hmr - dcsf
Double esl – hic – hd hic = hmr - hs

Table V-8 : concrete coverage of dowels


according to Precobeam types

χx is a reduction factor, given by:


when ex ≥ 4.5 hpo, χx = 1
ex
when ex < 4.5 hpo, χx =
4.5hpo

χy is a reduction factor, given by:


when ey ≥ 9.0 hpo, χx = 1
1  ey 
when ey < 9.0 hpo, χy = + 1 ≤ 1
2  9hpo 

ey is the pattern in transverse direction, obtained as the distance between two beams for simple
Precobeams and the distance between webs for double Precobeams.
ρD,i is a ratio defined by
E s Asf
ρ D,i =
E cm AD,i
Asf is the sectional area of reinforcement within the area of the contributing concrete, given by:
Asf = At + Ab
At is the sectional area of reinforcement above the composite dowel (transverse direction of the
bridge - see Figure VI-5 p 242)
ADi is the area of contributing concrete, given by: ADi = hc ex
hc is the height of contributing concrete, defined by: hc = co + cu + hd

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V.11 FLS CHECKS

Limitation of the stress range

V.11.1.1 Bending stress range in profiles

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.8.6.1


EN 1993-2:2006 9
The fatigue resistance of the steel profile is verified by checking the following criterion for the maximal
range of normal stresses in both the lower and the upper fiber of the profile (or strengthening plate if
any):

γFf ∆σE < ∆σC / γMf (116)

where: γFf Partial safety factor for fatigue loading


∆σC Detail category = Fatigue strength for 2 million cycles
γMf Partial safety factor for fatigue strength
∆σE Stress range produced by the fatigue load model.

For the detail category, the following default values are considered:
• ∆σC = 160 MPa for the lower fiber
• ∆σC = 160 MPa for the upper flange of filler-beam decks
• ∆σC = 80 MPa for the upper flange of profiles with welded studs

The values of γFf, γMf and ∆σC can be modified by the User (see II.4.6).

Note: The same value of γFf is used for all the fatigue checks.

V.11.1.2 Bending stress range in reinforcement

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.8.6.1


EN 1992-1-1:2004 6.8.5 (3)

The fatigue resistance of the reinforcement steel is verified by checking the following criterion for the
maximal range of normal stresses in the upper layer of rebars:

γFf ∆σE,eq < kN* ∆σRsk / γMf (117)

where: γFf Partial safety factor for fatigue loading


∆σRsk Stress range at N* cycles from Table 6.30 of EN 1992-1-1
γMf Partial safety factor for fatigue strength
∆σE Stress range produced by the fatigue load model
kN* defined by

N*
kN * = k 2 (118)
2x10 6
6
where k2 = 9 and N* = 10 .

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For integral bridges where the user has defined bent bars at abutments, ∆σRsk is reduced at abutment
cross-section by the following ratio (cf. Table 6.3 N of EN 1992-1-1):

ζ = 0.35 + 0.026 RD (119)

where RD is the ratio between the mandrel diameter and the bar diameter (cf. II.3.8).

The default value for the resistance ∆σRsk is 162 MPa.

V.11.1.3 Shear stress range in connection

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.8.7.2

The fatigue resistance of the welded flange is verified by checking the following criterion for the maximal
range of shear stresses in studs:

γFf ∆τE < ∆τC / γMf,s (120)

Where: γFf Partial safety factor for fatigue loading


∆τC Detail category = Fatigue strength for 2 million cycles
γMf,s Partial safety factor for fatigue strength
∆τE Stress range produced by the fatigue load model.
The default value for the detail category is ∆τC = 90 MPa.

When the upper flange is in tension under fatigue load model circulation, the following criterion is also
checked for the interaction between shear of the studs and normal stress in the flange:
γ Ff ∆σE,2 γ Ff ∆τE,2
+ ≤ 1.3 (121)
∆σ c / γ Mf ∆τ c / γ Mf,s

where ∆σE, ∆σc and γMf are the parameters explained in V.11.1.1.

The values of γFf, γMf,s and ∆τC can be modified by the User (see II.4.6).

V.11.1.4 Stress range in Precobeams


The fatigue resistance of the steel profile is verified by checking the following criteria for the maximal
range of normal stresses in the lower fiber of the profile (or strengthening plate if any) and for the
maximal range of stresses in dowels:

γFf ∆σE < ∆σC / γMf (122)

γFf ∆σdowel < ∆σC / γMf (123)

Where: γFf Partial safety factor for fatigue loading


∆σC Detail category = Fatigue strength for 2 million cycles
γMf Partial safety factor for fatigue strength
∆σE Stress range produced by the fatigue load model.

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∆σdowel Stress range produced in the dowel by the fatigue load model.

For the detail category, a default values of ∆σC = 160 MPa is considered for the lower fiber. For the
dowels, the detail category is associated to the cutting process of Precobeams:
∆σC = 125 MPa for cutting class 3
∆σC = 140 MPa for cutting class 4

A default value of ∆σC = 125 MPa is considered, thus implying the requirements of the cutting class 3.
The values of γFf, γMf and ∆σC (for lower flange) can be modified by the User (see II.4.6). ∆σC for dowels
can also be modified (see II.3.10).

Calculation of the bending stress range in profiles

V.11.2.1 Road bridges


For road bridges, the stress range ∆σE is calculated considering the displacement of the fatigue load
model LM3 in the slow lane. If the bridge has two slow lanes, ∆σE is the envelope of stress ranges
resulting from movement of the load model on each of them.
For each cross-section, the stress range is calculated by the following relationship:

∆σE = λ ∆ϕfat | σmax,f - σmin,f | (124)

Where: λ damage equivalent factor (see V.11.6.1)


∆ϕfat additional dynamic amplification factor (see V.11.9)
σmax,f maximum stress produced by movement of the fatigue load model (see V.4).
σmin,f minimum stress produced by movement of the fatigue load model (idem).
This relation is applied for:
• for both upper flange and lower fiber in the general case,
• for the lower fiber of the profile of Precobeams,
• for the upper layer of reinforcement.

V.11.2.2 Railway bridges


For railways bridges, the stress range ∆σE is calculated considering the displacement of the fatigue load
model LM71 on each railway track on the deck.
For each cross-section, the stress range is calculated by the following relationship:

∆σE = φ2 λ | σmax,f - σmin,f | (125)

Where: λ damage equivalent factor (see V.11.6.2)


φ2 dynamic amplification factor for railway bridges, assuming standard track maintenance
(see IV.2.7.3)
σmax,f maximum stress produced by movement of the fatigue load model (see V.4).
σmin,f minimum stress produced by movement of the fatigue load model (idem).

Calculation of the bending stress range in reinforcement


The same relationship are used as for bending stress range in profiles (either (124) or (125)) where the
damage equivalent factor is replaced by λs as calculated in V.11.7.

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Calculation of the shear stress range in connection

V.11.4.1 Road bridges


For road bridges, the stress range ∆τE is calculated considering the displacement of the fatigue load
model LM3 on the slow lanes. If the bridge has two slow lanes, ∆τE is the envelope of stress ranges
resulting from movement of the load model on each of them.
For each cross-section, the stress range is calculated by the following relationship:

∆τE,2 = ∆ϕ fat λ v ∆τ (126)

4 1 ∆G 1 1 ∆G 1 1 Gmax − Gmin 1 1 ∆V S
∆τ = = 2
= = (127)
3 nc Av 3 nc π d 3 nc π d2 3 nc π d 2 I

Where: λv damage equivalent factor (see V.11.8)


∆ϕfat additional dynamic amplification factor (see V.11.9)
∆V range of shear force in the cross-section under fatigue load model LM3
d average radius of the studs
nc number of studs per unit of length
S, I respectively first and second moment of area of the composite cross-section

V.11.4.2 Railway bridges


For railways bridges, the stress range ∆τE is calculated considering the displacement of the fatigue load
model LM71 on each railway track on the deck.
For each cross-section, the stress range is calculated by the following relationship:

∆τE,2 = φ 2 λ v ∆τ (128)

Where: λv damage equivalent factor (see V.11.8)


φ2 dynamic amplification factor for railway bridges, assuming standard track maintenance
(see IV.2.7.3)
∆τ see equation (127) where ∆V is range of shear force in the cross-section under fatigue
load model.

