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Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization

controlled on governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the
pressures of overconsumption, population and technology, the biophysical environment is being
degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and pranith have begun placing restraints on
activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, activity of environmental
movements has created awareness of the various environmental problems. There is no agreement on the
extent of the environmental impact of human activity and even scientific dishonestyoccurs, so protection
measures are occasionally debated.

Environmental protection in Tanzania began during the German occupation of East Africa (1884-1919)
colonial conservation laws for the protection of game and forests were enacted, where by restrictions were
placed upon traditional indigenous activities such as hunting, firewood collecting and cattle grazing.

Government protection

Division of the biosphere is the main government body that oversees protection. It does this through the
formulation of policy, coordinating and monitoring environmental issues, environmental planning and
policy-oriented environmental research. The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) is an
institution that was initiated when the National Environment Management Act was first introduced in year
1983. This council has the role to advise governments and the international community on a range of
environmental issues. The NEMC the following purposes: provide technical advice; coordinate technical
activities; develop enforcement guidelines and procedures; assess, monitor and evaluate activities that
impact the environment; promote and assist environmental information and communication; and seek
advancement of scientific knowledge.[11]

The National Environment Policy of 1997 acts as a framework for environmental decision making in
Tanzania. The policy objectives are to achieve the following:

 Ensure sustainable and equitable use of resources without degrading the environment or risking
health or safety
 Prevent and control degradation of land, water, vegetation and air
 Conserve and enhance natural and man-made heritage, including biological diversity of unique
ecosystems
 Improve condition and productivity of degraded areas
 Raise awareness and understanding of the link between environment and development
 Promote individual and community participation
 Promote international cooperation[11]

Tanzania is a signatory to a significant number of international conventions including the Rio Declaration
on Development and Environment 1992 and the Convention on Biological Diversity 1996. The
Environmental Management Act, 2004, is the first comprehensive legal and institutional framework to
guide environmental-management decisions. The policy tools that are parts of the act includes the use of:
environmental-impact assessments, strategics environmentals assessments and taxation on pollution for
specific industries and products. The effectiveness of shifing of this act will only become clear over time
as concerns regarding its implementation become apparent based on the fact that, historically, there has
been a lack of capacity to enforce environmental laws and a lack of working tools to bring environmental-
protection objectives into practice.
China

Formal environmental protection in China House was first stimulated in 1972 United Nations Conference
on the Human Environment . Following this, they began establishing environmental protection agencies
and putting controls on some of its industrial waste. China was one of the first developing countries to
implement a sustainable development strategy. In 1983 the State Council announced that environmental
protection would be one of China's basic national policies and in 1984 the National Environmental
Protection Agency (NEPA) was established. Following severe flooding of the Yangtze River basin in
1998, NEPA was upgraded to the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) meaning that
environmental protection was now being implemented at a ministerial level. In 2008, SEPA became
known by its current name of Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of
China (MEP).[12]

Environmental pollution and ecological degradation has resulted in economic losses for China. In 2005,
economic losses (mainly from air pollution) were calculated at 7.7% of China's GDP. This grew to 10.3%
by 2002 and the economic loss from water pollution (6.1%) began to exceed that caused by air
pollution.[13] China has been one of the top performing countries in terms of GDP growth (9.64% in the
past ten years). However, the high economic growth has put immense pressure on its environment and the
environmental challenges that China faces are greater than most countries. In 2010 China was ranked
121st out of 163 countries on the Environmental Performance Index. China has taken initiatives to
increase its protection of the environment and combat environmental degradation:

Rapid growth in GDP has been China's main goal during the past three decades with a dominant
development model of inefficient resource use and high pollution to achieve high GDP. For China to
develop sustainably, environmental protection should be treated as an integral part of its economic
policies.[15]
European Union

Environmental protection has become an important task for the institutions of the European Community
after the Maastricht Treaty for the European Union ratification by all the Member States. The EU is
already very active in the field of environmental policy with important directives like those
on environmental impact assessment and on the access to environmental information for citizens in the
Member States.
Russia[edit]

In Russia, environmental protection is considered an integral part of national safety. There is an


authorized state body - the Federal Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology. However, there are a lot
of environmental problems.
Latin America[edit]

Top 5 Countries by biological diversity

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has identified 17megadiverse countries. The list
includes six Latin American
countries: Brazil,Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Mexico and Brazil stand out among
the rest because they have the largest area, population and number of species. These countries represent a
major concern for environmental protection because they have high rates of deforestation, ecosystems
loss, pollution, and population growth.

