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Constant Pressure Condition

HeDong Sun, SPE, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China; Lei Liu, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China; Fangde Zhou, SPE, Xi’an

Jiaotong University, China; Chengtai Gao, SPE, Xi’an Petroleum University, China

Many reservoirs are stratified in nature due to the varying

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum

Engineering Conference held in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, West Indies, 27–30 April 2003.

energy level of the original depositional environment. The

transporting medium sorts the source material depositing one

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of

information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as layer at a time in any given environment. When the

presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to

correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any

depositional energy levels changes the subsequent overlying

position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at layers may be different in composition and texture forming a

SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper series of dissimilar units of strata. Such formations are called

for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is

prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 multilayered systems. These reservoirs are usually divided into

words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous

acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.

two groups: (1) Reservoirs without crossflow, where layers

Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836 U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435. communicate only through wellbore, such systems are termed

as commingled, (2) Reservoirs with crossflow, where layers

Abstract communicate throughout the reservoir, this type of system is

The max effective hole-diameter mathematical model termed as multi-layer with crossflow.

describing flow of slightly compressible fluid through two- The earliest rigorous study of pressure behavior of

layer reservoir with crossflow is solved rigorously. The model layered reservoirs was performed by Lefkovits4 in 1961. This

considers all layers open to a single well that flows at a study addressed commingled flow in a stratified system with

constant wellbore pressure. The effect of formation damage is an arbitrary number of layers. Lefkovits’s solution served as

included in the model. The exact solutions are expressed in the basis for much of the work that followed. Bourdet5

terms of ordinary Bessel functions by using the method of presented an analytical solution to describe pressure response

Laplace transform. The numerical computation of these of layered reservoirs with pseudo steady-state crossflow.

solutions is made by Stehfest numerical inversion method. The Ehlig-Economides6 presented an analytical model that is a

new model is numerically stable when the skin is positive and generalization of Bourdet’s two-layer model with pseudo

negative. The effect of the reservoir parameters such as steady-state crossflow.

permeability, vertical permeability, skin, outer boundary Gao7 developed a very useful idea (semi-permeable

conditions and storativity on the layer production rate and total model) to reduce the dimension of the governing equation by

rate were investigated. These results can be used to analyse

one. The terms for the vertical movement were represented by

unsteady flow test of production under the constant

the pseudo-steady state approximation analytical solutions for

pressure condition.

the wellbore pressure and formation crossflow.

Unfortunately, the exact solution of wellbore pressure is

Introduction

not convergent when the skin factor is negative8. In this paper,

Most well test analysis methods assume constant rate

a new development of double layers crossflow reservoir model

production, but constant pressure production conditions are

is presented by application of the max effective hole-diameter

not uncommon. Examples of conditions under which constant concept. The exact solutions for pressure and the production

pressure production is maintained at a well include production

rate from layer j obtained are expressed in terms of ordinary

into a constant pressure separator or pipeline, open flow to the

atmosphere or production from a low permeability reservoir1. Bessel functions. The new model is numerically stable when

the skin is positive and negative.

Van Everdingen and Hurst2 published analytical solutions

for radial flow under constant pressure conditions. Gao3 Max Effective Hole-Diameter

examined the unsteady flow with crossflow in a n-layer

The improper drilling and wellbore completion

reservoir when each layer produces under a constant wellbore

technology causes serious damage around the well, especially

pressure. Simple theoretical expressions for the asymptotic in the near wellbore zone. Later in the life of the well, the

crossflow and the total flow rate were developed and production, the injection and the stimulation also can cause

compared with the numerical simulations results. some damage around the well that will reduce the production

of the well. Usually, the boundary condition at the well is

2 SPE 81043

∂p j D p 2D (1, t D ) = 1 + S '2 2D ( 11 )

p wD = p jD − S j

(1) ∂rD rD =1

∂rD rD =1

where

As Agarwal8 pointed out that exact solution for wellbore

pressure is not convergent when the skin factor is negative.

