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Hypochlorite is an oxidizing agent, its quantity or concentration can be determined by means of a

paired set of oxidation-reduction reactions. At first hypochlorite is reduced quantitatively and
rapidly to chloride ion in an acidic aqueous medium by excess iodide ion, which is simultaneously
converted to triiodide ion in the presence of the excess iodide.

NaOCl(aq) + 3KI(s) + 2HCl(aq) → I3-(aq) + 3KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + Na+(aq) (9)

During the titration reaction, red-brown colour of the triiodide ion fades to yellow and then to the
clear colour of the iodide ion. In this experiment, starch was used as indicator to obtain more
accurate result. The solution turned to blue-black colour when the starch was added. The endpoint
was determined when the blue-black colour is disappear. The reaction is:

I3- + 2S2O32- → 3I3- + S4O62- (6)

Figure 1: Before titration Figure 2:After Titration

Figure 1 shows the red-brown solution of the triiodide ion that will fades to yellow as
shown in figure 2 after titration with sodium thiosulphate and then to the clear colour of the iodide
ion. It is possible to use the disappearance of the colour of the I3 ion as the method of determining
the end point, but this is not a very sensitive procedure. Addition of starch to a solution that
contains triiodide ion forms a reversible blue-black complex. Starch solutions are widely used in
the detection of the end-point of iodine - thiosulfate titrations. The great advantage of starch lies
in the fact that it gives a very definite colour change at the end-point. The disappearance of this
blue-black coloured complex is a much more sensitive method of determining the end point. Figure
3 shown the blue-black complex after addition of starch. And titration was continued until the last
drop of titrant removed the blue-black colour of iodine complex giving a clear solution. Without
the starch indicator, the colour of the iodine solution in the conical flask near the end-point fades
slowly from pale yellow to colourless. With the starch indicator added, the colour of the solution
in the conical flask at the end point changes suddenly from blue-black to colourless. Figure 4 show
the clear solution as result of standardization of sodium thiosulphate solution. Then, the quantity
of thiosulphate used for the rough titration, titration 1 and titration 2 are directly related to the
amount of hypochlorite initially present. 28.20 mL, 27.40 mL and 27.80 mL are the volume of
thiosulphate used for those titration respectively. After the titrations were done, the molarity of
sodium thiosulphate was calculated in each which are 0.1064 M, 0.1079 M and 0.1095 M
respectively. For the average molarity of the solution is 0.1087 M. This molarity will be used in
order to calculate number of moles sodium thiosulphate solution.

Figure 3: After addition of starch Figure 4: Result of standardization sodium thiosulphate solution

Bleaching is process of whitening, or removing the natural color of textile fibers and many
other materials through the treatment with chemicals or by exposure to the sun, heat or water.
Sodium hypochlorite is an oxidizing bleaching agent used in household laundering and sanitation.
To remain effective as a bleaching agent, hypochlorite must remain alkaline (ph > 9.0) to suppress
the hydrolysis of ClO - to HOCl-. In basic bleaching solutions, hypochlorite content is usually
around 5 to 6 % NaOCl.

So in the next, the experiment on two different type of bleach were carried out which is
Dobi and Cocorex brand. Both of the sample of different type of bleach was diluted to 100 mL
mark with distilled water. Then, 10 mL aliquot was pipetted into 250 mL conical flask and added
with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid. After that the sample was titrated with the
standardized sodium thiosulphate solution before until the amber iodine colour that shown in figure
5 began to fade to light yellow as shown in figure 6.

Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7:

Amber iodine colour before titration After titration fade to light yellow colour Dark colour of starch-iodine complex

When the solution has fade to light yellow colour, starch as indicator added and turned the
solution to dark colour of starch-iodine complex as shown in figure 7. Then the titration was
continued until the dark colour disappear. Both sample from two different brand were analyzed.
And figure 8 shows the clear and colourless solution for Cocorex bleach sample while figure 9
shows the clear and colourless solution for Dobi bleach sample.

Figure 8: After titration of Cocorex bleach sample Figure 9: After titration of Dobi bleach sample
This analysis has been carried out in order to determine mass of percentage of NaCIO in
bleach sample contained. From this experiment, the result obtained for the percentage mass of
NaCIO in Dobi bleach is 0.14 % which is same for the both bleach sample.

Next, another analysis is conducted which is analysis of copper (II) unknown. This analysis
is carried on in order to determine what type of copper salt have been used in the experiment by
compared the unknown sample in terms of different mass percentage of copper. By dissolved 0.3
g of the copper (II) unknown with 35 mL of 0.05 M sulphuric acid and 1.0 g of KI, the mixture
was titrated with the standardized sodium thiosulphate solution until the amber colour of the
triiodide as shown in figure 10 began to fade. When the solution faded, the indicator starch was
added and the solution turned to grey starch-iodine colour as in figure 11.

Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure12:

Amber colour of triiodide Grey starch-iodine colour A milky white-pinkish colour

The titration was stopped when the grey starch-iodine colour disappeared. And the solution
produces a milky white-pinkish as the end point. Figure 12 shown the grey starch-iodine colour
disappear to produce a milky white-pinkish colour. Then the volume that sodium tiosulphate
solution used was recorded. The by calculating the mass of copper, the percentage obtained. The
copper salt that have been used for the comparison of the unknown sample are copper (II) acetate
monohydrate, copper (II) chloride dehydrate and copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate. The calculated
percentage weight of copper for these three difference types of copper salt are 33.16 % 37.27 %
and 25.45 %. Based on the result obtained, the average weight percent of copper in sample is 25.71
% which is nearer to the copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate value. Thus, it can be concluded that
the unknown copper (II) sample is copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate with chemical formula
For this experiment, the percentage that we obtained have big difference with the given
because some errors that happened while handling this experiment. The first error is while we
pipette the bleach to 10 mL, we not get the accurate volume needed because of reading of the
meniscus for pipette. The process in determining the end point of the titration also caused error.
The titration process should be stopped immediately once the end point is reached. End point is
when the colour of analytes solution changes to the required colour. Any extra drops of the titrant
will affect the calculation of the molarity of the iodide present in the solution. There is also error
that occurs due to the improperly calibrated burettes and conical flasks causing them to have
volumes slightly different from those indicated by their graduations. These apparatuses
should be frequently calibrated in order to obtain more accurate reading of measurement.

For safety in this experiment, there are some hazardous chemical. Hypochlorite solutions
make white spots on colored clothing, and erode skin and eye tissue. Acids are, as usual, hazardous.
Iodide and thiosulfate are mildly toxic. For precautions, lab coats, safety glasses and enclosed
footwear must be worn at all times in the laboratory. The lab coat can protect the body when there
is chemical spill while handling the experiment. If only the acids or bases get into the eye, flush it
out immediately with lots of water until the chemical was removed. And after finishing the
experiment, all the waste of the experiment dispose properly by dispose in the waste disposal
container that have been provided in the laboratory.


In conclusion, the molarity of sodium thiosulphate solution is 0.1087 M. Next, the

percentage of the NaClO in Dobi is 0.14 % and in Cocorex is 0.14 %. The percentage of copper in
an unknown copper sample is 25.17 %. This percentage shows that the unknown copper (II) is
actually copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate, CuSO4.5H2O.


Abdullah Munir, Z., Hamzah, Z. and Md Yunus, S. (2014). Analytical Chemistry

Laboratory Manual. 4th ed. Shah Alam: UiTM Press.
Analysis of Bleach. (2019). Retrieved from