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By correlating average composi- Ni, 0 to 1.55 Cr, 0 to 0.52 Mo, and of the alloying factors outside the

tions with Jominy band hardnesses 0 to 0.2 V. Only the significant ele- full-hardened region enabled us to

ments are included in the equations. perform a comprehensive regression

for a variety of carbon and

Nonsignificant factors are eliminated, analysis, the object being to produce

alloy steels, the author step by step. a single formula for predicting the

developed equations for calculating If we extrapolate the values from Jominy curve. For this purpose, we

Jominy curves from compositions. the equations for zero distance from introduced another factor, E, de-

the quenched end, we obtain a rule fined as the distance (in 1/16 in.) from

of thumb for calculating the surface the quenched end into the calcula-

To SIMPLIFY the determina- hardness of a quenched bar from its tion. The following equation results:

tion of hardenability, we have de- carbon content:

+

Jo = ?h(% C) (lo2) RC 36.

J4.2, = 98 \/C - 0.025 E2 fl

20 Cr + 6.4 Ni + 19 Mn +

+

34 Md

vised a method for calculating the

Jominy curve. In developing the The formula is accurate for steels + 28V- 24-+ 2.86E-Re7

equations, we used the multiple re- with 0.2 to 0.6% C. The correlation coefficient of this

gression analysis technique to deter- formula is high, only 4% of the vari-

mine quantitative effect of the alloy- A Nonlinear Model ance in hardenability being unac-

ing elements. (Multiple balancing Next, we wished to determine counted for.

calculations are used to keep all but whether this linear hardenability When using the over-all formula,

one variable "constant" to determine model could be further refined by we must exclude the region close to

the effect of that variable alone.) As introducing nonlinear terms. (The the quenched end face (E < 4/16 in.)

a warning, we should not expect the nonlinear terms are radicals because because the numerical coefficients of

formulas to predict a steel's harden- experience shows that the specific the terms are not constant. Hard-

ability precisely. Our formulas are effect of an alloying element is re- nesses in the region up to the end,

intended mainly to assist the de- duced as its content rises.) When however, can be easily ascertained

signer in determining the steel to the regression calculation was per- by using the preceding equation.

select, and to help the metallurgist formed with the square roots of the

An Interaction Model

in correcting the melt. variables, we found that the only

factor of constant significance was In making the calculations per-

Performing the Calculations \/C, and therefore used it instead formed up to now, we have assumed

If we plot a curve of average of C. With this change, the carbon that the variables are independent

values for each Jominy band and transformation increases the multiple of each other. This assumption, how-

correlate these mean hardenability correlation coefficient in the neigh- ever, only approximates the truth

values to the average values of the borhood of the quenched end; data since we must expect interaction

composition ranges of the grades scatter is reduced accordingly. The between carbon and the alloying

concerned, we can ascertain the following equations apply: elements. If we postulate that a

quantitative effects of the alloying J, = 6 0 n + 1.6 Cr + 1.5 Mn parabolic relationship exists between

elements. To start out, we deter- + Rc 16 carbon and other elements, the re-

mined linear hardenability models. JR= 100 v(T+ 7.5 Ni + 22 Cr + gression calculation is performed

Multiple regression calculations car- 22 Mn + 33 Mo + 6.2 Si + 22 V with the products CL, C2L, and

C C . The resulting equations follow:

ried out for different distances from - RC 56

the quenched end of a Jominy bar J z a = 8 5 -\/C+ 1 9 C r++ 5.7Ni+ J, = 7.6 Mn + 138 C2Mn - 98

give us hardenability formulas, three 34 Mo + 16 Mn + 25 V 2.1 Si CWn + 4.6 Cr+ (21 CCr) + 129

examples of which follow: - RC 53. C T r - 173 C T r + +

9.6 MO 214

+

J1 = 52 (% C) + 1.4 (% Cr) 1.9 Again, we can extrapolate the C2Mo - (195 C3Mo) + 5.3 Ni -

(% Mn) + Rc 33 equations to determine a formula for (36 CNi) + 214 C2Ni - 265 C3Ni

Jo = 89 C+ + +

23 Cr 7.4 Ni calculating hardness at the quenched + (11 V) + 7.6 Si + Rc 5.5

24 Mn + +

34 Mo 4.5 Si - Rc 30 end: JZ2 = 148 C2Mn - 98 C3Mn +

+

J2, = 74 C + +

18 Cr 5.2 Ni J, = 60 fl+ Rc 20 +

11 Cr 101 C2Cr - 139 C3Cr +

33 Mo + +

16 Mn 21 V - Rc 29 In the instance, the formula works +

14 Mo 238 C2Mo - 374 C3Mo

In these equations, the Rc hard- for steels with 0.1 to 0.6% C. It + +

2.9 Ni 50 C3Ni + Rc 1

ness of the Jominy specimen is indi- should be used if the hardenability Terms in parentheses are not con-

cated by J, and the subscripts show calculation yields higher values.

