© All Rights Reserved

0 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Determinations of Analogues of Gauss Sums and Other Trigonometric Sums
- Fourier Series
- Symbolic Differentiation Design
- Metrology # 2
- ISAT Model Paper 1
- 100 Math Concepts
- 2010 IJC H2 Maths Prelims2 P1 _QP__R
- 9709_y12_sy
- Test Physics
- rolling resistance
- Balancing Forces
- Trigonometry
- Sadler-Specialist Mathematics-Unit 3A-Chapter 2-Solutions
- Untitled
- Math 22 Syllabus
- 9709_y11_sy
- springmotionprojcomp
- 9709_y12_sy
- Sol Sec4 AMath Class Test 1 (R-Formula Derivation)
- fyc04

You are on page 1of 15

INTRODUCTION TO STATIC

OBJECTIVES:

This chapter focussed the units of measurement. The knowledge of

mathematics is very important in solving the given problems. The

main interest is to provide the full understanding about the unit

conversions.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

with the state of rest or motion of bodies that are subjected to the action of

forces.

Static

Dynamic

Static

it is the study of forces on and in structures that are at rest or

moving at a uniform velocity

A motionless body may have several forces acting on it

Exp: gravitational force and a force opposing that gravity.

Such a body therefore static has forces in balance or equilibrium.

Static is the analyzing and determining of such forces.

Dynamic

Is the next logical step in the study forces, since it is concern with

dynamic equilibrium, or the forces acting on a moving body.

1

1.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT

Length

describe the size of a physical system.

quantitatively define distances and geometric properties of a body

as multiples of the unit length.

Space

described by linear and angular measurement relative to a

coordinate system.

needed.

Time

dynamics for three-dimensional problems three independent

coordinates are needed.

Mass

change of velocity.

attraction to other bodies.

Force

2

tends to move a body in the direction of its action.

direction of its action, and by its points of application.

Particle

its orbit, therefore the earth can be modelled as a particle when

studying its orbital motion.

Rigid Body

in which all the particles remain at a fixed distance from one

another both before and after applying a load.

rigid will not have to considered when analyzing the forces acting

on the body.

machines, mechanisms, and the like are relatively small, and the

rigid-body assumption is suitable for analysis.

First Law

with constant velocity, will remain in this state. The particle must

not subjected to an unbalanced force.

F1 F2

F3

3

Second Law

acceleration, a has the same direction as the force and magnitude is

directly proportional to the force.

mathematically as

F ma …….Equation 1.1

F a

Third Law

The mutual forces of action and reaction between two particles are

equal, opposite, and collinear.

force of A on B

F R

force of B on A

law governing the gravitational attraction between any two

particles.

Stated mathematically,

m1 m2

F G

r2 .…. Equation 1.2

where;

F = force of gravitation between the two particles

4

G = universal constant of gravitation; according to

experimental evidence, G 66.73(10 12 )m 3 /(kg.s 2 )

r = distance between the two particles

1.2.4 Weight

attractive (gravitational) force acting between them.

the only gravitational force having any sizeable magnitude between

the earth and particle.

weight, W of a particle having a mass m1 = m.

and having a mass m2 = Me, then if r is the distance between the

earth’s center and the particle, we have

W G

r2

G Me

Letting, g yields

r2

g = 9.807 m/s2

so,

gravity. Since it depends on r, it can be seen that weight of a body

is not an absolute quantity. Instead, its magnitude is determined

from where the measurement was made.

5

1.3 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

~ Length

~ Mass

~ Force

~ Time

independently because they must be consistent with Newton’s

second law, Equation 1.1.

The four fundamental quantities and their units and symbols in the

two systems (SI Unit and U.S Customary Units) are summarized in

Table 1.1.

Quantity Dimensional Unit Symbol Unit Symbol

Symbol

Mass M kilogram kg slug -

Length L meter m foot ft

Time T second s second sec

Force F newton N pound lb

1.3.1 SI Units

Système International d’Unitès), has been accepted in the United

States and throughout the world and is a modern version of the

metric system.

in meters (m), and time in seconds (s) are selected as the base units,

and force in newtons (N) is derived from F = ma

m

N kg

s2

acceleration of 1 m/s2.

6

1 kg

9.81 N

determined in Newtons, then Eq. 1.4 must be applied. Here g =

9.80665 m/s2; however, for calculation, the value g = 9.81 m/s2 will

be used.

Thus,

weighs 19.62 N.

feet (ft), force in pounds (lb), and time in seconds (sec).

lb ft

slug

sec2

when acted upon by a force of 1 lb.

1 slug

32.2 lb

7

In order to determine the mass of a body having a weight measured

in pounds, we must apply Equation 1.4. If the measurement are

made at the “standard location”, then g = 32.2 ft/s2 will be used for

calculation.

Therefore,

W

m (g = 32.2 ft/sec2) .…. Equation 1.6

g

of 2 slug.

and SI units for the basic quantities. There other units conversion

can be referred to your scientific calculator.