Calculation of the stress range in dowels (Precobeams)

V.11.5.1 Road bridges


For road bridges, the stress range ∆σdowel is calculated considering the displacement of the fatigue load
model LM3 in the slow lane. If the bridge has two slow lanes, ∆σE is the envelope of stress ranges
resulting from movement of the load model on each of them.
For each cross-section, the stress range in dowel is calculated by the following relationship:

∆σdowel = λ ∆ϕfat ∆σd (129)

Where: λ damage equivalent factor (see V.11.6.1)


∆ϕfat additional dynamic amplification factor (see V.11.9)
∆σd stress ranges in dowel calculated according to:

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∆V S y ∆M y
∆σ d = k fL + k fG zd (130)
tw I y Iy

V.11.5.2 Railway bridges


For railways bridges, the stress range ∆σdowel is calculated considering the displacement of the fatigue
load model LM71 on each railway track on the deck.
For each cross-section, the stress range in dowel is calculated by the following relationship:

∆σdowel = φ2 λ ∆σd (131)

Where: λ damage equivalent factor (see V.11.6.2)


φ2 dynamic amplification factor for railway bridges, assuming standard track maintenance
(see IV.2.7.3)
∆σd stress ranges in dowel calculated according to equation (130).

Damage equivalence factor for steel profiles

V.11.6.1 Road bridges

References: Eurocode EN1993-2:2006 9.5.2

The damage equivalence factor λ for road bridges is given by the following relationship:

λ = λ1 λ2 λ3 λ4 < λmax (132)

where: λ1 Factor taking account of traffic effects


λ2 Factor taking account of traffic volume
λ3 Factor taking account of bridge service life
λ4 Factor taking account of heavy traffic in other lanes
λmax Upper limit of λ

Factor λ1
Factor λ1 is calculated as a function of the span length for each cross-section, based on the
following figures. A cross-section is considered as a support cross-section if it is located at a
distance of the nearest intermediate support less than 15% of the span length; otherwise it is
assumed to be a mid-span cross section. In the following figures, the length L represents:
• the span length for mid-span cross-sections;
• the average values of the lengths of the two spans associated to the intermediate pier
for support cross-sections.

Note: For integral bridges or for abutments with flexural rigidity, cross-sections located at a distance less than
15 % of the span length are also considered as support cross-sections.

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Figure V-38: λ1 for mid-span cross-sections

Figure V-39: λ1 for support cross-sections

a) Simple abutments

b) Abutments with flexural rigidity


Figure V-40: Definition of support and mid-span cross-sections

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Factor λ2
Factor λ2 is calculated with the following formula:
1/ 5
Q  N obs 
λ 2 = m1 
 N

 (133)
Q0  0 
where: Qm1 Mean weight of trucks moving in the slow lane.
Nobs Number of trucks moving in the slow lane per year.
Q0 Reference weight Q0 = 480 kN.
N0 Reference number N0 = 0,5 . 106
Qm1 and Nobs are variables defined by the User in the Truck load model input module (see
II.3.27).
For road bridges calculated with German National Annexes (cf. II.3.2), the following conditions
is also taken into account: λ2 ≥ 1,10.

Factor λ3
Factor λ3 is calculated with the following formula:
1/ 5
t 
λ 3 =  Ld  (134)
 100 
where: tLd Bridge service life
tLd is defined by the User in the Truck load model input module (see II.3.27). The default value
is 100 years.

Factor λ4
Factor λ4 is calculated with the following formula:
1/ 5
 η 
5
λ4 = 1 +  2   (135)
  η1  
 
where: ηi Effect of the load model in slow lane index i

Factor λmax
Factor λmax is calculated as a function of the span length for each cross-section, based on the
following figures. Same rules are applied for mid-span and support cross-sections as for factor
λ1.

Figure V-41: λmax for mid-span cross-sections

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Figure V-42: λmax for support cross-sections

V.11.6.2 Railway bridges

References: Eurocode EN1993-2:2006 9.5.3

The damage equivalence factor λ for road bridges is given by the following relationship:

λ = λ1 λ2 λ3 λ4 < λmax (136)

where: λ1 Factor taking account of span length and train type


λ2 Factor taking account of traffic volume
λ3 Factor taking account of bridge service life
λ4 Factor taking account of the effect of two loaded tracks
λmax Upper limit of λ

Factor λ1
Factor λ1 is calculated for each section in accordance with the type of traffic and the span length,
using the Table V-9.
The type of traffic is defined by the User in the module for the definition of the train load models
(see II.3.30).
The length L considered in this Table is defined according to the same rule as for road bridges
factor λ1.

Factor λ2
Factor λ2 is calculated with the following formula:
1/ 5
Q 
λ2 =   (137)
 25 
where: Q is the actual traffic volume, in millions of tons per track per year.
By default, Q = 25. This value can be modified by the User in the module for the definition of the
train load models (see II.3.30).

L (m) EC MIX traffic 25 T MIX traffic L (m) EC MIX traffic 25 T MIX traffic
0,5 1,60 1,65 9,0 0,88 0,96
1,0 1,60 1,65 10,0 0,85 0,93

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1,5 1,60 1,65 12,5 0,82 0,90


2,0 1,46 1,64 15,0 0,76 0,92
2,5 1,38 1,55 17,5 0,70 0,73
3,0 1,35 1,51 20,0 0,67 0,68
3,5 1,17 1,31 25,0 0,66 0,65
4,0 1,07 1,16 30,0 0,65 0,64
4,5 1,02 1,08 35,0 0,64 0,65
5,0 1,03 1,07 40,0 0,64 0,65
6,0 1,03 1,03 45,0 0,64 0,66
7,0 0,97 1,02 50,0 0,63 0,66
8,0 0,92 0,99

Table V-9: Factor λ1 for railway bridges

Factor λ3
Factor λ3 is calculated with the following formula:
1/ 5
t 
λ 3 =  Ld  (138)
 100 
where: tLd Bridge service life
By default, tLd = 100 years. This value can be modified by the User in the module for the definition
of the train load models (see II.3.30).

Factor λ4
Factor λ4 is calculated with the following formula:

[ (
λ 4 = n + (1 − n ) a 5 + (1 − a ) 5 )]
1/ 5
(139)

where: n Probability of two trains meeting each other on the bridge; by default 12%. This
value can be modified by the User in the module for the definition of the train load
models (see II.3.30).
∆σ1
a Factor defined by: a =
∆σ1+ 2
∆σ1 Maximum stress range due to action effect of Load Model LM71 acting on a single
track
∆σ1+2 Maximum stress range due to action effect of Load Model LM71 acting on two
tracks of the same desk

Factor λmax
λmax =1.4

Damage equivalence factor for steel reinforcement

V.11.7.1 Road bridges

References: Eurocode EN1992-2 Annex NN

λs is the damage equivalent factor for studs, which is calculated as follows:

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λ s = α S λ s,1 λ s,2 λ s,3 λ s,4 (140)

αs is a coefficient equal to 1.75 for cross-sections at intermediate supports of continuous bridges and to
1.40 for other cross-sections (see Figure V-40).
For cross-sections in intermediate support area (i.e. which are located at a distance of the intermediate
support lower than 15% of the span length – 15% being replaced by the User ratio when relevant) λs,1
is given by curve 3 in Figure NN.1 of EN 1992-2. In ACOBRI, following values will be considered (with
linear interpolation for values between boundaries):

Critical length Lcr (m) ≤ 10 20 30 40 50

λs,1 0.90 0.94 0.97 1.03 1.07

The critical length Lcr is obtained with Lcr = 0.25 (L1 + L2 ) , where L1 and L2 are the lengths of the two
adjacent spans.