j : jth layer, 1, 2

pi − p j p i − p wf

We define the max effective hole-diameter as follows p jD = p wD = =1

p i − p wf p i − p wf

rwe = rw e −Smin (2)

r r re

Where S min is the minimum skin factor in an oilfield, it is rD = R eD = e =

rw e −Smin rwe rw e −Smin

negative. The skin factor of layer j can be written as:

2.637 × 10 −4 ∑ kh

S 'j = S j − S min (3) tD = ⋅t

We can find that all the skin factors are not negative. ∑ (φhC )µr t

2

w

Model Description φ1 h 1c t1

ω= ω2 = 1 − ω

The reservoir model for the double layers system is φ1 h 1c t1 + φ 2 h 2 c t2

shown in Fig. 1. We consider a two layers reservoir that is rw2 k 1h 1

enclosed at the top and bottom and at the outer radius by an λ= ⋅ AA γ=

impermeable boundary/constant pressure boundary or infinite (k 1h 1 + k 2 h 2 ) (k 1h 1 + k 2 h 2 )

boundary. It is drained by a well located at its center that γ2 = 1− γ Q D = Q1D + Q 2D

penetrates the reservoir completely. The reservoir is

homogeneous in the radial direction and heterogeneous in the

141.2q j Bµ

Q jD =

vertical direction and is filled with a slightly compressible (k 1h 1 + k 2 h 2 )(p i − p wf )

fluid of constant viscosity. Gravity effect is assumed to be

neligible. The initial pressure is identical in both layers. The Derivation of Solution for Pressure and Rate

well is produced at a constant pressure. Wellbore storage Equations (4-11) are transformed into Laplace domain

effects are not considered. In describing the formation

with respect to t D .

crossflow between two adjacent layers, the semi-permeable

wall model7 is selected. _

ωs _

_ _

The dimensionless governing equation is γ∇ 2 p1D = p1D − λe − 2Smin p 2D − p1D ( 12 )

e 2Smin

ω ∂p1D

γ∇ 2 p1D = − λe − 2Smin (p 2D − p1D ) ( 4 )

e ∂t D

2Smin

_

ωs _

_ _

γ 2 ∇ 2 p 2D = p 2D + λe − 2Smin p 2D − p1D ( 13 )

e 2Smin

ω 2 ∂p 2D

γ 2 ∇ 2 p 2D = + λe − 2Smin (p 2D − p1D ) ( 5 ) The solutions for this system are the modified Bessel

e 2Smin

∂t D

function K 0 and I 0 . The dimensionless pressure can be

Initial condition written as follows:

p jD (rD ,0) = 0

p jD = A j K 0 (σ j rD ) + B j I 0 (σ j rD )

(6) _

( 14 )

Infinite outer boundary condition

p jD (rD → ∞, t D ) = 0 (7) where σ j is the function of ω j , S min , γ j and laplace space

Constant pressure outer boundary condition variable s . Substitution of (14 ) into ( 12-13 ) results:

p jD (reD , t D ) = 0 (8) 2 ωs − 2S _ − 2S

_

e

∂p jD

= 0 (9)

∂rD ωs _

_

reD λe − 2Smin p1D + γσ 2 − 2Smin − λe − 2Smin p 2D = 0 ( 16 )

Wellbore boundary condition e

∂p For the system to have a nontrivial solution, the matrix

p1D (1, t D ) = 1 + S1' 1D ( 10 ) 2

must be zero. Two σ solutions are:

∂rD rD =1

SPE 81043 3

2

σ1,2 =

1

(a + b ± ∆ ) ( 17 ) A =

2 (1 − a 1 )X1 + (S1' − a 2S'2 )Y1 ( 27 )

2 1

( )( )

a 2 X 1 + S1' Y1 X 2 + S '2 Y2 −

s

where

( )( )

a 1 X 1 + S 2 Y1 X 2 + S1 Y2

' '

