BSC3153 Nokia GSM/EDGE BSS, Rel. BSS13, BSC and TCSM, Rel. S13, Product Documentation, v.

1

Gb EDGE Dimensioning

DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008

# Nokia Siemens Networks

1 (38)

Gb EDGE Dimensioning

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Nokia Siemens Networks customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced, modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Siemens Networks. The documentation has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Siemens Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products are given “as is” and all liability arising in connection with such hardware or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Nokia Siemens Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Siemens Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Siemens Networks will, if deemed necessary by Nokia Siemens Networks, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Siemens Networks will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR DATA, THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT. This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual property rights according to the applicable laws. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008. All rights reserved.

2 (38)

# Nokia Siemens Networks

DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008

Contents

Contents
Contents 3 List of tables 4 List of figures 5 Summary of changes 7 1 1.1 1.2 2 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 5 Gb EDGE dimensioning 9 Gb over frame relay 10 Gb over IP 14 Planning process 17 Key strategies for EDGE dimensioning 19 Dimensioning process 23 Dimensioning of network elements and interfaces 23 Gb EDGE dimensioning based on EDAP 27 Gb EDGE dimensioning based on traffic figures 29 Traffic and quality inputs 29 Network capabilities 33 Outputs of Gb EDGE dimensioning 35 Gb traffic monitoring principles 37

DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008

# Nokia Siemens Networks

3 (38)

Table 2.Gb EDGE Dimensioning List of tables Table 1. k-factor: short-term traffic distribution 28 31 34 Overhead with different applications and protocols Gb interface connectivity for different PCU types 4 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . Table 3.

Figure 7. Figure 3. EGPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface 10 EGPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface 11 GPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface 12 GPRS traffic is concentrated and carried in a packet data network over the Gb interface 13 GPRS data traffic is carried in dedicated 2 Mbit/s E1 PCM links Available data capacity Required data capacity 20 21 23 25 30 14 Available data capacity process Required data capacity process Figure 10. Figure 6.List of figures List of figures Figure 1. Figure 2. PCU connection 33 37 32 Figure 13. Figure 8. NS-VC load sharing Figure 12. Figure 4. Peak margin correlation to the Gb link size Figure 11. Figure 5. Figure 9. Triggers for optimisation DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 5 (38) .

Gb EDGE Dimensioning 6 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 .

System Documentation pilot release. BSS12. The impact of the used transport technology (Gb over IP or Gb over frame relay) on PCU output and bandwidth has been added to the Transport technologies section in chapter Gb EDGE dimensioning. Changes made between issues 3-1 and 3-0 Changes made between issues 3-1 and 3-0 lists the changes made to the document after the Nokia GSM/EDGE BSS. Table Gb interface connectivity for different PCU types has been updated in the Network capabilities section in chapter Inputs for Gb EDGE dimensioning. The following changes have been made: . . . Chapter EDGE dimensioning has been renamed as Planning process. DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 7 (38) . The dimensioning strategy information has been moved to chapter Key strategies for EDGE dimensioning and an overview of the dimensioning steps has been moved to chapter Dimensioning of network elements and interface and the content has been updated. The following changes have been made: . All steps in the dimensioning process are now under the main chapter Dimensioning process.Summary of changes Summary of changes Changes between document issues are cumulative. Changes made between issues 4-0 and 3-1 Updated the Gb EDGE dimensioning process with the new computation method. the latest document issue contains all changes made to previous issues. Rel. Changes made between issues 3-0 and 2-0 The document has been restructured for better usability and the focus is more on the actual dimensioning process. Therefore.

In addition. in chapter Example of BSS connectivity dimensioning. .Gb EDGE Dimensioning . Gb over IP information has been added to table The capability of the Gb interface for different PCU types in chapter Inputs for Gb EDGE dimensioning. . Chapter Traffic monitoring principles has been moved to the EDGE and GPRS Key Performance Indicators document. information on related software has been removed because their effect on dimensioning has been taken into consideration in earlier dimensioning phases. A check for peak throughput has been added to chapter Gb EDGE dimensioning process and to the final step in all examples in chapter Example cases of Gb EDGE dimensioning. . 8 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . . Chapter Examples of Gb EDGE dimensioning has been removed. A dimensioning example is now included in the BSC EDGE Dimensioning document. Calculations for trunk line dimensioning has been added to the Gb over IP section in chapter Gb EDGE dimensioning.

DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 9 (38) . An example of BSS connectivity dimensioning is included in the BSC EDGE Dimensioning document. The aim is to ensure that the Gb link is large enough to handle the short term peak traffic of any single EDAP. The EDGE dimensioning guidelines in the BSS system documentation set cover BTS.Gb EDGE dimensioning 1 Gb EDGE dimensioning These guidelines provide information on dimensioning the Gb interface for EDGE into an existing GSM network. Gb over IP has a higher overhead than Gb over frame relay. In addition to this. There is no single correct solution that could be used in every planning case. Gb dimensioning results in specific outputs that are used as input in the next dimensioning phase. the target is to estimate that the Gb link is large enough to support simultaneous traffic of several EDAPs. and Gb dimensioning and some parts of preplanning. Transport technologies In the Gb interface. The transmission solution for the Gb interface can be implemented in different ways. two different transport technologies can be used: Gb over frame relay or Gb over IP. SGSN EDGE dimensioning. BSC. Abis. This is highly dependent on the traffic distribution. This has an effect on bandwidth usage. The optimum transmission solution is case specific and depends on the availability and cost of alternative transmission solutions and on the existing network infrastructure of the operator.

the EGPRS and GSM traffic are separated so that the EGPRS traffic is carried in dedicated E1/T1 links to the SGSN. Abis BSC BSC BSC 2 Mbit/s PCM Ater + Frame Relay MSC/SGSN MUX Transcoders MSC Frame Relay Gb-Int. SGSN Ethernet Switch GGSN #1 GGSN #2 Gb Figure 1.1 Gb over frame relay GSM voice traffic is carried between the BTSs and the MSCs through the Abis (BTS to BSC) and Ater (BSC to transcoders) interfaces. The physical layers of the Abis and Ater interfaces are based on the ITU-T recommendations G. The bit rate of one bearer channel is N x 64 kbps.704.703/G. some of the 64 kbps PCM timeslots are permanently reserved for GPRS traffic and some for GSM traffic. EGPRS and GSM traffic are transferred together to the digital cross-connection device (for example. In the digital cross-connection device.Gb EDGE Dimensioning 1. Voice and data multiplexed Voice and data traffic can be multiplexed on the same transmission links that are used for GSM voice traffic on the Ater interface (see figure EGPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface). where N is 1-31 (ETSI) and 1-24 (ANSI). At the BSC. DN2) residing at the MSC/SGSN site. EGPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface 10 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . where traffic is carried in E1 PCM frames.

DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 11 (38) . EGPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface Channels going through the transcoders and MSC EGPRS traffic is multiplexed into the same transmission links that are used for GSM voice traffic on the Ater interface.Gb EDGE dimensioning Voice and data separated in the transcoder EGPRS traffic is multiplexed into the same transmission links that are used for GSM voice traffic on the Ater interface (see figure EGPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface). Abis BSC BSC BSC 2 Mbit/s PCM Ater + Frame Relay MSC/SGSN Transcoders MSC Frame Relay Gb-Int. In the transcoder. In the transcoder. At the MSC. which are connected to the SGSN. SGSN Ethernet Switch GGSN #1 GGSN #2 Gb Figure 2. channels that go through the transcoder are created and the EGPRS data traffic is forwarded to the MSC switching matrix. the 64 kbps virtual channels (VCs) are multiplexed into one or more ET2E cards. which are connected to the SGSN. the EGPRS and GSM traffic are separated so that 64 kbps frame relay traffic timeslots are through-connected to the dedicated E1 links.

there are a few basic rules for the implementation and dimensioning.Gb EDGE Dimensioning Abis BSC BSC BSC 2M PCM Frame Relay MSC/SGSN site Transcoders MSC SGSN Ethernet Switch GGSN #1 GGSN #2 Gb Interface Figure 3. a frame relay switch or similar equipment is required for the connection to the packet data network. There are several solutions that can be used to implement this method. The switches must be able to connect to the E1/T1 link coming from the BSC with a physical interface. 12 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . However. The frame relay traffic can be run over different kinds of networks. such as G. the switch must be able to do the correct protocol conversion (for example. it is possible to concentrate the traffic streams coming from several BSCs and packet control units (PCUs) into one aggregate line towards the SGSN. GPRS traffic multiplexed on the same physical connection as for GSM traffic on the Ater interface Traffic streams concentrated in the FR switch To use the capacity more efficiently or cost effectively. it can be carried over to the SGSN site in a compatible packet data network (PDN) (see figure GPRS traffic is concentrated and carried in a packet data network over the Gb interface). Again. and to adapt to the PDN access point interface. convert FR into ATM. The data network used for transmission does not necessarily have to be a frame relay network. At either end of the connection.703. there is no single correct solution that works with each planning case. and vice versa). This concentrated traffic can be multiplexed into the same physical link that is used for GSM traffic on the Ater interface. such as ATM. In addition. Alternatively.