For cross-sections in spans (i.e. not in intermediate support area), λs,1 is given by curve 3 a) in Figure
NN.2 of EN 1992-2. In ACOBRI, following values will be considered (with linear interpolation for values
between boundaries):

Critical length Lcr (m) ≤ 10 20 30 40 50

λs,1 1.05 1.12 1.18 1.22 1.23

The critical length Lcr is obtained with Lcr = 0.85 L for end spans, Lcr = 0.70 L for intermediate spans and
Lcr = L for single spans, where L is the span length.

NObs
λs,2 denotes the influence of the annual traffic and is obtained by: λ s,2 = Q k2
2
k2 = 9 from Table 6.3 N of EN 1992-1-1, considering straight bars
NObs is the number of lorries per year, as defined already in ACOBRI
Q is a factor for traffic type, which is defined according to the Table NN.1 of EN 1992-2, considering the
traffic categories of Table 4.5 of EN 1991-2 (the traffic category is already defined by the User in
ACOBRI):
Traffic category Traffic type
Q
Table 4.5 – EN 1991-2 Table NN.1 – EN 1992-2
Roads and motorways with 2 or more
lanes per direction with high flow rates of Long distance 1
lorries
Roads and motorways with medium flow
Medium distance 0.94
rates of lorries
Other types Local traffic 0.82
For customized traffic, the user will have to define its own value of Q.

N Year
λs,3 denotes the influence of the service life and is obtained by: λ s,3 = k2
100
where NYear is the bridge service life as already defined in ACOBRI

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NObs 1
λs,4 denotes the influence of multiple lanes and is obtained by: λ s,4 = k2 = k2
NObs,1 x slow
Nobs,1 is the number of lorries per year on the slow lane
xslow is the ratio of the annual traffic of lorries that will drive on the slow lane

V.11.7.1 Railway bridges


λs is the damage equivalent factor for studs, which is calculated as follows:

λ s = α S λ s,1 λ s,2 λ s,3 λ s,4 (141)

λs,1 is a function of the critical length Lcr (same definition as for road bridges) calculated as follows:
• where Lcr ≤ 2 m or Lcr ≥ 20 m, the value of λs,1is obtained from the hereunder tables;

type of traffic
Type of span/section Lcr (m)
EC MIX 25T MIX
Simply ≤2 0.9 0.95
supported beams ≥ 20 0.65 0.70
Continuous beams ≤2 0.95 1.05
(mid span) ≥ 20 0.50 0.55
Continuous beam ≤2 0.90 1.00
(end span) ≥ 20 0.65 0.65
Continuous beam ≤2 0.85 0.85
(intermediate support area) ≥ 20 0.70 0.75

• where Lcr is between 2 m and 20 m, λs,1is obtained from the following interpolation equation:
[ ]
λ s,1 (Lcr ) = λ s,1 (2 m) + λ s,1 (20 m) − λ s,1 (2 m) (log(Lcr ) − 0,3)
Types of traffic EC MIX and 25T MIX as already defined in II.3.30.

Q
λs,2 denotes the influence of the annual traffic and is obtained by: λ s,2 = k2
25
k2 see road bridges
Q is the actual traffic volume in millions of tons per track per year, as defined in II.3.30
λs,3 same definition as for road bridges

λs,4 denotes the influence of multiple tracks and is obtained by: λ s,4 =
k2
[
n + (1 − n) a k2 + (1 − a)k2 ]
where a and n as already defined in V.11.6.2.

Damage equivalence factor for connection

V.11.8.1 Road bridges

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References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.8.6.2 (3) and (4)

λv is the damage equivalent factor for steel reinforcement, which is calculated as follows:

λ v = λ v,1 λ v,2 λ v,3 λ v,4 (142)

λv,1 is the factor for the damage effect of traffic, obtained by (see EN 1994-2 6.8.6.2 clauses (4) and (5)):
λ v,1 = 1,55
λv,2 is the factor for the damage effect of traffic, obtained by:
1/8
Q  N obs 
λ v,2 = m1  
Q0  N 
 0 
λv,3 is the factor for the design of the bridge, obtained by:
1/8
t 
λ v,3 =  Ld 
 100 
λv,4 is the factor for the traffic on other lanes/tracks, obtained by:

 η 8 1/8

λ v,4 = 1 +  2  
  η1  
 
Intermediate parameters, Qm1, Q0, Nobs and N0 for λv2, tLD for λv3, η1 and η2 for λv4, are defined in V.11.7.1.

V.11.8.2 Railway bridges

References: Eurocode EN1994-2:2005 6.8.6.2 (3) and (4)


EN 1992-2 Annex NN 3.1

λv is the damage equivalent factor for steel reinforcement, which is calculated with equation (142). λv,i
parameters are obtained as follows.
λv,1 is the factor for the damage effect of traffic, obtained by (see EN 1994-2 6.8.6.2 clauses (4) and (5)):
λ v,1 = 0 ,9 − L / 133 if L ≤ 20 m
λ v,1 = 0 ,75 if L > 20 m
where L is the length of the span.
λv,2 is the factor for the damage effect of traffic, obtained by:
1/8
Q
λ v,2 =  
 25 
λv,3 is the factor for the design of the bridge, obtained by:
1/8
t 
λ v,3 =  Ld 
 100 
λv,4 is the factor for the traffic on other lanes/tracks, obtained by:

[ (
λ v,4 = n + (1 − n) a 8 + (1 − a) 8 )]
1/8

where η1, η2, a and n are as already defined in ACOBRI (see User Manual V.9.5
Q are as already defined in ACOBRI (see User Manual V.9.5)
Intermediate parameters, Q for λv2, tLD for λv3, a and n for λv4, are defined in V.11.8.2.

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Dynamic amplification factor for road bridges


References: Eurocode EN1991-2:2006 4.6.1 (6)

For the Fatigue Limit States of road bridges, a dynamic amplification factor ∆ϕfat is taken into account
for the cross-sections near the expansion at the abutments. This factor is defined by the following
relation:

 d + x
∆ϕ fat = 1,30 1 − and ∆ϕfat ≥ 1.0 (143)
 26 

where: d is the distance between the cross-section and the support line of abutments
x is the distance between the support line of abutments and the expansion joint of the bridge.
By default, this parameter is assumed equal to 0 but the User can specify a positive value in the
module for the definition of slow lanes (see II.3.28).

Figure V-43: Dynamic amplification factor at abutments

Figure V-44: Effect of the gap between expansion joints and abutments

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V.12 DESIGN OF CONNECTION

This chapter gives the general principles used by ACOBRI to design the minimal connexion of composite
bridges. It doesn’t apply neither for filler-beams nor for Precobeams. This design of the minimal
connexion is carried out parallel to the connection defined by the User (see II.3.7).

The number of studs to be implemented between the upper flange and the slab is assessed by ACOBRI
in order to fulfil the following requirements:
• to comply with the SLS check criteria
• to comply with the SLU requirements
• to comply with the maximal density of connexion.
It is to be noted that no design criteria for Fatigue limit states are considered.

SLS requirements
The design check criterion for SLS has been given in V.9.12.

ULS requirements
For each beam of each span of the bridge, the following process is applied, considering the ULS
combinations:
• Search of the section denoted B where the ratio MEd / Mpl,Rd is maximal, where MEd represents
the envelope of positive bending moments and Mpl,Rd the plastic resistant moment of composite
beams.

