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Name: _____________________________________________________ Section/Time: ______________

Professor name: _____________________________________________ Date: _____________________

Laboratory Report 4

CLASS CESTODEA

Cestodes are monoecious parasites, elongated, segmented, ribbon like and the body
consists of three parts namely: scolex, neck and strobila/proglottids. The adult inhabits the small
intestine while the larvae stages are seen in the tissue. The ova vary in size, shape and
appearance and are recovered in the stool of the definitive host. There are two orders: Order
Pseudophillidea and Order Cyclophillidea.

Exclusively parasitic organisms; adults are hermaphroditic, covered with non-ciliated


integument; ciliated epithelium, when present, confined to embryos hatched from eggs; scolex
provided with suckers and frequently hooks for attachment to host tissue; no digestive tract in
most species; divided transversely into separate sexually complete units, called proglottids.
There are two orders of medical importance:

Laboratory Report 4.1


ORDER: PSEUDOPHILLIDEA

Scolex typically unarmed, with a dorsal and ventral grooves (bothria) never with 4
suckers. All representatives in man belong to the superfamily Bothriocephaloidea.

Diphyllobothrium latum (Broad/Fish tapeworm)

This ivory colored tapeworm is the longest tapeworm of human measuring 3 to 10 meters
in length (sometimes more) with as many as 3,000 to 4,000 proglottids. The usual habitat of the
worm is the ileum and sometimes the jejunum. The scolex is small measuring 2 to 4 mm in
length by 10 to 12 mm in width, spatulate or almond-shaped with 2 dorsoventral sucking
grooves. The typical mature proglottids are somewhat broader than long (latum) and is
practically filled with reproductive organs. The male organs terminate in muscular cirrus in a
common genital pore. A symmetricallly bilobed ovary, a vagina that extends from a common
genital pore in the midventral line, characterizes the female organs. The gravid rosette like or
highly coiled uterus in the middle of the gravid segment is a diagnostic characteristic. A single
worm may discharge as many as 1 Million eggs daily.
1. Study the permanent mounted slides of D. latum immature, mature and ripe segments.
Draw and label the parts.

Immature segment Mature segment Ripe segment

2. Study the permanent mounted slide of D. latum ova. Draw and label the parts.

Study Questions:

1. What are the diagnostic features of adult D. latum?

2. Describe the ova and proglottids of D. latum.

3. Explain how bothriocephalus anemia is brought about by fish tapeworm infection?


Laboratory Report 4.2

Order: Cyclophyllidea

Scolex with 4 suckers and usually a centrally placed apical rostellum, frequently armed
with hooks; sex pores when present, open laterally; vitellaria, a single mass, usually posterior to
the ovary. All species in this order found in man belong to Superfamily Taeniodea.

4.1.1. Taenia solium (Pork tapeworm)

The adult Taenia solium lives in the small intestine with its scolex attached to the mucosa
and its body folded back and forth in the lumen. It measures 2 – 7 meters and when fully
developed contains 800 to 1000 segments. The scolex measures 1-mm, globular in shape, has 4
cup-like suckers and a conspicuous rounded rostellum armed with double rows of large and
small hooklets approximately 20 – 25 in number. The neck region is short and only about one
half as thick as the scolex. The mature proglottid is roughly square with irregularly alternate
genital pores opening from side to side in adjacent proglottids. The testes consist of 150 to 200
follicles, distributed throughout the dorsal plane. The ovary, situated in the posterior third of the
proglottids, consists of 2 large symmetrical lobes and an accessory lobe on the side of the genital
pore. The gravid segment contains uterus, which has 5 – 14 lateral uterine branches. Each gravid
segment contains 30,000 – 50,000 eggs. The gravid proglottids become detached from the
strobila in-groups or five or six (in chain) and are passed in the feces.

4.1.2. Taenia saginata (Beef tapeworm)

The adult worm living with its head embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine,
measures 5 – 10 meters on the average, although under favorable conditions, may attain a length
of 25 meters or more. There are more segments than in T. solium, numbering from 1,000 – 2,000
segments. The scolex measures 2 mm, quadrate in shape and bears 4 prominent suckers but
differs from that of T. solium in the absence of a well developed rostellum and hooks. The
mature segments are somewhat broad, have irregularly alternate genital pores and differ from T.
solium in having as many testes numbering 330 – 400 follicles and in lacking the accessory
ovarian lobe. In gravid proglottid, the testes and ovary have atrophied and the uterus has 15 – 20
or more lateral uterine branches (average 18). Each proglottid may contain 97,000 to 124,000
eggs.
1. Study the permanent mounted slides of T. solium, T. saginata scolex and cysticercus
cellulosae. Draw and label the parts.

