You are on page 1of 38

CONTENTS

PAGE
CHAPTER NO TITLE
NO

1 ABSTRACT 2

2 INTRODUCTION 3

3 BLOCK DIAGRAM 5

4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 6

5 TRANSFORMER 8

6 RECTIFIER 10

7 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 11

8 SERVO MOTOR 13

9 SOLAR CELL 15

10 IR SENSOR 19

11 MICROCONTROLLER(ATmega328P) 22

12 ADVANTAGES 34

13 APPLICATIONS 35

14 CONCLUSION 36

15 REFERENCE 37

16 COST OF ESTIMATION 38

1
1. ABSTRACT

Energy demands in the recent years have been recorded to be growing at an


exponential rate by the commercial and as well as domestic markets. While the non-
renewable resources are rapidly getting depleted, it leaves no other option but to use
renewable resources to produce usable energy. One of these resources, the Solar energy is
the most abundant and easy to harness resource through Solar panels. This project makes
this process of harnessing solar energy more efficient.
The position which has the highest energy capacity is chosen to charge the
Battery. In this way we can harness the most of from the Solar panel by adjusting it to be
incident directly towards Sun consistently. Thus this project makes this process of
harnessing solar energy more efficient and hence smarter.

2
2. INTRODUCTION

This project is designed in such a manner that it pertains to the slogan ‘prevention
is better than cure’. The power system is facing the challenge of managing the power
demand. This project incorporates special features like power demand problems the
equipment in scrutiny.

The sun light are converted for electrical energy with help of solar panel. At any
time get maximum power rotate the solar panel for sun direction with the help of
arduino(ATmega328P) and servo motor.
The sensors are connected to ATmega328p port 0,and servo motor connected to
port 3.The sensor sense the sun light and give signal to ATmega 328p.The control signal
give from ATmega 328p to servo mechanism .The servo mechanism rotate the panel for
sun direction.

Vast quantity of energy is out there inside the core of sun. The energy that's
received from sun during an hour is over the energy consumed by United States of
America in a year . If we have a tendency to area unit able to capture even a hundred and
twenty fifth of the overall energy that sun delivers then our want may be full stuffed for
many years. solar panels provide most output once the plane of the reflector is traditional
to incident radiations . In recent years, the growing global interest in the conservation of
environment has provided a fresh impetus for research in the area of solar energy
utilization. Installation of solar energy extraction devices such as solar panels, solar water
heaters, solar cookers etc. is becoming popular in urban buildings.
So these devices consist of a solar receptor that is kept facing the sun during the
day with the help of a sun tracking mechanism operated by an electrically driven unit
consisting of a sensor, an actuator and a controller.

It is obvious that an external power source is necessary for energizing the sun
tracking unit .Solar cells are semiconductor diodes that convert portion of accessible
daylight into electric power. These are primarily tangency photo diodes with terribly
massive sensitive space .

3
Every photo diode could be a electric cell. A solar array is created by connecting
of these cells within a module. These solar panels are cascaded along to make arrays to
get high power electricity .

To capture most of the energy, we want to position solar panels within the
acceptable direction. This direction depends upon varied factors. The panels are mounted
at a hard and fast tilt, however as a result of sun keeps ever-changing its position because
of the rotation also because the revolution of earth, these panels will capture additional
energy if their tilt is adjusted periodically. There a two types of systems closed-loop
system and open loop system.

In the closed loop system the sensor senses the position of the sun and sends a
signal to the controlling unit. In an open loop system control algorithms are preloaded in
the controlling unit, which determines the amount of actuation required and sends an
appropriate signal to the motor which tilts the solar device towards the sun.

4
3. BLOCK DIAGRAM

5
4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

 MOTOR CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

6
 DISPLAY CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

5.TRANSFORMER (0-12V/1A)

7
It is a general purpose chassis mounting mains transformer. Transformer has 240V
primary windings and centre tapped secondary winding. The transformer has flying
colored insulated connecting leads (Approx 100 mm long). The Transformer act as step
down transformer reducing AC - 240V to AC - 12V. Power supplies for all kinds of
project & circuit boards.

Step down 230 V AC to 12V with a maximum of 1Amp current. In AC circuits,


AC voltage, current and waveform can be transformed with the help of Transformers.
Transformer plays an important role in electronic equipment. AC and DC voltage in
Power supply equipment are almost achieved by transformer’s transformation and
commutation.

