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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

A sentence is a group of words that are put together to mean something. A

.
sentence is the basic unit of language which expresses a complete thought It does this by

following the grammatical rules of syntax. A sentence is a set of words that needs to be in

a correct order (word order) in order to make a complete thought. In linguistic, word

order is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how

different languages can employ different orders. Correlations between orders found in

different syntactic sub-domains are also of interest. It is the sequence of words in a

sentence, especially as governed by grammatical rules and as affecting meaning.

Word order gives meaning to the sentence. The words in a sentence may

sometimes be arranged in a different order to give another meaning. (H. Thompson

Fillmer, 1980). The order of words in a sentence depends on the right placement of the

subject and verb in a sentence. Subject- verb agreement is very vital in language and

consequently, in communication and depicts the extent to which a user of the language in

both speaking and writing media has internalized the rule. In linguistic typology, subject–

verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb comes

second, and the object comes third. Languages may be classified according to the

dominant sequence of these elements in unmarked sentences (i.e. sentences in which an

unusual word order is not used for emphasis).

Tagalog, a free word order language, is typologized as a VSO language. Tagalog,

an Austronesian language spoken in the central part of Luzon and the basis of the
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national language Filipino, has been typologized as having a free word order, i.e., any

arrangement or rearrangement of words in a sentence has no effect on its linguistic

meaning. Tagalog is the Philippines’ most widely spoken language. Filipino, the

officially recognized national language of the Philippines, is based chiefly on Tagalog

and can be considered a variety of Tagalog. Tagalog serves as the lingua franca

throughout the country and throughout the world in communities of the Philippine

diaspora. Tagalog has 28 million native speakers in the Philippines, but almost the entire

country’s population of 95 million can speak it as a first, second, or third language

(Lewis et al., 2013 as cited by Labitigan, 2013). Tagalog sentence structure can be quite

flexible compare to English. It also follows a grammatical rule in order to express a

complete thought or make a correct sentence. Filipino grammar does not have to be as

difficult as some make it out to be. Taking your learning slowly and finding ways to

compare and contrast the differences with English can help you learn and gain knowledge

so you can speak the language fluently.

English language is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early

medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. English is the third most widespread

native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. It is the most widely

learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official

languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned it as a

second language than there are native speakers.

The English language is at present considered one of the three leading languages

of the world; the other two leading languages are Spanish and French. However, there are

indicators that English is moving forward into prominence faster than the other two and

the general opinion, at present, is that it will soon outstrip Spanish and French, especially

in East Asian countries where English has generally been adopted as a second language.
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(Serrano, et al; 1999) English is the first choice of foreign language in most other

countries of the world, and it is that status that has given it the position of a global lingua

franca. It is estimated that about a third of the world’s population, some two billion

persons, now use English.

The importance of this research is to study the placement of the subject, verb and

object in a simple sentence between Filipino and English language, to find out students’

expertise in translating Filipino sentence to English sentence and vice versa using Subject

– Verb – Object order, and to spread awareness for them to improve their ability to

translate simple sentences in both language. In this way, the study may help the students,

teachers and Filipinos to comprehend what they are reading with ease.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

This study focuses on the word order: The Placement of Subject-Verb-Object in a

simple sentence between Filipino and English language. Since the major claim of this

study is all about the correct order or placement of words, we relate our study to the study

of (Gibson et al., 2013) when using gestures to represent an event with an actor, a

patient, and an action, in many cases people convey first the actor (the ‘Subject’), then

the patient (the ‘Object’), then the action (the ‘Verb’), even if this specific word order is

not present in any language they know. The findings from gesture studies also suggest a

motivation for verb-medial word orders. The prevalence of SVO order (about 40% of

languages) might arise because that order conveys the separate roles of the Subject and

Object in a way that is more robust to noise.

The basic assumption is that grammatical relations such as subject and object are

syntactic notions, and must be identified on the basis of syntactic properties, rather than
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semantic roles or discourse functions. It shows that a large number of syntactic processes

in Tagalog uniquely select the argument which bears nominative case. On the other hand,

the data which has been cited as showing ambiguity of subject hood, or indicating that the

Actor is always the subject, is best analyzed in terms of semantic rather than syntactic

constraints. In English grammar, there is a strong alignment between the grammatical

notions of the subject. The semantic notion of the Actor, and the pragmatic notion of

Topic. This pattern is often taken to be the canonical or universally unmarked alignment.

But the Tagalog facts force us to recognize these three notions as being fully

independent, since in basic transitive clauses the subject is neither the Actor nor a Topic.

Data from the Tagalog and other typologically similar languages thus provide unique

opportunities to investigate the defining properties of and interrelationships among these

three concepts (Kroeger, 1991).


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DEPENDENT
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
VARIABLE
 Proficiency of
 Word Order in Grade 11 Senior
terms of Subject- High School
Verb-Object both students using
English and Subject-Verb-
Filipino Object pattern in
a simple sentence

INTERVENING
VARIABLE

 Age
 Gender
 Strands

.
Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of the Study
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Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the differences of the placement of the Subject –

Verb – Object in a simple sentence between Filipino and English language.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age;

1.2 Gender;

1.3 Strand?

2. What is the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students in

translating simple sentences between Filipino and English language, using the:

2.1 Subject – Verb – Object pattern?

3. What are the common patterns used by the respondents in translating English sentences

to Filipino sentences?

4. Is there any significant relationship in knowing the different placement of the S-V-O

pattern between the Filipino and English Language when paired according to profile?

Hypothesis:

HO1 - There is no any significant relationship in knowing the different placement of the

s-v-o pattern between the Tagalog and English Language when paired according to

profile.
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Significance of the Study

This present study would bring benefits to the following:

Students. This study would encourage the students to know the different

placement of Subject, Verb and Object between Filipino and English language.

Teachers. This study will help the teachers evaluate and improve their teaching in

terms of the correct usage of words in a sentence.

School. This study helps the school to be aware on the placement of the Subject –

Verb – Object in a simple sentence between Filipino and English language.

Department of Education. This will help the Department of Education to

encourage the faculty and staff to improve their grammatical structure in terms of

sentence construction.

Filipino Citizens. This study helps the Filipino citizens to improve and broaden

their English and Filipino language acquisition.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was focused on the analysis of the placement of Subject – Verb –

Object in a simple sentence between Filipino and English Language in order to

comprehend why the placement of Subject – Verb – Object in Filipino language is

different from English language. The chosen research subjects were specified as Grade

11 Senior High School students enrolled in the academic year 2017-2018 from Jose Rizal

Memorial State University, Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City.


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Operational Definition of Terms

For reasons of clarity and for better understanding, certain terms used in the study

were defined conceptually and operationally.

ABM. Accounting Business and Management. A strand in Senior High School

that is designed as an introductory course in accounting and business and management

(usjr.edu.ph., 2018).

English Language. This is the primary language of several countries (including

Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and a

second language in a number of multilingual countries (including India, Singapore, and

the Philippines) (Thought.Co, 2017).

Filipino Language. This is defined as the national language of the Philippines

and is the term used for a person who is from the Philippines (YourDictionary.com,

2017).

GAS. General Academic Strand. A strand in Senior High School that is

purposively designed for those students ho are still indecisive of what course or degree

thaty want to pursue in college (usjr.edu.ph., 2018).

HUMSS. Humanities and Social Sciences. A strand in Senior High School that

covers a wide range of disciplines that delve into the investigation and inquiry of the

human conditions that uses empirical, analytical, and critical methods of studying

(usjr.edu.ph., 2018).

Object. The object of a sentence is the person or thing that receives the action of

the verb. It is the “who or what” that the subject does something to (Study.com, 2017).
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A noun or noun phrase governed by an active transitive verb or by a preposition

(Oxford dictionaries.com).

Placement. It is the act of placing or putting in place, the act of locating or

positioning, the state of being placed (Your Dictionary.com, 2017).

Simple Sentence. This refers to a sentence with only one independent clause.

Though a simple sentence doesn't contain any subordinate clauses, it isn't always short. A

simple sentence often contains modifiers (Thought.Co, 2017).

STEM. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. A strand in Senior

High School that that develop the students’ ability to evaluate simple to complex societal

problems and be responsive and active in the formulation of its solution through the the

application and integration of scientific, yechnological, engineering, and mathematical

concepts (usjr.edu.ph., 2018).

Subject. The subject is generally the person or thing that the sentence is about.

It’s often the person or thing that performs the action of the verb in question and it

usually (but not always) comes before the verb (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017).

Subject-Verb-Object. Is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the

verb second, and object third (Wikipedia, 2018).

TECH-VOC. Technical – Vocational. This strand in Senior High School was

designed to prepare the students by arming them with skills for employment

(usjr.edu.ph., 2018).

Verb. Any member of a class of words that function as the main elements of

predicates, that typically express action, state, or a relation between two things and that
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may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, mood, and to show agreement with their subject

or object (Dictionary.com, 2017).

Word. It is a unit of language, consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their

written representation that functions as a principal carrier of meaning (Dictionary.com,

2017).

Word Order. In this study, this refers to the disposition of things following one

another, as in space or time; succession or sequence. It is a condition in which each thing

is properly disposed with reference to other things and its purpose; methodical or

harmonious arrangement (Dictionary.com, 2017).


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The conceptual literature and studies pertinent to the present study are reviewed in

this chapter. This chapter presents foreign and local reports, articles and journal

publications that will support related literature and studies to the present study on the

word order: Subject-Verb-Object pattern in a simple sentence between Filipino and

English language.

Foreign Literature

In any language, words follow a definite order; otherwise the meaning is lost.

This word order is determined by the structure natural to the language. Like other

languages, English has basic sentence patterns and the student is believed to be proficient

in English when he can recognize and produce automatically the basic sentence patterns

of the language.

As cited by Seth Ronquillo (2016), English, on the other hand, does not have the

same syntactic freedom as Tagalog. English has a more fixed SVO word order structure,

which signals the grammatical function of DPs and supplements its deficient case

marking system (Matthews, Lieven, Theakston, & Tomasello 2005; Polinsky 2006). In

English, the agent of the verb is also commonly associated with the first noun of the

sentence, which corresponds to the subject in the default SVO structure (Kamide,

Scheeper, & Altmann 2003). Laughren (2002) notes in her analysis of the Australian

language Warlpiri that a specific set of case markers indicates grammatical functions in

the determiner phrase (DP) of languages that allow word order variation, such as

Tagalog.
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Most V1 languages have SVO as a widely available alternative word order. We

would like to underscore that SVO in V1 languages is not derived uniformly for all

languages or even all structures within a given language. In particular, SVO may be only

apparent, with “S” actually being part of a nonverbal predicate (section 2.1.1). SVO can

also arise from the base-generation of a preverbal topic in a high clausal position, from

movement into that position, or in structures so small that verb movement is impossible.

In the discussion below, we will address some of the derivations of SVO under V1

(Clemens, et al., 2017).

Languages differ from each other in numerous properties, but this variation is not

completely random. For example, when uttering a sentence containing a subject, a verb

and an object, there are six logically possible orders in which one can put these

constituents into a sentence. However, not all of these word orders are as widely used

among languages. In fact, almost all languages put the subject or agent before the object

or patient in basic transitive sentences, resulting in so-called SOV, SVO or VSO word

orders in which „S‟, „O‟ and „V‟ are short for subject, object and verb respectively

(cited by Morwenna Hoeks, 2016; Greenberg, 1963). Word orders in which the object

precedes the subject are quite rare: only about 5% of all languages exhibit VSO, VOS or

OVS word order (cited by Morwenna Hoeks, 2016; Siewierska, 1988:15). An overview

of the occurrences of the dominant word orders is given in table 1 below (Dryer, 2013).

