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DER Integration and Microgrids

Babak Enayati, PhD, PE Aleksi Paaso, PhD, PE Farid Katiraei, PhD

Manager, Technology Deployment, Manager, Emerging Technology Sr. Director, Advanced Technology
National Grid, MA Commonwealth Edison, IL Integration, Quanta Technology, NC
Email: Email: Email: Fkatiraei@quanta-
Phone: 781-907-3242 Phone: 630-576-6124
Phone: 1-647-330-7379

Australian Parliamentary Economics and Industry Standing Committee meeting with IEEE PES Industry Technical Taskforce
September 27, 2018
Australian Consulate-General, New York City

• DER growth in the US
• Key Characteristics of DER
• Integrated Distribution Planning
• Distributed Energy Resources Management System (DERMS)
• DER Codes and Standards
• NY Reforming the Energy Vision (REV)
• State Level Grid Modernization Efforts
• Microgrids

Significant Declines in Cost & Increase in Installations

Solar Installs Source: U.S. Department of

Energy (DOE), On the Path to
Solar Costs SunShot,

Wind Installs
Source: DOE, Wind Vision
Wind Costs Report,
Key Characteristics of DERs
 Intermittent and variable production; Emerging / Unknown technologies
 Low capacity factor
• PV systems: between 10% - 25%
• Wind turbine systems: between 25% - 55%
 Low (and adjustable) fault current contribution:
• PV systems: usually between 110% - 130% times In
• Wind systems: depending on technology, can be in range of 120% - 220% x In
• Energy Storage Systems: Transient capability (e.g. 200% to 300% for 5 seconds)
 Relatively higher capital cost compared to traditional systems
DER Integration Challenges and Impacts

 Depending on size, type, technology, location, engineering

practices, and penetration level, DER may have various impacts Limits
and benefits on distribution systems:
– Main concerns: Voltage increase and fluctuations, thermal rating Thermal
violations, protection issues, load masking, wear and tear of circuit
apparatus (tap changers and switches)
– Main benefits: voltage support (especially toward the end of the feeders), Coordination
peak shaving (potential for investment deferral), loss reduction, potential
for intentional islanding (microgrid) to enhance reliability, emissions
reduction (renewables) Wear and
 DER can change grid dynamics and daily utility operations,
distribution automation schemes and business practices: Flicker,
– Bidirectional power flows and feeder and substation back-feeding Resonance

– More complex planning and operations, e.g., need for Stability

sophisticated load and generation forecasting freq.)
High Penetration Impact

 High penetration challenges

• Bi-directional power flow on distribution feeders
• Potential back-feeding to sub-transmission/transmission systems
• Protection blinding or causing mis-coordination

 DER interconnection applications may require study/analysis

when the total DER size is close to the minimum load
• Unintentional islanding issue
• Back-feeding
• Temporary Overvoltage (TOV) upon loss of main grid, due to transformer
connection and ungrounded systems

DER needs to be disconnected subsequent to a fault and opening of upstream

recloser or CB; this may result in Transfer Trip requirements in certain situations
Change in Utility Business
 Utilities are looking for new service
• Regulators and/or Upper
managements are asking for Non-Wire
Alternatives (NWA) Energy
• Electric load growth is FLAT or negative Storage
• Customers are adding DERS, and asking
for New Products & Services
• Incorporating Emerging Technologies in
distribution planning Electric Renewable
Vehicles Energy
– Models and tools for impact
– How to quantify benefits: Reliability,
Efficiency & Grid support
• Growing interest for participating in
Energy / Ancillary markets
Integrated Distribution Resource Planning
 Utilizing DERs (non-wire alternatives) as part of the distribution capacity
planning and evaluating them with traditional upgrade solutions:
• Reliable
• Affordable
• Environmentally compliant
Step 1 – Alternative Solutions

• Evaluate DER services along with traditional approaches

Step 2 – Least Cost / Best Fit

DER Control & • Identify least cost / best fit portfolio of solutions
Monitoring is
the Key for Step 3 – Deploy and Monitor Performance
successful • Procure services, monitor and verify the services and
deploymnet adjust portfolio as needed
Distributed Energy Resource Management (DERMS)
 A solution platform to Aggregate, Simplify, Control and Optimize distributed
energy resources on the distribution systems to facilitate & automate
operators’ controls and monitoring to achieve certain grid supporting functions
and/or to participate in energy/ancillary market.
 Integration:
• Four different ways to integrate:
1. Enterprise service bus integration
Enterprise Service Bus
2. Embedded Integration (residing
in ADMS)
3. Peer-to-peer integration (typically DMS 2 SCADA
using proprietary protocols) DERMS