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two


or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction produces
an electromotive force within a conductor which is exposed to time varying magnetic
fields. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric
power applications.

It is a step down transformer in which the secondary winding is more than primary
winding. Due to this windings it can able to step down the voltage. A Transformer
changes electricity from high to low voltage or low to high voltage using two properties
of electricity.

8
Fig: stepdown transformer

FEATURES
 Output current:1A
 Supply voltage: 220-230VAC
 Output voltage: 12VAC
 Soft Iron Core
 1Amp Current Drain

APPLICATIONS
 DIY projects Requiring In-Application High current drain.
 On chassis AC/AC converter.
 Designing a battery Charger.
 Electronic applications.
 Step down applications (Power transmission).

9
6. RECTIFIER:

Semiconductor diodes are active devices which are extremely important for
various electrical and electronic circuits. Diodes are active non-linear circuit
elements with non-linear voltage-current characteristics. Diode used in a wide variety
of applications in communication systems (limiters, gates, clippers,
mixers),computers (clamps, clippers, logic gates), radar circuits (phase detectors,
gain-control circuits, power detectors parameter amplifiers), radios (mixers,
automatic gain control circuits, message detectors), and television(clamps, limiters,
phase detectors, etc). The ability of diodes to allow the flow of current in only one
direction I commonly exploited in these applications. Another common application
of diodes is in rectifiers for power supplies.

In this chapter we will study some simple diodes and their application in
rectifier circuits for power supplies. Three basic types of rectifier circuits will be
studied. Rectifiers are mainly used in power supplies where an AC signal is to be
converted to DC. The DC voltage is obtained by passing the rectifier’s output
through a filter to remove the ripple (AC components). Although, various types of
filters (covered in the chapter on Frequency Response) can be used, in this chapter
we will limit our analysis to the simplest type of filter using a capacitor.

10
7.7805 IC Voltage Regulator

A regulated power supply is very much essential for several electronic devices due
to the semiconductor material employed in them have a fixed rate of current as well as
voltage. The device may get damaged if there is any deviation from the fixed rate. The
AC power supply gets converted into constant DC by this circuit. By the help of a voltage
regulator DC, unregulated output will be fixed to a constant voltage. The circuit is made
up of linear voltage regulator 7805 along with capacitors and resistors with bridge
rectifier made up from diodes. From giving an unchanging voltage supply to building
confident that output reaches uninterrupted to the appliance, the diodes along with
capacitors handle elevated efficient signal conveyar.

As we have previously talked about that regulated power supply is a device that
mechanized on DC voltages and also it can uphold its output accurately at a fixed voltage
all the time although if there is a significant alteration in the DC input voltage.

ICs regulator is mainly used in the circuit to maintain the exact voltage which is
followed by the power supply. A regulator is mainly employed with the capacitor
connected in parallel to the input terminal and the output terminal of the IC regulator. For
the checking of gigantic alterations in the input as well as in the output filter, capacitors
are used. While the bypass capacitors are used to check the small period spikes on the
input and output level. Bypass capacitors are mainly of small values that are used to
bypass the small period pulses straightly into the Earth.

A circuit diagram having regulator IC and all the above discussed components
arrangement revealed in the figure below.

11
APPLICATIONS

 Regulate the given supply voltage


 Easy to get constant output voltage
 Low power consumption

12
8.SERVO MOTOR

Learning Objectives
 Be able to identify characteristics that distinguish a servo and a DC motor
 Be able to describe the difference a conventional servo and continuous rotation
servo
 Be able to use the Arduino Servo library control servo position

What is a servo?
A servo-motor is an actuator with a built- feedback mechanism that responds to a
controlsignal by moving to and holding a position, or bymoving at a continuous speed.

Servo components:

 Small DC motor
 Gearbox with small plastic gears to reduce the RPM and increase output torque
 Special electronics to interpret a pulse signal and deliver power to the motor

13
ADVANTAGES

 High Efficiency

 High speed operation

 High output power relative to motor size and power

DISADVANTAGES

 Poor motor cooling

 Require turning to stabilize

 Complex require encoder

APPLICATIONS

 Machine tool

 Printing

 Wood working

14
9. SOLAR CELL

Solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of
light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical
phenomenon. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical
characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light.
Individual solar cell devices can be combined to form modules, otherwise known as solar
panels. In basic terms a single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-
circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 to 0.6 volts.

Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source
is sunlight or an artificial light. They are used as a photo detector (for example infrared
detectors), detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or
measuring light intensity.

 The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires three basic attributes.

 The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.

 The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.

The solar cell works in several steps:

Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials,
such as silicon.

Electrons are excited from their current molecular/atomic orbital. Once excited an
electron can either dissipate the energy as heat and return to its orbital or travel through the
cell until it reaches an electrode. Current flows through the material to cancel the potential
and this electricity is captured.

15
The chemical bonds of the material are vital for this process to work, and usually
silicon is used in two layers, one layer being doped with boron, thother phosphorus. These
layers have different chemical electric charges and subsequently both drive and direct the
current of electrons.

An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC)
electricity.

An inverter can convert the power to alternating current (AC).

SPECIFICATION:
WATTS : 9W
VOLTAGE : 12V
CURRENT : 1.3A

16
CHARGE CONTROLLER:

In particle accelerators, electrons or other charged particles are forced to move


along orbits or trajectories by means of magnetic fields. The intensity of the magnetic
fields needed to obtain the desired effects is related to the energy of the particles.
Electromagnets, conventional hot ones or superconducting ones, are normally used. The
excitation current in the magnets can range from some amperes for small orbit correction
coils to some hundreds or thousands of amperes .The power converters needed to cover
such a wide current range have widely differing structures and characteristics and, for the
same power requirement, several solutions are often possible.

In this paper I show the topologies and the characteristics of a particular class of
rectifiers the line commutated ones that was and still is widely used in particle accelerator
facilities. Even today, in the ‘PWM line commutated rectifiers are operating. Moreover,
Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) very often include in their structure ‘conventional’
rectifiers as input or output stages or both.

17
10 . I R SENSOR:

Infrared Obstacle Sensor Module has built in IR transmitter and IR receiver that
sends out IR energy and looks for reflected IR energy to detect presence of any obstacle
in front of the sensor module. The module has on board potentiometer that lets user adjust
detection range. The sensor has very good and stable response even in ambient light or in
complete darkness

SPECIFICATIONS:

 Operating Voltage : 3.0V – 5.0V


 Detection range : 2cm – 30cm (Adjustable using potentiometer)
 Current Consumption : at 3.3V : ~23 mA, at 5.0V : ~43 mA
 Active output level : Outputs Low logic level when obstacle is detected
 On board Obstacle Detection LED indicator

18
19
TYPES OF INFRA-RED SENSORS

There are two types of infrared sensor based on its FUNCTION:

 THERMAL INFRARED SENSOR


 QUANTUM INFRARED SENSOR

These are the types of infrared sensors based on WORKING MECHANISM

 ACTIVE INFRARED SENSORS


 PASSIVE INFRARED SENSORS

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF IR SENSOR

An IR sensor consists of an IR LED and an IR Photodiode; together they are


called as Photo Coupler or Opto Coupler. As said before ,the Infrared Obstacle Sensor
has builtin IR transmitter and IR receiver. Infrared Transmitter is a light emitting diode
(LED) which emits infrared radiations. Hence, they are called IR LED’s. Even though an
IR LED looks like a normal LED, the radiation emitted by it is invisible to the human
eye.

Infrared receivers are also called as infrared sensors as they detect the radiation
from an IR transmitter. IR receivers come in the form of photodiodes and
phototransistors. Infrared Photodiodes are different from normal photo diodes as they
detect only infrared radiation. When the IR transmitter emits radiation, it reaches the
object and some of the radiation reflects back to the IR receiver. Based on the intensity of
the reception by the IR receiver, the output of the sensor is defined.

20
APPLICATIONS OF IR SENSOR
Climatology

Meteorology

Photo bio modulation


Gas detectors
Water analysis
Anesthesiology testing
Petroleum exploration

21
11. ATmega328p

AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel beginning in 1996.


These are modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontrollers. AVR
was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program
storage, as opposed to one-time programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by
other microcontrollers at the time. The Atmega328 is a very popular microcontroller chip
produced by Atmel. It is an 8-bit microcontroller that has 32K of flash memory, 1K of
EEPROM, and 2K of internal SRAM.