(mile), 1000 lb = 1 kip (kilo-pound), and 2000 lb = 1 ton.

Unit of Unit of

Quantity Measurement Measurement

(FPS) (FPS)

Force lb 4.4482 N

Mass Slug Equals 14.593 kg

Length ft 0.3048 m

EXAMPLE 1.1

Solution

the following order, so that a cancellation of the units can be applied:

km 2 km 1000 m 1 h

2

h h km 3600 s

8

2000 m

3600 s

m 3.281 ft

0.556 x 1.824 ft / s

s m

EXAMPLE 1.2

Solution

4.4482 N

300 lb s 300 lb s

lb

1334.5 N s

1.33 kN s

52 slug 14.5938 kg 1 ft

3

52 slug/ft 3

ft 3 1 slug 0.348 m

26.8(10 3 ) kg/m 3

26.8 Mg/m3

EXAMPLE 1.3

Evaluate each of the following problems and express with SI units having an

appropriate prefix:

(a) (50 mN)(6GN)

(b) (400mm)(0.6MN)2

(c) 45MN3/900Gg

Solution :

First convert each number to base units, perform the indicates operations, then

choose an appropriate prefix.

Part (a)

(50mN)(6 GN) = [50(10-3)N][6(109)N]

= 300 (106)N2

= 300(106)N2

= 300(kN)2

9

Note carefully the convention kN2 =(kN)2 = 106N2

Part (b)

(400mm)(0.6MN)2 = [400(10-3)m][0.6(106)N]2

= [400(10-3)m][0.36(1012)N2]

= 144(109)m.N2

= 144 Gm.N2

We can also write

1MN 1MN

144(109)m.N2 = 144(109)m.N2 6 6

10 N 10 N

= 0.144m.MN2

Part (c)

45(106 N ) 3

45MN3/900Gg =

900(106 )kg

= 0.05(1012)N3/kg

3

1kN 1

= 0.05(1012)N3 6

10 N kg

3 3

= 0.05(10 )kN /kg

= 50kN3/kg

EXERCISE 1.1

i) 55 N/m2 to kN/mm2

Simultaneous equations with two unknowns

Quadratic equations

Trigonometry functions of a right – angle triangle

Sine law and cosine law as applied to non-right angle triangles.

Geometry

10

a) Algebraic equations with one unknown

EXAMPLE 1.4

3(6 x )

4 16

2

x?

EXAMPLE 1.5

3x 4 y 8

6 x 2 y 10

x?

y?

c) Quadratic equations

EXAMPLE 1.6

3x ( 4 2 x ) 10 x 2 8

b b 2 4ac

use x

2a

Trigonometry is the study of the relationship among the sides and

interior angles of triangles.

11

y side opposite

Sin

r hypotenuse

r x side adjacent

cos

y r hypotenuse

y side opposite

tan

x side adjacent

x

Triangles that are not right – angle triangles

A

C

A B C

sin sin sin

B

Side divided by the sine of the angle opposite the side

C C 2 A2 B 2 2 AB cos

B

12

C C 2 A2 B2

B

A

HOMEWORK

law

f) Geometry

Some basic rules of geometry are as follows.

i) opposite angles are equal when two straight lines intersect

a

d a=b

c c=d

b

a

a + b = 1800

b

a

a + b = 900

b

13

iv) a straight line intersection two parallel lines produces the following

equal angles:

a=b

a c=d

c

b or

d a=b=c=d

iv) the sum of the interior angles of any triangles equals to 180o

a a + b + c = 1800

b

c

D

A BD DE BE

BA AC BC

B

C E

6

DE 10 15

4

circumference D or 2r

D2

Area or r 2

4

measured on the circumference.

14

TUTORIAL 1

1) Figure Q1 shows two triangles of ABC and DBE. Given the length of AB

= 5cm, AC = 10cm and DB = 8cm. Find the length of DE.

Figure Q1

i) 20GPa to N/mm2

ii) 15 μm/s2 to mm/h2

iii) 90 N to kg. m/s2

iv) 200 hp to kW

v) 50 lb/ft2 to Pa

vi) 45 gal(US) to liter

kilo k 103

(i) M 106

giga (ii) 109

tera T (iii)

mili m 10-3

(iv) μ (v)

nano n 103

Find angle C, sides b and c.

angles and side.