T.  solium  scolex   T.  saginata  scolex   Cysticercus  cellulose  


     
 
 
 

2. Examine the prepared mounted slide of T. solium and T. saginata segment and ova. Draw
and label the parts.

T. solium T. saginata
Ripe Segment Ova Ripe Segment Ova

Study Questions:

1. What is the laboratory method used for diagnosis of Taeniasis? For cysticercosis?

2. Tabulate the morphological differences of T. solium adult and T. saginata adult.

3. Which is a more serious infection, with T. solium or infection with T. saginata? Wh


Laboratory Report 4.3

Dipyllidium caninum (Double pored/Dog tapeworm)

Dipyllidium caninum is a common tapeworm of the dog and cat and wild canines
throughout the world. Humans are occasional host. The adult worm inhabits the small intestine
and consists of a chain of elliptical proglottids. It measures 10 – 70 cm in length, with 60 – 175
proglottids. The scolex is small, rhomboidal, has 4 prominent deeply cupped suckers and a
refractile conical rostellum armed with 1 – 7 circlets of rose- thorn shaped spines. The neck of
the worm is short and slender. Immature proglottids are first broader than long and later squarish
in outline. Mature and gravid segments are typically pumpkinseed shaped or vase shaped. Each
is provided with a double set of reproductive organs with the genital pore opening on each lateral
margin of the proglottid. The gravid proglottid is filled with membranous egg capsules of mother
pockets containing 8 to 15 eggs.

1. Study the permanent mounted slides of adult D. caninum, mature and gravid segment.
Draw and label the parts.

Adult worm Mature segment Gravid segment

2. Describe the mother pockets of D. caninum. Study the permanent mounted slide of D.
caninum ova. Draw and label the parts.
Study Questions:

1. Describe the scolex and proglottids of D. caninum taking into consideration only the
important diagnostic features.

2. Explain why D. caninum was named double pored tapeworm and dog tapeworm?

3. How do man acquire dipylidiasis? What is their infective stage of this parasite?

4. What are the main differences of the ova of D. caninum and ova of Taenia?
Laboratory Report 4.4

Hymenolepis species

4.3.1. Hymenolepis nana (Dwarf tapeworm)

The adult worm measures 2 to 4 cm in length with 96 to 840 segments. The small,
rhomboidal scolex has 4 suckers and bears a short; refractile rostellum armed with a single ring
of 20 to 30 Y-shaped spines. The broad mature segments have a single genital pore on the side, 3
round testes and a bilobed ovary. The gravid segment becomes completely filled with eggs, the
testes disappears while the uterus hollow out becomes sac like and filled with eggs.

4.3.2. Hymenolepis diminuta (Rat tapeworm)

The adult worm measures 10 – 60 cm in length and with 800 to 1300 proglottids. The small,
club-shaped scolex has 4 cup-shaped suckers and a rudimentary unarmed rostellum. Each mature
segment has 3 ovoidal testes and an ovary and it’s hard to distinguish this segment from those of
H. nana. The gravid segment contains a saccular uterus filled with eggs.

1. Examine the prepared mounted slide of adult H. nana and H. diminuta. Study and describe the
ova. Draw and label the parts.

H. nana H. diminuta
Adult worm Ova Adult worm Ova

2. Study the permanent mounted slides of H. diminuta and H. nana segments and cysticercoid.
Draw and label the parts.

H. nana H. diminuta
Segment Cysticercoid Segment Cysticercoid
Study Questions:

1. What is the appearance of H. nana and H. diminuta ova?

2. Differentiate the scolex of H. diminuta from scolex of H. nana.

3. How would you differentiate a mature segment of H. nana from its gravid segment?

4. How would you differentiate adult H. nana from adult H. diminuta?

5. Tabulate the similarities and differences in the life cycle of H. nana and H. diminuta.
Laboratory Report 4.5

Raillientina garrisoni

The adult measures 60 cm in length. The scolex is minute, sub-globular, has 4 cup-like
suckers surrounded by very minute, comma-shaped spines. The rostellum is armed with
alternating two circular rows of 90 – 140 hammer-shaped hooks and also surrounded by a collar
of comma-shaped spines. The mature segment contains a bilobed ovary and 36 to 50 ovoid
testes. Genital pores open on the side near the anterior lateral border of the segments. Gravid
segments are divided into numerous egg capsules, each containing 1 – 4 eggs. The free gravid
proglottids have the shape of rice grain.