Brazil[edit]
Panorama of the Iguazu falls in Brazil

Brazil has the largest amount of the world's tropical forests, 4,105,401 km2 (48.1% of Brazil),
concentrated in the Amazon region.[16] Brazil is home to vast biological diversity, first among
the megadiverse countries of the world, having between 15%-20% of the 1.5 million globally described
species.[17]

The organization in charge of environment protection is the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment (in
Portuguese: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, MMA).[18] It was first created in year 1973 with the name
Special Secretariat for the Environment (Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente), changing names several
times, and adopting the final name in year 1999. The Ministry is responsible for addressing the following
issues:

 A national policy for the environment and for water resources;


 A policy for the preservation, conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems, biodiversity and
forests;
 Proposing strategies, mechanisms, economic and social instruments for improving environmental
quality, and sustainable use of natural resources;
 Policies for integrating production and the environment;
 Environmental policies and programs for the Legal Amazon;
 Ecological and economic territorial zoning.

In 2011, protected areas of the Amazon covered 2,197,485 km2 (an area larger than Greenland), with
conservation units, like national parks, accounting for just over half (50.6%), and indigenous territories
representing the remaining 49.4%.[19]

Mexico[edit]

With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home to 10–12% of the world's biodiversity, ranking first
in reptile biodiversity and second in mammals[20]—one estimate indicates that over 50% of all animal and
plant species live in Mexico.[21]

The history of environmental policy in Mexico started in the 1940s with the enactment of the Law of
Conservation of Soil and Water (in Spanish: Ley de Conservación de Suelo y Agua). Three decades later,
at the beginning of the 1970s, the Law to Prevent and Control Environmental Pollution was created (Ley
para Prevenir y Controlar la Contaminación Ambiental).

In year 1972 was the first direct response from the federal government to address eminent health effects
from environmental issues. It established the administrative organization of the Secretariat for the
Improvement of the Environment (Subsecretaría para el Mejoramiento del Ambiente) in the Department
of Health and Welfare.

The axolotl is an endemic species from the central part of Mexico

The Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales, SEMARNAT[22]) is Mexico's environment ministry. The Ministry is responsible for addressing
the following issues:

 Promote the protection, restoration and conservation of ecosystems, natural resources, goods and
environmental services, and to facilitate their use and sustainable development.
 Develop and implement a national policy on natural resources
 Promote environmental management within the national territory, in coordination with all levels of
government and the private sector.
 Evaluate and provide determination to the environmental impact statements for development projects
and prevention of ecological damage
 Implement national policies on climate change and protection of the ozone layer.
 Direct work and studies on national meteorological, climatological, hydrological, and
geohydrological systems, and participate in international conventions on these subjects.
 Regulate and monitor the conservation of waterways

In November 2000 there were 127 protected areas; currently there are 174, covering an area of
25,384,818 hectares, increasing federally protected areas from 8.6% to 12.85% its land area.[23]
Oceania[edit]
Australia[edit]
The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is the largest barrier reef in the world

In 2008, there was 98,487,116 ha of terrestrial protected area, covering 12.8% of the land area
of Australia.[24] The 2002 figures of 10.1% of terrestrial area and 64,615,554 ha of protected marine
area[25] were found to poorly represent about half of Australia's 85 bioregions.[26]

Environmental protection in Australia could be seen as starting with the formation of the first National
Park, Royal National Park, in 1879.[27] More progressive environmental protection had it start in the
1960s and 1970s with major international programs such as theUnited Nations Conference on the Human
Environment in 1972, the Environment Committee of the OECD in 1970, and the United Nations
Environment Programme of 1972.[28] These events laid the foundations by increasing public awareness
and support for regulation. State environmental legislation was irregular and deficient until the Australian
Environment Council (AEC) and Council of Nature Conservation Ministers (CONCOM) were established
in 1972 and 1974, creating a forum to assist in coordinating environmental and conservation policies
between states and neighbouring countries.[29] These councils have since been replaced by the Australian
and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) in 1991 and finally the
Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC) in 2001.[30]

