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You are on page 1of 35

Sine and Cosine Graphs

more meaningful if you allow each slide to finish its presentation

before moving to the next one.

This is the graph for y = sin x.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

y = sin x

One complete period is

highlighted on each of

these graphs.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

y = cos x

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

For both y = sin x and y = cos x, the period is 2π. (From the beginning of

a cycle to the end of that cycle, the distance along the x-axis is 2π.)

y = sin x

Amplitude deals with the

1

height of the graphs.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

-1

y = cos x

1

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

-1

graphs extends 1 unit above the x-axis and 1 unit below the x-axis.

For y = sin x, there is no phase shift.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

is shifted to the left or to the right.

For y = cos x, there is no phase shift.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

-1

We will call that point, the key point.

A cosine graph has a phase shift if the key point

is shifted to the left or to the right.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

For a sine graph which has no vertical shift, the equation for the

graph can be written as

y = a sin b (x - c)

For a cosine graph which has no vertical shift, the equation for the

graph can be written as

y = a cos b (x - c)

y = a sin b (x - c) y = a cos b (x – c)

The amplitude describes the height of the graph.

3

2

Consider this sine graph. Since

the height of this graph is 3, then 1

a = 3.

3 3

2 -1 0 2

2 2 2 2

The equation for this graph can -2

be written as y = 3 sin x.

-3

Consider this cosine graph. The height of this graph is 2, so a = 2.

2

1

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 -1 2 2

-2

If a sine graph is “flipped” over the x-axis, the value of a will be negative.

3

2

1

3 -1 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

-2

-3

An equation for this graph is y = -3 sin x.

If a cosine graph is “flipped” over the x-axis, the value of a will be negative.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

-1

An equation for this graph is y = -1 cos x or just y = - cos x.

y = a sin b (x - c) y = a cos b (x - c)

2

period .

b

Conversely, when you already know the period of a sine or cosine

graph, b can be determined by

2

b .

period

4

The period for this graph is . Use the period to calculate b.

3

2

1

b

2

2 3

4 2 2 4

0 period 4 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

-1 3

-2

Notice that a =2 on this graph since the graph extends 2 units above

the x-axis.

3

Since b and a = 2, the sine equation for this graph is

2

3

y 2 sin x.

2

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

if its key point has shifted to the

left or to the right.

3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2

if its key point has shifted to the

left or to the right.

y = a sin b (x - c) y = a sin b (x - c)

cosine graph. The x-coordinate of the key point is c.

y = sin x

1

This sine graph moved

2

units to the right. “c”, the phase

shift, is .

3 3 5

0 2

2 2 2 2 2

2

-1

An equation for this graph can be written as y sin x .

2

y = cos x

5 3 3

2 0 2

2 2 2 2 2

-1

This cosine graph above moved units to the left.

2

“c”, the phase shift, is .

2

y cos x or y cos x .

2 2

Graphs whose equations can be written as a sine function can also be

written as a cosine function.

4

3

2

1

4 2 -1 2 4

3 3 3 -2 3 3 3

-3

-4

graph. We will look at how to write both a sine equation that describes

this graph and a cosine equation that describes the graph.

The cosine function will be written as y = a cos b (x – c).

y = a sin b (x – c)

4

3

2

1

4 2 -1 2 4

3 3 3 -2 3 3 3

-3

-4

For the sine function, the values for a, b, and c must be determined.

4 2 2 3 3

The period of the graph is . b . b .

3 period 4 2 2

3

The key point has shifted to , so the phase shift is . c .

3 3 3

Esc Back Next

y = a sin b (x – c)

4

3

2

1

4 2 -1 2 4

3 3 3 -2 3 3 3

-3

-4

3

a=4 b c

2 3

3 3

y 4 sin x or y 4 sin x

2 3 2 3

y = a cos b (x – c)

4

3

2

1

4 2 -1 2 4

3 3 3 -2 3 3 3

-3

-4

must be determined. Interestingly, a and b are the same for cosine as

they were for sine. Only c is different.

The height of the graph is 4, so a = 4.

4 2 2 3 3

The period of the graph is . b . b

3 period 4 2 2

3

The key point has not shifted, so there is no phase shift. That means

that c = 0.

y = a cos b (x – c)

4

3

2

1

4 2 -1 2 4

3 3 3 -2 3 3 3

-3

-4

3

a=4 b c0

2

3 3

y 4 cos x 0 or y 4 cos x

2 2

It is important to be able to draw a sine graph when you are given the

corresponding equation. Consider the equation

y 2 sin 2 x .

8

Begin by looking at a, b, and c.

y 2 sin 2 x .

8

a 2 b2 c

8

a 2 a 2

y 2 sin 2 x

8

2

-2

Minimums will be at -2.

The negative sign means that the graph has “flipped” about the x-axis.

-2

c

y 2 sin 2 x 8

8

The phase shift is .

8

That means that the key point 8

shifts from the origin to .

8

b2

Use b = 2 to calculate the period of the graph.

2 2

period

b 2

8

In order to correctly label the x-intercepts, maximums, and minimums on

the graph, you will need to divide the period into 4 equal parts or

increments.

An increment, ¼ of the period, is the distance between an x-intercept and

a maximum or minimum.

One increment

8

The increment is ¼ of the period. Since the period for y 2 sin 2 x

8

1

is π, the increment is or .

4 4

To label the graph, begin at the phase shift. Add one increment at a time

to label x-intercepts, maximums, and minimums.

0 8

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

-2

5

3

8 4 8 4

8 4

y 2 sin 2 x

8

1

What does the graph for the equation y 5 cos x look like?

2

1

a5 b c

2

amplitude of the graph is 5.

-5

1

y 5 cos x . c

2

The phase shift is . 5

shifts from the origin to .

-5

1

Use b to calculate the period of the graph.

2

5

2 2

period 4

b 1

2

-5

One complete period is highlighted here.

Remember that the increment (¼ of the period) is the distance between

an x-intercept and a maximum or minimum.

1

Since the period for y 5 cos x is 4π, the increment is π.

2

by beginning at the phase shift and adding one increment at a time.

2

0 2 3 4 5 This is the graph for

1

y 5 cos x .

-5 2

-π + π 0+π π+π

Sometimes a sine or cosine graph may be shifted up or down. This is

called a vertical shift.

The equation for a sine graph with a vertical shift can be written as

y = a sin b (x - c) +d.

The equation for a cosine graph with a vertical shift can be written as

y = a cos b (x - c) +d.

A good strategy for graphing a sine or cosine function that has a

vertical shift:

•Graph the function without the vertical shift

• Shift the graph up or down d units.

1

Consider the graph for y 5 cos x 3 .

2

“d” equals 3, so the vertical shift is 3.

5

1

The graph of y 5 cos x

2

was drawn in the previous example. 2 0 2 3 4 5

-5

1

y 5 cos x

2

1

To draw y 5 cos x 3 , begin with the graph for y 5 cos 1 x .

2 2

y = 3.

5

3

-5

1

y 5 cos x 3

2

1

The graph now represents y 5 cos x 3 .

2

This concludes

Sine and Cosine Graphs.

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