ATM. 15 or more 64 kbps Gb interfaces are required for one BSC. for example.Gb EDGE dimensioning Abis BSC BSC BSC MSC/SGSN site Transcoders MSC SGSN FR Switch Packet Data Network (FR. If. etc. 18 PCM timeslots are needed for a BSC. for example. DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 13 (38) .) FR Switch Ethernet Switch GGSN #1 GGSN #2 Gb Interface Figure 4. one E1 PCM interface of an ET2E card at the BSC and SGSN could be dedicated only for GPRS data traffic. it is reasonable to dedicate the needed amount of 2 Mbit/s E1 interfaces only for data traffic. one or more (a maximum of eight per BSC) E1/ T1 PCM links per BSC are dedicated only for GPRS data traffic (see figure GPRS data traffic is carried in dedicated 2 Mbit/s E1 PCM links). GPRS traffic is concentrated and carried in a packet data network over the Gb interface Dedicated 2 Mbit/s E1 PCM links In this transmission option. If.

Often the capacity of the trunk line is a combination of the abovementioned calculations. section Frame Relay and Gb Interface in (E)GPRS System Feature Description. see Gb over IP System Feature Description. For more information on Gb over IP. it is possible to configure the subnetwork of the Gb interface so that the subnetwork is IP-based and the physical layer is Ethernet.2 Gb over IP With Gb over IP. The capacity of the trunk line = PCU + the total amount of traffic of the other elements The capacity of the trunk line = the amount of traffic of the largest traffic-generating element .Gb EDGE Dimensioning Abis BSC BSC BSC MSC/SGSN site Transcoders MSC SGSN 2 M PCM E1 links Frame Relay Ethernet Switch GGSN #1 GGSN #2 Gb Interface Figure 5. 14 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . When Gb over IP is used. The dimensioning of the trunk line can be based on one of the following calculations: . GPRS data traffic is carried in dedicated 2 Mbit/s E1 PCM links For more information on Gb over frame relay. see chapter Nokia GPRS. the data from all PCUs and the data from the elements that use IP traffic in other BSCs can be combined with switches or routers into one or two trunk lines. 1.

DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 15 (38) . .Gb EDGE dimensioning Related topics . document BTS EDGE Dimensioning document Abis EDGE Dimensioning document BSC EDGE Dimensioning .

Gb EDGE Dimensioning 16 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 .

These guidelines focus on dimensioning. Gb. . BSC. quality of service (QoS) requirements. site availability and type. . business plans. Dimensioning takes into account the available equipment specifications. and charging cases. dimensioning pre-planning detailed planning implementation optimisation . . The following phases are included in the network planning process: . Network dimensioning is done by creating a traffic model of the network and selecting the equipment to support it. Network optimisation is not included in the guidelines. Software dimensioning defines the key system settings associated with traffic dependent units. Hardware dimensioning defines how many traffic type and traffic volume dependent hardware units are needed in the BTS. The dimensioning guidelines consist of both hardware dimensioning and software dimensioning. Abis.Planning process 2 Planning process Dimensioning is the part of network planning that produces a master plan indicating the selected network architecture and the number of network nodes and communication links required during the roll-out of the network. The EDGE dimensioning guidelines in the BSS system documentation set cover BTS. and SGSN to support the targeted traffic and service performance. BSC. and SGSN dimensioning and some parts of pre-planning. You can modify the existing configuration once the DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 17 (38) .

deployment. you can place an order for additional products and licences. Contact your local Nokia Siemens Networks representative for details.Gb EDGE Dimensioning amount of needed traffic dependent hardware and the associated software settings have been defined. 18 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . Nokia Siemens Networks has a wide range of services and training available to support all phases of system planning. based on the agreed standard configurations. If necessary. and optimisation.

available data capacity required data capacity . The dimensioning strategy must be selected before the BTS dimensioning begins. Dimensioning determines how much traffic is available through the current system. The dimensioning input is a predefined system configuration. DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 19 (38) . Alternatively. The dimensioning output is the available traffic volume with a defined performance level.Key strategies for EDGE dimensioning 3 Key strategies for EDGE dimensioning The dimensioning of a network can be based on two different approaches: . Available data capacity Available data capacity strategy is used when you want to introduce EDGE to an existing network. you can calculate available capacities for different alternative configurations.