Note that the terms „subject‟ and „object‟, the „S‟ and „O‟ in the case of the

abbreviations above, are used here in a general semantic sense: their use must be defined

in terms of agent-like or patient-like properties respectively. Although there has been

discussion on the exact numbers of occurrence, it is evident that SVO and VSO word

orders are by far the most adopted among languages. (Morwenna Hoeks, 2016)
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As cited by Morwenna Hoeks (2016), when it comes to preferences that are

related to syntactical structures, it is often argued that an SVO word order is easier for

speakers and hearers to produce and to comprehend than other word orders with another

syntactic configuration. For example, according to Kayne (1999), SVO is the underlying

structure of all languages and other word orders are derivations from this default order.

Kayne assumes that all languages essentially exhibit a specifier-head-complement

structure, because he argues that there is a link between linear and hierarchical word

order in the sense that complements ideally always follow their heads (Koster, 1999).

However, this account does not explain why derivations from this underlying word order

take place at all. Why typological word order variation exists in the first place and, more

specifically, where such large amounts of SOV word orders come from, then remains a

mystery within this account by examples taken from data collected at random. More

outstandingly, this research paper will cover the area concerning the word order of both

simple sentence patterns of the two languages and investigate the validity of the claim

that (SA) is (VSO) and (SE) is (SVO).

One of the most important areas of languages study and analysis is through

examining and investigating word order patterns and/or types that exist in simple

sentences structures. Consequently, in linguistics word order is referred to as the study of

the order of the syntactic constituents of a language. To simply put it, word order is the

order of subject (S), verb (V), and object (O) in a sentence. The primary word orders that

are of interest are the constituent of order of a clause – the relative order of subject,

object, and verb; the order of modifiers in a noun ohrase; and the order of adverbials. For

example, in English, the word order of a typical sentence is Subject-Verb-Object (SVO).

To English speakers seems obviously the only logical arrangement. Nonetheless, a lot of

languages have different word order, such as Arabic which is mainly recognized as being
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VSO (Verb-Subject-Object), with an alternative SVO order. Hence, mainly this work is a

constrative study of the simple sentence structure of both standard Arabic (SA) and

Standard English (SE), where in both languages are introduced in brief, their simple

sentences structures are described, and then they are compared by examples taken from

data collected at random (Mounya, 2017).

The study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language is the category

of word order typology. In reality, different languages have different word order in

organizing the sentence structure. The study of word order pays attention to the sub-

sentence domain, but the primary concern is the word order of the subject, verb and

object, the order of modifiers in a noun phrase, such as adjectives, demonstratives,

possessives, numerals and adjuncts, and the order of adverbials. The word order of some

languages is of grammatical property which is applied to convey important grammatical

function. Some inflectional languages allow more flexibility which can be used to encode

pragmatic information. However, most languages have some preferred word orders which

are used most frequently.

Based on the sequential arrangement of the basic constituents of most languages,

the word order can be classified into the following six types, namely, SVO, SOV, OSV,

OVS, VSO, and VOS. English and Chinese belong to the SVO type (Guodong Zhao and

Zuoyu Cao, 2011).

According to Wrongranu (2016), in Thailand, although the grammar-translation

method has long been used to teach foreign languages and many students use translation

as a mean to understand English, many students seem to have problems with translating

according to a number of studies (Chanasakulniyom, 2010, Pojprasat, 2007, Yodnil,

2006). Translating is a complicated skill. A translator has to interpret a source text, and

then put it in another language, keeping the meaning, style, and purpose of the source
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text, and this requires proficiency in both foreign languages and the mother tongue, as

well as specialized and cultural knowledge. The causes of errors found in this study

included translation procedures, carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. It is

recommended that more class time be spent to address the problematic points. In

addition, more authentic translation and group work should be implemented to increase

self-confidence and decrease anxiety. One assumption is that translation is a process that

requires a translator to be proficient in both the source language and the target language.

Many students, however, are less proficient in their second language, so they cannot

translate Thai texts into English correctly. The differences in grammatical structure are

also another possible reason (Wimonchalau, 2000). Many students are not aware of the

differences, so their English grammatical structures in target texts are made to match Thai

structures, resulting in many errors.

Local Literature

English has a relatively fixed word order. The basic arrangement of words in

English is generally the following: Subject + verb or subject + verb + object. If the basic

word order is not followed, the result may be an unintelligible sentence. (Baes et al.

2013). Ex1: The cat scratched the man. (Correct word order; meaning clear) Ex2: The man

scratched the cat. (Correct word order; meaning clear but different from number 1) Ex3:

The scratched man the cat. (Incorrect word order; no meaning) Ex4: Cat the man

scratched the. (Incorrect word order; no meaning)

As cited by Seth Ronquillo (2016), order is very important in English. Meaning

often depends on the position of words in a given sentence. There are a limited number of

basic sentence patterns in English; to speak and write good English. Sentence patterns are

like the framework of a house. To make the house more attractive and liveable, additions
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and expansions have to be made with care. In the same way, basic sentence patterns are

generally expanded to give more life and significance to a sentence. (Serrano, et. al;

1999) Ex1: The man reads the newspaper. Ex2: The man is reading the newspaper
S V O S HV V O
As cited by Seth Ronquillo (2016), the Austronesian language Tagalog, spoken in

the Philippines, permits a relatively variable syntactic word order including the most

default word order verb-object-subject (VOS), verb-subject-object (VSO), and subject-

verb-object (SVO), the least common word order. To compensate for the potential

ambiguity presented by such syntactic alterations, each argument of the verb in a Tagalog

sentence receives a distinct case marker that indicates its grammatical function (De

Guzman 1976; Rackowski 1996). Segalowitz and Galang (1976) studied the acquisition

of word order in native Tagalog-speaking children, particularly with respect to the

comprehension of actor-focus and patient-focus sentences, which are respectively similar

to active and passive constructions in English. Segalowitz and Galang concluded that

Tagalog-speaking children have better mastery of patient-focus than actor-focus in VOS

structures, and that children would use the SVO structure most productively with actor-

focus sentences because they associate the first noun of the sentence with the agent of the

verb. Their study, however, does not provide much insight on the interaction between

syntactic word order and case morphology.

Foreign Studies

According to the study of Dryer (2011) in his study “Order of Subject, Object and

Verb”, many languages have a basic ordering of the subject (S), object (O), and the verb

(V), and among the languages of the world, all six possible basic word orders exist. Of

these six orders, SVO and SOV make up a large majority of the totality of languages.
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As cited by Dryer’s study in 2011, Givon (1979) observes that SOV basic word

order is common among the languages of the world and that many other word orders can

be reconstructed back to an SOV stage. He speculates that the first basic word order for

human language was SOV, and other word orders appear to have descended from that

order. Newmeyer (2000) claims that the earliest human language had rigid SOV order.

Recently, Goldin-Meadow et al.’s experimental methodology was taken up to

investigate possible roles of SVO basic word order. It has been suggested that SVO order

arises because it is preferred by the computational module in human cognition (Langus &

Nespor 2010)

According to the study of Hall, Mayberry, and Ferreira (2013) in their study

entitle “Cognitive Constraints on Constituents Order: Evidence from Elicited

Pantomime”, they reported a similar preference for SVO ordering in reversible events,

but explained this in terms of cognitive constraints on production: when an event has a

human agent and patient (which is typically the case for reversible events), the gesturer

will often use the body-as-agent strategy. That is, they act out the agent and patient by

‘impersonating’ the participants. This strategy leads to confusion when a patient is

followed by an action (as it would be the case in SOV order).

Many of the world’s languages are sensitive to word order. In these languages, the

order in which words are spoken conveys a great deal of the sentence’s meaning. The

classic English example is the distinction between “dog bites man” and “man bites dog”,

which differ in terms of who is biting whom. The so-called “basic” word order of a

language is defined according to the order of three of the principal components of basic

transitive sentences: subject (S), verb (V) and object (O). This results in six logically

distinct word orders: SOV, SVO, VSO, VOS, OVS and OSV (e.g., English has SVO
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basic word order). Curiously, the world’s order-sensitive languages make use of these six

possibilities in an uneven fashion. According to a survey of 402 languages, the majority

of languages are either SOV (44.78%) or SVO (41.79%). VSO (9.20%) is much less

frequent but still significant, and very few languages make use of VOS (2.99%), OVS

(1.24%) or OSV (0.00%) as their basic word order. Broadly speaking, the basic pattern

appears to be (SOV, SVO) > VSO > (VOS, OVS) > OSV. This non-uniformity is a

striking empirical finding that demands some explanation. Unfortunately, most of the

explanations that have been offered are either proximate explanations that simply shift

the question, or else are circular (Maurits, 2010).

A similar objection can be made against the proposal that all languages which are

alive today descend from a single common ancestor, and that this proto–language used

SOV word order, ex- 1 plaining the observation that SOV is the most common word

order today. If there is nothing special about SOV, why has random drift (this time in

language evolution, not human genetic evolution) not more significantly changed the

word order distribution from its ancient form? Furthermore, it is clear that ancient SOV

languages must have changed into SVO languages much more frequently into than, say,

VOS languages in order to arrive at the current state of affairs. Common descent from

SOV cannot explain this by itself (Maurits, 2010).

According to Ghourchaei et al, (2015), personality factors have been shown in the

literature to relate to language learning. In the Iranian EFL context, Kiany and Pournia

(2006) found no statistically significant relationship between risk-taking, syntactic

complexity and grammatical accuracy in either descriptive or expository writing.

Research studies show that males tend to behave in ways that are more risky than

females; also, younger males are more prone than females to take risks in relation to

conflict , and sexual behavior , as well as in such situations as car driving, accident risks ,
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and gambling and financial decisions . Indeed, the interaction patterns are gender-related

only to some extent (Shomoossi, Amouzadeh & Ketabi, 2008). It is also shown that

gender differences in risk-taking occur even in simple everyday situations; for instance,

men are more likely to cross busy roads than females. Majority of such studies show that

men take more risks in stressful situations compared the risk-taking tendencies of male

and female participants and explored that in almost all aspects of risk-taking, male

participants are more willing to take risks than females. Gardner and Steinberg (2005)

also showed that males reported more benefits and fewer risks when asked about the

consequences of risky behaviours. Female learners tend to be more careful about what

they say; they try to use fewer sentences and less complex structure to reduce mistakes.

They tend to think before any oral production and "this conscientiousness can be a barrier

to effective communication in a foreign language, where rapid responses are necessary to

keep a conversation going. On the other hand, boys tend to follow their instincts and even

due to their self-confidence and risk-taking take part in an oral conversation without

preparation. Females may also be found more anxious in stressful situations such as

exams than males are.

According to the study of Wrongranu (2016) where in his study, the Thai English

major students made many errors in translating Thai texts into English texts. From his

study, he revealed that the major causes of errors in translations are the translation

procedures, carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. Accordingly, a translator has

to interpret a source text, and then put it in another language, keeping the meaning, style,

and purpose of the source text, and this requires proficiency in both foreign languages

and the mother tongue, as well as specialized and cultural knowledge.

