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# OPTISTRUCT FOR NONLINEAR ANALYSIS

## Aditya Jayanthi, John Brink

Altair Engineering
October, 2017
Version 2017.2
Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

AGENDA

## 1. Introduction to Altair and the HyperWorks Suite

2. Nonlinear Problems and Solution Methods
3. Working with Nonlinear Materials
• Elasto-Plastic Materials
• Hyperelastic Materials
4. Simulating Nonlinear Geometry
6. Setting Up Contact
7. Achieving Convergence & Best Practices

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

MATERIAL MODELS
Material Description Element Compatibility

## CROD, CBAR, CBEAM, CWELD, CSHEAR, CQUAD, CTRIA,

MAT1 Linear, temperature-independent, isotropic
CHEXA, CTETRA, CPENTA, CPRYRA and CSEAM

## Linear temperature-independent orthotropic

MAT8 CSHEAR, CQUAD and CTRIA
material for two-dimensional elements.

## Linear, temperature-independent, and

MAT9/ MAT9ORT CHEXA, CTETRA, CPENTA and CPRYRA
anisotropic materials for solid elements.

MATF1,2,3,8,9,10 Frequency-dependent

MATT1,2,3,4,8,9 Temperature-dependent

## MATUSR User defined material

MATS1 Stress-dependent and Temperature-dependent Not supported by 1D elements and 2nd order shell elements

## MATHE Nonlinear Hyperelastic Material CHEXA, CTETRA and CPENTA

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## Nonlinear materials include any behaviors that cannot be captured by the

equation y=m*x+b
The nonlinear relationship can be represented in several ways
Linear-Elastic
• Functionally
• Piecewise
• Parametrically

## This behavior includes a number of classes of materials and behavior models

• Elasto-plastic
• Nonlinear elastic
Nonlinear-Elastic
• Viscoelastic

## OptiStruct supports a range of nonlinear material types for analysis

• Elasto-plastic materials (materials undergoing irreversible deformation), small or
large plastic strains
• Hyperelastic materials, such as rubber, undergoing reversible large deformation

Elastic-Plastic
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ELASTO-PLASTIC MATERIALS
Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## Elastic behavior is the reversible portion of response to applied loads.

Plastic behavior is the irreversible change in response to applied loads.
Because deformation of plastic material always includes elastic deformation, it is often
referred to as an elasto-plastic deformation.

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## SMALL STRAIN PLASTICITY

For small-strain plasticity, total strain is the sum of elastic and plastic strains:

𝑝𝑙 𝑒𝑙
𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝜀𝑖𝑗 + 𝜀𝑖𝑗

where:

## 𝜀𝑖𝑗 is the total strain,

𝑒𝑙
𝜀𝑖𝑗 is the elastic strain, and

𝑝𝑙
𝜀𝑖𝑗 is the plastic strain

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## SMALL STRAIN VS. LARGE STRAIN PLASTICITY

When does the small-strain assumption become invalid?
• When plastic strains reach between 5% &10%, they are considered large. The assumption made in
the small strain theory may be invalid and result in error. The large plastic strain theory is more
suitable in this case since it uses a multiplicative decomposition of elastic plastic strains.

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC MATERIAL

Point 1 is the elastic limit
• Initial yield point
• Fully elastic up to this point
• Transition point between elastic deformation and
plastic deformation
Point 2 is the new yield point
yield
• No longer fully elastic
• Yield stress value increases with increasing
plastic strain due to hardening

## Stress-strain curve under axial tension

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXAMPLE: SPRING-BACK PROBLEM

A common example in plastic solutions is a spring-back problem

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXAMPLE: SPRING-BACK PROBLEM

Small-strain plasticity

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXAMPLE: SPRING-BACK PROBLEM

Large-strain options enabled
• Applied loading is three times larger than in small strain case. The small strain solution with this loading
would be terminated with an error due to the excessive plastic strain.