At a national level, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the primary
environmental protection legislation for the Commonwealth of Australia. It concerns matters of national
and international environmental significance regarding flora, fauna, ecological communities and cultural
heritage.[31] It also has jurisdiction over any activity conducted by the Commonwealth, or affecting it, that
has significant environmental impact.[32] The act covers eight main areas:[33]

 National Heritage Sites


 World Heritage Sites
 RAMSAR wetlands
 Nationally endangered or threatened species and ecological communities
 Nuclear activities and actions
 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
 Migratory species
 Commonwealth Marine areas

There are several Commonwealth protected lands due to partnerships with traditional native owners, such
as Kakadu National Park, extraordinary biodiversity such as Christmas Island National Park, or managed
cooperatively due to cross-state location, such as the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves.[34]

At a state level, the bulk of environmental protection issues are left to the responsibility of the state or
territory Each state in Australia has its own environmental protection legislation and corresponding
agencies. Their jurisdiction is similar and covers point-source pollution, such as from industry or
commercial activities, land/water use, and waste management. Most protected lands are managed by
states and territories with state legislative acts creating different degrees and definitions of protected areas
such as wilderness, national land and marine parks, state forests, and conservation areas. States also create
regulation to limit and provide general protection from air, water, and sound pollution.

At a local level, each city or regional council has responsibility over issues not covered by state or
national legislation. This includes non-point source, or diffuse pollution, such as sediment pollution from
construction sites.

Australia ranks second place on the UN 2010 Human Development Index[35] and one of the lowest debt
to GDP ratios of the developed economies.[36] This could be seen as coming at the cost of the
environment, with Australia being the world leader in coal exportation[37] and species
extinctions.[38][39] Some have been motivated to proclaim it is Australia's responsibility to set the example
of environmental reform for the rest of the world to follow.[40][41]

New Zealand[edit]

At a national level, the Ministry for the Environment is responsible for environmental policy and
the Department of Conservation addresses conservation issues. At a regional level the regional
councils administer the legislation and address regional environmental issues.
Switzerland[edit]
See also: Environmental protection in Switzerland

The environmental protection in Switzerland is mainly based on the measures to be taken against global
warming. The pollution in Switzerland is mainly the pollution caused by vehicles and the litteration by
tourists.
United States[edit]
One of the first protected areas in the United States Since 1969, the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to protect the environment and human health. All U.S. states
have their own state departments of environmental protection.

The EPA has drafted "Seven Priorities for EPA's Future", which are

 "Taking Action on Climate Change"


 "Improving Air Quality"
 "Assuring the Safety of Chemicals"
 "Cleaning Up Our Communities"
 "Protecting America's Waters"
 "Expanding the Conversation on Environmentalism and Working for Environmental Justice"
 "Building Strong State and Tribal Partnerships"[44]

The extent of the environmental legislation network is evident from the above discussion but the
enforcement of the laws has been a matter of concern. One commonly cited reason is the prevailing
command and control nature of the environmental regime. Coupled with this is the prevalence of the all-
or-nothing approach of the law; they do not consider the extent of violation. Fines are levied on a flat
basis and in addition, there are no incentives to lower the discharges below prescribed levels.

In 1995, the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) constituted a task force which strongly
advocated the use of market-based instruments for the control of environmental pollution. Various
economic incentives have been used to supplement the command-and-control policies. Depreciation
allowances, exemptions from excise or customs duty payment, and arrangement of soft loans for the
adoption of clean technologies are instances of such incentives. Another aspect that is evident is the shift
in the focus from end-of-pipe treatment of pollution to treatment at source. The role of remote sensing and
geographical information systems in natural resource management and environmental protection has also
gained importance over time.

An important recent development is the rise of judicial activism in the enforcement of environmental
legislation. This is reflected in the growth of environment-related public litigation cases that have led the
courts to take major steps such as ordering the shut-down of polluting factories.

Agenda 21 highlights the need for integration of environmental concerns at all stages of policy, planning
and decision-making processes including the use of an effective legal and regulatory framework,
economic instruments and other incentives. These very principles were fundamental to guiding
environmental protection in the country well before Rio and will be reinforced, drawing on India's own
experiences and those of other countries.