Available data capacity Required data capacity Required data capacity strategy is used when you want to design a network that supports the defined amount of traffic and targeted performance level. type. The dimensioning inputs are traffic volume. and performance requirements. The dimensioning output is the needed amount of traffic dependent hardware and the associated software configurations. C/I) Average voice traffic resource usage Average available resources Average voice traffic resource usage EDGE data Planned EDGE data resources are used for voice traffic when needed Figure 6.Gb EDGE Dimensioning All current resources in a cell Input information: Current network configuration Current equipment’s EDGE capability Current network’s voice performance Current network’s radio conditions (C/N. 20 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 .

Figure 7. Required data capacity DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 21 (38) . C/I) Required EDGE capacity Required EDGE performance Required EDGE Capacity Shared Dedicated EDGE data Average voice traffic resource usage Planned EDGE data resources may be fully or are at least partially dedicated to data traffic. Dedicated resources are not used for voice traffic.Key strategies for EDGE dimensioning All current resources in a cell Average voice traffic resource usage Average available resources Input information: Current network configuration Current equipment’s EDGE capability Current network’s voice performance Current network’s radio conditions (C/N.

Gb EDGE Dimensioning 22 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 .

-6. Estimate the average available data capacity and throughput. Once this has been done. At first. 3. Dimension the rest of the elements according to the available capacity estimate done in step 1. Depending on the dimensioning strategy. 2. Available data capacity strategy The dimensioning process of the available data strategy is illustrated in figure Available data capacity process. 1. Available data capacity process DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 23 (38) . the input for BTS dimensioning has to be agreed. you can use either the available capacity strategy or the required capacity strategy. Use existing TRX hardware capacity. 1 2 TSL TRX 3 4 5 6 Cell PCU Basic unit BTS Abis BSC Gb 2G SGSN Figure 8. the output of each element or interface serves as the input for the next phase.1 Dimensioning process Dimensioning of network elements and interfaces The dimensioning of GSM EDGE network elements and interfaces is proposed to be done as described in this section.Dimensioning process 4 4.

RTSL configuration of TRXs. BTS dimensioning . 5. and the number and size of Gb interfaces. Estimate the need for redundant links. . . Abis dimensioning . numbers of TRXs per cell. Evaluate the results. BSC dimensioning . . . The dimensioning process results in the size of each EDAP. Gb dimensioning . . . . Verify the Gb requirements for BSC dimensioning. carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I)). Define the BSC configuration. 2. Use the output of BTS dimensioning as the input. territory size/ BTS. Select the data deployment strategy. guaranteed/not guaranteed throughput. Verify the number of BSC signalling units (BCSU) and Exchange Terminals (ETs). Verify the number of network service elements (NSEs) and BCSUs. . Use the output of BTS and Abis dimensioning as the input. The dimensioning process results in throughput/RTSL. The dimensioning process results in the number and type of BSCs. and the simulation results. . Define the EGPRS dynamic Abis pool (EDAP) size. . . .Gb EDGE Dimensioning The available data capacity strategy consists of the following steps: 1. . Verify the dimensioning outcome. . Calculate the available capacity/number of RTSLs based on the circuit-switched (CS) traffic needs. Definition of the input information . Use the output of BTS and BSC dimensioning as the input. Simulate the coverage and interference performance (carrierto-noise ratio (C/N). Calculate the existing traffic load. 3. the number and type of PCUs. Define the BTS/transceiver (TRX) configuration. Review the hardware/software capability. 4. . Calculate the amount of payload. . Estimate throughput/ radio timeslot (RTSL). 24 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . Perform a use check. Verify the amount of packet control units (PCUs).