One assumption is that translation is a process that requires a translator to be

proficient in both the source language and the target language. Many students, however,
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are less proficient in their second language, so they cannot translate Thai texts into

English correctly. The differences in grammatical structure are also another possible

reason since the grammatical structures of Thai sentences differ from the English

sentences. However, when it comes to the grammatical structures of Filipino and English,

the grammatical structures used of the English texts can be directly used in translating it

into Filipino texts because it can still keep the meaning, style and purpose of the text

being translated. Another reason is that Filipino students are introduce into the English

language earlier on primary levels until the learning of the second language in schools

moved into more complex lessons. This is the reason why Filipinos could rather easily

translate Filipino sentences to English sentences and vice versa. This explains the reasons

how the proficiency level of the Filipino students differ from those Thai students who are

even majored in English course.

Local Studies

As cited by Seth Ronquillo (2016), in addition, English is the second language for

Filipinos. It is used as a medium of instruction in most subjects. As future educators, we

provide learner a taste of grammar, its usage, function, and application of the skills in

speaking and writing (Bogayao, 1996).

As cited by Seth Ronquillo (2016), according to Alcantara and Cabanilla (1986),

they stated that it is not for a good speaker of English to have mastered grammatical

features of the English language. The student should likewise know the effective use of

words, their appropriateness and their acceptability in their grammatical construction.

Mastery of English Grammar, knowledge and understanding of its usage are basic in our

everyday communications with other people. A good knowledge 5 Grammatical


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Competence of Fourth Year English Majors of Benguet State University / Jeanne A. Yan.

2007 of English grammar enables the Filipino to communicate better his ideas to others.

As cited by Seth Ronquillo (2016), Tagalog is a non-configurational language in

which the grammar subject does not occupy a unique structural position. Nevertheless,

the grammar of Tagalog makes crucial reference to the notion of grammatical subject

hood. This fact shows that grammatical subject hood cannot be defined in terms of

specified position in surface phrase structure. More phrase structure, semantic structure

and pragmatic functions, strongly supporting a conception of linguistic structure in which

these various kinds of information are modelled as independent subsystems of the

grammar (Paul Kroeger, 1991).

Tagalog has a relatively free word order complemented by a comparatively rich

case marking system on determiners (Rackowski 2002). One of the most discussed topics

in Tagalog syntax involves its verb focus system, analogous to grammatical voice in

English, which is indicated by verbal in fixation (Aldridge 2012)

Filipino has no definite word structure. Even the order of the words in a sentence

are place in different position, it still has the same meaning. The grammatical order in

Tagalog is malleable; the subject, verb and object in the sentence can be put in any

position of the sentence.


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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology in conducting this research. These are

presented in the following sections. (a) Research Methods (b) Research Environment (c)

Research Respondents (d) Research Instrument (e) Validation of the instrument (f) Data

Gathering Procedure.

Research Method

The researchers employed the qualitative research method in which test was

utilized. It aimed at analyzing the Subject-Verb-Object pattern in a simple sentence

between Filipino and English language among the Grade 11 students in Jose Rizal

Memorial State University – Senior High School (Dipolog Campus), Dipolog City. The

test became the basis of any process, observation, description and documentation of the

data gather about the present study.

Research Environment

This study was far extended inside the campus of Jose Rizal Memorial State

University- Senior High School (Dipolog Campus), Dipolog City as a venue of

conducting research regarding the problem being studied. The Jose Rizal Memorial State

University (Dipolog Campus) is a state university in the Philippines. It is mandated to

provide higher professional, technical, special instructions for special purposes and

promote research and extension services, advanced studies and progressive leadership in

education, agriculture, arts and sciences, engineering and other fields.


23

Figure 2. Map of Jose Rizal Memorial State University

Reference: www.googlemap.com
24

Research Respondents

The researchers chose the selected Grade 11 Senior High School students from Jose

Rizal Memorial State University (Dipolog Campus). Approximately 207 students from

Grade 11 were used to accomplish the study. The respondents underwent a test and

answered some questions were be analyzed by the researchers.

Table 1 Research Respondents

Grade11 Senior High


Population Respondents
School Students

ABM 50 24

GAS 52 25

HUMSS 103 50

STEM 54 26

TVL 170 82

Total 429 207

Table 1 shows the research respondents of the study to get the actual respondents

of the study; a 5% margin of error had been calculated by multiplying the total population

of the respondents by 0.05. From the total number of 429 Grade 11 Senior High School

students, it was reduced into 207 research subjects using the Slovin’s formula.

𝑁
Slovin’s formula: n = 1 +𝑁 (0.05)2
25

Research Instrument

To get the answer on the differences of Subject-Verb-Object pattern between

Filipino and English language in a simple sentence, a total of 90 items test was used in

gathering data. The sample question prepared by the researchers consisted of five simple

sentences in English and five simple sentences in Filipino language. The questionnaire

was divided into four parts. The first part of the questionnaire indicated the profile of the

students; the second part indicated the Filipino simple sentences to be translated into

English language; the third part indicated the English simple sentences to be translated

into Filipino language; and the last part was a selection that contained simple sentences

that were validated first by letting the panel did the corrections and recommendations and

was disseminated to respondents for accomplishments.

In assessing the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students,

the researchers used a rubric that was validated by the experts.

Validation of the Instrument

The sample questions in conducting the test underwent pilot testing. The pilot testing

was answered by five numbers of Senior High School students of Jose Rizal Memorial

State University, Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City specifically from Grade 11 students as

their sample respondents to answer questions in terms of their prior knowledge about the

Subject-Verb-Object pattern between Filipino and English language in a simple sentence.

Data Gathering Procedure

A total of 207 respondents underwent a test and answered the sample questions

prepared by the researchers regarding on the placement of Subject-Verb-Object pattern


26

between Filipino and English Language in a simple sentence. The researcher selected the

respondents who underwent a test.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data taken from the questionnaire was classified, tallied, tabulated, and
statistically tested.

1. To get the profiles of the respondents, the simple percentage was used.

Formula:
𝑓
𝑃= 𝑥100
𝑛

Where:

P = the percentage

f = the frequency

n = the number of respondents


27

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the gathered data from the total of 207 respondents broken

into 82 Technical-Vocational (Tech-Voc) students, 50 Humanities and Social Sciences

(HUMSS) students, 26 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

students, 25 General Academic Strand (GAS), and 24 Accountancy, Business and

Management (ABM) students respondents of selected Grade 11 Senior High School

students of Jose Rizal Memorial State University, Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City.

Table 2 shows the respondents’ age. As shown in the table, there were 116 or

56.04% out of the total number of respondents belonged to the age bracket 18-20 years

old. Followed by 84 or 40.58% who belonged to 17 years old and below, while there

were only seven or 3.38% who belonged to the age 21 years old and above. This implies

that majority of the respondents belong to adolescence period

Table 2 Respondents’ Age

Age Frequency Percentage (%)


17yrs and below 84 40.58%
18yrs – 20yrs 116 56.04%
21yrs above 7 3.38%
Total 207 100%

Table 3 shows the respondents’ gender. Out of 207 respondents, there were 139 or

67.15% who were female students, while there were 65 or 31.40% who were male

students, and three or 1.45% of the respondents who belonged to the Lesbian, Gay,

Bisexual, an Transgender (LGBT) community. This means that majority of the

respondents are females.


28

Table 3 Respondents’ Gender

Age Frequency Percentage (%)


Female 139 67.15%
Male 65 31.40%
LGBT 3 1.45%
Total 207 100%

Table 4 shows the respondents’ strand. The data shows that there were 82 or

39.61% which belonged to Technical-Vocational strand, followed by HUMSS with 50%

or 24.15% out of the total number of respondents. Next to it was the STEM which had 26

or 12.56%, GAS with 25 or 12.08%, and ABM with 24 or 11.59%. The study implies that

the majority of the respondents ware Technical and Vocational students.

Table 4 Respondents’ Strand

Strand Frequency Percentage (%)


HUMSS 50 24.15%
STEM 26 12.56%
GAS 25 12.08%
TECH. VOC. 82 39.61%
ABM 24 11.59%
Total 207 100%
29

Table 5 The Proficiency Level of the Grade 11 Senior High School Students in

Translating Simple Sentences from Filipino to English using the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern.

Rating Scale F m fm
10 - below (Beginner) 12 5.5 66
11 – 20 (Developing) 23 15.5 356.5
21 – 30 (Progressing) 130 25.5 3,315
31 – 40 (Proficient) 42 35.5 1,491
Total N = 207 - Ʃ fm= 5,228.5
x̅ = 25.26 (Progressing)

Legend:

10 – below - Beginner

11 – 20 - Developing

21 – 30 - Progressing

31 – 40 - Proficient

Table 5 shows the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students

in translating simple sentences from Filipino to English using the Subject-Verb-Object

pattern. With a weighted mean of 25.26 which was verbally interpreted as progressing,

this implies that the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students are

close to be proficient in translating simple sentences in translating Filipino to English

language using the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. Therefore, the Grade 11 Senior High

School students need to improve their ability in translating simple sentences and broaden

their understanding on how to construct sentences correctly.


30

Table 6: The Proficiency Level of the Grade 11 Senior High School Students in

Translating Simple Sentences from English to Filipino using the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern.

Rating Scale F m fm
16 5.5 88
10 - below (Beginner)
40 15.5 620
11 – 20 (Developing)
101 25.5 2,575.5
21 – 30 (Progressing)
50 35.5 1,775
31 – 40 (Proficient)
N = 207 - Ʃ fm= 5.058.5
Total
x̅ = 24.44 (Progressing)

Table 6 shows the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students

in translating simple sentences from English to Filipino using the Subject-Verb-Object

pattern. With a weighted mean of 24.44 which was verbally interpreted as progressing,

this implies that the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students were

close to be proficient in translating simple sentences in translating English to FIlipino

language using the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. Therefore the Grade 11 Senior High

School students need to improve their ability in translating simple sentences and broaden

their understanding on how to construct sentences correctly.

This contradicts to the result of the study of Wrongranu (2016) where in his study,

the Thai English major students made many errors in translating Thai texts into English

texts. From his study, he revealed that the major causes of errors in translations are the

translation procedures, carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. Accordingly, a

translator has to interpret a source text, and then put it in another language, keeping the
31

meaning, style, and purpose of the source text, and this requires proficiency in both

foreign languages and the mother tongue, as well as specialized and cultural knowledge.

One assumption is that translation is a process that requires a translator to be

proficient in both the source language and the target language. Many students, however,

are less proficient in their second language, so they cannot translate Thai texts into

English correctly. The differences in grammatical structure are also another possible

reason since the grammatical structures of Thai sentences differ from the English

sentences. However, when it comes to the grammatical structures of Filipino and English,

the grammatical structures used of the English texts can be directly used in translating it

into Filipino texts because it can still keep the meaning, style and purpose of the text

being translated. Another reason is that Filipino students are introduce into the English

language earlier on primary levels until the learning of the second language in schools

moved into more complex lessons. This is the reason why Filipinos could rather easily

translate Filipino sentences to English sentences and vice versa. This explains the reasons

how the proficiency level of the Filipino students differ from those Thai students who are

even majored in English course.

Table 7 The Common Patterns Used by the Respondents in Translating

Filipino Sentences to English Sentences.