distances to the end face in 1/16 in. Mr. Just is department head, Metal-

Ranges are 0.10 to 0.64 C, 0.15 to Deriving a Comprehensive Formula

lurgical Laboratory, Volkswagenwerk

1.95 Si, 0.45 to 1.75 Mn, 0 to 5.0 The approximately constant effect AG, Wolfsburg, West Germany.

NOVEMBER 1969 87

sizes of the 37 steels listed in the

U. S. Steel Atlas. It is shown below:

J1.4n == 88 \/iS - 0.0135 E2 VC

+ 19 Cr + 6.3 Ni + 16 Mn +

35 Mo

20*+

+ 5 Si - 0.82 KASTM-

2.11E-Rc2

The formula is applicable for steels

with the following ranges: 0.08 to

0.56 C, 0.20 to 1.88 Mn, 0 to 8.94

Ni, 0 to 1.97 Cr, 0 to 0.53 Mo, 0 to

3.8 Si, and 1.5 to 11 ASTM grain

size (K).

Applying Hardenability Formulas

These formulas can be used to

calculate compositions. Let's say the

designer requires a fatigue strength

of 85,000 psi (60 kg per sq mm). To

achieve this value, we need a hard-

ness of Rc 40 after heat treatment

(HQT). Then, quenched hardness

(H,) must be high enough above

this hardness to obtain satisfactory

tempering (HQ = 35 + 0.5 HQT).

For our example, this will be Rc 55.

From this value, we determine the

t

required carbon content as follows:

Hardness = 60 fl + Rc 15 for

95% martensite. Solving for carbon,

we obtain 0.44%.

Now, we need to determine the

required alloy content. If the steel

is to be without molybdenum or

nickel (for economic or strategic

reasons), we use the remaining ele-

ments that affect hardenability; these

are chromium, manganese, and sili-

con. To apply the formula and de-

termine the required additions, we

must first know the appropriate dis-

tance (E) from the quenched end.

Let's assume, for example, that the

radius of the component is 1 in. and

that the fatigue strength is required

to be present at 3/4 radius. Applying

the formula:

(in in,, = 0.254 R2 + 0.15 R

+

- 0.0445 R3 0.118 in.,

we find the d i s t a n c e from the

0 4 8 12 16 20 0 4 8 12 16 20 quenched end to be 'A6 in. If, for

Distance From Quenched End, 1\16 In. metallurgical reasons (freedom from

slag), we need 1 Mn and 0.3 Si, we

Fig. 1 - Calculated determinations of points for hardenability insert these values into the formula

curves (based on midpoints of ranges for elements that go into and solve for chromium as follows:

these standard SAE grades) indicate that the formulas work satis- 55 = 78 (0.44) + +

22 Cr 21 -

factorily. Most calculated curves fall within the standard bands. 20.3 + +

1.86 (8) 18.

Then, % Cr = 1.1. Thus the re-

quired composition of the steel is

sidered significant. 29 Mo + 16 Mn - 21.2 fl + 0.45 C, 1.0 Mn, and 1.1Cr.

In Fig. 1 we see calculated Jominy 2.21 E + Rc 22 If we find that such a composition

curves of eight typical steels plotted Hardenable steel is not in the list of standard steels,

+

+ +

on scatter bands. The interactions J4-25= 78 C 22 Cr 21 Mn f we repeat the calculation with other

led us to split the steels into two 6.9 Ni 33 Mo - 20.3 fl + fixed values (for example, with 1.0 Si

groups, carburizing (C < 0.28%) and 1.86 E + Rc 18 in place of 0.3 Si). Otherwise, a

hardenable (C > 0.29%) grades. As expected, the formula for the corresponding specification will have

When we performed regression anal- hardenable grades has the higher to be established, and this step

ysis separately for case-hardening mefficients. normally involves e x t r a expense.

and heat-treatable steels, the fol- Therefore, reworking the calcula-

lowing equations resulted: Grain Size Is Considered

tions in attempting to find a standard

Case-hardenable steel Next, we determined a formula steel should not be dropped at too

J4-25 = 87 C f 14 Cr + 5.3 Ni + based on the compositions and grain early a stage. e

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