Dimensioning process The dimensioning process results in the number of timeslots. 6. Required data capacity process DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 25 (38) . 3. Dimension the rest of the elements according to the required capacity calculation done in step 1. Use the output of BTS and Gb dimensioning as the input. 2. . . 1 2 TSL TRX 3 4 5 6 Cell PCU Basic unit BTS Abis BSC Gb 2G SGSN Figure 9. Verify the needed basic units/SGSN according to the previously calculated generated traffic and the expected subscribers served in the area. number of network service virtual connections (NS-VCs). Calculate the amount of total data payload (generated user traffic) during a busy hour. Define the maximum number of attached subscribers and packet data protocol (PDP) contexts to be expected in the routing area (RA) served by the SGSN. . Calculate the required amount of TRX hardware. SGSN dimensioning . especially the expected mobility profiles of the users versus the dynamic capacity of the SGSN. Calculate the required TSL count based on required data capacity and throughput. 1. Required data capacity strategy The dimensioning process of the required data strategy is illustrated in figure Required data capacity process. Check all other restrictions.-6. and number of frame relay timeslots/data transfer capacity. The dimensioning process results in the number of packet processing units (PAPUs) and signalling and mobility management units (SMMUs). . number of payloads.

number of TRXs/cell. Calculate the needed amount of PCUs. . 2. Determine the targeted traffic capacity. . Gb dimensioning . The dimensioning process results in the size of each EDAP. 26 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . . Calculate the required number of RTSLs. Simulate the coverage and interference performance (C/N. and the simulation results. Evaluate the results. Estimate the traffic mix. . Select the data deployment strategy. . 3. . . BTS dimensioning . Calculate the required number of NSEs and BCSUs. . Abis dimensioning . Calculate the amount of payload. . Use the output of BTS and BSC dimensioning as the input. territory size/ BTS. Estimate the need for redundant links. guaranteed/not guaranteed throughput. Use the output of BTS and Abis dimensioning as the input. 4. . TSL configuration of TRXs. . The dimensioning process results in throughput/RTSL. Use the output of BTS dimensioning as the input. . Review the hardware/software capability. 5. Perform a use check. the number and type of PCUs. The dimensioning process results in the number and type of BSCs.Gb EDGE Dimensioning The required data capacity strategy consists of the following steps: 1. . Estimate throughput/RTSL. C/ I). Define the BSC configuration. Calculate the number of BCSUs and ETs. . . . and the number and size of Gb interfaces. . Verify the dimensioning outcome. Define the BTS/TRX configuration. Calculate the required throughput. Calculate the Gb requirements for BSC dimensioning. . Definition of the input information . Define the EDAP size. BSC dimensioning .

Use the output of BTS and Gb dimensioning as the input. especially the expected mobility profiles of the users versus the dynamic capacity of the SGSN.25) is assuming that the short term traffic is totally unequal.2 Gb EDGE dimensioning based on EDAP The dimensioning of Gb for EGPRS traffic is a straightforward process. meaning that when one EDAP is full of traffic the others within the same PCU have no traffic. Each PCU has typically one Gb link towards the SGSN. two independent links are needed. Calculate the needed basic units/SGSN according to the previously calculated generated traffic and the expected subscribers served in the area. . This part of the process affects SGSN dimensioning and should be conducted together with PS Core planning. the number payloads. 6. the number of NS-VCs. The table below gives the k-values. SGSN dimensioning . .Dimensioning process The dimensioning process results in the number of timeslots. . The outcome of the Gb link dimensioning process is the average size of the Gb link to carry the data traffic forecast. Define the required number of attached subscribers and PDP contexts to be expected in the RA served by the SGSN. Check all other restrictions. Calculate the amount of total data payload (generated user traffic) during a busy hour. and the number of frame relay timeslots/data transfer capacity. . In case of redundant Gb. The k-factor is based on the estimate of the short term traffic distribution. The following equation is used to calculate the average Gb link size (= Frame Relay Bearer Channel capacity). it is recommended to use the default values. The dimensioning process results in the number of PAPUs and SMMUs. If no specific information about the distribution is available. The theoretical minimum k-value (1. The Gb should be capable of supporting the instantaneous data traffic being carried by all cells connected to a particular PCU. 4. Average Gb size = k * Average EDAP size for that network area. If there is insufficient capacity the effective user rate at the radio cell will be reduced. The theoretical maximum k-value is the number of EDAPs DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 27 (38) .