1. Study a permanent mounted slide of Raillietina garrisoni. Draw and label the slides.

Scolex Gravid segment Ova

Study Questions:

1. What is the characteristic appearance of the scolex and gravid segment of R. garrisoni?

2. What is the shape of Raillietina garrisoni egg?


Name: _____________________________________________________ Section/Time: ______________
Professor name: _____________________________________________ Date: _____________________

Laboratory Report 5
CLASS TREMATODEA

This species parasitic in human beings belong to the Digenia and have a complicated life
cycle involving alteration of generations and hosts. The sexual reproduction or multiplication in
adult is followed by asexual reproduction in the larval stages in snails. Most flukes, which
parasitized man also animal parasites and their non-human vertebrate hosts, serve as reservoir
hosts for human infection. Trematodes maybe monoecious or dioecious. The adult may inhabit
the different organs of our body. Adult is provided with oral and ventral suckers.

Laboratory Report 5.1

Fasciola hepatica (Sheep liver fluke/Giant liver fluke)

This is the largest fluke infecting man. The adult worm is large, flat, leaf-like measuring
20 – 50 mm in length and 6 – 12 mm in width. At the anterior end, a conical projection is present
known as cephalic cone and a characteristic shouldered appearance is also observed which serve
as distinguishing features of this parasite. The posterior end of this parasite is broadly pointed. It
has two relatively small suckers, which are of equal size. The intestinal ceca are highly branched
or dendritic. It has two deeply branched or dendritic testes in tandem formation and a single
dendritic ovary.

Related specie, Fasciola gigantica, which commonly infects cattle, water buffaloes and
carabaos, is larger, more lanceolate than F. hepatica. It measures 30 – 70 mm in length and 3 –
11 mm in width. Compared to F. hepatica, it has a shorter cephalic cone, less developed
shoulders, a larger ventral sucker and the intestinal ceca is more branched.

1. Study the permanent mounted slides of adult Fasciola hepatica and take note of all-
important morphological features. Locate the oral and ventral suckers. Draw and label the
parts.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Study the permanent mounted slide of F. hepatica ova. Draw and label the parts.

3. Study a permanent mounted slide of Fasciola gigantica. Draw and label the parts.

Study Questions:

1. What is the specific laboratory diagnosis for Fascioliasis?

2. How would you differentiate adult F. hepatica from F. gigantica?

3. How would you rule out false fascioliasis?


Laboratory Report 5.2

Clonorchis and Opistorchis

5.2.1 Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke/Oriental liver fluke)

This fluke is a parasite of fish-eating mammals and humans. The adult worm is flat,
elongated, spinous, and transparent gray worm that is tapering anteriorly and somewhat rounded
posteriorly. The adult measures 8 – 25 mm in length and 1.5 – 5 mm in width. The ventral sucker
is smaller than the oral sucker. The long intestinal ceca are simple extending to the posterior end.
The two deeply branched testes in tandem formation are situated in the posterior part of the
body. The single ovary is relatively small with three lobes and located anterior to the testes.

5.2.2 Opistorchis felineus

This parasite lives in the biliary passage and infects several species of fish-eating
mammals. The reddish yellow adult worm measures 7 –12 mm in length and 1.5 – 3 mm in
width and is lancet-shaped. The intestinal ceca is simple, the two testes are lobate and arranged
obliquely in tandem. The oral sucker is smaller than the ventral sucker. The single ovary is
lobed. Another closely related species that infect man is Opistorchis viverrini. This specie is
differentiated from O. felineus in that the ovary and testes are nearer to each other, both of which
are more deeply lobulated. The testes are obliquely arranged.

1. Examine the prepared mounted slide of adult C. sinensis and O. felineus. Study and describe
the ova. Draw and label the parts.

C. sinensis O. felineus
Adult worm Ova Adult worm Ova
Study Questions:

1. What are the morphological features distinguishing C. sinensis adult from O. felineus
adult?

2. Describe the testes and ovary of adult Clonorchis sinensis.

3. What are the possible ways men can acquire Opistorchis and Clonorchis?

4. Tabulate the differences between adult Clonorchis and adult Opistorchis.


Laboratory Report 5.3

Paragonimus westermani (Oriental lung fluke)

The adult worm is reddish-brown and measures 7 – 12 mm in length, 4 –6 mm in width


and 3.5 – 5 mm in thickness. The cuticle is spinous; the oral and ventral suckers are of equal size.
The intestinal ceca are simple. The two testes are deeply lobed and situated opposite each other.
The ovary has 6 unbranched lobes and is anterior to the testes. The shape of adult, when active
resemble a spoon with one end contracted and the other elongated and when preserved an oval,
flattened coffee bean shaped.