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

YIELD CRITERION
A yield criterion or yield surface predicts whether material responds elastically or plastically
under any combination of stresses
• The yield surface in OptiStruct is given by the equation:
1 2
𝜎1 − 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 2
≤ 𝜎𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑
2
where s1, s2, and s3 are in the three directions of principal stress space

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

STRAIN HARDENING
Strain hardening is the name for the process that makes a
metal harder and stronger through plastic deformation
• Plastic deformation moves existing dislocations
• Plastic deformation also generates additional dislocations
• These result in a reduction in ductility and a strengthening
of the material
Increased stress is required to produce additional plastic
deformation in strain hardened material
Strain hardening can be modeled in FE analysis through
various approaches
• Isotropic hardening
• Linear Kinematic hardening
• Mixed Hardening
• Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening
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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

BAUSCHINGER EFFECT
The Bauschinger effect describes the decrease in compression
yield stress due to hardening which occurs in tension
• The graph shown describes a material
initially loaded in tension in the plastic range

## • The material is then unloaded and reversed

through to compression.

## • Because of the Bauschinger effect, the yield

stress in compression is less than
the yield stress in tension

## If the initial load is compressive, the reverse may

also happen: a decrease in tensile yield stress due
to hardening in compression

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STRAIN HARDENING
Isotropic hardening Kinematic hardening

## Yield surface for isotropic Yield surface for kinematic hardening

hardening (plane stress) (plane stress)
R – initial yield surface R – initial yield surface
R’ – new yield surface R’ – new yield surface
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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

STRAIN HARDENING
Isotropic hardening Kinematic hardening

## Uniaxial stress-strain curve for kinematic hardening

Uniaxial stress-strain curve for isotropic hardening

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

HARDENING RULES
Mixed Hardening describes a more general
case which is applicable for most materials
Mixed hardening combines isotropic
hardening (expansion of the yield surface)
with kinematic hardening (translation of the
yield surface).

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## NONLINEAR ANALYSIS BULK DATA CARDS: MATS1 BASIC PARAMETERS

• The MATS1 card defines parameters for setting up nonlinear static analysis
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATS1 MID TID TYPE H YF HR LIMIT1

TYPSTRN

Where:

## MID Identification number (must be a MAT1 entry ID)

TID Identification number of a TABLES1 or TABLEST entry. If H is given, then this field must be blank.
TYPE Type of material nonlinearity – PLASTIC or NLELAST
H Work hardening slope (slope of stress versus plastic strain) in units of stress.
YF Yield function criterion
HR Hardening Rule selection: Isotropic (1), Kinematic (2), Mixed (3) or user-selectable mixed hardening ratio
LIMIT1 Initial yield point (Can be left blank, if defined via a referenced TABLES1 entry on the TID field)
TYPSTRN Specifies the type of strain used on the x-axis of the table pointed to by TID: total or plastic

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## • Using the work hardening parameter option on MATS1 card

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATS1 MID TID TYPE H YF HR LIMIT1

TYPSTRN

## • H is the work hardening slope

• Units of stress
• For elastic-perfectly plastic cases, H = 0.0

## • HR defines the hardening rule

• 1 = Isotropic (Default)
• 2 = Kinematic
• 3 = Mixed (30% kinematic, 70% isotropic)
• 0 < HR < 1 mixed with isotropic contribution of (1 – HR)

## • LIMIT1 defines the yield stress Stress-strain curve

definition when H is
specified
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## • Using the tabulated option on MATS1 card

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATS1 MID TID TYPE H YF HR LIMIT1

TYPSTRN

## • TID points to a TABLES1 or TABLEST

• Stress-Strain data depends on TYPE specification

## • TYPE defines the type of nonlinearity

• PLASTIC – xi, yi in table will define first quadrant behavior
• NLELAST – xi, yi in table defines both first and third quadrants

## • TYPSTRN specifies type of strain defined on x-axis (see next slide)

• 0 – Total strain
• 1 – Plastic strain

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATS1 TYPSTRN PARAMETER DEFINITION