4. Client-Server integration (using 3 4

SCADA communications)

Interconnection Codes & Standards

Critical C&S Important C&S
• IEEE 1547-2018
• IEEE 1547.4
• NEC - 2017
• IEEE 1547.6
• NESC (IEEE C2-2017)
• IEEE P1547.7
• UL 1741/UL 1741SA
• ANSI C84.1

Other Relevant C&S

• UL 1703
• IEEE 1547.1, IEEE 1547.2, IEEE 1547.3
• IEEE 2030 (family)
• IEEE 519 (PQ), IEEE 1453 (flicker)
• IEC (61850, various)

DER Codes & Standards – Where Are They Used

Graphic: NREL

NY Reforming the Energy Vision (REV)

Distribution System Implementation Plan (DSIP)
• In April 2014, NYPSC laid out a vision for the utility to become the “Distribution System
Platform (DSP) Provider”
• Utility responsible to enable the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) with
system planning and operations to enhance efficiency, resiliency and environmental
• On July 31st 2018 National Grid filed its Distributed System Implementation Plan Update
(DSIP) which provides:
• 5 Year Plan
• Progress since 2016
• Required systems, data and process to implement
• Data for developers and customers
• Energy supply is becoming more diverse and less carbon intensive, and digitization and
decentralization trends are accelerating
• Support the state of New York in achieving its clean energy objectives
• National Grid plays a critical role in enabling and supporting this transition and we are
committed to providing a more efficient energy delivery system that meets the evolving
needs of our customers

NY Reforming the Energy Vision (REV) Distribution

System Implementation Plan (DSIP)
1 Integrated Planning
2 Advanced Forecasting
3 Grid Operations
4 Energy Storage Integration
5 Electric Vehicle Integration
6 Energy Efficiency Integration and Innovation
7 Distribution System Data
8 Customer Data
9 Cyber Security
10 DER Interconnections
11 Advanced Metering Infrastructure
12 Hosting Capacity
Beneficial Locations for DERs and Non-Wires
14 Procuring Non-Wires Alternatives


Rethinking the Grid Across States

By the 2nd quarter of 2018, 42 states and DC have begun legislative or

regulatory action on grid modernization

Source: NC Clean
Energy Technology

Different States and Approaches


Illinois’ Next Grid

• The Illinois Commerce Commission launched an approximately 18 month

consumer-focused study to identify and address how the state’s electrical utility
industry will change in the foreseeable future
• It includes seven working groups, which consist of leaders from utilities, energy
companies, grid modernization technology providers, consumer advocates,
environmental organizations and others
• In addition to the working groups, there is a technical advisory group and a
stakeholder advisory group
– Technical Advisory Group: National and International subject matter experts who serve as a technical
resource to the ICC and the working groups. This group meets monthly
– Stakeholder Advisory Group: Key opinion leaders representing a wide range of stakeholders,
including environmental and business interests, consumer advocates and state and local
policymakers. This group meets quarterly

…A tool for DER Providers

National Grid References with Links

National Grid Internet Homepage:
National Grid Customer Usage Tracking:
National Grid’s Interconnection Online Application Portal (IOAP) (new Customer Application Portal (nCAP)):
National Grid System Data Portal:
The above link includes tabs to the categories listed below:
Load Forecast Report;
Hosting Capacity Analysis;
Non-Wires Alternative opportunities;
Locational System Relief Value (LSRV) areas, and
Reports tab (Note: The BCA handbook will be added following its filing on 7/31.)
National Grid Customer Market Place:
National Grid New York Solar Market Place:
National Grid Energy Savings Program:
National Grid Electric System Bulletin Number 756:


