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Management and Leadership 4.

Persevere in the face of setbacks

Effectiveness The same is true with highly effective people;

Chapter 8 PROACTIVE – Future Oriented

Management – associated with words REACTIVE – post oriented model of living

such as efficiency, planning,
procedures, control and consistency. They do not wait for things to happen
Leadership – associated with words to them. They have take charge, they do not
such as vision, creativity, dynamism, spend time responding to unanticipated events
change and risk – taking. not of their own making. They find ways to
anticipate future are more alert and responsive
to challenges, opportunities and changes that
Difference between management and affect them and their organization.
leadership according to a. d'souza
– Proactive leadership means
ARE:  Taking charge in a conscious, deliberate
active manner
LEADERSHIP  Looking a head and anticipating the
desired future
Leadership and management skills – a
comparison  Planning for what will be accomplished

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT AND  Strategizing to prevent problems so as

LEADERSHIP to spend less time on fire-fighting and
more time on fire prevention.
Genevieve capowski's made a comparison
between leader and manager such as: – Reactive leadership means

Genevieve capowski's made a comparison  Living in an fact mode.

between leader and manager such as:  Spending most of the time reacting to
According to Anthony D' Souza, people achieve events after they have occurred.
what they want because they do the following:  Waiting passively for things to happen
1. Have clear and specific goals and resolving problems to arise.

2. Develop plans and schedules for  Fire-fighting keeps leaders so occupied

achieving goals that sometimes they don’t have time to
think about what causes the fires.
3. Assume personal responsibility for
implementing an following these plans – Proactive is more effective. The
and schedules; and difference between the two (2)
behavior styles revolves primarily
around. The leaders vison and Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner state:
commitment and the mobilization and
empowerment of people. Visions derive from a word literally
meaning "see". A vision is an image – picture of
– Characteristics attitudes and behaviour what could be. Vision also has the quality of
uniqueness. It hints at what makes something
– Functions of proactive leadership special.
 Provides a vision for the organization,  An organization's vision gives a crystal-
he has thought about what the clear depiction of what an organization
organization could be and could want to become. It shows a glimpse of
accomplish. the future or we would like it to be and
 Communicates the organizational vision as we think it should be. As Jonathan
to inspire others to follow and Swift wrote in Gulliver's Travels,
motivates them to action. "Vision is the art of seeing things invisible."
 Assumes responsibility and exercises  Leaders have described as "painters of
initiative in obtaining the desired the vision and architects of the journey."
 "You see things or they are and ask why.
Responsibility and initiative are 2 major But I dream of things that never were
functions in a group expect of its leader and ask, why not?" It said of Robert
 Highly Goal – Oriented, self motivated Kennedy that his distinguish quality was
and self discipline moral courage to date and to act.

 Sets an example for others personifies  The importance of articulating a

the ideal the group and expresses the compelling vision to which followers
core values. can commit themselves was
emphasized by Robert Greenleaf in his
People will look to the leaders character and book, Servant Leadership: A journey
behaviors even more then to his words to into the Nature of Legitimate Power
decide how they should act. and Greatness.

– Vision driven leadership A mark of leaders is that they are better than
the most at pointing the directing. As long as
Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus
one is leading , one has a goal. It may be goal
 All the leaders have a compelling vision, arrived at by group consensus, or the leader,
a realistic dream about their work. acting on inspiration, may simply have said.
"Let's go this way." Clearly stating and restating
 Their visions or intentions are the goal, the leader gives certainly and purpose
compelling and pull people toward to others who may have difficulty in achieving it
them. Intensity coupled with for themselves
commitment. Vision grabs
The word is used here in the special sense of the 4. Makes you future-oriented,
overarching purpose, the big dream, the concentrating on results rather that on
visionary concept, the ultimate consummation activity;
which are approaches but never really achieve…
5. Shows where you are going and why
It is so stated that it excites the imagination and
challenges people to work for something they you are going there;
do not yet know how to do, something they can 6. Helps you spot opportunities that
be proud of as they move toward. others have bot seen;
 Effective leadership is developed and 7. Gives you the driving power to see you
sustained by your vision. Without one, through tough times; and
you cannot reach your full leadership
potential. Harry Emerson Fosdick once 8. Makes the unreachable and worthwhile
said, "No life ever grows great until it is future
focused, dedicated, disciplined." In the
– People's involvement and interaction
some manner that no organization,
institution or school ever grows great  Leaders recognize that great dreams
until it is focused, dedicated and and grand visions are not through their
disciplined. own actions alone. Involvement,
interaction and mobilization are keys to
 They have a plan of action with specific
making those dreams and visions
goals for achievement followed by
significant realities. Leaders encourage
specific time-bound targets for
collaboration and work in ways that
evaluating progress results.
maximize the commitment of people.
 Book of Proverbs states: "where there is
 One of the major functions of shared
no vision the people perish" (Prov.
visions is to align, education,
29:18). People drift into pointless,
upbringing, information and
meaningless, listless existence is no
perceptions that influence us to move
captivating vision, no goal, and no plan
in different directions and also captures
for the future.
the attention and emotion of people.
– Here's what a.d'souza says about
– A shared vision
 Attracts people to it and aligns them in
1. Operates as your dynamic force
the same directions;
energized by voltage and vitality;
 Keeps people focused, energized and
2. Provides lift, stretch, clarity and focus;
on target;
3. Guides you to see beyond the
 Gives meaning and purpose to their
lives and work and provides a
motivating environment for excellence; 1. Autocratic or Authoritarian Style – a
and type of leadership through fear, an
allows the leader to take the ultimate
 Creates a challenging, empowering control of taking decisions without
organization rather than a stifling,
consulting others.
dehumanizing one.
There are leaders who have visions that could
be highly successful but are unable to convey  The leader centralizes his authority and
their visions to others. It is difficult to power.
overcome the natural resistance to change.
 The leader makes all decisions by
Developing a shared vision is both difficult and himself.
complex. It is essential to:
 The leader structures all the work of his
 Communicate and stress open subordinates.
 The leader closely supervises and
 Be accessible and visible controls all the functions and activities
of the workers.
 Involve people to help plan for change
 The leader always wants that his orders
 Build a climate of trust are being followed without any
– Leadership Styles question from the subordinates.

