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Crust

the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite. It is usually
distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup.

The crust is a thin shell on the outside of the Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volume. It
is the top component of lithosphere: a division of Earth's layers that includes the crust and the upper
part of the mantle. The lithosphere is broken into tectonic plates that move, allowing heat to escape
from the interior of the Earth into space.

The crust lies on top of the mantle, a configuration that is stable because the upper mantle is made
of peridotite and so is significantly denser than the crust. The boundary between the crust and
mantle is conventionally placed at the Mohorovičić discontinuity, a boundary defined by a contrast
in seismic velocity.

Thea are two type of the crust in the earth

- The continental crust and


- The oceanic crust.

much information about the crust has been derived from knowledge of the variation of seismic
velocities with depth and how these correspond to experimental determinations of velocities
measured over ranges of temperature and pressure consistent with crustal conditions.

https://opentextbc.ca/geology/chapter/9-1-understanding-earth-through-seismology/

Collectively, the observations from both geologic and geophysical studies show that the continental
crust is vertically stratifi ed in terms of its chemical composition (Rudnick & Gao, 2003).
Seismic wave velocities as a function of depth in the Earth showing the major discontinuities. AK 135
Earth model specifi ed by Kennett et al., 1995 (after Helffrich & Wood, 2001, with permission from
Nature 412, 501–7. Copyright © 2001 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.).

Map showing the present plate configurations and plate motions on Earth; plate names shown on
insert. White arrows indicate relative motion along plate boundaries (see Ch. 2) and yellow arrows
indicate absolute plate motions related to a reference system based on stationary hot spots (see Ch.
6; DeMets et al., 1994). Constructive plate boundaries (mid ocean ridges) are marked by green lines,
destructive plate boundaries (subduction zones) by red lines (teeth point towards the upper plate),
and conservative plate boundaries (transform faults) by gray lines. The hypsographic curve (box in
the lower right) indicates the percentage of diff erent topographic levels on the continents and
under the sea. Continental and oceanic crust are characterized by diff erent topographic levels.
Introduction

Earth’s tectonic system concerns the movement of the lithosphere, the relatively brittle outermost
solid Earth, which consists of a mosaic of independent plates. The boundaries of these plates are the
most dynamic areas in the world and are the locations of most orogeneses, a word from the classical
Greek meaning mountain building. Thee concepts embraced above define the field of geodynamics
– energy, forces, and motion of a changing Planet Earth.

Plate tectonics is of very great signifi cance as it represents the first theory that provides a unified
explanation of the Earth’s major surface features. As such it has enabled an unprecedented linking of
many different aspects of geology, which had previously been considered independent and
unrelated. A deeper understanding of geology has ensued from the interpretation of many branches
of geology within the basic framework provided by plate tectonics. Thus, for example, explanations
can be provided for the past distributions of flora and fauna, the spatial relationships of volcanic
rock suites at plate margins, the distribution in space and time of the conditions of different
metamorphic facies, the scheme of deformation in mountain belts, or orogens, and the association
of different types of economic deposit.

Much of our knowledge of the internal constitution of the Earth has come from the study of the
seismic waves generated by earthquakes.
Intruduction

Plate tectonics is of very great significance as it represents the first theory that provides a unified
explanation of the Earth’s major surface features. As such it has enabled an unprecedented linking of
many different aspects of geology, which had previously been considered independent and
unrelated.

Tektonik lempeng memiliki pengaruh yang sangat besar karena ini merupakan teori pertama yang
memberikan penjelasan menyeluruh tentang fitur permukaan utama Bumi. Dengan demikian, ini
memungkinkan penautan berbagai aspek geologi yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya, yang
sebelumnya telah dianggap independen dan tidak terkait.

Earth’s tectonic system concerns the movement of the lithosphere, the relatively brittle outermost
solid Earth, which consists of a mosaic of independent plates.

Sistem tektonik bumi menyangkut pergerakan litosfer, tanah padat terluar yang relatif rapuh, yang
terdiri dari mosaik pelat independen.

Much of our knowledge of the internal constitution of the Earth has come from the study of the
seismic waves generated by earthquakes.

Sebagian besar pengetahuan kita tentang konstitusi internal Bumi berasal dari studi tentang
gelombang seismik yang dihasilkan oleh gempa bumi.

A deeper understanding of geology has ensued from the interpretation of many branches of geology
within the basic framework provided by plate tectonics.

Pemahaman geologi yang lebih dalam telah terjadi dari interpretasi banyak cabang geologi dalam
kerangka dasar yang diberikan oleh lempeng tektonik.

Plate Tectonic
Plate Tectonic Concept

The lithosphere ranges in thickness from 70 to 150 km or more, thicker below the continents,
thinner below the oceans. Beneath some mountain ranges it may exceed 200 km in thickness. It
consists of two components – the crust (oceanic or continental), and the lithospheric part of the
mantle.

The lithospheric mantle behaves in brittle fashion and contrasts in this regard from the underlying
“plastic-like” asthenosphere. The asthenosphere behaves in ductile fashion and locally contains
pockets of molten rock.

Map showing the present plate configurations and plate motions on Earth; plate names shown on
insert. White arrows indicate relative motion along plate boundaries and yellow arrows indicate
absolute plate motions related to a reference system based on stationary hot spots (DeMets et al.,
1994). Constructive plate boundaries (mid-ocean ridges) are marked by green lines, destructive plate
boundaries (subduction zones) by red lines (teeth point towards the upper plate), and conservative
plate boundaries (transform faults) by gray lines.

Seismic Instrument
much information about the crust has been derived from knowledge of the variation of seismic
velocities with depth and how these correspond to experimental determinations of velocities
measured over ranges of temperature and pressure consistent with crustal conditions.

Seismic wave velocities as a function of depth in the Earth showing the major discontinuities. AK 135

P and S wave velocity structure of the oceanic crust and its interpretation in terms of layered models
proposed in 1965 and 1978. Numbers refer to velocities in km s −1 . Dashed curve refers to
gradational increase in velocity with depth deduced from more sophisticated inversion techniques
(after Spudich & Orcutt, 1980 and Harrison & Bonatti, 1981).

The method of seismic tomography analyzes vast amounts of seismic wave data that have passed
through the three-dimensional space of the Earth’s mantle. This data allows seismologists to
determine whether a particular zone of the mantle is slightly warmer or cooler than its surroundings

Metode tomografi seismik menganalisis sejumlah besar data gelombang seismik yang telah melewati
ruang tiga dimensi dari mantel bumi. Data ini memungkinkan ahli seismologi untuk menentukan
apakah zona mantel tertentu sedikit lebih hangat atau lebih dingin daripada lingkungannya
(Anderson dan Dziewonski, # $% &). Waktu perjalanan yang diukur dalam kil ometers per detik (km /
detik), dibandingkan dengan gelombang yang memiliki jalur berbeda namun menyebar di area yang
sama di dalam mantel. Perbandingan tersebut memungkinkan peneliti untuk menentukan apakah
gelombang memiliki kecepatan yang diharapkan di daerah yang dipertimbangkan atau apakah
kecepatannya dipercepat atau melambat. Jika batu lebih panas, gelombang seismik melambat; Jika
lebih dingin, mereka mempercepat (Gambar 2.19). Tomografi seismik menggunakan jenis
gelombang yang berbeda dalam analisis. Perbedaan antara kecepatan bervariasi dan bergantung
pada jenis gelombang. Daerah pendingin mantel dapat berkorelasi dengan arus turun, arus panas
dengan arus naik. Dengan cara ini, gambar tiga dimensi dari arus di mantel bumi dihasilkan.