Customer Data Sharing


Beneficial Locations for DERs and Non-Wires

• Impacts of DER vary greatly depending on where they are placed on the distribution system.
Areas where DER may be compensated for potential grid support are identified as
‘Beneficial Locations’
• National Grid endeavors to identify where DERs may provide benefits to the grid, share that
information and where appropriate provide a means to incentivize
• Locational System Relief Value (LSRV)
• Non-Wires Alternatives (NWA)
• Looking forward, the company will continue to identify areas on the where DER, such as EE,
DR, EV, and ESS can benefit the grid

DOE Microgrid Initiatives

• The Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid R&D program considers microgrids as
a key building block for a Smart Grid
• Increased microgrid development and deployment through federal programs,
institutions and private sector


Key DOE R&D Activities

• Key focus areas: Planning, Design, Operation and Control

• Industry partnerships for commercial viability and to meet community
defined resiliency objectives
– FOA awarded more than $8M (ComEd was one of the Awardees for this grant –DE-OE0000724)
– DOE awarded $4 M to ComEd to develop Microgrid-Integrated Solar-Storage Technology (MISST) and
deploy high power PV and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the microgrid (DE-EE000716)
– Grid Modernization’s Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) funding to support research and development
in energy storage systems, clean energy integration, standards and test procedures, and other key
grid modernization areas
• Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration and Energy Reliability and
Security (SPIDERS) : joint project by DOE, DOD and DHS
– Focused on demonstrating a secure microgrid architecture with the ability to maintain surety through
trusted, reliable, and resilient military installations
• State and regional partnerships to support communities in microgrid
planning, design and deployment for energy assurance
– Partnerships with utilities and boards of public utilities across the country

IEEE Initiatives
• 2030.7-2017: IEEE standard for the specification of microgrid
Standards controllers
• 2030.8-2018: IEEE standard for the testing of microgrid controllers
• PES-TR66: Microgrid Stability Definitions, Analysis, and Modeling
Technical Reports • Defines the concepts and identifies issues related to microgrid

• IEEE Microgrids Task Force

• Distribution Resource Integration working group
•Working Groups • Distributed resource interconnection with electric power system
and Task Forces • IEEE PES Task Force on Microgrid Stability Analysis and Modeling
• Working group on Sustainable Energy Systems for Developing

• Power and Energy Magazine

Publications and • Vol.15: No.4 Microgrid Controllers- The Heart and Soul of
Tutorials Microgrid Automation (July, 2017)
• SmartGrid: Webinar Series

Standards Governing Microgrids

• IEEE 2030.7 and 2030.8

• Microgrid Controller
Microgrid • Multi-level control architecture
Controller • Realizing communications and information
technologies that provide interoperability solutions for
enhances DER integration

• IEEE 2030.9 – Recommended Practice for the Planning

and Design of the Microgrid
Other Standards
• IEEE 2030.10 – Standard for DC Microgrids for Rural and
Remote Electricity Access Applications

• IEEE 1547.4
Interconnection • Interconnection Specifications
Interoperability • Internal behavior of the DER within the microgrid
• Realizing higher penetration of DERs

P2030.7: Specification of Microgrid Controllers

• Standard specifies the microgrid controller’s core level functions applicable during
grid-connected and islanded modes of operation:
– Transition: Connecting and disconnecting from the grid
– Dispatch: Supervisory dispatch of microgrid assets within all operating states
• Defines the set points or operating state of microgrid assets in accordance
with one or more rules, tables or algorithms, in order to maintain active
and reactive power balance to meet predefined objectives
• The microgrid controller is responsible for monitoring the system state and if
required notifying the protection system for appropriate actions
• A key element of a microgrid is the Microgrid Energy Management System

IEEE 2030.7: Microgrid Control System Standardization

Function Assignments to Microgrid Controller Blocks Corresponding Block Action


P2030.8: Testing of Microgrid Controllers

• Develop a set of testing procedures allowing the verification,
quantification of performance, and a comparison of the performance
with expected minimum requirements of the microgrid controller
functions, regardless of topology, configuration or jurisdiction
• Presents metrics for a comparison between the control functions of the
microgrid operator and the Distribution System Operator (DSO)
• Enable interoperability of different controllers and components needed
to operate controllers through cohesive/platform independent
• Allows flexibility and customization of components and control
algorithms while ensuring minimum requirements are met
• Establish comparative performance indices
• Facilitate wide adoption of microgrid controller functional requirements

Microgrids in the US

Source: GTM Research, US Microgrids Tracker, 2017