A B C

MEd

Mpl,Rd

Figure V-45: Definition of B section

• Definition of following parameters:


- MEd,B Bending moment in cross-section B
- Ma,Ed Part of MEd,B due to permanent actions applied during construction phase
- Mpl,Rd,B Plasic resistant moment of cross-section B
- Fpl,B Normal resistant force under compression of the slab, given by:

fcj
Fpl,B = Lpart E Slab 0.85 (144)
γc

where: Lpart effective of concrete in cross-section B, considering IV.4.4.2


Eslab efficient depth of the slab
fcj Resistance to compression of concrete (see IV.1.2)
γc Factor for the resistance of concrete (see II.4.5)

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• The compression force in the slab in the cross-section B is obtained by:

M Ed, B − M a,Ed
FB = Fpl,B (145)
M pl,Rd,B − M a,Ed

• The tension forces in the slab at supports A and C are calculated by:

 Sr, sup,i Sr,inf,i 


Fi = M i  +  for i = A, C (146)
Wr, sup,i Wr,inf,i 
where: MA, MC negative bending moments at supports
Sr,sup,A and Sr,inf,A are the area of upper and lower layers of reinforcement respectively,
at the cross-section at support A
Sr,sup,C and Sr,inf,C are the area of upper and lower layers of reinforcement respectively,
at the cross-section at support C
W r,sup,A and W r,inf,A are the elastic moduli for upper and lower layers of reinforcement
respectively, at the cross-section at support A
W r,sup,C and W r,inf,C are the elastic moduli for upper and lower layers of reinforcement
respectively, at the cross-section at support C
Elastic moduli are considered under the assumption of cracked concrete.
• The number of studs between support and cross-section B is given by:

niB PRd ≥ Fi + FB for i = A, C (147)

Maximal density of connection

dmin bmin

Figure V-46: Minimal spacing of studs

The disposition of studs on the upper flange satisfies with following requirements (dc being the diameter
of the stud):
• spacing of stud to an edge: dmin = 0.50 dc + 75 mm (prefabricated slabs)
dmin = 0.50 dc + 25 mm (other cases)
• spacing between studs in rows: bmin = 2.5 dc
It also assumed that a row of studs doesn’t contain more than 5 studs.
The spacing two rows is at least equal to 5 dc. For slabs with profiled steel sheeting, a row is assumed
for each rib.

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Additional connection at concrete crossbeams


For each cross-section at intermediate support with concrete crossbeams, the number of additional
studs required to compensate the discontinuity of the upper flanges is assessed as follows.

ARebar MEd  1 1 
∆n =  −  (148)
PRd WrCC WrCS 
where: ∆n is the required number of studs required to compensate the discontinuity of upper
flanges;
Arebar is the total area of longitudinal reinforcement (as defined in II.3.8);
MEd is the design bending moment (not including the load cases where rebars are not
working, i.e. dead loads before pouring of concrete)
PRd is the design shear resistance of studs (as calculated in V.10.1)
W rCC is the elastic modulus for the upper layer of reinforcement, considering the cross-section
at concrete crossbeam (see V.2.5)
W rCS is the elastic modulus for the upper layer of reinforcement, considering the normal cross-
section (neglecting the concrete crossbeam – see V.2.4)
The results of these calculations are given in the preliminary design report (chapter “Other results”) and
are taken into account in the minimal connection (see III.3.10).

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CHAPTER VI

VI ANNEXES

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VI.1 DIRECTORIES AND FILES MANAGEMENT

Using ACOBRI, following directories and files are implied:

Installation directory
The installation directory is defined by the User when the installation package is run. By default, following
directory is adopted: C:\Program Files\ACOBRI401 (for version 4.01).
Anyway, it is recommended to choose the installation directory on the main drive of the computer
(generally drive C).
The installation directory contains the executables files launched by the program:
ACOBRI.exe Main interface of ACOBRI
MoteurAPM.exe Calculation solver and post-processing interface

Configuration directories
Two configuration directories are used by ACOBRI. They both are automatically created at first launch
of the program in the following directory:

Users/…/AppData/Roaming/ArcelorMittal/ACOBRI

The first one (/Databases) contains the three databases that can be modified by the User. If a previous
version of the program has already been used, the User can choose either to keep the previous
databases or to install the new ones. The database files are:
• Shear stud database (see II.2.2): GOUJON.db
• Profiled steel sheetongs (see II.2.3): BAC.db
• Abnormal loads (see II.2.4): UserLoads.db
The second one (/Config401 for version 4.01) is created for each version of the program. It contains the
languages files, the ini file that stores the configuration settings and the profiles database (binary file not
modifiable).

Working directory
The working directory is the default directory where data files are stored or opened by the program. This
working directory can be modified at any moment by the User. The active working directory is the last
directory where a data file has been opened or saved.
When a calculation is performed by ACOBRI, the data file (extension .APM) is automatically saved in
the active working directory. The following results files are created (binary files) in this same directory:
• Data and grid models (extension .DBA)
• Influence lines (extension .LIF)
• Permanent load cases (extension .CPE)
• Live and fatigue load cases (extension .CEV)
• Design checks (extension .VRF)
Additionally, temporary files may be created during calculations but are removed at the end.

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VI.2 PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

In ACOBRI, following constants are considered:


• Young’s modulus for steel: E = 210 000 MPa
• Density of steel: ρ = 7850 kg/m3
• Acceleration of gravity: g = 9.81 m/s2
• Poisson Ratio for steel: ν = 0.3

VI.3 MATERIAL

Creep coefficient
The creep coefficient ϕ(t, t0) is calculated in ACOBRI according to the following relations (from Annex B
in EN 1992-1:2004).

ϕ(t , t 0 ) = ϕRH β(fcm ) β(t 0 ) β c (t , t 0 ) (149)

where: fcm is the mean compressive strength of concrete, obtained by the following relation
(according to Table 3.1 in EN 1992-1):
fcm = fck + 8 MPa
fck is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete (see IV.1.2)
ϕRH is a factor taking account of the humidity, given by:
1 − RH / 100
ϕRH = 1 + for fcm ≤ 35 MPa
0.1 3 h0

 1 − RH / 100 
ϕRH = 1 + α1  α 2 for fcm > 35 MPa
 0.1 3 h0 
h0 is the size of the concrete member, given by:
A
h0 = 2 c
u
Ac is the area of the concrete cross-section
u is the perimeter of slab in contact with the atmosphere

For filler-beam decks, h0 is thus obtained by the relation:


Lp eslab
h0 = 2
Lp + 2 eslab

Figure VI-1: Calculation of parameter h0 for filler-beam decks

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For other types of beams (haunches and flanges are neglected):


Lp eslab
h0 =
Lp + eslab

Figure VI-2: Calculation of parameter h0 for other type of decks

β(fcm) is a factor to take account of the concrete strength, given by:


16.8
β(fcm ) =
fcm
1
β(t 0 ) =
( 0 . 1 + t 0 0 .2 )
βc(t, t0) is a factor to take account of the development of creep during time, given by:
0. 3
 (t − t 0 ) 
βc (t , t 0 ) =  
 (βH + t − t 0 ) 
βH is given by:
[ ]
βH = 1.5 1 + (0.012 RH )18 h0 + 250 ≤ 1500 for fcm ≤ 35 MPa

βH = 1.5 [1 + (0.012 RH) ] h 18


0 + 250 α 3 ≤ 1500 α 3 for fcm > 35 MPa
α factors are obtained with:
0.7 0. 2 0. 5
 35   35   35 
α1 =   α2 =   α3 =  
 fcm   fcm   fcm 

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VI.4 PRECOBEAMS

General design of Precobeams


The steel chords used for Precobeams are obtained by a cutting of basic hot rolled profiles. All chords
considered in ACOBRI will be obtained from hot rolled profiles of the ArcelorMittal catalogue.
The shape of the cutting lines leads to the formation of steel and concrete dowels which are used to
transmit horizontal shear between the steel chords and the concrete. Several shapes are theoretically
possible but only the clothoïdal shape is considered in ACOBRI.