o Autocratic  The leader institutes fears and threats,

or punishments and penalties to get
o Democratic things done.

o Free-rein  The leader tries to motivate his

subordinates by satisfying their basic
o Paternalistic
needs through threats, punishments
– Andrew Mellon- appointed to head the and penalties
U.S treasury.
 The leader adopts one-way
– Henry Ford- Founder of the ford motor communication, from the top down the
company. lines.

– Bill Clinton- 42nd President of US.  The leader does not listen to
suggestions of his subordinates.
– Ferdinand Marcos- 10th President of the
Philippines from 1965 to 1986.  The leader always thinks that he is the
best and most powerful person in the
– Barack Obama- 44th U.S President firm.

– Different leadership styles

– Advantages of the autocratic 2. Participative or Democratic Style – consult
leadership style employees and seriously consider their ideas
when making decisions.
 It provides strong motivation and high
rewards on the part of the leader. CHARACTERISTICS

 Decision making is very fast.  There is presence of delegation and

decentralization of authority.
 All works and activities of subordinates
are structured.  Subordinates are given the chance to
participate in decision-making.
 There is no need to hire skilled
subordinates.  There is two-way communication
process in the firm.
 It requires subordinates to just follow
orders or instructions.  Mutual interest between superiors and
subordinates are carried on.
 Rigid supervision and control of
subordinates is done.  Leader gets the support and
cooperation of his subordinates.
 Getting things done with accuracy and
certainly prevails.  The leader and his subordinated work
together as a social unit.
 It avoids delay in decision-making.
 The leader inspires and motivates his
– Disadvantages of the autocratic subordinates to do their work better.
leadership style
– Advantages of
 The leader is overloaded with many participative/democratic leadership
works/jobs. style
 It creates fear, anxiety, discontentment,
 It promotes quality decisions.
and frustrations among subordinates/
 It inspires and motivates subordinates
 It discourages subordinates to become to exceed ordinary output.
creative and innovative.
 There is better cooperation,
 It discourages two-way communication. understanding and goodwill between
 The leader is being isolated from the superior and subordinates.
real situation of the firm.  There is better use of resources.
 There is no consultation.  It reduces problems and dissatisfactions
 Subordinates are discouraged to do of subordinates.
voluntary work.
 Organizational changes and – E – it is enthusiasm, and effort to help
improvements can be easily and secure others.
– A – it is advocacy, action and
 He assures of organizational stability accomplishment.
and progress.
– D – it is dedication, discipline, dignity,
 There is conducive work environments decency, devotion to duty and
decisiveness for the general
 Development of future leaders is very welfare.
evident and possible.
– E – it is excellence and exemplary work
 It promotes of stability and progress of
for others to follow and emulate.
the firm.
– R – it is reliability, responsibility, respect
DISADVANTAGES for the law and the rights of others
 Subordinates might not understand and reconciliations for the peace
well the firm's objectives and goals. and unity.

 Leaders might not consider all the – S – it is sincerity, service, self – sacrifice,
opinions and suggestions of the social justice to make life better
subordinates. for mankind.

 Subordinated might not have the – H – it is humanity, honesty, honour,

proper training and education to do helpfulness and hard work for
their work on their own accomplishment and fulfilment.

 If everybody will want to participate, – I – it is integrity, interest, initiative, and

then the time shall be very limited to idealism.
achieve the firm's objectives and goals – P - finally, leadership is patience,
3.Free – rein or Laissez Faire Style – wherein perseverance, beyond partisanship,
the leader just allows his followers to do what religion or creed; it works
they want and the leaders do not supervise for peace, progress and
their team members prosperity to mankind.

4. Paternalistic Style – who acts as a patriarch

or matriarch and treats employees and partners “IF YOUR ACTIONS INSPIRE OTHERS TO DREAM
as through they are members of extended MORE, LEARN MORE, DO MORE AND BECOME
– L– leadership is loyalty to God, country
- John Quiney Adams
and people.