when individual EDAPs are associated to PCUs. there are some estimates available for the total traffic volumes between the SGSN and the BSC site. The individual WAN link load by the corrected base traffic and possible other traffic shall not exceed 70%. 28 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . In reality. however. which are going to share the planned WAN connection is taken as a base traffic. The %-value in the table indicates the portion of traffic in the second most loaded EDAP when the most loaded EDAP is full of traffic. The individual cell level figures are typically given for cell level busy hour (BH). Table 1. Dimensioning Gb over IP Typically.4 k-factor: short-term traffic distribution Default 50% 2 Equal (high likelihood of heavy simultaneous short term traffic) 70% 3 During the planning phase. more accurate values for individual Gb links are calculated taking into account the usage of individual E1/T1 links. The measured traffic contains the Gb protocol overhead and thus the overhead calculation is not required. the sum of cell level BH could lead to over dimensioning. selections. It is rare to have peak PS traffic on all PCUs at the same time and thus the practical estimate for required WAN capacity for Gb traffic is 10% to 40% of the theoretical maximum. This base traffic is corrected using traffic growth estimate. at least the 2 * E1/T1. This assumes that all the EDAPs are heavily loaded at the same short term period and the Gb link is supposed to carry such traffic without additional delays. To make it easier to consider other than recommended k-values some impact calculations is done. Due to the fact that the cell level BHs do not occur at the same time.Gb EDGE Dimensioning allocated into one PCU. The highest sum of hourly Gb link traffic figures over the links. The theoretical maximum Gb traffic is 2Mbps * the number of logical PCUs. Upgrading existing Frame Relay based links into IP based links The Gb link traffic is measured for periods long enough to contain at least weekly behavior of the mobile users. Unequal (low likelihood of heavy simultaneous short term traffic) 30% 1. some delay is allowed during heavy simultaneous short term traffic bursts and thus it is assumed that k-values greater than 2 are rare. And in general it indicates the portion of traffic in ith loaded EDAP comaper to (i-1)th loaded EDAP. The minimum practical WAN capacity for Gb is 2 * E1/T1 to support redundancy.

3. it is extremely relevant to know whether the traffic is GPRS or EDGE. based on the available average throughput for EGPRS enabled timeslots in the BSC. for EGPRS traffic during a busy hour and the deviation of the traffic between the peak and minimum values (this also provides the difference between the peak and average values). EGPRS best effort user information (example values. . a user data amount per busy hour has to be estimated as a total value or based on assumptions of data usage (WWW. on average. . . Therefore. One option is to estimate the total data volume going through a BSC during a busy hour. . the total number of subscribers must be known (or the data user penetration value). e-mail. 10% of the of the data users one e-mail (5 kB) two WWW pages (20 kB) .1 Gb EDGE dimensioning based on traffic figures Traffic and quality inputs Data volume The basic dimensioning of the Gb interface depends mainly on EGPRS traffic. and so on). A more accurate option is to use traffic monitoring for the flawless calculation of peak traffic during the busiest moment of a busy hour. Because of very different coding schemes and data rates. Then. 70% of the data users one e-mail (5 kB) three WWW pages (30 kB) one MMS (30 kB) a total of 65 kB per busy hour (BH) = 520 kbit/BH . First of all. DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 29 (38) .Dimensioning process 4. EGPRS streaming user information: .3 4. the main decision needed for Gb dimensioning is the amount of payload used. headers included): . FTP. Calculating traffic using subscriber information is more complicated. Data volume per BSC can be calculated (or estimated) as the total data volume per BSC or based on subscriber information.

In the examples. The safety margin is used to avoid reaching 100% of the PCM usage situations that can cause several problems. Peak margin correlation to the Gb link size The safety margin in the Gb link is 25% in all examples. The peak margin of the data volume can deviate a lot depending on. the amount of data volume. the bigger its effect on a single user. and offered services.2 Mbit/BH . three minutes streaming (~ 50 kbps → 9 Mb ~ 1 MB) a total of 9. The usage percentage operates as a buffer. different coding schemes. for example. also the peak margin should be taken into consideration. throughput rates. The smaller the size of the Gb link. so that small changes in user penetration or data usage do not require redimensioning of the Gb interface. Figure Peak margin correlation to the Gb link size shows an example of how peak margins correlate to link capacity. a 10% peak traffic margin is used. Peak margin % example 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 00 0 00 50 0 11 0 10 30 70 90 13 00 17 15 19 00 0 0 0 0 Peak margin % Gb link size GPRS EDGE Figure 10. such as the rejection of service and decreased quality.Gb EDGE Dimensioning . 30 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . To make sure that the Gb link is not the bottleneck for EGPRS usage.