TYPSTRN:
0 = total strain (default)
1 = plastic strain

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## NONLINEAR ANALYSIS BULK DATA CARDS: TABLES1 BASIC PARAMETERS

• The TABLES1 card defines a tabular stress-strain curve in elasto-plastic material properties
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
TABLES1 TID FLAT

x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4

x5 y5 … … … … … …

Where:
TID Table identification number

FLAT Specifies the handling method for y-values outside the specified range of x-values in the table.
xi, yi Tabular values

Notes:
• If FLAT = 0 (default), then extrapolation outside the range of x-values is linear
• If FLAT = 1, then extrapolation is equal to the last y-value

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## PLASTICITY SOLUTION IN OPTISTRUCT

OptiStruct supports small or large displacement solutions for plasticity
Nonlinear static small displacement solution is the default solution
• For this method, maximum plastic strain should be within the limit of small deformation
theory

## Nonlinear static large displacement solution is also available

This solution sequence can be activated in the deck
• Through PARAM,LGDISP,YES or
• NLPARM(LGDISP) = ID
Large strain solution should be used when the max plastic strain exceeds the limit of small
deformation theory.
Solid elements are supported for large strain elasto-plastic analysis

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## RESULTS FOR STRAIN PLASTICITY

Plastic
Results Type Element Type Stress Total Strain Command FORMATs
Strain

## Shell Elements YES YES YES

Corner Results STRAIN(CORNER,PLASTIC) = Yes H3D, OP2
Solid Elements YES YES YES

## Shell Elements YES YES YES

Gauss Results STRAIN(GAUSS,PLASTIC) = Yes H3D, OP2
Solid Elements YES NO YES

## GPSTRAIN Solid Elements YES NO YES GPSTRAIN(PLASTIC) = YES H3D

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## PLASTICITY TIPS AND TRICKS

Should I input the true stress –strain curve or the engineering stress-strain curve?
For analysis where small deformations are assumed, there should be little or no difference
between the true stress-strain curve or engineering stress-strain curve. Either of them can
be used in TABLES1 definition. For large plastic strain simulation, the true stress-strain
curve should be used.

## Recall: True Strain = ln (1 + Engineering Strain) or ε = ln(1+e)

For example, if e = 0.05 (5%), then there is a 2.5% error in ε

No, the solver only needs the loading curve – the yielding stress as function of equivalent
plastic strain. The unloading process is always going to follow the elastic modulus.

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POLL

## What statements are true regarding strain hardening?

• Can be ignored for small strain problems
• Results in an increase in the elastic modulus, E
• Increases the yield stress, Sy, of the material
• Can be defined using a MATS1 card linked to a MAT1

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## EXERCISE 3C: SMALL-STRAIN PLASTICITY IN A TEST COUPON

Exercise 3c (Manual Page 29):
Small-Strain Plasticity in a Test Coupon
File Name and Location:
…/3c_SMALL_STRAIN/tensile_sm_str.fem
Objectives:
• Import Material CSV into Table
• Create Element Material Properties
• Create boundary conditions and loads
• Set output requests
• Request 20 incremental output steps
• Create load step
• Check convergence during solution
• Post-process results in HyperView

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXERCISE 3C: SMALL-STRAIN PLASTICITY IN A TEST COUPON

Exercise Results:
• File: tensile_sm_str.h3d
• Display type: Shaded elements and mesh lines
• Contour: Element Stresses (2D & 3D)(vonMises) result type

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## EXERCISE 3D: LARGE-STRAIN PLASTICITY IN A TEST COUPON

Exercise 3d (Manual Page 35):
Large-Strain Plasticity in a Test Coupon
File Name and Location:
…/3d_LARGE_STRAIN/tensile_lg_str.fem
Objectives:
• Import Material CSV into Table
• Create Element Properties
• Create boundary conditions and loads
• Set large strain analysis flag
• Request 20 incremental output steps
• Set output requests
• Create load step & solve
• Post-process results in HyperView & HyperGraph

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXERCISE 3D: LARGE-STRAIN PLASTICITY IN A TEST COUPON

Exercise Results:
• File: tensile_lg_str.h3d
• Display type: Shaded elements and mesh lines
• Contour: Element Stresses (2D & 3D)(vonMises) result type