Filipino – English Translation Frequency Percentage (%)


Subject – Verb – Object 207 100%
Verb – Subject – Object - -
Verb – Object – Subject - -
Subject – Object – Verb - -
Object – Verb – Subject - -
Total 207 100%
32

Table 7 shows the common patterns used by the respondents in translating

Filipino sentences to English sentences. As shown in the table, Subject – Verb – Object

pattern was the only pattern used comprising of 207 or 100% out of the total number of

sentences constructed by the respondents. This implies that the respondents prefer to use

the Subject – Verb- Object pattern based on what they have understood from the

sentences and translated it in a literal way.

This correlates to the study of Maurits, 2010, his study stated that the so-called

“basic” word order of a language is defined according to the order of three of the

principal components of basic transitive sentences: subject (S), verb (V) and object (O).

(e.g., English has SVO basic word order).

Below are the 207 sample sentences using Subject – Verb – Object pattern in

translating Filipino sentences to English sentences.

Given Sentences:

1. Kumain ng hinog na saging ang matandang lalaki.

2. Nagluto si Anna ng Adobo sa kusina.

3. Namimingwit ng isda si Anton sa tabing ilog.

4. Ang bag na dala ni John ay mabigat.

5. Si Ben ay nagdala ng aso sa bahay.


33

Table 8: Given Sentence No. 1: “Kumain ng hinog na saging ang matandang

lalaki.”

Correct answer/translation: “The old man was eating a ripe banana”.

Translation: The old man was eating a ripe banana.


article S HV V article O

Subject Verb Object


ABM (24 respondents)
eat
1. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eats
2. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eats
3. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eating
4. One man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
ate
5. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eat
6. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
is eating
7. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
ate
8. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eat the ripe banana.
9. The old man
(Correct answer: was eating) (Correct answer: a ripe banana)
is eating
10. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eat
11. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eat
12. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eat the ripe banana.
13. The old man
(Correct answer: was eating) (Correct answer: a ripe banana)
eat
14. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eat
15. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
eating
16. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
is eating ripe banana.
17. The old man
(Correct answer: was eating) (Correct answer: a ripe banana)
eat
18. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
ate a riped banana.
19. The old man
(Correct answer: was eating) (Correct answer: a ripe banana)
20. The old man eat a ripe banana.
34

(Correct answer: was eating)


eat
21. An old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
ate the ripe banana.
22. The old man
(Correct answer: was eating) (Correct answer: a ripe banana)
is eating
23. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)
ate
24. The old man a ripe banana.
(Correct answer: was eating)

Table 8 shows the translation of sentence no. 1: Kumain ng hinog na saging ang

matandang lalaki. As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence

no. 1 using the Subject – Verb – Object pattern without considering the correct grammar

of the sentence. This implies that the respondents followed the correct pattern in

constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in grammatical structure since

they have committed errors in translating sentence no.1.

In the given sentence, the Filipino word “matandang lalaki” was translated into

the English word “old man”, “kumain” for “eating” and “hinog na saging” for “ripe

banana”. As shown in the sentence, the noun old man was used as the subject that was

followed by a helping verb was and a verb eating which shows the action for the subject.

On the last part of the sentence, the article a was followed by the word ripe banana

which acted as the object of the verb.

Table 9: Given Sentence No. 2: Nagluto si Anna ng Adobo sa kusina.

Correct answer/translation: “Anna cooked adobo in the kitchen”.

Translation: Anna cooked adobo in the kitchen.


S V O prep article N

Subject Verb Object


GAS (25 Respondents)
on the kitchen.
cook
25. Anna an adobo (Correct answer: in the
(Correct answer: cooked)
kitchen.)
35

on the kitchen.
cook
26. Anna an adobo (Correct answer: in the
(Correct answer: cooked)
kitchen.)
is cooking
27. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
is cooking
28. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
is cooking
29. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
an adobo
is cooking
30 Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
is cooking
31. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
an adobo
cook
32. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
an adobo
33. Anna cooked (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
adobo)
-
cook
34. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
-
cook
35. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
-
cook
36. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
an adobo
cook
37. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
an adobo
is cooking
38. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
cook
39. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
an adobo
is cooking
40. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
cook
41. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
an adobo
is cooking
42. Anna (Correct answer: in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
adobo)
is cooking
43. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
is cooking
44. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
45. Anna cook adobo at the kitchen.
36

(Correct answer: cooked) (Correct answer: in the


kitchen)
46. Anna cooked adobo in the kitchen.
was cooking
47. Anna adobo in the kitchen.
(Correct answer: cooked)
48. Anna cooked adobo in the kitchen.
an adobo at the kitchen.
49. Anna cooked (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
adobo) kitchen)

Table 9 shows the translation of sentence no. 2: Nagluto si Anna ng adobo sa

kusina. As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no. 2 using

the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. However, the respondents had committed errors

specifically in the verb “cook” and they were confused in locating the object of the

sentence. This implies that the respondents followed the correct pattern in constructing a

sentence but do not have enough knowledge in grammatical structure since the

respondents have committed errors in translating sentence no.2.

In the second sentence, the word “Anna” which pertains to a name of a person

was used in both languages, “nagluto” for “cooked” and “adobo” was also used in both

languages. As shown in the sentence, the noun Anna was used as the subject that was

followed by a verb cooked which shows the past action for the subject. On the sentence,

the word adobo which acted as the object of the verb was followed by a preposition in

and the article the.

Table 10: Given Sentence No. 3: Namimingwit ng isda si Anton sa ilog.

Correct answer/translation: Anton is catching fish in the river.

Other Possible Answer: Anton is fishing in the river.

Translation: Anton is catching fish in the river.


S HV V O prep article N
37

Subject Verb Object


HUMSS (50 respondents)
on the river.
-
50. Anton is fishing (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
51. Anton is catching fish.
fishing at the river.
-
52. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
-
53. Anton is fishing in the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
catched
54. Anton (Correct answer: is fish -
catching)
at the side of the
catches
a fish river.
55. Anton (Correct answer: is
(Correct answer: in
catching)
the river)
-
56. Anton is fishing in the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
was catching at the river.
fish
57. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
catching) the river)
58. Anton is catching fish in the river.
-
59. Anton is catching
(Correct answer: fish) in the river.
at the side of the
fetches
- river.
60. Anton (Correct answer: is
(Correct answer: fish) (Correct answer: in
catching)
the river)
was fishing at the river.
-
61. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
beside the river.
-
62. Anton is fishing (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
is fetching beside the river.
a fish
63. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
fishing in the river site.
a fish
64. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
catch
a fish
65. Anton (Correct answer: is in the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
catching)
at the side of the
was fishing
- river.
66. Anton (Correct answer: is
(Correct answer: fish) (Correct answer: in
catching)
the river)
67. Anton catch fish at the river.
38

(Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in


catching) the river)
fishing at the river.
-
68. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
at a river.
-
69. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
goes fishing beside the river.
-
70. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
at the river.
71. Anton is catching fish (Correct answer: in
the river)
72. Anton is catching fish in the river.
was fishing at the river.
-
73. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
catching near the river.
a fish
74. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
at the river.
a fish
75. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
catching near the rivers.
a fish
76. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
-
77. Anton is fishing beside the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
fishing in the river.
-
78. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
catching in the river.
a fish
79. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
catched near the river.
80. Anton (Correct answer: is fish (Correct answer: in
catching) the river)
fishing in the river.
-
81. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
on the lake.
82. Anton is catching fish (Correct answer: in
the river)
in the river.
-
83. Anton is fishing (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
in the river.
a fish
84. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
39

near the river.


85. Anton is catching fish (Correct answer: in
the river)
sailing
a fish
86. Anton (Correct answer: is in the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
catching)
in the river.
-
87. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
in the river.
a fish
88. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
the river)
get in the water.
the fish
89. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
in the side of the
a fish river.
90. Anton was catches
(Correct answer: fish) (Correct answer: in
the river)
a fish
91. Anton is catching in the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
beside the river.
the fish
92. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
catch in the near river.
93. Anton (Correct answer: is fish (Correct answer: in
catching) the river)
catches in the river.
-
94. Anton (Correct answer: is (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
catching) the river)
in the sideline river.
-
95. Anton is fishing (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
sailing
a fish
96. Anton (Correct answer: is in the river.
(Correct answer: fish)
catching)
catches
in the river.
97. Anton (Correct answer: is fish
catching)
on the river.
fishes
98. Anton is catching (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
on the river.
fishes
99. Anton is fishing (Correct answer: in
(Correct answer: fish)
the river)
40

Table 10 shows the translation of sentence no. 3: Namimingwit ng isda si Anton

sa ilog. As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no. 3 using

the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. On the other hand, the respondents were not able to

provide the correct verb and object of the sentence. This implies that the respondents

followed the correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge

in grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors in translating

sentence no.3.

In the third sentence, the word “Anton” was used in both languages,

“namimingwit” for “catching” and “isda” for “fish”. As shown in the sentence, the noun

Anton was used as the subject that was followed by a helping verb is and a verb catching

which shows the present action for the subject. The word fish which acted as the object of

the verb in the sentence was preceded by the verb catching.

Table 11: Given Sentence No. 4: Ang bag na dala ni John ay mabigat.

Correct answer/translation: “John brought a heavy bag.”

Translation: John brought a heavy bag.


S V article adjective O

Subject Verb Object


STEM (26 respondents)
carrying
100. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
101. The bag by John is heavy.
brought
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
102. John’s bag is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
carried his heavy bag.
103. John
(Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
104. The bag that John have is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
105. The bag that John is bringing is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
41

106. John’s bag that he carry is heavy.


(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
107. A bag that John’s carrying is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
carries
108. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
is carrying
109. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
is carrying
110. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
is carrying
111. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
112. The bag that John brought is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
113. John’s bag is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
114. The bag by John is heavy.
brought
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
115. John
is carrying
(Correct answer: the a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
bag)
116. John
is carrying
(Correct answer: the a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
bag)
117. John brought a heavy bag.
carried the heavy bag.
118. John
(Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
brings
119. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
bringing
120. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
121. The bag that John brought is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
122. The bag that holding John is heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
123. The bag that carried by John was heavy.
(Correct answer: John) (Correct answer: brought) (Correct answer: a heavy bag)
carries
124. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)
carries
125. John a heavy bag.
(Correct answer: brought)

Table 11 shows the translation of sentence no. 4: Ang bag na dala ni John ay

mabigat. As shown in the table, the respondents were not able to translate sentence no. 4

using the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. The respondents were not able to provide the

correct subject, whether “the bag” or “John” in the sentence, as well as the verb
42

“brought” but they were able to provide the correct object “bag”. This implies that most

of the respondents did not follow the correct pattern in constructing a sentence and do

not have enough knowledge in grammatical structure since the respondents have

committed errors in translating sentence no.4.

In the fourth sentence, the word “bag” was used in both languages, “dala” for

“brought” and “John” was also used in both languages. As shown in the sentence, the

noun John was used as the subject that was followed by a verb brought which shows the

past action for the subject. The word bag which acted as the object of the verb in the

sentence was preceded by an adjective word heavy.

Table 12: Given Sentence No. 5: Si Ben ay nagdala ng aso sa bahay.

Correct answer/translation: “Ben brought a dog in the house”.

Translation: Ben brought a dog in the house.