Figure VI-3: Général principle for the cutting of a base profile

Figure VI-4: Detail of the cutting line for the clothoidal dowels

Figure VI-5: Geometry of dowels

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The dowels considered are predefined and cannot be modified by the User. The following geometry is
considered:
spacing between two dowel axes: ex = 250 mm
narrowest width of a steel dowel: wsd = 75 mm
largest width of a concrete dowel: wcd = 175 mm
height of dowel: hd = 115 mm (EN rules)
Under Expert mode, the value of ex and hd can be modified, all other parameters being then changed
proportionally to ex.

The dimensions of a steel chord used for Precobeam is obtained as follows (cf. Figure VI-6):
total height of the chord:
hm = (Ht + hd) /2 - ecl
height of the chord for the resistance:
hmr = hm - hd = (Ht –hd) /2 - ecl
where: Ht is the total height of the base profile
ecl is the depth of the cutting line (default value in ACOBRI, ecl = 0, not modifiable)

Figure VI-6: Dimensions of steel chord

Description of the cross-sections


Simple Precobeams are defined by the following parameters (see Figure VI-7 for the notations):
total depth of the slab (esl)
depth of the precast slab (epsl)
height of the concrete web (dcw)
height of tee profile encased in concrete (dsic)
Note: The height of dowels is not accounted for in the height of the tee profile encased in concrete.
The width of the concrete web is denoted bcw. For all cross-sections, this width is obtained by:
bcw = bf + ∆bcw
where: bf is the width of the flange of the associated tee cross-section
∆bcw is the variation of concrete web’s width, which is constant for all the bridge. By default, its
value is set to 0. In Expert mode, it is possible to modify this value.

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bcw is never considered less than 250 mm.

Figure VI-7: Description of the cross-section for simple Precobeam

Double Precobeams are defined by the following parameters (see Figure VI-8 for the notations):
total depth of the slab (esl)
depth of the precast slab (epsl)
height of the concrete haunch (dhc); dhc = 0 if no haunch
height of tee profile encased in concrete (dsic)
spacing between the two flanges (dfsd)
inclination of the haunches faces about horizontal axis (αhc); by default 75°.
Note: the spacing between the two profiles axis is given by: dsd = dfsd + bf.

Figure VI-8: Description of the cross-section for double Precobeam

Limitations
Common limitations:
For each type of Precobeams, the following limitations are considered:

Limitation C1:
Thickness of the plate: 6 mm ≤ tw ≤ 40 mm
where tw is the thickness of the profile web

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This limitation means that any profile with a web thickness outside the range is not
available for Precobeams.

Limitation C2:
Ratio tw/hd: 0,08 ≤ tw / hd ≤ 0,5
Which could also be expressed by:
0,08 hd ≤ tw ≤ 0,5 hd
For the default values of hd under EN rules (hd = 115 mm – see Figure VI-6), the
following ranges of tw values is obtained:
9.2 mm ≤ tw ≤ 57.5 mm
This limitation means that any profile with a web thickness outside the range is not
available for Precobeams.

Limitation C3:
Width of concrete web: bc ≥ bcmin = 250 mm
This limitation is applied according to the type of Precobeam, see below.

Limitation C4:
Minimum concrete coverage of the dowels:
co; cu ≥ ccmin = 40 mm
where: co is the concrete coverage above the dowel (see Figure VI-5)
cu is the concrete coverage below the dowel (ibid.)
This limitation is applied according to the type of Precobeam, see below.
For simple or for double precobeams, this limitation applies for both states after the
pouring of concrete and the prefabricated state (where the thickness of the slab is
lower).

Limitation C5:
left blank intentionally.

Limitation C6:
Dowel reinforcement areas have the following limits:
2 ≤ At ≤ 13 cm2 and default value: At = 5.0275 cm2
1 ≤ Ab ≤ 10 cm2 and default value: Ab = 2.26 cm2

The parameters for the limitations C1 to C4 are available for modification by the User under the
Expert mode only (see “Options/Precobeams parameters”).

Limitations for simple Precobeam:


Limitation C3:
The limitation C3 is applied by imposing: bcw ≥ bcmin

Limitation C4:
Window “general parameters”:
dsic = cu ≥ ccmin
epsl + dcw - dsic - hd = co ≥ ccmin
The criterion for co is verified only for the prefabricated state (the most severe).

Limitations for double Precobeam:

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Limitation C4:
Window “general parameters”:
dsic = cu ≥ ccmin
epsl + dhc - dsic - hd = co ≥ ccmin
The criterion for co is verified only for the prefabricated state (the most severe).

Limitation for the choice of profiles


Once the parameters for Precobeams have been defined, the following criterion is checked
when new profiles are chosen by the User:
Ht ≥ hd + 2 dsic

VI.5 VARIABLE HEIGHT

Haunches
For conventional beams and partially prefabricated Precobeams, the User can define haunches at each
end of any span (see II.3.15). In this case, the modified height Ht,mod of a cross-section in the haunch
area is obtained with the following formula:

  d supp 
H t,mod = H t,cs 1 + (khh − 1) 1 − 
 (150)
  dhaunch 
where: Ht,cs is the height of the base profile of the cross-section
khh is the ratio for the height of haunches, with khh = 1.4
dsupp is the spacing between the cross-section and the support
dhaunch is the length of the haunch, obtained by: dhaunch = klh Ht,supp
klh is the ratio for the length of haunches, with klh = 4
Ht,supp is the height of the base profile at support (which could be different from Ht,cs)

Figure VI-9: Height of the cross-section in the area of haunches

Curved Precobeams
It is possible to define curved Precobeams in ACOBRI (see II.3.17).

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This Annex describes how the heights of cross-sections are assessed along the beam.

Simple precobeams:
Considering a span of the bridge with variable heights, following parameters have been defined
by the User:
hcw,m: Height of the concrete web at mid-span
hin,m: Height of steel chord encased in concrete web, at mid-span (dowels not
accounted in the distance).
hcw,s: Height of the concrete web at support
hin,s: Height of steel chord encased in concrete web, at support (dowels not
accounted in the distance).
The variations of height are defined by:
• variation of the height of the concrete web: ∆hcw = hcw,s − hcw,m
• variation if the total height of the cross-section: ∆hf = hcw,s − hcw,m + hin,m − hin,s

It is assumed in ACOBRI that these variations are small when compared to the span length.
Following limits should be respected for the definition of curved simple precobeams, where L is
the span length:
• ∆hcw < 0,1 L
• ∆hf < 0,1 L
For any cross-section of the span, located at a distance d of the mid-span, the heights of the
section are obtained as follows:
• height of the concrete beam: hcw,d = hcw,m + ∆hcw,d

4 d2
∆hcw,d = ∆hcw
L2
• total height of the cross-section: hcs,d = hcs,m + ∆hcw,d

4 d2
∆z f,d = ∆hf
L2
where hcs,m is the total height of the cross-section at mid-span.

Figure VI-10: Definition of curved simple precobeams

Double precobeams:

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Considering a span of the bridge with variable heights, following parameters have been defined
by the User:
hhc,m: Height of the concrete haunch at mid-span
hhc,s: Height of the concrete haunch at support
The variations of height are defined by:
• variation of the height of the concrete haunch: ∆hhw = hhw,s − hhw,m
It is assumed in ACOBRI that these variations are small when compared to the span length.
Following limits should be respected for the definition of curved simple precobeams, where L is
the span length:
• ∆hhc < 0,1 L
For any cross-section of the span, located at a distance d of the mid-span, the height of the
concrete haunch is obtained as follows:
hhc,d = hhc,m + ∆hhc,d

4 d2
∆hhc,d = ∆hhc
L2

Figure VI-11: Definition of curved double precobeams

VI.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

This chapter gives some complements about the finite element analysis carried out by the software.