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HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS
Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

HYPERELASTICITY
Hyperelastic materials respond elastically when subject to very large strains
• Examples of hyperelastic materials include rubbers and some foams
• Hyperelastic material modeling must account for both nonlinear behavior and large reversible deformation
• Hyperelastic materials are fully or approximately incompressible

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## A general hyperelastic constitutive law can be stated as:

𝛿𝑈 𝐸 𝛿𝑈 𝐶
𝑆= =2
𝛿𝐸 𝛿𝐶
This stress-strain relationship derives from a strain energy potential function (U) where
• S = second Piola_Kirchhoff stress tensor
• E = Lagrangian strain tensor
• U = strain energy function per unit undeformed volume
• C = right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor

The strain energy potential function defines the strain energy stored in the material per unit of
initial/undeformed volume

This definition depends on two important concepts: principal stretch ratios and volume strain

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## The principal stretch ratio is a deformative measure l, calculated by:

𝐿𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑑
𝜆= = 1 + 𝜀𝑒𝑛𝑔
𝐿𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑑
• where 𝜆1 , 𝜆2 , and 𝜆3 are principal stretch ratios alone the edges of the block such that:

λ3L3
L3
Undeformed
Deformed
λ1L1 λ2L2

L2
L1

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## VOLUME STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

Similarly, the volume strain is a ratio of the change in volume under deformation to its
undeformed volume

## • If thermal expansion is involved, elastic volume strain becomes

𝐽𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
• 𝐽 = 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 =
𝐽𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙
• For incompressible hyperelastic material J=1.

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## STRAIN ENERGY POTENTIAL

For isotropic hyperelasticity, strain energy potential U is a function of the principal invariants of C:

• 𝑈 = 𝑈 𝐼1 𝐶 , 𝐼2 𝐶 , 𝐼3 𝐶
• where I1, I2, I3 are the three strain invariants. They can be expressed as a function of principal stretch, 𝜆1 ,
𝜆2 , and 𝜆3 , and volume strain, J, through the following relations:

## • 𝐼3 = 𝜆21 𝜆22 𝜆23 = 𝐽2

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## STRAIN ENERGY POTENTIAL

For incompressible hyperelastic material, the strain energy function can be expressed in the
term of deviatoric and volumetric strain energy functions,

• 𝑈 = 𝑈𝑑 𝐼1 , 𝐼2 + 𝑈𝑣 𝐽
Where the deviatoric invariants for incompressible material are:

2ൗ
𝐼𝑖 = 𝐽− 3 𝐼𝑖

• 0 < i and j ≤ 3

• 𝐼3 = 𝐽2 = 1

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HYPERELASTICITY IN FEA
Hyperelastic material behavior is described with a number of models:
• Mooney-Rivlin
• Yeoh
• Arruda-Boyce
• Ogden
• Several other types of mathematical models
These models are developed based on a combination of physical behaviors and theoretical
considerations

## • Empirical data is generally used to derive constants on an as-needed basis by material,

model, loading, and use-case. These constants define the curves used in hyperelastic
FEM.

## Assumptions for these hyperelastic material models include:

• Isotropic material response: linear thermal expansion, fully reversible deformation
• Fully or nearly incompressible: the volume of the material doesn’t change except for thermal expansion

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## VOLUMETRIC STRAIN ENERGY FUNCTIONS IN OPTISTRUCT

OptiStruct uses a first-order volumetric strain energy function for hyperelastic material
modeling
𝑁1 𝑁2
𝑝 𝑞 1
𝑈 = ෍ 𝐶𝑝𝑞 𝐼1 − 3 𝐼2 − 3 + ෍ 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1 2𝑝
𝐷𝑝
𝑝+𝑞=1 𝑝=1
• where
• 𝑁1 is the order of the distortional strain energy polynomial function
• 𝑁2 is the order of the volumetric strain energy polynomial function
• 𝐶𝑝𝑞 are the material constants related to distortional deformation
• 𝐼1 and 𝐼2 are invariants internally calculated by OptiStruct
• 𝐷𝑝 are material constants related to volumetric deformation
• 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 is the elastic volume strain calculated internally by OptiStruct