S V article O prep article N

Subject Verb Object


TECH. VOC. (82 respondents)
126. Ben brought a dog in the house.
127. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring
128. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
in his house.
129. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house)
brings to his house.
130. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring
131. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
132. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring in their house.
133. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house)
134. Ben bring a dog in their house.
43

(Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the


brought) house)
bring at home.
135. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house)
brings his dog in his house.
136. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
brought) a dog) house.)
bring the dog
137. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the house.
brought) a dog)
in their house.
138. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house.)
139. Ben brought a dog in the house.
140. Ben brought a dog in the house.
141. Ben brought a dog in the house.
142. Ben brought a dog in the house.
was carrying
143. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
bring
144. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
145. Ben brought a dog in the house.
was bring dog
146. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in house.
brought) a dog)
dog
147. Ben brought (Correct answer: in the house.
a dog)
the dog
in the house.
148. Ben brought (Correct answer:
a dog)
149. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring into his house.
150. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring into his house.
151. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
is bring dog at their house.
152. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
brought) a dog) house.)
bring in his house.
153. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring into his house.
154. Ben a dog
(Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
44

brought) house.)
bring in his house.
155. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring into his house.
156. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
in his house.
bring
(Correct answer: in the
157. Ben (Correct answer: a dog
house.)
brought)
158. Ben brought a dog in the house.
159. Ben brought a dog in the house.
brings
160. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
to the house.
161. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house.)
bring into his house.
162. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring into his house.
163. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring into his house.
164. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
165. Ben brought a dog in the house.
166. Ben brought a dog in the house.
167. Ben brought a dog in the house.
168. Ben brought a dog in the house.
169. Ben brought a dog in the house.
170. Ben brought a dog in the house.
at in the house.
a dog
171. Ben brought (Correct answer: in the
house.)
at home.
172. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house.)
at home.
173. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house.)
174. Ben brought a dog in the house.
175. Ben brought a dog in the house.
176. Ben brought a dog in the house.
is bringing
177. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in my house.
brought)
45

was brought in dog


178. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the house.
brought) a dog)
179. Ben brought a dog in the house.
180. Ben brought a dog in the house.
181. Ben brought a dog in the house.
at the house.
a dog
182. Ben brought (Correct answer: in the
house.)
is bringing
183. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
bring
184. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
185. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring
186. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
187. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bringing in my house.
a dog
188. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
189. Ben brought a dog in the house.
190. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring
191. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
192. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring
193. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
at home.
194. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house.)
195. Ben brought a dog in the house.
bring
196. Ben (Correct answer: a dog in the house.
brought)
his dog in the house.
197. Ben brought (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
a dog) house.)
is bringing in my house.
198. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
his dog in the house.
199. Ben brought (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
a dog) house.)
200. Ben is bringing his dog in my house.
46

(Correct answer: (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the


brought) a dog) house.)
his dog in my house.
201. Ben is bring (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
a dog) house.)
in my house
202. Ben brought a dog (Correct answer: in the
house.)
his dog in the house.
203. Ben brought (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
a dog) house.)
his dog in the house.
204. Ben brought (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
a dog) house.)
is taking at home.
205. Ben (Correct answer: a dog (Correct answer: in the
brought) house.)
bring his dog in the house.
206. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
brought) a dog) house.)
brings his dog in the house.
207. Ben (Correct answer: (Correct answer: (Correct answer: in the
brought) a dog) house.)

Table 12 shows the translation of sentence no. 5: Si Ben ay nagdala ng aso sa

bahay. As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no.5 using

the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. The respondents were able to provide the correct

subject in the sentence. In contrary some of the respondents were not able to provide the

correct verb in the sentence; also, most of the respondents were not able to give the

correct object. This means that the respondents were able to follow the correct pattern in

constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in grammatical structure since

the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence no.5.

In the fifth sentence, the word “Ben” was used in both languages, “nagdala” for

“brought” and “aso” for “dog”. As shown in the sentence, the noun Ben was used as the

subject that was followed by a verb brought which shows the past action for the subject.
47

The word dog, which acted as the object of the verb in the sentence, was followed by the

preposition in and by an article the.

Table 13 The Common Patterns Used by the Respondents in Translating

English Sentences to Filipino Sentences

English – Filipino Translation Frequency Percentage (%)


Subject – Verb – Object 154 74.40%
Verb – Subject – Object 49 23.67%
Verb – Object – Subject - -
Subject – Object – Verb - -
Object – Verb – Subject 4 1.93%
TOTAL 207 100%

Table 13 shows the common patterns used by the respondents in translating

English sentences to Filipino sentences. As shown in the table, the most common pattern

used for the English to Filipino Translation is the Subject – Verb – Object pattern which

has a frequency of 154 or 74.40%. However, there are 49 0r 23.67% out of the total

number of sentences which uses the Verb – Subject – Object pattern. The least used

pattern in the Object – Verb – Subject pattern with only 4 or 1.93% out of the total

number of sentences constructed. The data gathered showed that in translating English

sentences to Filipino sentences, the Subject – Verb – Object pattern is the most prominent

pattern or most commonly used pattern.

Below are the 154 sample sentences using the Subject – Verb – Object

pattern in translating English sentences to Filipino sentences.

Given Sentences:

1. The driver was driving the car so fast.


48

2. The bird was eating a worm.

3. Eating provides energy.

4. The boy kissed the girl.

5. The lady is packing her things.

Table 14: Given Sentence No. 1: “The driver was driving the car so fast.”

Correct answer/translation: Ang drayber ay nagmamaneho ng sasakyan nang

napakabilis.

Other Possible Answers: Ang tsuper ay nagmamaneho ng kotse nang napakabilis.

Ang drayber ay napakabilis na nagmamaneho ng kotse.

Translation: Ang drayber ay nagmaneho ng sasakyan .


article S HV V determiner O

Subject Verb Object


ABM (17 out of 24 respondents)
ay napakabilis -
1. Ang magpatakbo (Correct answer: nang
ng sasakyan
drayber (Correct answer: ay napakabilis)
nagmamaneho)
ng sobrang mabilis
-
2. Isang (Correct answer: nang
ay nagmamaneho (Correct answer:
driver napakabilis)
ng sasakyan)
ng sobrang bilis.
3. Ang
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: nang
tsuper
napakabilis)
ay mabilis na ang sasakyan. -
4. Ang pinatakbo (Correct answer: ng (Correct answer: ng
drayber (Correct answer: ay sasakyan ng napakabilis)
nagmamaneho) napakabilis)
sa sasakyan. -
5. Ang
ay nagmamaneho (Correct answer: ng (Correct answer: ng
drayber
sasakyan) napakabilis)
ang kanyang takbo. -
ay mabilis
6. Ang (Correct answer: ng (Correct answer: ng
(Correct answer: ay
driver sasakyan ng napakabilis)
nagmamaneho)
napakabilis)
7. Ang ng mabilis.
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse
drayber (Correct answer: ng
49

napakabilis)
ng mabilis.
8. Ang
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse ((Correct answer: ng
tsuper
napakabilis)
ng sobrang mabilis.
9. Ang
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: ng
tsuper
napakabilis)
ng mabilis.
10. Ang
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: ng
tsuper
napakabilis)
ng mabilis.
11. Ang
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: ng
tsuper
napakabilis)
ng napakalakas.
12. Ang
ay nagmaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: ng
driver
napakabilis)
ng mabilis.
13. Ang
ay nagmamaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: ng
dayber
napakabilis)
ay malakas na -
14. Ang nagpatakbo (Correct answer: ng
ng sasakyan.
driver (Correct answer: ay napakabilis)
nagmamaneho)
- ng mabilis.
15. Ang
ay nagmamaneho (Correct answer: ng (Correct answer: ng
driver
sasakyan) napakabilis)
ng napakalakas.
16. Ang
ay nagmaneho ng kotse (Correct answer: ng
driver
napakabilis)
Mabilis
- (Correct answer: ng
17. Ang
ay nagmaneho (Correct answer: ng sasakyan ng napakabilis)
driver
sasakyan)

Table 14 shows the translation of sentence no. 1 “The driver was driving the car

so fast.” As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no.1 using

the Subject – Verb – Object pattern. The respondents were able to provide the correct

subject in the sentence. Nevertheless some of the respondents were not able to provide

the correct verb in the sentence; also, most of the respondents were not able to give the

correct object. This means that the respondents were able to follow the correct pattern in

constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in grammatical structure since

the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence no.1.


50

In the first sentence, the English word “driver” was translated into the Filipino

word “drayber”, “driving” for “nagmamaneho” and “car” for “sasakyan”. As shown in

the sentence, the noun drayber was used as the subject that was followed by a helping

verb ay and a verb nagmamaneho, which shows the action for the subject. On the last part

of the sentence, the word sasakyan which acted as the object of the verb was preceded by

a determiner ng.

Table 15: Given Sentence No. 2: “The bird was eating a worm.”

Correct answer/translation: Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.

Translation: Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.


article S HV V determiner O

Subject Verb Object


GAS (20 out of 25 respondents)
18. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
19. May isang
na kumakain
Langgam ng isang uod
(Correct answer:
(Correct answer: (Correct answer: ng uod)
ay kumain)
Ang ibon)
ay nagkakain
sa uod.
20. Ang ibon (Correct answer:
(Correct answer: ng uod)
ay kumain)
21. Ang ibon ay kumain sa uod.
22. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
23. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
24. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
uod.
25. Ang ibon ay kumain
(Correct answer: ng uod.)
26. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
ay kumakain-kain
27. Ang ibon (Correct answer: ng uod.
ay kumain)
28. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
29. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
30. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
ay lumipad
31. Ang ibon (Correct answer: ng uod.
ay kumain)
32. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
33. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
34. Ang ibon ay kumain ng bulate.
51

(Correct answer: ng uod.)


ng bulate.
35. Ang ibon ay kumain
(Correct answer: ng uod.)
ng bulate.
36. Ang ibon ay kumain
(Correct answer: ng uod.)
37. Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.

Table 15 shows the translation of sentence no. 2 “The bird was eating a worm.”

As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no.2 using the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern. The respondents were able to provide the correct subject

in the sentence. However, some of the respondents were not able to provide the correct

verb and object in the sentence. This means that the respondents were able to follow the

correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in

grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence

no.2.

In the given sentence, the English word “bird” was translated into the Filipino

word “ibon”, “eating” for “kumain” and “worm” for “uod”. As shown in the sentence, the

noun ibon was used as the subject that was followed by a helping verb ay and a verb

kumain which shows the action for the subject. On the last part of the sentence, the word

uod, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded by a determiner ng.

Table 16: Given Sentence No. 3: “Eating provides energy.”

Correct answer/translation: Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.

Translation: Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng eneherhiya


article S HV V determiner O

Subject Verb Object


HUMSS (30 out of 50 respondents)
sa akin ng enerhiya.
38. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay
(Correct answer: ng enerhiya.)
39. Ang pagkain sa akin ng enerhiya.
ay nakapagbigay
(Correct answer: Ang (Correct answer: ng enerhiya.)
52

kumain)
40. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
41. Ang pagkain ay nakapagdagdag
(Correct answer: Ang (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
kumain) nakapagbigay)
ay nakakapagdagdag
42. Ang kumain (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
nakapagbigay)
43. Pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
44. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
45. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
46. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
47. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
48. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
49. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
50. Ang pagkain ay nakakapagdagdag
(Correct answer: Ang (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
kumain) nakapagbigay)
51. Pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
52. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
53. Pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
54. Ang pagkakain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
ay nakakapagdagdag
55. Ang kumain (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
nakapagbigay)
56. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
57. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
58. Ang pagkain ay nakakapagdagdag
(Correct answer: Ang (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
kumain) nakapagbigay)
53

59. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.