15

- Determinations of Analogues of Gauss Sums and Other Trigonometric SumsUploaded byapi-26401608
- Fourier SeriesUploaded bypaivensolidsnake
- Symbolic Differentiation DesignUploaded byNaoya Makino
- Metrology # 2Uploaded byapi-26046805
- ISAT Model Paper 1Uploaded byabhinav11111
- 100 Math ConceptsUploaded byKenan Baltaci
- 2010 IJC H2 Maths Prelims2 P1 _QP__RUploaded byblupler
- 9709_y12_syUploaded byKrishna Gangaram
- Test PhysicsUploaded byAmruta Pawar
- rolling resistanceUploaded byAsif Raja
- Balancing ForcesUploaded byalmaanna
- TrigonometryUploaded bykrishband
- Sadler-Specialist Mathematics-Unit 3A-Chapter 2-SolutionsUploaded byRolou15
- UntitledUploaded byapi-108235015
- Math 22 SyllabusUploaded byBryx William Garcia
- 9709_y11_syUploaded byez
- springmotionprojcompUploaded byapi-241050209
- 9709_y12_syUploaded byosirisaa
- Sol Sec4 AMath Class Test 1 (R-Formula Derivation)Uploaded bywangyaya
- fyc04Uploaded bynigerianhacks
- math 20-1 year planUploaded byapi-273186083
- Calc MethodsUploaded byPrincess Kim
- Plane Trigonometry PArt 2Uploaded byMaria Lourven Abraham
- MAT2437 Formula SheetUploaded byMattison McGellin
- 6Uploaded byAnirudh Krishana
- CHAPTER 1 IntegrationUploaded bySaidatul Farhani
- manual04.2.0Uploaded byMallikharjuna Kosuru
- C++ Tutorial the best there is-1Uploaded bygizachew
- copy of corey comba - completed classical argument - 3256236Uploaded byapi-336662328
- Cape Unit 1 Paper 2 2018 SolutionsUploaded byDaniel Walsh

- Leveling Special MethodUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- leveling survey campUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- LAB 4 Sedimentary rocksUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- poster geotech.pptxUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- Tacheometry ReportUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- Square PileUploaded bydepi_rachman
- Vector functionUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- 13 07 Stokes ThmUploaded byHermes Yesser Pantoja Carhuavilca
- Linear Distance MeasurementUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- Geomatics Concept-Topic 1Uploaded byAbood Buriahi
- Green BuildingUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- Particle equilibrium exercise.pdfUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- LT_matlabUploaded byHajar Aswad
- Chapter 9 - DynamicUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- CHAPTER 6-Friction.pdfUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- CHAPTER 7-Centroid InertiaUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- 2159-1102014 Transitions Connectors for and Angainst 2014 2015 AnnaUploaded byLorena Valero Moreno
- A Comparative Study of the Methods of Concrete Mix Design Using Crushed and Uncrushed Coarse AggregatesUploaded byIfiokobong Akpan
- Design of Concrete MixesUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- 8 Mix design calculations.pdfUploaded byfahad raza
- Intro to Civil Engineering MaterialsUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- Application of differentiationUploaded byAbood Buriahi
- دليل التفاضل والتكاملUploaded byعلي العماري
- Example 3D Force 2Uploaded byAbood Buriahi
- EXAMPLE OF 3D Force 1Uploaded byAbood Buriahi
- BITUMEN project.docxUploaded byAbood Buriahi

- KFC_Download_Kit.pdfUploaded bysohaibleghari
- 31061111 LOADING FACILITIES FOR BULK ROAD VEHICLES(Autosaved).pdfUploaded by'Malek Mechri
- Tall Pines Case study and moreUploaded byDhan Manalo
- Recall n45Uploaded byPaul Phillips
- AltitudeUploaded byअरूण शर्मा
- MMC-4000 manualUploaded byTalha Asad
- Tracheostomy CareUploaded byBarbie Wiggers
- The Journal of Early Adolescence-2016-Cappella-0272431616648454Uploaded byAnonymous 52qjOHavD
- Legal Research - Peter Banag CaseUploaded byJohn Michael Villegas
- Product Presentation - OpenText Tempo.pptxUploaded byObed Silva
- The Economic Value of DataUploaded byCognizant
- mat170syllf02Uploaded byarghya_bi108
- Tax Spanner Tax Planning eBookUploaded bysinghalsachin2003
- Rseti - A Write UpUploaded byChiramel Mathew Simon
- 0430700000_G_20_1.00A_F_en.pdfUploaded byjvcjcj
- multigenre project powerpoint finalUploaded byapi-296416654
- Benefits of Cold Mix Technology over Hot Mix Technology in Sustainable Road NetworkUploaded byAdvanced Research Publications
- Auto Theft Prevention - NCSLUploaded byEdgardo García
- rokka no yushaaUploaded byJoão Paulo Andrade
- Criteria of Good ResearchUploaded byChandra Sekar
- drawing lesson - introduction analytical cubismUploaded byapi-448816945
- Jurisprudence NotesUploaded byVidya Tk
- adj exUploaded byCristina Andreescu
- OwlUploaded byDorin Damoc
- Word Study Lesson Plan-compound WordsUploaded bynanidennis
- Niikura CatalogueUploaded bymsimran11
- 10.0 Administrator GuideUploaded byErnesto Hodgson
- 15_Question_Paper_for_JNR_Instructor_Hospitality_Operations_Front_Office (1).pdfUploaded byNavneet Kumar Singh
- 42 Below Case StudyUploaded byPraneil Dahya
- Ype Training manualUploaded byDido

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.