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS

• Incompressible & Compressible models which are available within OptiStruct
• MOONEY – Generalized Mooney Rivlin
• MOOR – Physical Mooney-Rivlin
• RPOLY – Reduced Polynomial
• NEOH – Neo-Hookean
• YEOH – Yeoh
• ABOYCE – Arruda-Boyce
• OGDEN – Ogden

• Hyperfoam
• Blatz-Ko

## • Compressible definitions of general material models can be defined using Dp parameter in

the MATHE card

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## COMPARING DIFFERENT HYPERELASTIC MODELS

• Arruda-Boyce modeling provides good
curve-fitting even when test data is
limited, e.g. when only uniaxial data
is available

## • Arruda-Boyce modeling captures stiffening

(upturn of curve, not captured by
Neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin modeling)

## * - image courtesy Bbanerje, wikimedia

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## HYPERELASTIC MODELING IMPLEMENTATION IN OPTISTRUCT

• Generalized polynomial (Mooney-Rivlin, Neo-Hookean, Yeoh)
𝑁1 𝑁2
𝑝 𝑞 1 2𝑝
𝑈 = ෍ 𝐶𝑝𝑞 𝐼1 − 3 𝐼2 − 3 +෍ 𝐽 −1
𝐷𝑝 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠
𝑝+𝑞=1 𝑝=1

• Arruda-Boyce
5

𝑊 = 𝐶1 ෍ 𝛼𝑖 𝛽 𝑖−1 𝐼1𝑖 − 3𝑖
𝑖=1

## • Ogden formulation uses the principal stretches l1, l2, and l3

5
2𝜇𝑖 𝛼𝑖 𝛼𝑖 𝛼𝑖
𝑈=෍ 𝜆1 + 𝜆 2 + 𝜆 3 −3
𝛼𝑖2
𝑖=1

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## FULL POLYNOMIAL FORM

The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model uses a full polynomial approach
• These models are normally used to model the large strain nonlinear behavior of
incompressible materials, e.g. rubber.
• Two term Mooney-Rivlin is equivalent to polynomial form with 𝑁1 = 𝑁2 = 1, 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 = 1

1 2
𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶01 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐽 −1
𝐷𝑝 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠
• Mooney-Rivlin materials don’t have special physical meaning, but merely are curve-fits of
various polynomials to test data. The coefficients such as 𝐶01 , 𝐶10 , 𝐶11 , and 𝐶20 are
determined from curve-fitting these equations to experimental data.

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## PARTIAL POLYNOMIAL FORM

• The partial polynomials models are derived from Mooney-Rivlin, with the three term
Mooney-Rivlin equivalent to the polynomial form: 𝑁1 = 2, 𝐶20 = 𝐶02 = 0

## The James-Green-Simpson (3rd order deformation) model:

1 2
• 𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶01 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐶11 𝐼1 − 3 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1
𝐷1

Signiorini material:
2 3 1 2
• 𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶01 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐶11 𝐼1 − 3 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐶20 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶30 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1
𝐷1

## Third order invariant material:

2 1 2
• 𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶01 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐶20 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1
𝐷1

2 1 2
• 𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶01 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐶11 𝐼1 − 3 𝐼2 − 3 + 𝐶20 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1
𝐷1

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## REDUCED POLYNOMIAL FORM

There are also reduced polynomial material models available in OptiStruct
• Reduced polynomial is based on first strain invariant (q =0) only.