60. Kumakain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
ay nakakapagdagdag
61. Ang kumain (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
nakapagbigay)
62. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
63. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
64. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
65. Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
66. Ang pagkain
(Correct answer: Ang ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
kumain)
67. Ang pagkain ay nakakapagdagdag
(Correct answer: Ang (Correct answer: ay ng enerhiya.
kumain) nakapagbigay)

Table 16 shows the translation of sentence no. 3 “Eating provides energy.”

As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate the sentence no.3 using the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern. However, some of the respondents were not able to

provide the correct subject in the sentence. In addition some of the respondents were not

able to provide the correct verb in the sentence; also, most of the respondents were not

able to give the correct object. This means that the respondents are able to follow the

correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in

grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence

no.3.

In the given sentence, the English word “eating” was translated into the Filipino

word “kumain”, “provides” for “nakapagbigay” and “energy” for “enerhiya”. As shown

in the sentence, the noun kumain was used as the subject that was followed by a helping

verb ay and a verb nakapagbigay which shows the action for the subject. On the last part

of the sentence, the word enerhiya, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded

by a determiner ng.
54

Table 17: Given Sentence No. 4: “The boy kissed the girl”.

Correct answer/translation: Ang lalaki ay humalik sa babae.

Translation: Ang lalaki ay humalik sa babae.


article S HV V prep O

Subject Verb Object


STEM (17 out of 26 respondents)
68. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
69. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
70. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
71. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
72. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
73. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
74. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
75. Ang lalaki ay humalik
sa babae.
(Correct answer: humalik)
76. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
77. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
78. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
79. Ang lalaki ay humalik
sa babae.
(Correct answer: humalik)
80. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae.
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
81. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae.
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
82. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae.
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
83. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae.
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
84. Ang lalaki ay hinalikan ang babae.
(Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: sa babae)
55

Table 17 shows the translation of sentence no. 4 “The boy kissed the girl.”

As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no.4 using the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern. The respondents were able to provide the correct subject

in the sentence. In contrary, most of the respondents were not able to provide the correct

verb and object in the sentence. This means that the respondents are able to follow the

correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in

grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence

no.4.

In the given sentence, the English word “boy” was translated into the Filipino

word “lalaki”, “kissed” for “humalik” and “girl” for “babae”. As shown in the sentence,

the noun lalaki was used as the subject that was followed by a helping verb ay and verb

humalik which shows the action for the subject. On the last part of the sentence, the word

babae, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded by a preposition sa.

Table 18: Given Sentence No. 5: “The lady is packing her things.”

Correct answer/translation: “Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit”.

Translation: Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang gamit.


article S HV V determiner pronoun O

Subject Verb Object


TECH. VOC. (69 out of 84 respondents)
ng kanyang damit.
85. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
86. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
87. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ng kanyang gamit.
88. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
89. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
90. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
91. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
56

ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang gamit.


92. Ang dalaga (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang damit.
93. Ang dalaga (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang gamit.
94. Ang dalaga (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
95. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ay nag-impake
96. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- sa kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake)
ng gamit.
97. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ng kanyang kagamitan.
98. Ang babae ay nag-impake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
99. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
100. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ay nag-liligpit ng kanyang gamit.
101. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-liligpit ng kanyang gamit.
102. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
103. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake sa kanyang mga gamit.
ay nag-liligpit
104. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- ng kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake)
105. Ang ale ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ay nag-impake
106. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- ng kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake)
107. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
108. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ng kanyang gamit.
109. Ang babae ay nag-impake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
110. Ang dalaga ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
111. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
112. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
113. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
114. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
115. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
ng mga gamit.
116. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
57

ng kanyang gamit.
117. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
sa kanyang gamit.
118. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-iimpake ng gamit.
119. Ang isang
ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
babae
gamit)
ay nag-impake ng kanyang gamit.
120. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
121. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ng kanyang gamit.
122. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
123. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake sa kanyang mga gamit.
ng kanyang gamit.
124. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ng kanyang gamit.
125. Ang babae ay nag-impake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
sa kanyang gamit.
126. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
127. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
128. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
ay nag-impake sa kanyang gamit.
129. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-impake ang kanyang gamit.
130. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-impake
131. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- ng kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake)
132. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
133. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
ng kanyang gamit.
134. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-impake ng kanyang gamit.
135. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-impake ng kanyang gamit.
136. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
137. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake sa kanyang mga gamit.
58

sa kanyang gamit.
138. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-impake
139. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- ng kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake)
ay nag-impake
140. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- ng kanyang mga gamit
iimpake)
ay nag-impake sa kanyang gamit.
141. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-impake
142. Isang
(Correct answer: ay nag- ng kanyang mga gamit
babae
iimpake)
143. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit
ay nag-impake sa kanyang gamit.
144. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ng kanyang gamit.
145. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ng gamit..
146. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ng gamit.
147. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-impake ng kanyang gamit.
148. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ng kanyang gamit.
149. Ang babae ay nag-iimpake (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
gamit)
ay nag-impake sa kanyang gamit.
150. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-impake sa kanyang mga gamit.
151. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nag-impake ng kanyang gamit.
152. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay inihanda ang gamit.
153. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
ay nagbalot sa kanyang mga gamit.
154. Ang babae (Correct answer: ay nag- (Correct answer: ng kanyang mga
iimpake) gamit)
59

Table 18 shows the translation of sentence no. 5 “The lady is packing her things.”

As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate sentence no.5 using the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern. The respondents were able to provide the correct subject

in the sentence. In contrary, some of the respondents were not able to provide the correct

verb and object in the sentence. This means that the respondents are able to follow the

correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in

grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence

no.5.

In the given sentence, the English word “lady” was translated into the Filipino

word “babae”, “packing” for “nag-iimpake” and “things” for “gamit”. As shown in the

sentence, the noun babae was used as the subject that was followed by a helping verb ay

and a verb nag-iimpake which shows the action for the subject. On the last part of the

sentence, the word gamit, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded by a

pronoun kanyang and a determiner ng.

Below are the 49 sample sentences translated by the respondents using Verb –

Subject – Object pattern in translating English sentences to Filipino sentences.

Table 19: Given Sentence 1:“The driver was driving the car so fast”.

Correct answer/translation: Minamaneho ng drayber ang sasakyan nang napakabilis.

Translation:

Minamaneho ng drayber ang sasakyan nang napakabilis.


V ligature S article O adverb of manner adjective

Verb Subject Object


1. Nagmaneho ang drayber - ng mabilis.
(Correct answer: (Correct answer: (Correct answer: ang (Correct answer:
Minamaneho) ng drayber) sasakyan) nang napakabilis.)
2. Mabilis na -
minamaneho (Correct answer:
ng drayber ang sasakyan.
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis.)
Minamaneho)
3. Minamaneho ng drayber ang kotse nang napakabilis.
60

4. Pinatakbo ang sasakyan ng mabilis.


(Correct answer: ng drayber (Correct answer: ang (Correct answer:
Minamaneho) sasakyan) nang napakabilis.)
5. Minamaneho ng drayber ang kotse nang napakabilis.
6. Malakas na -
ang isang drayber ng sasakyan.
nagpatakbo (Correct answer:
(Correct answer: (Correct answer: ang
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis)
ng drayber) sasakyan)
Minamaneho)
ng napakalakas
7. Minamaneho ng drayber ang kotse (Correct answer:
nang napakabilis.)
8. Mabilis na -
ang tsuper ng sasakyan
nagmaneho (Correct answer:
(Correct answer: (Correct answer: ang
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis)
ng drayber) sasakyan)
Minamaneho)
9. Mabilis na -
ang tsuper ng sasakyan.
nagmaneho (Correct answer:
(Correct answer: (Correct answer: ang
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis)
ng drayber) sasakyan)
Minamaneho)
10. Pinapatakbo ng mabilis.
(Correct answer: ng drayber ang kotse (Correct answer:
Minamaneho) nang napakabilis.)
11. Pinatakbo ang kotse ng mabilis.
(Correct answer: ng drayber (Correct answer: ng (Correct answer:
Minamaneho) drayber) nang napakabilis.)
12. Pinatakbo ng -
ang sasakyan.
mabilis. (Correct answer:
- (Correct answer: ang
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis)
sasakyan)
Minamaneho)
13. Mabilis ang -
sa sasakyan.
pagdrive (Correct answer:
ng drayber (Correct answer: ang
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis)
sasakyan)
Minamaneho)
14. Mabilis na -
ang sasakyan.
pinatakbo (Correct answer:
ng drayber (Correct answer: ang
(Correct answer: nang napakabilis)
sasakyan)
Minamaneho)

Table 19 shows the translation of sentence 1 “The driver was driving the car so

fast.” As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate the sentence using the

Verb – Subject – Object pattern. Some of the respondents were able to provide the correct

verb in the sentence. In contrary, only few of the respondents were able to commit error

in providing the correct subject but most of the respondents were not able to provide the

correct object in the sentence. This means that the respondents are able to follow the
61

correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in

grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors in translating sentence

no. 1.

In the first sentence, the English word “driver” was translated into the Filipino

word “drayber”, “driving” for “minamaneho” and “car” for “sasakyan”. As shown in the

sentence, the noun drayber was used as the subject after a determiner ng and a verb

minamaneho, which shows the action for the subject. On the last part of the sentence, the

word sasakyan, which acted as the object of the verb, was followed by an adverb of

manner nang and an adjective napakabilis.

Table 20: Given Sentence 2: “The boy kissed the girl.”

Correct answer/translation: “Humalik ang lalaki sa babae”.

Other Possible Answer: Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.

Translation: Humalik ang lalaki sa babae.


V article S prep Object

Verb Subject Object


15. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
16. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
17. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
18. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
19. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
20. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
21. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
22. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
23. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
24 Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
25. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
26. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
27. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
28. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
29. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
30. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
31. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
32. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
62

33. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.


34. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
35. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.
36. Hinalikan ng lalaki ang babae.

Table 20 shows the translation of the sentence “The boy kissed the girl.” As

shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate the sentence using the Verb –

Subject – Object pattern. Most of the respondents were able to provide the correct pattern

in translating the sentence and the respondents were able to give the correct translation of

the sentence. This means that the respondents are able to follow the correct pattern in

constructing a sentence and have enough knowledge in grammatical structure in terms of

using the Verb – Subject – Object pattern in translating sentence no. 2.

In the given sentence, the English word “boy” was translated into the Filipino

word “lalaki”, “kissed” for “humalik” and “girl” for “babae”. As shown in the sentence,

the noun lalaki was used as the subject followed by a preposition sa. The verb humalik

which shows the action for the subject, was followed by an article ang. On the last part of

the sentence, the word babae, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded by a

preposition sa.

Table 21: Given sentence 3: “The lady is packing her things.”

Correct answer/translation: “Nag-iimpake ang babae ng kanyang mga gamit”.