22
The Atmega328 is one of the microcontroller chips that are used with the popular
Arduino Duemilanove boards. The Arduino Duemilanove board comes with either 1 of
2 microcontroller chips, the Atmega168 or the Atmega328. Of these 2, the Atmega328 is
the upgraded, more advanced chip. Unlike the Atmega168 which has 16K of flash
program memory and 512 bytes of internal SRAM, the Atmega328 has 32K of flash
program memory and 2K of Internal SRAM.The Atmega328 has 28 pins.It has 14 digital
I/O pins, of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs and 6 analog input pins. These I/O pins
account for 20 of the pins.

23
PIN DIAGRAM:

24
PIN DISCRIPTION

Pin
Description Function
Number

1 PC6 Reset

2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX)

3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX)

4 PD2 Digital Pin

5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM)

6 PD4 Digital Pin

7 Vcc Positive Voltage (Power)

8 GND Ground

9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator

10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator

11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM)

12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM)

13 PD7 Digital Pin

14 PB0 Digital Pin

15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM)

16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM)

17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM)

18 PB4 Digital Pin

19 PB5 Digital Pin

20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power)

21 AREF Reference Voltage

22 GND Ground

23 PC0 Analog Input

25
24 PC1 Analog Input

25 PC2 Analog Input

26 PC3 Analog Input

27 PC4 Analog Input

28 PC5 Analog Input

Overview
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of
the CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to
access memories, perform calculations, control peripherals, and handle interrupts. In
order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture –
with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program
memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being
executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the
program memory.
This concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program
memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory. The fast-access Register File
contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access
time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU
operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and
the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle.

Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers
for Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of the these
address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash
program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register,
described later in this section. The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between
registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be
executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation,

26
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call
instructions, able to directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions
have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit
instruction. Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program
section and the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for
write and read/write protection.

The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section
must reside in the Boot Program section. During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return
address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in
the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total
SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the
Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed).

ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit


The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the
32 general purpose working registers. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations
between general purpose registers or between a register and an immediate are executed.
The ALU operations are divided into three main categories arithmetic, logical, and bit-
functions. Some implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier
supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format.

Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most
recently executed arithmetic instruction. This information can be used for altering
program flow in order to perform conditional operations. The Status Register is updated
after all ALU operations, as specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will in many
cases remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions,resulting in faster and
more compact code. The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an
interrupt routine and restored when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by
software. Atmel

27
General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In
order to achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output
schemes are supported by the Register

File:
 One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
 Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
 Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
 One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input

Instruction Execution Timing


This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction
execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from
the selected clock source for the chip. No internal clock division is used. The Figure
below shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the
Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining
concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for
functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.

Reset and Interrupt Handling

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and
the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory
space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one
together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the
interrupt. Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically
disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves
software security.

28
I/O Memory

The I/O space definition of the device is shown in the Register


Summary. All device I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations
may be accessed by the LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data
between the 32 general purpose working registers and the I/O space. I/O Registers within
the address range 0x00-0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI
instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS
and SBIC instructions.

When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses
0x00-0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O Registers as data space using LD and ST
instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The device is a complex
microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location
reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from
0x60..0xFF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.

Feature

High Performance, Low Power Atmel®AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller Family

 Advanced RISC Architecture


 131 Powerful Instructions
 Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
 Fully Static Operation
 Up to 20 MIPS Throughput at 20MHz
 On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier

 High Endurance Non-volatile Memory Segments


 32KBytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash programe

29
PROGRAM:

#include <Servo.h> // including servo library

Servo Sajids_Servo; // defining a servo named Sajids_servo


int angle=90; // initial value on servo angle
float Left_Sensor_AVG=0; // variable to store average value (Global variable)
float Right_Sensor_AVG=0; /*we will be requiring these variables in setup as well as
loop part so we're declaring it here.*/