Percentage OH = GbOH/USERPACKETSIZE [{(OHmax/packetsize) + (OHmin/packetsize)}/2] % Frame relay: [{(117/512) + (31/512)}/2] % = 14. % Frame relay SNDCP+LLC +BSSGP Rel'4+NS+FR SNDC +LLC +BSSGP Rel'4+NS +UDP+IP Gb over IP (IPv4/IPv6) 512+3+6+12+4 512+4+40 +8+ 20/40 = +63+4+8+ 565/585 20/40 = 656/676 27. An overhead of 18. An overhead of 14.Dimensioning process Gb overhead Usually. + headers % maximum 512+4+40 +63+4+6 = 629 Min. Table 2. IPv4: [{(139/512) + (53/512)}/2] % = 18. including the IP header. minimum 512+3+6+12+ 4+6 = 543 Configuration Userdata Min. A smaller packet size results in a larger overhead percentage. Overhead with different applications and protocols Layers Userdata + headers.4 Max. is recommended. the Gb traffic per user value is taken during a busy hour.5% Gb over IP. The average packet size of 512 bytes.5% has been used in the examples with Gb over frame relay. % 10. it is recommended to take the average of the minimum and maximum overhead percentages to obtain a more realistic figure. % Max.8% DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 31 (38) . In addition to the length of the IP packets also the overheads vary according to the different application and protocols.8% has been used in examples with Gb over IP.1 USERPACKET = IPHEADER + USERDATA For the overhead (OH).

1 PCU 1 NSE 1 NSVC 1 NSVC 2 E1 SGSN NSE1 NSVC_1 Bearer CH. which in turn is allocated by the SGSN. The pacet control unit (PCU) decides the load sharing of the NS-VCs in uplink for the time one TBF is allocated. Frame relay load sharing is supported in 2G SGSN. 2 NSVC_2 Figure 11. This means that one network service entity (NSE) is divided into two or more network service virtual connections (NS-VCs): the NS-VCs are divided into separate transmissions.Gb EDGE Dimensioning Redundancy and load sharing The need for redundancy in the link depends on the offered services and the market needs. E1 BSC Bearer CH. When the payload from the BSC exceeds the capacity of transmission (one PCM). NS-VC load sharing 32 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . it is recommended to perform dimensioning of the Gb interface so that it also supports redundancy and load sharing. It allows the sending of traffic above the committed information rate (CIR) on another NS-VC on the same bearer channel. 1 PCU 1 NSE 1 NSVC 1 E1 SGSN NSE1 NSVC_1 E1 BSC Bearer CH. The PCU decision is based on the temporary logical link identity (TLLI).

2 Network capabilities BSC type and capacity (the number of PCUs) In Gb dimensioning. BSCi: 512 BSC2i: 512 BSC3i 660: 660 BSC3i 1000: 1000 BSC3i 2000: 2000 . 4. it is recommend to keep the NS-VC links as big as possible. . .Dimensioning process If the NS-VC is 128 kbps and both NS-VCs have traffic of 117 kbps. SGSN ETs Abis ETs Packets in TRAU frames 4 Mbit/s internal PCM 256 channels PCU GSWB Gb Packets in FR ET FR: bearer channel + optional load sharing redundant bearer (2 Mbit/s) Figure 12.3. One big NS-VC of 256 kbps and 234 kbps of load can take one more 22 kbps subscriber. DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 33 (38) . PCU connection Usually. there is no room for a new subscriber demanding 22 kbps. The maximum number of TRXs that can be connected to a BSC depends on the type of the BSC: . One NS-VC of double capacity is more efficient than two small ones. the PCU capacity may be the limiting factor in the BSC. the performance of different BSC hardware/software releases is compared by using the maximum values of the transceivers (TRXs) supported by a BSC or throughput (kbps) delivered through a BSC. . Therefore.