𝑝
1
• 𝑈= σ𝑁1
𝑝=1 𝐶𝑝0 𝐼1 − 3 2𝑁
+ σ𝑝=1 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1 2𝑝
𝑑𝑝

## • Neo-Hooken material (𝑁1 =𝑁2 =1):

1 2
• 𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1
𝐷1

## • Yeoh Material (𝑁1 =3):

2 3 1 2
• 𝑈 = 𝐶10 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶20 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐶30 𝐼1 − 3 + 𝐽𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠 − 1
𝐷1

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## DEMO: SEALING ANALYSIS OF A PACKER USING ARRUDA-BOYCE

FORMULATION
• Model: seal_model_AB_v7_thkseal_frc_0.05_0.86d.fem
• A packer is used to form an annular seal between two concentric pipes
• For isolation purposes
• To separate different fluids
• …
• Usage in oil & gas industry

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## DEMO: SEALING ANALYSIS OF A PACKER USING ARRUDA-BOYCE

FORMULATION
• Arruda-Boyce hyperelastic material model representing seal, sectional view
• Surface-to-surface contact
• Finite sliding with friction
• Enforced displacement to piston
• Large displacement analysis

Piston

Concentric pipes

Packer, to
create an
annular seal

Fixed

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## DEMO: SEALING ANALYSIS OF A PACKER USING ARRUDA-BOYCE

FORMULATION
• The packer is squeezed by the moving piston against a fixed wall so as to create an annular
seal between the two pipes.
• The contact status result-type indicates that the seal has been successfully created.
Displacement Element Strains Contact Status

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## CHARACTERIZATION TESTS FOR CALIBRATING HYPERELASTICITY

Material characterization employs a series of standard tests to measure the stress-strain
response of materials such as rubber
• Uniaxial tension

• Equal-biaxial extension

## • Planar tension to simulate pure shear

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## CHARACTERIZATION TESTS FOR CALIBRATING HYPERELASTICITY

Using the empirical and FE data from the tests to perform a curve fitting shows the
applicability of the modeling solutions

## Uniaxial test Biaxial test

Planar test

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

IMPLEMENTATION IN OPTISTRUCT
• Recall that many models use a generalized polynomial (Mooney-Rivlin, Neo-Hookean,
Yeoh)

𝑁1 𝑁2
𝑝 𝑞 1 2𝑝
𝑈 = ෍ 𝐶𝑝𝑞 𝐼1 − 3 𝐼2 − 3 +෍ 𝐽 −1
𝐷𝑝 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠
𝑝+𝑞=1 𝑝=1

## • Ogden formulation uses the principal stretches l1, l2, and l3

5
2𝜇𝑖 𝛼𝑖 𝛼𝑖 𝛼𝑖
𝑈 = ෍ 2 𝜆1 + 𝜆2 + 𝜆3 − 3
𝛼𝑖
𝑖=1

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATHE PARAMETERS, POLYNOMIAL FORM

• The MATHE card defines material properties for nonlinear hyperelastic materials
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATHE MID Model NU RHO TEXP TREF

## C50 C41 C32 C23 C14 C05 D5

Where:
MID Unique material identification number.

NU Poisson's ratio

## TEXP Coefficient of thermal expansion

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATHE PARAMETERS, POLYNOMIAL FORM

• The MATHE card defines material properties for nonlinear hyperelastic materials
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATHE MID Model NU RHO TEXP TREF

## C50 C41 C32 C23 C14 C05 D5

Where:
TREF Reference temperature
ID of TABLES1 that contains simple tension-compression data. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry
TAB1
should be the stretch ratios and y-values should be values of the engineering stress.
ID of TABLES1 that contains equi-biaxial tension data. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry should be the
TAB2
stretch ratios and y-values should be values of the engineering stress.
TAB4 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure shear data (optional)

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATHE PARAMETERS, POLYNOMIAL FORM

• The MATHE card defines material properties for nonlinear hyperelastic materials
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATHE MID Model NU RHO TEXP TREF

## C50 C41 C32 C23 C14 C05 D5

Where:
Cpq Material constants related to distortional deformation.

## Dp Material constants related to volumetric deformation.

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATHE PARAMETERS, ARRUDA-BOYCE FORM

• The MATHE card defines material properties for nonlinear hyperelastic materials
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATHE MID Model NU RHO TEXP TREF

## C1 𝜆𝑚 TAB1 TAB2 TAB4

Where:
MID Unique material identification number.