ωs ω 2s

2Smin

+ λe − 2Smin 2Smin

+ λe − 2Smin (1 − a )X + (S − a S )Y ' '

a= e e =−

1 2 2 1 2 2 2

A ( 28 )

a (X + S Y )(X + S Y ) −

b= 1 ' '

γ γ2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

s

( ) a (X + S Y )(X + S Y )

' '

− 2Smin 2

∆ = (a − b ) + 4 λe

2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2

Once all the eigenvalues are found, the solution for the

( )

_

_ 2

p jD = ∑ A mj K 0 (σ m rD ) + B mj I 0 (σ m rD ) ( 18 )

( )

_

m =1 Q 2D = γ 2 A 11a 1 Y1 + A 12 a 2 Y2 ( 29 )

According to（15-16）,

A m2 = a m A 1m ， B m2 = a m B1m ( 19 ) Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transform and

Discussion of Results

where

For numerically inverting the Laplace transform of

1 ωs 2 petroleum engineering problems probably Stehfest’s

a 1,2 = 1 + 2Smin − γσ1,2 ( 20 )

λe − 2Smin e algorithm9 is the most common. Stehfest algorithm is simple

and easy to use.

According to outer boundary condition, the relationship of Fig.2 shows how the flow rate of each layer changes with

A mj and B mj is time in a two-layer reservoir. The flow rate diminishes very

quickly at first and diminishes slower and slower when time

increases. When the wellbore pressure are the same,

B mj = b m A mj , j = 1,2, m = 1,2 ( 21 )

Q jD Q D , the ratio of the rate for layer i to the total rate,

For infinite outer boundary condition( 7 ): changes with time when time is small and converges to the

bm = 0 ( 22 ) productivity ratio γ and γ 2 when time is larger enough.

Fig.3 shows how the Q jD Q D changes with semi-

For constant pressure outer boundary condition( 8 ):

permeability. Three different regimes occur in a two-layer

K (σ R ) reservoir. At early time, before crossflow is established, the

b m = − 0 m eD ( 23 )

I 0 (σ m R eD ) response is the same as that for two-layer without crossflow.

At later time, Q jD Q D converges to the productivity ratio

For no flow outer boundary condition ( 9 ):

γ and γ 2 . At an intermediate time, a transition behavior

K (σ R ) appears. For smaller vertical permeability, the transition

b m = 1 m eD ( 24 )

I1 (σ m R eD ) occurs later.

Fig.4 shows how the Q jD Q D changes with skin of

Dimensionless pressure in layer j can be expressed as:

_ layer 1. Q jD Q D converges to a constant when time is large

p1D = A 11 X 1 + A 12 X 2 enough. If S1 = S 2 , Q1D Q D will converge to γ . If

_

p 2D = a 1 A X 1 + a 2 A X 2

1 2

( 25 ) S1 ≠ S 2 , Q1D Q D doesn’t converge to γ . We can find that

1 1

where if S1 > S 2 , constant of layer 1 will be more than γ . If

X 1,2 = K 0 (σ 1,2 rD ) + b1,2 I 0 (σ 1,2 rD ) , S1 < S 2 , the constant of layer 1 will be less than γ .

Fig.5 shows how the flow rate of each layer changes with

storagivity. When the wellbore pressure are the same,

( 26 ) Q jD Q D , the ratio of the rate for layer j to the total rate,

According to skin factor inner boundary condition: changes with time when time is small and converges to the

productivity ratio γ and γ 2 when time is larger enough. For

smaller storagivity of layer 1, the transition occurs early.

4 SPE 81043

Fig.6 shows how the flow rate of each layer changes with Acknowledgement

outer boundary conditions. Q jD Q D , the ratio of the rate for

This project supported by the national science foundation of

layer j to the total rate, converges to the productivity ratio China (No.50206016).