Translation: Nag-iimpake ang babae ng kanyang gamit.


V article S determiner pronoun O

37. Nag-impake siya ng gamit


(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: (Correct answer:
iimpake) ang babae) sa kanyang mga gamit)
38. Inimpake ng babae ang kanyang mga gamit
(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: (Correct answer:
iimpake) ang babae) sa kanyang mga gamit)
ng kanyang gamit.
39. Nag-iimpake ang babae (Correct answer:
sa kanyang mga gamit)
63

40. Niligpit ng dalaga ang kanyang gamit.


(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: (Correct answer:
iimpake) ang babae) sa kanyang mga gamit)
ng kanyang gamit.
41. Nag-iimpake ang babae (Correct answer:
sa kanyang mga gamit)
42. Inimpake ng dalaga ang kanyang gamit
(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: (Correct answer:
iimpake) ang babae) sa kanyang mga gamit)
43. Inimpake ng babae
(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: ang kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake) ang babae)
44. Nag-impake ng kanyang gamit.
(Correct answer: Nag- ang babae (Correct answer:
iimpake) sa kanyang mga gamit)
ng kanyang gamit.
45. Nag-iimpake ang babae (Correct answer:
sa kanyang mga gamit)
46. Inimpake ng babae
(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: ang kanyang mga gamit.
iimpake) ang babae)
47. Nag-impake Siya ng gamit.
(Correct answer: Nag- (Correct answer: (Correct answer:
iimpake) ang babae) sa kanyang mga gamit)

Table 21 shows the translation of the sentence, “The lady is packing her things.”

As shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate the sentence using the Verb

– Subject – Object pattern. However, some of the respondents were not able to provide

the correct translation of the sentence. This means that the respondents are able to follow

the correct pattern in constructing a sentence but do not have enough knowledge in

grammatical structure in terms of using the Verb – Subject – Object pattern since the

respondents have committed errors in translating the sentence.

In the given sentence, the English word “lady” was translated into the Filipino

word “babae”, “packing” for “nag-iimpake” and “things” for “gamit”. As shown in the

sentence, the noun babae was used as the subject that was followed by a determiner ng

and the verb nag-iimpake was used as the action of the subject. On the last part of the
64

sentence, the word gamit, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded by a

pronoun kanyang and a determiner ng.

Table 22: Given Sentence 4: “The bird was eating a worm”.

Correct answer/translation: “Kumain ang ibon ng uod”.

Translation: Kumain ang ibon ng uod.


V article S ligature O

Verb Subject Object


48. Kumain ang ibon ng uod.
49. Kumain ang ibon ng uod.

Table 22 shows the translation of the sentence, “The bird was eating a worm.” As

shown in the table, the respondents were able to translate the sentence using the Verb –

Subject – Object pattern. The respondents are able to provide the correct translation of

the sentence. This means that the respondents have enough knowledge in grammatical

structure in terms of using the Verb – Subject – Object pattern in the sentence.

In the given sentence, the English word “bird” was translated into the Filipino

word “ibon”, “eating” for “kumain” and “worm” for “uod”. As shown in the sentence, the

noun ibon was used as the subject that was followed by a determiner ng and a verb

kumain which shows the action for the subject. On the last part of the sentence, the word

uod, which acted as the object of the verb, was preceded by a determiner ng.

Below are the 4 sample sentences translated by the respondents using Object –

Verb – Subject pattern in translating English sentence to Filipino sentence.

Table 23:Given sentence 5: “The boy kissed the girl .”

Correct answer/translation: “Sa babae humalik ang lalaki”.

Translation: Sa babae humalik ang lalaki.


determiner O V article S
65

Object Verb Subject


1. Ang babae ay hinalikan ng lalaki.
(Correct answer: sa babae) (Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: ang lalaki)
2. Si babae (Correct ang hinalikan ni lalaki.
answer: sa babae) (Correct answer: humalik) (Correct answer: ang lalaki)
3. Sa babae humalik ang lalaki.
4. Kay babae humalik si lalaki.

Table 23 shows the translation of the sentence, “The boy kissed the girl”. As
shown in the table the respondents were able to translate the sentence using the Object –
Verb – Subject pattern. Most of the respondents were not able to provide the correct
object of the sentence as well as the verb and the subject. This means that the respondents
were able to use the Object – Verb – Subject pattern in the sentence but do not have
enough knowledge in grammatical structure since the respondents have committed errors
in translating entence no. 5.

In the given sentence, the English word “boy” was translated into the Filipino

word “lalaki”, “kissed” for “humalik” and “girl” for “babae”. As shown in the sentence,

the noun lalaki was used as the subject that was preceded by an article ang and the verb

humalik which shows the action for the subject was preceded by the object babae.

Languages differ from each other in numerous properties, but this variation is not

completely random. For example, when uttering a sentence containing a subject, a verb

and an object, there are six logically possible orders in which one can put these

constituents into a sentence. However, not all of these word orders are as widely used

among languages. In fact, almost all languages put the subject or agent before the object

or patient in basic transitive sentences, resulting in so-called SOV, SVO or VSO word

orders in which „S‟, „O‟ and „V‟ are short for subject, object and verb respectively

(Greenberg, 1963). Word orders in which the object precedes the subject are quite rare:

only about 5% of all languages exhibit VSO, VOS or OVS word order (Siewierska,

1988:15). An overview of the occurrences of the dominant word orders is given in table 1

below (Dryer, 2013a). Note that the terms „subject‟ and „object‟, the „S‟ and „O‟ in the
66

case of the abbreviations above, are used here in a general semantic sense: their use must

be defined in terms of agent-like or patient-like properties respectively. Although there

has been discussion on the exact numbers of occurrence, it is evident that SVO and VSO

word orders are by far the most adopted among languages. (Morwenna Hoeks, 2016)

Table 24 Significant Relationship in knowing the different placement of the

S-V-O pattern between the Filipino and English Language when

paired according to Profile

Factors Compared Different Placement of the S – V – O


Compute
Respondents’ Profile df TV d (x2) Interpretation Action
Significant Ho was
Age 0.05 2.0 5.991 10.47 Difference rejected
Significant Ho was
Gender 0.05 2.0 5.991 11.013 Difference rejected
No Significant Ho was
Strand 0.05 4.0 9.488 0.963 Difference accepted

Table 23 shows the significant relationship in knowing the different placement of

the S – V – O pattern between the Filipino and English language when paired according

to profile. Applying the chi-square test, both the respondents’ gender and age were

interpreted as having significant relationship in knowing the different placement of the

Subject – Verb – Object pattern between Filipino and English language translation. The

respondents’ age having the chi-value of 10.47 was greater than the tabular value of

5.991 and the respondents’ gender having the chi-value of 11.013 was also greater than

its tabular value of 5.991. Both suggest the rejection of the hypothesis. For the strands,

the tabular value of 9.488 is greater than the chi-value which was only 0.963, that suggest
67

the acceptance of the hypothesis which implies that there is no significant relationship

between the strands where the respondents belong in knowing the significant relationship

in knowing the different placement of the S – V – O pattern.

This correlates to the study of Ghourchaei et al, (2015) entitled “Risk Taking,

Gender and Oral Narrative Proficiency in Persian Learners of English” which was

shown in their study that personality factors such as gender do not have significant

relationship that would affect the students in their English proficiency. It was believed

that males are more willing to accept risky behaviours which can take the idea to

language education and claim that men are more willing to venture to speak or show their

language proficiency in front of others. But just like in the present study, it doesn’t

support the idea that gender differences can show how each of them can vary in their

English proficiency levels.


68

Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the restatement of the problem, the summary of the findings,

the conclusions, and the recommendations based on the findings of the study.

Restatement of the Problem

This study aimed to identify the commonly used pattern for word order in

translating simple sentences between Filipino and English language and to find out the

students’ expertise in using the Subject – Verb – Object pattern in a simple sentence in

terms of translating Filipino language to English language and vice versa.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age;

1.2 Gender;

1.3 Strand?

2. What is the proficiency level of the Grade 11 Senior High School students in

translating simple sentences between Filipino and English language using the:

2.1 Subject – Verb – Object pattern?

3. What are the common patterns used by the respondents in translating English sentences

to Filipino sentences?

4. Is there any significant relationship in knowing the different placement of the S-V-O

pattern between the Filipino and English Language when paired according to profile?
69

Summary of Findings

The study revealed to answer the following findings:

1. Majority of the respondents were female adolescent who took up Tech. Voc strand.

2. In terms of the proficiency level, the respondents were progressing.

3. The common patterns used by the respondents in translating Filipino sentences to

English sentences and vice versa, was Subject – Verb – Object pattern.

4. There was a significant relationship between both age and gender in knowing the

different placement of the Subject – Verb – Object pattern between the Filipino and

English language. However, it yielded no significant relationship between the strand

and in knowing the different placement of the Subject – Verb – Object pattern.

Conclusion

On the basis of careful evaluation analysis of the findings, the following

conclusions are drawn: that the commonly used pattern for word order in translating

English sentences to Filipino sentences and vice versa is the Subject – Verb – Object

pattern. In addition, the proficiency level of the respondents in translating English

sentences to Filipino sentences and vice versa show that they are in the process of

improving their ability to translate and are closed to being proficient. Moreover,

some of the respondents are not able to use Subject – Verb – Object pattern in

translating English to Filipino sentences, instead they use the Verb – Subject –

Object pattern and the Object – Verb – Subject pattern. The result shows that the

respondents are not proficient in translating simple sentences that are expected of

them.
70

Recommendations:

1. Students should read and study more about the correct pattern of a particular

sentence to avoid difficulties in translating sentences between the two languages.

2. The teacher should give more activities that involve translation between the two

languages for them to distinguish the different placement, since knowing the correct

pattern of a sentence is very important in constructing a sentence, and should spend

more class time to address the problematic points in translation procedures such as

carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. In addition, more authentic

translation and group work should be implemented to increase self-confidence and

decrease anxiety.

3. This study recommends that the department of education should encourage

students to develop and improve their proficiency in translating simple sentences

between Filipino and English language.


71

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Nationmaster. (2008). Encyclopedia: Tagalog language. Retrieved October 14, 2008,


Retrieved from: http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Tagalog-language.

O’Shannessy, C. (2011). Competition between word order and case-marking in


interrupting grammatical relations: a case study in multilingual acquisition.
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lish&ssibid=ah7860049&ach=AdNetA_CNET_31&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI24Xzq
IGc1gIVlCu9Ch1wkg_vEAMYASAAEgJYqfD_BwE

Plunkett, B.,Westergaard.M. (2011). The acquisition of word order: Micro-cues,


information structure, and economy. Journal of Linguistics. 47(3): 756-753.
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E64ContentFiles/LinguisticsAndLanguages/AmericanEnglish.html
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Ronquillo, Seth (2016). Interference of Second Language in the Acquisition of Tagalog


Word in Children: A Case Study Retrieved on Octover 11, 2016, from:
http://aleph.humanities.ucla.edu/2017/05/16/interference-of-second-language-in-
the-acquisition-of-tagalog-word-in-children-a-case-study/

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Book 1. Rex Printing Company,inc., Florentino St., Quezon City.

