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Selected Chapter 6 RA Techniques

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Covered in Chapter 6 Chapter 8 and Chapter 15
What if What-If/Check HAZOP 1 FMEA FTA ETA

Semi-Qantitative elemtns may be included Quantitative

Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) is

a preliminary qualitative technique that
may require semi-quantitative or
quantitative analysis

Only What-If, What-If/Checklist PHA and HAZOP are included in this file
HAZOP Hazards and Operability Analysis
HAZOP was developed by Lawley (1974) of ICI. Based on early publication by Elliott & Owen (1968).
HAZOP is a more involved qualitative method used to identify both hazards and operability problems using ‘guide
words’ to prompt team members in identifying deviations that can lead to the failures. Similar to a Failure Mode
and Effect Analysis (FMEA), HAZOP identifies failure modes of a process, their causes and resulting
consequences. However, rather than starting with failures, HAZOP uses guide words to identify deviations from
intended operations, and then traces back to the possible causes and failure modes. The basis for a HAZOP is a
critical examination of information found in a process flow sheet, a plant layout, equipment specification or a
Piping and Instrument Drawing (P&ID).
P&ID Reference
HAZOP Principles include: See tabs: Ex HAZOP 1 CL and Example
1 Guide Word Ex HAZOP 2
2 Element
3 Deviation
4 Causes
5 Consequences
5 Safeguards/Control Measures
6 Recommendations / Actions
Common HAZOP Analysis Process Parameters
Addition Pressure Frequency Flow
Composition Temperature Viscosity Mixing
Level Time Voltage Separation
pH Speed Toxicity Reaction
HAZOP requirements
Defined facilitator Observation
design and
intent Interview
Review By Documentation Follow-up

Multidiscip Available
linary Information
team Team HAZOP P&Ids,

Safeguards/ Recommend
Deviation Causes Consequences Controls ation/Action

Risk Factor
HAZOP Worksheet contents may vary.
Figure 6.7 HAZOP Study Process Steps
Define Breakdown
Define Purpose and Plan HAZOP documents,
Responsibilities Process into
Scope Study interviews,
Assembly Team Elements

Identify Causes Examine

Identify Existing Define Design
and Elements to Formulate
and Needed Intent of
Consequences Identify Guide Words
Safeguards Elements
of Deviations Deviations

Report Findings