the Gb interface must be split between two physical ET ports to support the maximum PCU capacity for Gb over FR. Table 3. SGSN capacity The packet processing capacity depends on various factors. TRX. The IP interface for a PCU can be IPv4 or IPv6 but not both. their maximum summary rate is 32 x 64k. PCU type PCU PCU-S PCU-T PCU-B PCU2-U PCU2-D Gb interface connectivity for different PCU types BSC type BSCi. The table shows the physical PCUs. such as the packet length ciphering. BTS. BSC2i BSCi. BSC2i BSC3i BSC2i BSC3i Gb over FR 32 x 64 kbit/s 32 x 64 kbit/s 32 x 64 kbit/s 2 x 32 x 64 kbit/s 32 x 64 kbit/s 2 x 32 x 64 kbit/s Note The maximum rate of one frame relay bearer channel is 31 x 64k (ETSI) or 24 x 64k (ANSI). see the BSC EDGE Dimensioning document. and EGPRS dynamic Abis pool (EDAP) under the PCU cannot be exceeded. Therefore the actual SGSN data rate may vary depending on the factors mentioned above. The SGSN should be able to handle all traffic from the Gb interface. For more information. BSC2i BSCi. In the ANSI environment.Gb EDGE Dimensioning Table Gb interface connectivity for different PCU types shows the PCU capability for the Gb interface towards the SGSN. The PCU capacity of the Abis channels. A PCU can be connected to the SGSN either via the Gb over frame relay or Gb over IP interface but not via both interfaces simultaneously. 34 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . Note that there are two logical PCUs in PCU-B and PCU2D. use of data compression. and the selected LLC mode. If there is more than one bearer in a logical PCU.

Gb dimensioning outputs: . and redoing the dimensioning calculations may be needed if the output values are not acceptable. less than six timeslots or if a few simultaneous users can overload the Gb link) the peak traffic margin should perhaps be higher. SGSN EDGE dimensioning. .Dimensioning process Gb connection type The selection of the connection type depends on the hardware and software versions in the SGSN and BSC and on the available transmission alternatives in the backbone network. 4.4 Outputs of Gb EDGE dimensioning Gb dimensioning results in specific outputs. Possible triggers for redimensioning: . regardless of whether IP or FR is used as the transport technology. These outputs are used as input in the next dimensioning phase. . too many timeslots per network service entity (NSE) / packet control unit (PCU) too much Gb traffic per NSE/PCU if the payload is very low (for example. . the dimensioning is often an iterative process. Based on the analysis. The capacity of the Gb interface remains the same in BSC. a decision about implementing the Gb interface or redimensioning the interface should be made. As described earlier. The values of these outputs should be analysed. DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 35 (38) . . total number of timeslots in the Gb interface total number payloads in the Gb interface total number of network service virtual connections (NS-VCs) total number of needed frame relay timeslots or needed data transfer capacity .

re-estimate the traffic to avoid over dimensioning.Gb EDGE Dimensioning . . less than six timeslots) there may be a need for redundancy. If the needed capacity is 16 timeslots or higher. . 36 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 . . based on needs and transmission. If the payload is very low (for example. it might be better (for transmission reasons) to implement more NS-VCs so that two NSVCs belonging to different NSEs are connected to the same PCM (NSE1 NS-VC 1 = timeslots 1-15. The objective of the redimensioning should be to: . NSE 2 NS-VC 1 = timeslots 15-31) to save transmission costs. optimise the number of PCUs to each BSC. and optimise the network.

.Gb traffic monitoring principles 5 Gb traffic monitoring principles The most important Gb traffic monitoring areas are the following. downlink Gb load total EGPRS uplink/downlink payload in BSC SGSN data (the amount of data passed in the uplink and downlink direction in the SGSN. and the resource usage) GPRS session management counters (PDP context related information) . Triggers for optimisation DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 # Nokia Siemens Networks 37 (38) . Monitoring these measurements gives the operator an initial idea of how well the current data traffic reflects the Gb dimensioning (including the three main capacity restrictions) and whether there is a need to reconfigure the Gb capacity (see figure Triggers for optimisation). . Gb dimensioning Triggers for redimensioning: -Too many TSLs per NSE/PCU -Too much Gb traffic per PCU -SGSN capacity -Transmission capacity exceeded Configurations: -Total number and type of Gb -Total number and type of PCUs -Peak payload and services -SGSN limitations To do in redimensioning: -Optimise the number of PSCs -Re-estimate traffic to avoid over dimensioning -Optimise transmission Figure 13. .

see EDGE and GPRS Key Performance Indicators.Gb EDGE Dimensioning For information on EDGE-related KPIs. 38 (38) # Nokia Siemens Networks DN7032484 Issue 4-0 en 25/03/2008 .