Wongranu, Pattanapong (2016). Errors in translation made by English major students: A


Study on Types and Causes. Retrieved on June 23, 2018 from:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452315117300851

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language
https://www.britannica.com/topic/English-language
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bid=ah7860049&ach=AdNetA_CNET_31&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI24XzqIGc1gI
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basic-understanding/

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http://www.dictionary.com/browse/word
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galog%20and%20english%20sentences&f=false

http://news.mit.edu/2012/applying-information-theory-to-linguistics-1010

http://www.languagesoftheworld.info/syntax/parametric-theory-of-word-order-
language-acquisition-and-historical-change.html

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.387.6852&rep=rep1&t
ype=pdf
74

APPENDIX A
Letter to the Research Adviser

Republic of the Philippines


JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City

OFFICE OF THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

October 11, 2017

PROF. ROCHEL A. RANES


Research Professor

Madam:

Greetings!

We, Princess Mae S. Bucol, Alpha Faith A. Tigulo and Delcar G. Vidal, would humbly
ask you to be our Research Adviser. We believe that your knowledge and expertise in the
research field can help us a lot in accomplishing our undergraduate thesis entitled “An
Analysis on Word Order: The Placement of Subject-Verb–Object in a Simple
Sentence Between Filipino and English Language”.

Thank you so much for your time and consideration.

Sincerely Yours,

PRINCESS MAE S. BUCOL ALPHA FAITH A. TIGULO DELCAR G. VIDAL


Researcher 1 Researcher 2 Researcher 3

Approved by:

PROF. ROCHEL A. RANES


Adviser/Research 32 Professor
75

APPENDIX B
Letter to the School Principal

Republic of the Philippines


JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

March 27, 2018

IVO MATHEW M. SIATON, M.A.PEd.

Greetings!

The undersigned are the Third Year BSED – English students of Jose Rizal Memorial State
University, Dipolog Campus undertaking a research entitled “An Analysis on Word Order: The
Placement of Subject – Verb – Object in a Simple Sentence between Filipino and English
Language”.

In connection thereof, we humbly ask approval from your good office to allow us to conduct our
study to 207 Senior High School Students: 50 HUMMS students, 26 STEM students, 25 GAS
students, 24 ABM students and 82 Tech-Voc students. Rest assured that the data gathered will be
strictly for research purposes only and will be kept with outmost confidentiality.

We are looking forward with your positive response on this regard.

Thank you and God bless.

Respectfully yours,

PRINCESS MAE S. BUCOL ALPHA FAITH A. TIGULO DELCAR G. VIDAL


Researcher 1 Researcher 2 Researcher 3

Approved/Disapproved:

IVO MATHEW M. SIATON, M.A.PEd


Principal, Senior High School
JRMSU-Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City
76

APPENDIX C
Survey – Questionnaire of the Study

Part I. Personal Information


Directions: Supply the information needed in the study. Please check the space that
corresponds to your answer.

Name (Optional): _______________________ Year/Grade Level: __________

Age: ( ) 17 below ( ) 18 - 20 Years ( ) 21 above

Gender: ( ) Female ( ) Male ( ) LGBT

Strand: ( ) HUMSS ( ) GAS ( ) ABM


( ) STEM ( ) TECH. VOC

Part II.
Directions: Translate the following Filipino sentences into English sentences and identify
the Subject, Verb, and Object in each sentence.

1. Kumain ng hinog na saging ang matandang lalaki.

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

2. Nagluto si Anna ng adobo sa kusina.

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Subject –

Verb –
77

Object –

3. Namimingwit ng isda si Anton sa ilog.

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

4. Ang bag na dala ni John ay mabigat.

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

5. Si Ben ay nagdala ng aso sa bahay.

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Subject –

Verb –

Object –
78

Part III.
Directions: Translate the following English sentences into Filipino sentences and
identify the Subject, Verb, and Object in each sentence.

1. The driver was driving the car.

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

2. The bird was eating a worm.

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

3. Eating provides energy.

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Simuno –
79

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

4. The boy kissed the girl.

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

Translation: ___________________________________________________

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –

5. The lady is packing her things.

Subject –

Verb –

Object –

Translation: _________________________________________________

Simuno –

Pandiwa –

Layon (Object) –
80

APPENDIX D
Answer Key to the Questionnaire
Part II.
1. Kumain ng hinog na saging ang matandang lalaki.
Subject: matandang lalaki
Verb: kumain
Object: hinog na saging
Translation: The old man was eating a ripe banana.
Subject: old man
Verb: eating
Object: ripe banana

2. Nagluto si Anna ng adobo sa kusina.


Subject: Ana
Verb: nagluto
Object: adobo
Translation: Anna cooked adobo in the kitchen.
Subject: Anna
Verb: cooked
Object: adobo

3. Namimingwit ng isda si Anton sa ilog.


Subject: Anton
Verb: namimingwit
Object: isda
Translation: Anton is catching fish in the river.
Subject: Anton
Verb: catching
Object: fish

4. Ang bag na dala ni John ay mabigat.


Subject: John
81

Verb: dala
Object: bag
Translation: John brought a heavy bag.
Subject: John
Verb: brought
Object: bag

5. Si Ben ay nagdala ng aso sa bahay.


Subject: Ben
Verb: nagdala
Object: aso
Translation: Ben brought a dog in the house.
Subject: Ben
Verb: brought
Object: dog

Part III:
1. The driver was driving the car so fast.
Subject: driver
Verb: driving
Object: car
Translation: Ang drayber ay nagmamaneho ng sasakyan nang napakabilis.
Subject: drayber
Verb: nagmamaneho
Object: sasakyan

2. The bird was eating a worm.


Subject: bird
Verb: eating
Object: worm
Translation: Ang ibon ay kumain ng uod.
Subject: ibon
Verb: kumain
82

Object: uod

3. Eating provides energy.


Subject: eating
Verb: provides
Object: energy
Translation: Ang kumain ay nakapagbigay ng enerhiya.
Subject: kumain
Verb: nakapagbigay
Object: enerhiya

4. The boy kissed the girl.


Subject: boy
Verb: kissed
Object: girl
Translation: Ang lalaki ay humalik sa babae.
Subject: lalaki
Verb: hinalikan
Object: babae

5. The lady is packing her things.


Subject: lady
Verb: packing
Object: things
Translation: Ang babae ay nag-iimpake ng kanyang mga gamit.
Subject: babae
Verb: nag-iimpake
Object: gamit
83

APPENDIX E
Levels of Proficiency Rubric

Beginner Developing Progressing Proficient


10 – below 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40

-Translated only 10 -Translated 11 to 20 -Translated 21 to 30 -Translated 31 to 40

and below correct correct sentences correct sentences correct sentences

sentences with the with the use of with the use of with the use of

use of correct correct pattern. correct pattern. correct pattern.

pattern.

-With help applies -Applies the basic -With help applies -Independently

the basic knowledge knowledge and the basic and applies the basic and

and skills taught to skills taught to complex knowledge complex knowledge

situations in the situations in the and skills taught to and skills taught to

activity. activity. situations in the situations in the

activity. activity.
84

APPENDIX F
Certificate of Validation

Republic of the Philippines


JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City

Office for Research and Development

PHILOSOPHY
CERTIFICATION OF VALIDATION
Jose Rizal Memorial State FROM THE
University adheres to the LINGUISTIC EXPERTS
principal of dynamism and
cultural diversity in building a
just and humane society. We hereby certify that this undergraduate thesis
entitled “An Analysis on Word Order: The Placement of
VISION Subject – Verb – Object in a Simple Sentence between
Filipino and English Language” written by Princess Mae
A dynamic and diverse, S. Bucol, Alpha Faith A. Tigulo, and Delcar G. Vidal has
internationally recognized undergone thorough evaluation and we attest to its veracity.
university.

MISSION Given this 3rd day of July, 2018, at Jose Rizal


Memorial State University, Dipolog Campus, Dipolog
Jose Rizal Memorial State
City, Philippines.
University pledges itself to
deliver effective and efficient
services along research,
instruction, production and
extension. ROCHEL A. RANES, M.A. Eng.
Validator
It commits to provide advanced
professional, technical, and
technopreneurial training with
the aim of producing highly MIRIAM V. ICAO, M.A. Eng.
competent, innovative, and self- Validator
renewed individuals.

GLENDA A. TAMPON, M.A. Fil.


Validator
85

APPENDIX G
Certification of the English Editor

Republic of the Philippines


JOSE RIZAL MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY
The Premier University in Zamboanga del Norte
Dipolog Campus, Dipolog City

Office for Research and Development

PHILOSOPHY
CERTIFICATION FROM THE
Jose Rizal Memorial State ENGLISH EDITOR
University adheres to the
principal of dynamism and
cultural diversity in building a I hereby certify that this undergraduate thesis
just and humane society. entitled “An Analysis on Word Order: The Placement of
Subject – Verb – Object in a Simple Sentence between
VISION Filipino and English Language” written by Princess Mae
S. Bucol, Alpha Faith A. Tigulo, and Delcar G. Vidal has
A dynamic and diverse, undergone thorough analyzing and editing. I further
internationally recognized endorse its readiness for final printing, reproduction and
university. hard binding.

MISSION
Given this 3rd day of July, 2018, at Jose Rizal
Jose Rizal Memorial State
University pledges itself to Memorial State University, Dipolog Campus, Dipolog
deliver effective and efficient City, Philippines.
services along research,
instruction, production and
extension.

It commits to provide advanced ROCHEL A. RANES, M.A. Eng.


professional, technical, and English Editor
technopreneurial training with
the aim of producing highly
competent, innovative, and self-
renewed individuals.
86

APPENDIX H
Photo Documentation
87

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information

Name: Princess Mae S. Bucol

Age: 19 years old

Date of Birth: May 8, 1999

Birthplace: Joaquin Macias, Sindangan, Zamboanga del Norte

Address: Joaquin Macias, Sindangan, Zamboanga del Norte

Civil Status: Single

Gender: Female

Height: 5’2

Weight: 45kg

Citizenship: Filipino

Father’s Name: Danilo P. Bucol

Mother’s Name: Flordeliza S. Bucol

Educational Background

School Year Graduated

Elementary: Dalongdong Elementary School 2011

Secondary: Dinasan National High School 2015

Tertiary: Jose Rizal Memorial State University

- Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English


88

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information

Name: Alpha Faith A. Tigulo

Age: 20 years old

Date of Birth: March 16, 1998

Birthplace: Dipolog City

Address: South Curvada, Galas, Dipolog City

Civil Status: Single

Gender: Female

Height: 5’0

Weight: 42kg

Citizenship: Filipino

Father’s Name: Florencio A. Tigulo

Mother’s Name: Regina A. Tigulo

Educational Background

School Year Graduated

Elementary: Laoy Olingan Elementary School 2011

Secondary: Galas National High School 2015

Tertiary: Jose Rizal Memorial State University

- Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English


89

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information

Name: Delcar G. Vidal

Age: 21 years old

Date of Birth: June 8, 1997

Birthplace: Baybay Barra, Dipolog City

Address: Bonifacio St. corner Martinez, Dipolog City

Civil Status: Single

Gender: Female

Height: 4’7

Weight: 45kg

Citizenship: Filipino

Father’s Name: Enemisio D. Vidal

Mother’s Name: Delailah P. Gumalap

Educational Background

School Year Graduated

Elementary: Miputak West Elementary School 2010

Secondary: Dipolog City National High School 2014

Tertiary: Jose Rizal Memorial State University

- Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English