γ and γ 2 for infinite and constant pressure outer boundary

conditions. Q jD Q D converges to a constant , but it is not Nomenclature

boundary, the effect occurs early. A j : coefficient of solution

Fig.7 shows how the 1 Q D changes with time. Three AA: semipermeability of layer 1 and layer 2, md/ft

different regimes occur in a two-layer reservoir. There are 2 b : coefficient of solution

linear segments. For smaller γ , distance between two lines B j : coefficient of solution

closer at early time. For smaller λ , the transition occurs later. B : formation volume factor

At later time, 1 Q D of different parameters will be converge c tj : j th total compressibility, psi-1

to a line.

h j : j th reservoir height, ft

Conclusions

I 0 : modified Bessel function

(1) The max effective hole-diameter mathematical I1 : modified Bessel function

model describing flow of slightly compressible fluid

through a double-layer crossflow reservoir is solved j : layer number

rigorously with consideration of different skin m : integer

factors. k j : j th permeability, md

(2) The exact solutions for pressure and the production K 0 : modified Bessel function

rate from layer j obtained for a well producing at a K 1 : modified Bessel function

constant pressure from a radial drainage area infinite

and const pressure and no flow outer boundary

p i : initial formation pressure, psi

condition are expressed in terms of ordinary Bessel p w : wellbore pressure, psi

functions. The new model is numerically stable when

the skin is positive and negative. p w D : dimensionless wellbore pressure,

p j : j th pressure, psi

(3) Three different regimes occur in a two-layer

reservoir. At early time, before crossflow is p jD : j th dimensionless pressure

established, the response is the same as that for two- _

layer without crossflow. At later time, Q jD Q D p jD : j th dimensionless pressure in laplace space

converges to a constant. At an intermediate time, a q j : j th rate, bbl

transition behavior appears. For smaller vertical

Q D dimensionless total rate

permeability, the transition occurs later. If S1 = S 2 ,

Q jD : j th dimensionless rate

Q1D Q D will converge to γ . If S1 ≠ S 2 ,

r : radial distance, ft

Q1D Q D doesn’t converge to γ . We can find that

rw : wellbore radius, ft

if S1 > S 2 , constant of layer 1 will be more than γ .

rwe : max effective hole-diameter, ft

If S1 < S 2 , constant of layer 1 will be less than γ .

rD : dimensionless radii

(4) Curves of 1 Q D with time have two linear segments, re : reservoir radius, ft

between two linear segments is intermediate regime. reD : dimensionless reservoir radii

For smaller γ , distance between two lines closer at

S j : j th skin factors

early time. For smaller λ , the transition occurs later.

At later time, 1 Q D of different parameters will be S min :mininum skin factor in an oilfield

converge to a line. s : Laplace space varible

t : production time, h

t D : dimensionless time

SPE 81043 5

Greek

Q

φ: porosity

µ : viscosity, cp

γ , γ 2 : dimensionless productivity of layer 1 and layer 2

ω , ω 2 : dimensionless storativity of layer 1 and layer 2 ¦Õ 1, ¦Ì1, Ct 1, h1, S1, k1

λ : dimensionless semi-permeability

σ j : eigenvalue of Eq.12 and Eq.13 ¦Õ 2, ¦Ì2, Ct 2, h2, S2, k2

References

1. S.Berumen-C., et al.: “Transient Pressure Analysis and

Performance of Gas Wells Producing Under Constant Pressure

Conditions,” paper SPE 19098 presented at the 1989 SPE Gas

Technology Symposium held in Dallas, Texas, June 7-9. Fig.1 Schematic of Double Layer Reservoir with Crossflow

2. Van Everdingen, et al.: “The Application of the Laplace

Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoir, ” Trans., AIME 10

1

1.0

3. Chengtai Gao.: “The Determination of Total Productivity By a Q1 D γ =0 . 1 Q1 D γ =0 . 4 0.8

Constant Pressure Flow Test and the Crossflow Behavior in Q2 D γ =0 . 1 Q2 D γ =0 . 4

Multilayer Reservoir,” SPE 12581 unsolicited. 0 ω =0 . 3 λ =1 0 E- 5 S1 =S2 =0

10

4. Lefkovits, H. C., et al.: “A Study of the Behavior of Bounded 0.6

Reservoirs Composed of Stratified Layers,” Soc. Pet. Eng. J.