Location of nodes in the longitudinal direction


ACOBRI imposes that a line of node is defined in the finite element model for the following items:
• support lines (abutments and piers)
• mid spans
• diaphragms
• changes in cross-section
• for each intermediate support, the limits of the support region (see IV.4.5).
Two imposed locations with a spacing less than 20 cm are merged together in the model.
Other node locations are determined so that the length of a longitudinal doesn’t exceed the following
limits:
• length of the elements less than 1 m or 1,6 m for very long spans;

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• at least 10 longitudinal elements for each longitudinal line in a span.

Location of nodes in the transverse direction


In the transverse direction, a line of nodes is imposed for the following locations:
• the deck’s sedges;
• the axis of each main girder.
Between these imposed locations, lines of nodes are created so that the length of a transverse element
of the model never exceeds 1 m.
It is important to note that only the deck’s edges are considered in the model. More precisely, when
footways are defined with overhangs, the part outside the deck is not considered in the model.

Figure VI-12: Limits of the deck in the model

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Numbering of the nodes

0 X
Figure VI-13: Numbering the nodes

Numbering of the elements


The numbering of elements begins with the longitudinal elements, according to the following figure.

0 X
Figure VI-14: Numbering the longitudinal elements

It continues with the transverse elements, according to the following figure.

0 X
Figure VI-15: Numbering the transverse elements

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VI.7 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS

Intermediate parameters
This chapter defines the intermediate parameters that are required in the calculations of integral bridges.

kh: Global equivalent horizontal spring stiffness (soil) (Unit: F/L2)


kh = n khp (151)

EIp: Flexural stiffness of the piles (Unit: F L2)


EIp = n Ep Ip (152)

R: Relative stiffness factor (Unit: L)

EIp E p Ip
R= 4 = 4 (153)
kh khp

ka, ku: Length factors (No Unit)

la
ka = (154)
R
lu
ku = (155)
R

Rsm: Restraint of the superstructure (Unit: F L)


Rsm can be either Rsm,s the symmetric restraint of the superstructure or Rsm,a the anti-symmetric
restraint, given by the following relations:
E sup I sup,m
R sm,s = K sym (156)
Lsup

1
For composite sections: K sym =
1 (157)
(1 − QI ) λ sup,cr −
2
For non composite sections: Ksym = -2 (158)
Esup Isup,m
Rsm,a = Kanti (159)
Lsup

6
K anti = (160)
2 λ sup,cr (1 − QI ) (3 − 6 λ sup,cr + 4 λ sup,cr 2 ) − 1

Rsm depends on the modular ratio m of the considered load case.


I sup,m
where: QI =
I sup,cr
Lsup,cr
λ sup,cr =
Lsup
Isup,m: is the second moment of area (i.e. the sum of the second moment of area of all the
ACOBRI bridge girders, calculated at mid-span, considering uncracked concrete with m
modular ratio of the considered load case).

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Isup,cr: is the second moment of area in the cracked region (i.e. the sum of the second moment
of inertia of all ACOBRI bridge girders, calculated at abutment, considering cracked
concrete).
Lsup: is the length of the superstructure (i.e. the length of the single span bridge in ACOBRI)
Lsup,cr: is the length of the cracked zone (at one end of the bridge, cf. Figure below). In ACOBRI,
this value is calculated as: Lsup,cr = kcr Lsup, with kcr = 0.15.
Esup: is the Young’s modulus for the superstructure (i.e. the girders of the bridge, then Esup is
the Young’s modulus of steel).

Lsup,cr Lsup,cr

Lsup

Figure VI-16: Dimensions of the integral bridge

Qa: Flexural stiffness ratio (No Unit)

EIp
Qa = (161)
Ea Ia

Q m: Flexural stiffness ratio (No Unit)


Qm depends on the modular ratio m of the considered load case

EIp
Qm = (162)
Rsm l a

K1 coefficient (Unit: 1/L):

1 2 + 2 2 k u + k u 2 − k a 2 (1 − Qa )
K1 = (163)
R 6 k u + 3 2 (1 + k u 2 ) + k u 3 − k a 3 (1 − Qa )

K2,m coefficient (Unit: F):

Ak2 Ea Ia
K 2,m = −6 (164)
Bk21 + Qm Bk22 R 2

Where:
Ak2 = 2 2 k u + k u 2 + k a 2 (Qa − 1) + 2

1  1  4
Bk21 = −Bk211 + Bk212 1 −  + ka (2 − Qa )
Qa  Q a

( (
Bk211 = k u 4 + k a 4 + 12 + 4 k u 3 k u + 2 k u 2 + 3 ))
Bk212 = k a k u ( 6 k a k u − 4 (k a 2 + k u 2 ) − 24 + 12 2 (k a − k u )) + 4 k a (3 k a − 2 ( k a 2 + 3))
Ak2, Bk21, Bk211 and Bk212 are non-dimensional.

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ka k k  1 
Bk22 = 12 2 (1 + ku 2 ) + 4 a u (6 + ku 2 ) + 4 k a 4 1 −
 Q 

Qa Qa  a

K3,m coefficient (Unit: L / F):


fdistr Lsup
K 3,m = (165)
E sup Asup

Where:
fdistr: factor for distribution of expansion at abutment (0,50 by default)
Lsup: Length of the bridge (i.e. in ACOBRI)
Esup Asup: Axial rigidity of the bridge (as a function of the modular ratio m of the load
case)

K4 coefficient (Unit: F/L):

2 EIp 1
K4 = (166)
3
R 6 ku + 3 2 (1 + ku ) + ku3 − k a3 (1 − Qa )
2

Spring stiffnessess
The global symmetric restraint of the superstructure by an integral abutment is given by the following
relation:

M0
c ϕ,sym = (167)
θ
With: n: number of piles
M0: Unit moment, M0 = 1
θ: rotation at center of rotation, as given by (for a single pile):

la H  (l − l a )  H 
θ = θg +  l a + M0  + u  (l a + l u ) + M 0 
E a Ia  2  EI p 2 
H M0 + H lu
θg = + 2 (168)
2
kh R kh R 3
3
H=− M0 K1
2
K1 see VI.7.1

The global anti-symmetric restraint of the superstructure by an abutment is given by the following
relation:

EI p
c ϕ,anti = (169)
2 R + l u + l a (Q a − 1)

Both these spring stiffnesses are to be distributed to the girders of the bridge proportionally to their
flexural rigidity:

I sup,i,m
c ϕ,i = c ϕ (170)
∑ I sup,i,m
Where: cϕ,i: is the spring stiffness at girder I (symmetric or anti-symmetric)

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cϕ = cϕ,sym or cϕ = cϕ,anti
Isup,i,m : is the second moment of area of the girder i calculated at mid-span of the bridge,
considering uncracked concrete, for the modular ratio associated to long term loads
(dead loads).

Loads due to forces on the backwall of the abutment

VI.7.3.1 Calculations for symmetric loadings


A symmetric load case of both embankments is considered here, with a resultant load pressure S on
each side, applied at a location defined by kF factor. In the following relations, Rsm is assumed to be the
symmetric restraint of superstructure, Rsm,s as defined by equation (156). The normal force and the
moment generated by this symmetric case are given by the two following relations:

δN
N IIA = N IA +
δδN (171)
1−
δN
δM
MIIA = MIA +
δδM (172)
1−
δM
Where:

NIA = −S KNS (173)

I S la
MA = K MS (174)
Qm k a 2

KNS is the force coefficient for earth pressure. KMS is the moment coefficient for earth pressure.
Both KNS and KMS are non-dimensional and are given in Annex VI.7.4.
For symmetric loadings, the coefficient Qm used in previous relations is obtained with Rsms the
symmetric restraint of superstructure.