// the setup routine runs once when you press reset


void setup()
{
Sajids_Servo.attach(9); //declaring the pin at which servo is attached
Sajids_Servo.write(90); //initially writing 90 to servo
delay(2000); //hold at 90 degrees, give enough delay as required
/*Auto callibration part*/
Sajids_Servo.write(75); //turn shaft to 75 degrees
delay(1000); /*give delay so that you read value after the platform
reaches the desired position*/
int left_1=analogRead(A0); //read left and right sensor values
sss int right_1=analogRead(A1);
delay(1000); // again delay
Sajids_Servo.write(105); // now write 105 i.e. turn shaft to 105 degrees
delay(1000); // same reason for delay
int left_2=analogRead(A0); //2nd set of value
int right_2=analogRead(A1);

delay(1000);
Left_Sensor_AVG= (left_1+left_2)/2; //calculate average and store it in global variable

Right_Sensor_AVG= (right_1+right_2)/2; }

30
// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop()
{

int Left_LDR = analogRead(A0); // read the input on analog pins.


int Right_LDR = analogRead(A1);

if(Left_LDR > Left_Sensor_AVG) /*if left LDR's value is greater than average then
it is in shadow.*/
{
angle=angle+1; /*increment servo angle, this angle will be written at the
end of if statement*/
if (angle>=180) //don't let angle value go beyond 180
{
angle=180; //because servo can go max to 180 degrees.
}
}
else if(Right_LDR > Right_Sensor_AVG) /* if left sensor is in light then program will
compare right sensor value*/
{
angle=angle-1; // decrement servo angle if right sensor is in shadow.
if (angle<=0)
{
angle=0; // again, don't let servo angle go below 0 degrees
}
}

Sajids_Servo.write(angle); // write the corrected angle to servos


delay(10); /*delay in between writes for stability, don't set it too
low, coz at 5ms I was getting oscillations, 10 was just perfect for me.*/
}

31
LCD DISPLAY

PIN DESCRIPTION

Pin
Function Name
No
1 Ground (0V) Ground
2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc
3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE
Selects command register when low; and data register when
4 Register Select
high
5 Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Read/write
6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable
7 DB0
8 DB1
9 8-bit data pins DB2
10 DB3
11 DB4
12 DB5
13 DB6
14 DB7
15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+
16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-

32
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a
wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very
commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven
segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical;
easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even custom
characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on.

A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines.
In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers,
namely, Command and Data.

The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A
command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it,
clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register
stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character
to be displayed on the LCD.

33
12.ADVANTAGES

 Eco friendly agro sprayer and it uses renewable solar energy as primary sources.

 Suitable for all environments like organizations, offices and residents.

 Automated irrigation system, also uses less water consumption.

 Cost of the system is very low.

 Since, the system doesn’t have any complexity of system testing and
understanding became easy in terms of difficulties.

 System maintains is remarkably reduced and becomes easy.

 Producing clean, friendly to environment, renewable energy.

 Once the system is designed and developed or manufactured, the installation of


system is easy.

34
13.APPLICATION

In urban and suburban areas, landscapes and residential lawns widely using this

irrigation controller.

This solar agro sprayer used in the dry land places with less water flow.

Remote places without electricity can affordable with this agro sprayer.

Smart Pump irrigation Systems.

35
14 . CONCLUSION

The project work has been completed successfully. The project work functions
satisfactorily as per the design. The project work was developed after conducting a
number of experiments before finalizing the work, this reduced the bottle necks and we
did not face much difficulty in the final integration process.

In general the entire development of the project work was educative and we could
gain a lot of experience by way of doing the project practically. We could understand the
practical constraints of developing such systems which of which we have studied by way
of lectures in the theory classes.

It was satisfying to see so many theoretical aspects work before us in real life
practice of which we have heard through lectures and of which we have studied in the
books.

36
15. REFERENCES

1. Koyuncu B and Balasubramanian K, “A microprocessor controlled automatic sun


tracker,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol.37,no.4 913-917,1991.
2. Konar A and mandal A k ,” Microprocessor based automatic sun tracker,” IEEE
Proc. Sci., Meas Technol., vol .138 , no.4 pp.237-241,1991.
3. Damm,J “ An active solar tracking system,Home Brew Magazine” Issue #
17,June/July 1990.

37
16. COST OF ESTIMATION

SL MATERIAL NAME/CIRCUIT BOARD


COST
NO NAME

1 ATmega 328 P 450

2 TRANSFORMER 150

3 SOLAR PANEL 750

4 TEMPERATURE SENSOR LM35 250

5 SERVO MOTOR 350

6 BATTERY 750

7 SOLAR PANEL STAND 1500

TOTAL AMOUNT 4200

38