QjD/QD

(Mar, 1961), 43~58. QjD

5. Bourdet, D.: “Pressure Behavior of Layered Reservoir With 0.4

Crossflow,” paper SPE 13628 was presented at SPE 1985 10

-1

Q1 D/ QD γ =0 . 4

California Regional Meeting, held in Bakersfield, California,

March 27~29. 0.2

Individual Layers Properties in a Multilayered Reservoir,” -2

10 0.0

SPEFE, (Sept.1987) 22~25. 10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3 4

10 10

5

10

6

Medium with Crossflow,” SPEJ (Feb., 1984) 97~106.

8. Agarwal, R. G, et al.: “An Investigation of Wellbore Storage

and Skin Effect in Unsteady Liquid Flow: 1 Analytical

Treatment,” SPEJ (Sept., 1970) 279-290. Fig.2 Curves of Production Rate and Production Ratio Showing

9. Stehfest, H.: “Algorithm368: Numerical Inversion of Laplace the effect of Heterogenity in Permeability between Layers

Transforms,” Communication of the ACM (Jan., 1970), 13( 1 ):

47~49 0.25 0.95

Q2D/QD

SI Metric Conversion Factors

bbl × 1.589873 E − 01 = m 3 0.20 0.90

cp × 1.0 E − 03 = Pa ⋅ s λ =1 0 E- 4

ft × 3.048 E − 01 = m Q2D/QD

Q1D/QD

0.15 λ =1 0 E- 5 0.85

λ =1 0 E- 6

0.10 0.80

γ =0 . 2 ω =0 . 0 1

Q1D/QD S1 =S2 =0

0.05 0.75

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

tD

Vertical Permeability

6 SPE 81043

0.35 0.95 8

1: Q1 D/ QD S1 =0 , S2 =0

0.30 2: Q2 D/ QD S1 =1 , S2 =0 7

2 0.90

S1 =- 1 , S2 =0

1 6

0.25

0.85

1 5

Q2D/QD

0.20

Q1D/QD

2 0.80

1 / QD

4

0.15 2

0.75 3

0.10 ω =0 . 0 1 S1 =S2 =0

1 2 λ =1 0 E- 4 γ =0 . 9

0.70 λ =1 0 E- 4 γ =0 . 99

0.05

λ =1 0 E- 6 ω =0 . 0 1 γ =0 . 2 Smi n =- 2 λ =1 0 E- 6 γ =0 . 9

1

λ =1 0 E- 6 γ =0 . 9

0.00 0.65

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6 0

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

t D

t D

Fig.4 Curves of Production Ratio Showing the effect of Skin Factors Fig.7 Curves of Total Production Ratio Showing the effect of λ、

γ in Infinite Reservoir

0.25 1.00

Q1 D/ QD

0.20 0.95

0.15 ω =1 0 E- 3 0.90

Q2 D/ QD

ω =1 0 E- 2

Q1 D/ QD

ω =1 0 E- 1

0.10 0.85

Q2 D/ QD

0.05 0.80

γ =0 . 2 λ =1 0 E- 5 S1 =S2 =0

0.00 0.75

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

t D

Storativity of Layer

0.25 1.00

I n f i n i t e Bo u n d a r y

Co n s t a n t Pr e s s u r e Bo u n d a r y

0.20 No Fl o w Bo u n d a r y 0.95

0.15 0.90

Q2 D/ QD

Q2 D/ QD

Q1 D/ QD

0.10 0.85

Q1 D/ QD

0.05 0.80

γ =0 . 2 ω =0 . 0 1 λ =1 0 E- 6

S1 =S2 =0 Re D=1 0 0

0.00 0.75

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

t D

Outer Boundary Conditions

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