The normal force NIA generates a shortening ∆I of the superstructure:

∆I = K 3,m N IA

with K3,m as defined in VI.7.1


This shortening adds the following moment:

δM = − K 2,m ∆I

with K2,m as defined in VI.7.1


And it also adds the following normal force:

3  ∆I 
δN = δM K1 − K 4 
2  δM 

with K1 and K4as defined in VI.7.1


The second order elongation is given by:

∆II = K 3,m δN

The second order moment is given by:

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δδM = − K 2,m ∆II

The second order normal force is given by:

3  ∆II 
δδN = δδM K1 − K 4 
2  δδM 

VI.7.3.2 Calculations for anti-symmetric loadings


An anti-symmetric load case of both embankments is considered here, with a resultant load pressure S
on one side and the resultant –S on the other side, both applied at a location defined by kF factor.
The normal force and the moment generated by this anti-symmetric case are given in the two following
relations:

N IIA = 0 (175)

M AII = M AI
  1 
2 + 2 2 [ku − k a (1 − kF )] + 2 k a kF ku − k a 1 − Qa kF  + (ku − k a )2 (176)
1   2 
= SR
2 2 + ku − k a (1 + Qm − Qa )
with Qm calculated from the anti-symmetric restraint of superstructure Rsmanti as defined by equation
(159) and kF as defined in IV.2.6.

Normal force and corrected moments distribution


It is considered here a load case (static or live) which produces a distribution of bending moment in the
superstructure. The moment at one abutment is denoted Mcorner (Mcorner is the global moment at the
abutment, i.e. the sum of the moments at the ends of the bridge girders in ACOBRI). The modular ratio
associated to the considered load case is denoted m hereafter.

M corner = ∑ M end,i (177)

where Mend,i is the bending moment at the end of girder i.

The moment Mcorner at abutment produces the following normal force in the girders of the bridge (frame
effect):

I 3
N sup = M corner K 1
2
This normal force produces itself an elongation/contraction of the superstructure of the bridge, given by:

∆I = K 3,m Nsup
I

The deformation ∆I produces itself an additional moment δM, calculated by:

δM = − K 2,m ∆I

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The deformation ∆I also produces an additional normal force δN, calculated by:

3  ∆I 
δN = δM K1 − K 4 
2  δM 

This additional normal force produces a new additional elongation/contraction:

∆II = K 3,m δN

This additional elongation ∆II produces additional moment and normal forces (second order):

δδM = − K 2,m ∆II

3  ∆II 
δδN = δδM K1 − K 4 
2  δδM 

K1, K2,m K3,m and K4 are obtained according to VI.7.1, with the modular ratio m associated to the
considered load case.

Finally, the normal force to be considered in the superstructure is the following:

II I δN
Nsup = Nsup +
δδN (178)
1−
δN
This global normal force is distributed in each girder of the beam according to their axial rigidity:

II II Asup,i,m
Nsup,i = Nsup (179)
∑ Asup,i,m
Where Asup,i,m is the equivalent composite area of the girder i, calculated at mid-span, considering the m
modular ratio.

The global shift of moment to be considered is obtained by:

δM
M shift =
δδN (180)
1−
δN
This global shift is distributed in the girder (constant shift along the beam) proportionally to their moment
at beam end:

M end,i
M shift,i = M shift
M corner
and M corner = ∑ M end,i (181)

Earth pressure coefficients


Earth pressure coefficients are obtained by the following relations:

K NS =
∑ Li (182)
Qa (Bk21 + Qm Bk22 ) CK

KMS =
∑Ci (183)
∑ Di

CTICM document no DRV/ACOBRI/MU/001-B 256 / 260


ACOBRI User Manual – Annexes

Assuming:
E p Ip
QR = = Qm k a
Rsm R
Where: Bk21 and Bk22 as defined in equation (164)
6 k u + k u 3 + k a 3 (Qa − 1) + 3 2 (1 + k u 2 )
Ck =
k a Qa

Li COEFFICIENTS FOR KNS


Q 
L1 = 72  m − 1 L2 = 9 2 k F 2 k a 3 − 2 k F 3 k a 3 k u 3
 Qa 

ka5 ku
L3 = −6 2 k F 3 k a 3 − 4 L4 = 12 2 Q m k a 3 k u 2 − 6 2 k F k a 5
Qa

72
L5 = 9 2 k F 2 k a 3 k u 2 − 12 Qm k F 3 k a 3 k u L6 =
Qa

L7 = 6 2 k F k a 4 ku [2 + k F (Qa − 1)] L8 = 6
Qm
Qa
[
kF k a 3 k a 3 − ku 3 ]
L9 = −6 k a 5 [ k F k a Qm + k u Qa ] L10 = 6 2 k a 5 Qa ( k F − 1)

L11 = 3 k F 2 k a 3 k u 2 ( 2 k u Qm − 3 2 Qa ) L12 = 36 k F 2 k a 3 k u Qm

ka3 36 2  1
L 13 = 3 2 [ 9 Q a − 2 Q m − 5] L14 = −
Qa 
k a + 
ka 
Qa

ku 5
L15 = 12 2 k a 3 ( Qm − Qa ) L16 = 24 2 ( 1 − Qa )
Qa

ku 6 ku 3 ka
L17 = 45 2 k a k u 4 − 7 2 L18 = 10 2 ( 2 ka − 3 ku )
Qa k a Qa

ka 4 ku 3
L19 = 12 + 9 k a 3 ku 3 L20 = − 4 k u 6 − 180
Qa Qa k a

Qm
L21 = 2 ku 3 ( 2 ku 3 − k a 3 ) L22 = 4 k a 3 k u 3 ( Qm − Qa )
Qa

ku 2 ka k a3 ku 2
L23 = −15 2 ( 2Qm k u 2 + k a 2 ) L 24 = 3 ( 9 2 Q a + 2k a )
Qa Qa

Qm
L25 = 3 k a 4 ku 2 (3 Qa − 5) L26 = 6 k a 4 k u 2 (1 − Qa )
Qa

Qm  k 
L27 = −6 k a k u 2 (k u 3 + 2 k a 2 ) L28 = −2 2 k a 4 15 k u + 2 a 
Qa  Q a

 k   k 
L29 = 2 2 k a 4 5 k a + 6 u  L30 = k a 5 10 k u + a 
 Qa   Qa 

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 18  Qm
L31 = 2 k a 2  − ka 4  L32 = 2 ka 6 (Qa − 1)
Q
 a  Qa

L33 = k a 6 Qa L34 = −12 2 k a 2 k u 2 ( 2 k F 2 ku + Qa k a )

 2 
L35 = 72 k a k u  k F 2 + 3 −  L36 = 36 k F k a 2 ( 1 − k F )
 Q a

ku
L37 = 24 2 ( 7 ku 2 + 2 ka 2 ) L38 = 18 2 k F 3 k a 2 k u
Qa

ku 3 k
L39 = 3 2 ( 56 Q m − 25 u ) L40 = −24 k u 2 ( 12 + 7 2 k u )
Qa ka

ku k
L41 = 144 2 ( Qm − Qa − u ) L 42 = 3 2 k F k a k u 3 ( 5 k F k u + 8 k a )
Qa ka

L43 = 2 k F 2 k a 2 k u 4 ( k F − 3) L44 = 3 k F k a 4 k u 2 ( 2 − k F )

L45 = 3 k F 2 k a ku 2 ( Qa k a 3 + k u 3 ) L46 = 2 k F k a 2 ku 3 ( 3 k u + 4 2 k F 2 )

L47 = 6 2 k F 3 k a 3 k u 2 ( Qa − 1) L48 = −2 2 k F k a ( k F 2 k a 4 + 15 k u 4 )