NU Poisson's ratio

## TREF Reference temperature

C1 Locking stretch

## 𝜆𝑚 Defines the value of β

TAB1 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains simple tension-compression data

TAB2 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains equi-biaxial tension data (optional)

TAB4 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure shear data (optional)

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATHE PARAMETERS, OGDEN FORM

• The MATHE card defines material properties for nonlinear hyperelastic materials
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATHE MID Model NA NU RHO TEXP TREF

Where:

## MID Unique material identification number.

NU Poisson's ratio

## TREF Reference temperature

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## MATHE PARAMETERS, OGDEN FORM

• The MATHE card defines material properties for nonlinear hyperelastic materials
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
MATHE MID Model NA NU RHO TEXP TREF

## MU4 ALPHA4 MU5 ALPHA5

Where:
ID of TABLES1 that contains simple tension-compression data. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry
TAB1
should be the stretch ratios and y-values should be values of the engineering stress.
ID of TABLES1 that contains equi-biaxial tension data. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry should be the
TAB2
stretch ratios and y-values should be values of the engineering stress.
ID of TABLES1 that contains pure shear data. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry should be the stretch
TAB4
ratios and y-values should be values of the nominal stress.
MUi,
Material Constants for the Ogden Material Model (Model = OGDEN).
ALPHAi

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## HYPERELASTICITY IS A LARGE DISPLACEMENT SOLUTION

Correctly solving problems involving hyperelastic parts requires that a large displacement
solution be enabled
• Solid elements are supported for large strain elasto-plastic analysis

## • Shell elements will be supported in a later version

Either subcase dependent or general large displacement flag must be activated for the
solution run:
• Subcase dependent large displacement analysis
• NLPARM(LGDISP)
or
• Large displacement analysis is activated for all subcases
• PARAM,LGDISP,1

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## HYPERELASTICITY IS A LARGE DISPLACEMENT SOLUTION

Large Displacement Nonlinear Analysis does have limitations for resolution and element
compatibility
• The following elements can exist in the model, but they will be resolved using small displacement theory:
• BUSHING
• The following elements are not allowed and OptiStruct will error out if they are present:
• CBAR
• CBEAM
• CGAP
• CGAPG
• CWELD
• CSEAM
• CFAST
• RBE1
• CROD
• CELAS
• CONM

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## Selection of an appropriate material model is critical to a successful analysis.

• Use first order element to avoid element distortion.
• With limited test data available:
• Full polynomial and Ogden forms behave badly, not recommended to use.
• Use reduced polynomial law like Yeoh. Arruda-Boyce and Van Der Waals behave similarly to Yeoh
form.
• For large strain:
• Ogden is accurate and can capture stiffening (upturn of stress-strain curve, not captured by N-H or M-
R) but should not be used if limited data is available to fit the model. In that case, use A-B.
• Order greater than 2 not recommended for fully polynomial form, third order partial
polynomial behaves nicely .

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

POLL

What are the assumptions for HyperElastic Materials (check all that apply)?
• Isotropic
• Linear thermal expansion
• Fully reversible deformation
• Incompressible or nearly incompressible
• Orthotropic

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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXERCISE 3E: COMPRESSION OF A HYPERELASTIC PART

Exercise 3e (Manual Page 43):
Compression of a Hyperelastic Part
File Name and Location:
…/3e_HELAS_MOONEY/rubber_original.fem
Objectives:
• Create Element Properties
• Create MATHE material
• Add PLSOLID property values
• Activate large displacement solution
• Set output requests
• Create load steps
• Edit material polynomial order in solver deck
• Run the model in OptiStruct
• Post-process results in HyperView
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Chapter 3: Working with Nonlinear Materials OptiStruct for Nonlinear Analysis v2017

## EXERCISE 3E: COMPRESSION OF A HYPERELASTIC PART

Exercise Results:
• File: rubber_original.h3d
• Display type: Shaded elements and mesh lines
• Contour: Element Strains (2D & 3D)(vonMises, Max) result type

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