1. Study the permanent mounted slide of P. westermani adult and ova. Locate the oral and
ventral suckers. Draw the intermediate hosts and label the parts.

Adult worm Ova Intermediate host

Study Questions:

1. Enumerate the possible specimen to be collected for the diagnosis of Paragonimiasis.


What technique will be useful for identification of Paragonimus?

2. Explain the presence of eggs in the stool of patients with Paragonimiasis.

3. What are the diagnostic features of adult Paragonimus westermani?


Laboratory Report 5.4

Echinostoma species

Echinostoma are medium sized flukes, the adult worms are unique due to the presence of
collar of spines around the oral sucker. Many species have been reported in man and are
differentiated on the basis of number of spines and number of lobes in testes. In the Philippines,
two species have been documented to infect man, Echinostoma ilocanum and Echinostoma
malayanum.
The adult Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison’s fluke) is reddish gray, measuring 2.5 – 6.5
mm in length, 1 – 1.5 mm in width. The anterior end is provided with a horseshoe-shaped collar
of spines (Collarette of spines) or a circumoral disk surrounded with 49 – 51 spines in two rows.
The oral sucker lies in the center of this disk. The testes are bilobed in tandem formation while
the ovary is globular and is located anterior to the testes.
Adult Echinostoma malayanum (Artyfechinostomum malayanum) measures 5 – 12 mm in
length and 2 – 3 mm in width and is provided with 43 – 45 collar of spines and with a
multilobulated testes (6 – 9 lobes) in tandem formation. The ovary is small, rounded or oval.

1. Examine the prepared mounted slide of adult E. ilocanum and E. malayanum. Study and
describe the ova. Draw and label the parts.

E. ilocanum E. malayanum
Adult worm Ova Adult worm Ova

2. Draw the intermediate hosts of E. ilocanum and E. malayanum.

E. ilocanum E. malayanum
Study Questions:

1. Tabulate the differences of adult E. ilocanum and E. malayanum.

2. How are you going to differentiate the egg of Echinostoma from the eggs of Fasciola?

3. Discuss the mode of transmission of Echinostoma ilocanum.

4. What is the diagnostic feature of E. ilocanum ova?


Laboratory Report 5.5

Schistosoma species (Blood flukes)

Schistosomiasis adult is narrow, elongated and dioecious. It has both oral and ventral
suckers. The intestine bifurcates into two ceca, unite to form a single blind stem. The female is
longer and more slender while the male is shorter but more robust. The male body is folded to
form a long ventral gynecophoral canal, a groove behind the ventral sucker, which serve as
attachment site of the female to the male during copulation. It is where the male holds the female
during copulation. The number of testes in male and number of eggs in uterus are distinctive to
the species.

Schistosoma japonicum adult is provided with smooth tuberculations. The male have 6 –
9 testes arranged in rows. The ovary of the female lies somewhat behind the mid plane of the
body and the uterus can have 50 eggs at one time.

Schistosoma mansoni is provided with coarse tuberculations. Male has 6 – 8 testes while
the ovary of the female is situated in the anterior half of the body. The uterus is short with 20 –
40 eggs.

Schistosoma haematobium is provided with fine tuberculations, wherein the ventral


sucker is larger than the oral sucker. The number of testes in male is 4 – 5 and the ovary of the
female is posteriorly located. The number of eggs in the uterus is 20 – 100.

1. Study permanent mounted slides of S. japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium adult in


copula and take note of the longer, slender female and shorter, stouter male. Draw and label the
parts.

S. japonicum S. mansoni S. haematobium


2. Study the permanent mounted slides of Schistosoma miracidium and cercaria. Draw and label
the parts.

Miracidium Cercaria

3. Study permanent mounted slides of S. japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium ova and
take the position of spine. Draw and label the parts.

S. japonicum S. mansoni S. haematobium


Study Questions:
1. Tabulate the morphological differences of adult stage of the different species of
Schistosomes.

2. What are the different laboratory techniques for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis?

3. Describe gynecophoral canal and give its function.

4. How do the eggs of Schistosomes reach the feces?

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