Qm
L49 = 6 2 kF k a ku ( 5 ku 3 − 2 k a 3 ) L 50 = 12 2 k F k a 4 k u ( Q m − Q a )
Qa

L51 = k F 2 k a 6 ( 2 k F − 3) L 52 = 6 k F k a 5 (Q a k F k a − k u )

L53 = k F 2 k a 3 (3 k u 3 − 4 Qa k F k a 3 ) L 54 = 2k F 3 k a 5 (− k u + 2 Q a )

L 55 = 2 Q a k F 3 k a 3 k u (k a 2 + k u2 ) 3 2
L56 = 2 k F k a ( 6 − Qm k a k u )
3

L57 = 2 kF 3 ka 3 (Qm ka 3 + 3 2 Qa ) L 58 = 18 k F 2 k a 3 k u

L59 = −6 kF 3 ka 3 ( 2 ku + 2 Qm ) L60 = 6 Qa k F 2 k a 3 k u ( 2 k F − 3)

L61 = −2Qm kF 2 k a 3 ( Qa k F k a 3 − 9 2 ku 2 ) L 62 = 6 2 k F 2 k a 5 (1 − Q a )

L63 = 6 k F 2 k a 5 k u (1 − Qa ) L 64 = −6 k F k a (k F Q m k a 5 + k u 5 )
Qm
L65 = 6 k F k a ku 2 ( ku 3 − k a 3 ) L66 = 6 k F k a 4 k u 2 ( Qm − Qa )
Qa

6
L67 = k F ka 3 (2 Qa ka − 3 2 Qm ku 2 ) L68 = 6 k F 2 k a (Qa k a 3 + 10 k u 3 )
Qa

ku 2
L69 = 36 k a k u 2 ( 2 k F k a + 5 k u ) L70 = 18 ( 16 + 2 Qm kF 2 ka 3 )
Qa

Qm Qm
L71 = −18 k a ( 8 ku + 2 k F k a 2 ) L72 = −2 ka ku 2 (60 ku + 63 2 )
Qa Qa

Qm Qm
L73 = 12 2 k a 4 ku (1 − Qa ) L74 = 18 ka ku (8 kF + 2 ka 3 Qa )
Qa Qa

CTICM document no DRV/ACOBRI/MU/001-B 258 / 260


ACOBRI User Manual – Annexes

Qm 2  21 
L75 = 2 k F k a ku (60 ku − 27 2 k F k a ) L76 = − 6 2 k a k u  k u + 11 k a 
Qa Q
 a 

 16 
L77 = 9 2 k u  + 7 kF 2 ka ku  L78 = 9 2 kF ka ( 2 kF + 6 ka ku )
 Qa 

 20 
L79 = 27 2 ka ( 2 + 7 ku 2 ) L80 = 6 k u  ku 3 + 9 ka3 
Q
 a 

30
L81 = − k a ku ( 4 ku 2 + k a 2 ) L82 = 24 k F 3 k a 2 k u 2
Qa

L83 = −6 k F 2 k a 2 ( k a 2 + 12 k u 2 ) L84 = −6 k a 2 (14 k u 2 + 5 k a 2 )

ku 6
L85 = −28 2 ka 2 ku 3 L86 = ( 4 k a − ku )
Qa ka

5  6 
L87 = k a 2 ku 3 ( k u − k a ) + 9 k a k u 5 L88 = − k a k u 4  ku + 7 ka 
Qa Q
 a 

 Q  60
L89 = − 9 k F k a 3  4 m k u + 2 Qa k F  L90 = k a 2 ku 2 + 6 Qa Qm k F 2 k a 6
 Qa  Qa

Qm Q 
L91 = 36 2 kF ka + 18 Qa ka 4 L92 = 126 2 k F k a k u 2  m − 1
Qa Q
 a 

L93 = 0 L94 = − 36 kF ka (4 ku + 2 )

Q 
L95 = − 12 k F k a  m k a 3 + 10 k u 3  L96 = 12 k F k a 4 (Qm − Qa )
Q
 a 

Qm 2 ku
L97 = 24 ku (12 + 2 ku 3 ) L98 = −6 (24 + 7 ku 4 )
Qa Qa ka

Q  Qm
L99 = 120 k u 4  m − 1 L100 = 12 ka3 ku (2 Qa − 1)
 Qa  Qa

 Q  Q 
L101 = − 12 k a 3 2 m + 2 Qa k u k a 2  L102 = 12 k a 4  m − Q m 
 Q a  Q
 a 

L103 = 3 Qa k F k a 5 (2 k u − Qa k F k a ) L104 = Qa k F 2 k a 3 ( 2 Qa k a 3 − 3 k u 3 )

L105 = −48 k a 2 − 6 2 Qm k F 3 k a 3 ku 2

CTICM document no DRV/ACOBRI/MU/001-B 259 / 260


ACOBRI User Manual – Annexes

Ci COEFFICIENTS FOR KMS


C1 = 12 ka (1 – kF) (1 + ku2) C2 = 12 ka3 (1 – kF)

C3 = 2 Qa kF 2 ka 3 (3 − kF ) C4 = 2 Qa ka 3 (2 ka ku − 5) + ka 5

C5 = k a k u 4 − 24 k a 2 k u (1 − k F ) C6 = −4 ka 2 ku ( ka 2 + ku 2 ) (1 − kF )

C7 = − kF ka ( k a 4 + ku 4 ) C8 = kF 3 Qa ka 3 ( ka 2 − ku 2 )

C9 = kF 2 Qa ka 3 ( 3 ku 2 − ka 2 ) C10 = − Qa ka 3 ku ( 5 ku + 4 kF ka )

C11 = (6 ku 2 ka 3 − Qa ka 5 ) (1 − kF ) C12 = Qa 2 kF 2 ka 5 (1 − kF ) + 12 Qa ka 2 ku (1 − kF 2 )

C13 = 2 Qa k F k a 2 (3 k a − k F k u 3 ) C14 = 3 Qa k F k a 3 k u 2

C15 = 2 Qa k a 2 ku 3 C16 = 4 2 ka ku (ku 2 + 3 ka 2 ) (1 − kF )

C17 = −2 2 Qa k F 3 k a 3 k u C18 = 2 2 Qa ka 3 ku (3 kF 2 − 5)

C19 = 4 2 ka 4 (Qa − 1) (1 − kF ) C20 = 0

C21 = − 12 2 ka 2 ku 2 (1 − kF ) C22 = 12 2 k a (k u − k a ) (1 − k F )

C 23 = 0 C24 = − 6 2 Qa kF 2 ka 2 (1 + ku 2 )

C25 = 6 2 Qa k a 2 (1 + k F k a ku ) C26 = 6 2 Qa ka 2 (ku 2 )

Di COEFFICIENTS FOR KMS

ku 2
D1 = 4 ku (6 + ku2) D2 = −4 ka 3 (1 − Qa ) − 12
ka Qm

ka k 4 D4 = 4
ku
(k a 2 + k u 2 + 6)
D3 = −12 (1 − Qa ) − u
Qm ka Qm Qm

ka k 2 
D5 = 12 2 ku 2 + (6 Qa ku 2 − ka 2 ) D6 = 12 2  u + 1
Qm
 m
Q 

ku 1
D7 = 4 2 (3 Qa ka 2 − ku 2 ) D8 = 12 2 (1 − Qa ku 2 )
ka Qm Qm

ka 1
D9 = 4 2 ( ka − 3 ku ) D10 = − (6 ku 2 ka + ka 3 Qa 2 + 24 ku Qa )
Qm Qm

1  ku  Qa 2
D11 = −12 2  + Qa  D12 = 2 k a ( k a − 2 ku )
Qm k
 a  Qm

D13 = −4
Qa
Qm
[
ku 3 + 2 k a 2 −
12
]
Qm ka

CTICM document no DRV/ACOBRI/MU/001-B 260 / 260