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Analysis: Chemical Oxygen Demand of the Ruran River System

Chemical Oxygen Demand or COD is a measurement of the oxygen required to oxidize soluble and
particulate organic matter in water. It is a test commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of
organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants
found in surface water or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in
milligrams per liter (mg/L), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per liter of solution.

In testing for the COD level of the Ruran River, the system was divided into five (5) sampling points.
Different sampling dates were then assigned to monitor the changes in the COD levels of the river.
Samples from each points were taken and was subjected to COD testing. The results of the tests
conducted were shown on the following table.

INSERT TABLE HERE

The first testing was done on Dec. 2, 2015. On the day of gathering of samples, the weather was cloudy,
not raining but also not sunny. There have been no notable happenings or events on that time that could
have affected the result of the test. The COD results of the differents sampling points on that day ranges
from as low as 580 mg/L to as high as 1500 mg/L. This means that the dissolved oxygen in the river
varies from a relatively good amount to a high amount with respect to their sampling sites. Values
ranging from 400-800 mg/L of dissolved oxygen per cubic meter of water were considered to be a
normal and good amount. Values less than 400 mg/L shows a very low content of oxidizable organic
matter and thus a very high level of dissolved oxygen content which would be detrimental to its
surrounding aquatic life. Values higher than 800 mg/L thus means that site contains a very low amount
of dissolved oxygen and less habitable for aquatic life.

The second testing which was conducted on Dec. 17, same year exibited significant differences
compared to the first one. The day that the samples were gathered was raining and thus may have
contributed to that significant change. A notable event also happened at that time. A tropical storm had
just bypassed and a significant increase in the water level which could even be considered as flooding
can be visibly noted. All sampling points exibited a very large amount of oxidizable organic material,
much higher than before which means that the aquatic life in the water was also deminished. It can be
also noted that there are discolorations found on the surfaces of that water samples which could have
been from the remains and residues of the prevalent typhoon.

The third testing which was conducted on the following year, Jan. 14 showed a sudden decrease in the
number of oxidizable materials and thus an increase on the dissolved oxygen content. There have been
no notable events during this time of sample gathering. Therefore the results shows that there have
been an improvement on the aquatic environment of the river. It can then be concluded that over time,
without outside or foreign interventions, the nature naturally replenishes itself and get rid of its own
wounds and by wounds we mean that pollution and other factors that is slowly destroying it.

During the fourth testing which was conducted on Jan. 28, 2016 there have been an increase on the
amount of oxidizable organic materials which would mean a decrease on its dissolved oxygen content. It
was mostly a rainy day on that week and the synthetic sediments and other foreign material are
continuously being flushed into the river because of the rain. This factor could have been the reason why
all sampling points increased in the values except for sampling point number 1. This sampling point
exibited a unique amount of relatively low content of oxidizable organic materials compared to the other
sampling points.

The results of the fifth testing which was conducted on February 10, 2016 exhibited somewhat an
opposite of what it was compared to the results of the fourth testing. All sampling points showed a
decrease in the number of oxidizable organic materials except for sampling point number 1. The reason
behind this could be because of its location. Sampling point number 1 is located in a slightly isolated area
wherein the water flow was somewhat slower compared to the other areas. Thus, there could have been
a late effect of happenings and the contaminants which should have been there on the fourth testing are
only starting to affect it that time.

The final testing of the river system was conducted on March 3, 2016. On that day, it was slightly raining.
The results of the final testing showed a variation of increase and decrease of the amount of oxidizable
organic materials when compared to the results of the 5th testing. However, compared to the results of
the first testing conducted December of the previous year, the Ruran River majorly exibited normal levels
of dissolved oxygen. Sixty percent (60%) or 3 out of 5 sampling point

Analysis: Chemical Oxygen Demand of the Ruran River System

Chemical Oxygen Demand or COD is a measurement of the oxygen required to oxidize soluble and
particulate organic matter in water. It is a test commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of
organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants
found in surface water or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in
milligrams per liter (mg/L), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per liter of solution.

In testing for the COD level of the Ruran River, the system was divided into five (5) sampling points.
Different sampling dates were then assigned to monitor the changes in the COD levels of the river.
Samples from each points were taken and was subjected to COD testing. The results of the tests
conducted were shown on the following table.

INSERT TABLE HERE

The first testing was done on Dec. 2, 2015. On the day of gathering of samples, the weather was cloudy,
not raining but also not sunny. There have been no notable happenings or events on that time that could
have affected the result of the test. The COD results of the differents sampling points on that day ranges
from as low as 580 mg/L to as high as 1500 mg/L. This means that the dissolved oxygen in the river
varies from a relatively good amount to a high amount with respect to their sampling sites. Values
ranging from 400-800 mg/L of dissolved oxygen per cubic meter of water were considered to be a
normal and good amount. Values less than 400 mg/L shows a very low content of oxidizable organic
matter and thus a very high level of dissolved oxygen content which would be detrimental to its
surrounding aquatic life. Values higher than 800 mg/L thus means that site contains a very low amount
of dissolved oxygen and less habitable for aquatic life.

The second testing which was conducted on Dec. 17, same year exibited significant differences
compared to the first one. The day that the samples were gathered was raining and thus may have
contributed to that significant change. A notable event also happened at that time. A tropical storm had
just bypassed and a significant increase in the water level which could even be considered as flooding
can be visibly noted. All sampling points exibited a very large amount of oxidizable organic material,
much higher than before which means that the aquatic life in the water was also deminished. It can be
also noted that there are discolorations found on the surfaces of that water samples which could have
been from the remains and residues of the prevalent typhoon.

The third testing which was conducted on the following year, Jan. 14 showed a sudden decrease in the
number of oxidizable materials and thus an increase on the dissolved oxygen content. There have been
no notable events during this time of sample gathering. Therefore the results shows that there have
been an improvement on the aquatic environment of the river. It can then be concluded that over time,
without outside or foreign interventions, the nature naturally replenishes itself and get rid of its own
wounds and by wounds we mean that pollution and other factors that is slowly destroying it.

During the fourth testing which was conducted on Jan. 28, 2016 there have been an increase on the
amount of oxidizable organic materials which would mean a decrease on its dissolved oxygen content. It
was mostly a rainy day on that week and the synthetic sediments and other foreign material are
continuously being flushed into the river because of the rain. This factor could have been the reason why
all sampling points increased in the values except for sampling point number 1. This sampling point
exibited a unique amount of relatively low content of oxidizable organic materials compared to the other
sampling points.

The results of the fifth testing which was conducted on February 10, 2016 exhibited somewhat an
opposite of what it was compared to the results of the fourth testing. All sampling points showed a
decrease in the number of oxidizable organic materials except for sampling point number 1. The reason
behind this could be because of its location. Sampling point number 1 is located in a slightly isolated area
wherein the water flow was somewhat slower compared to the other areas. Thus, there could have been
a late effect of happenings and the contaminants which should have been there on the fourth testing are
only starting to affect it that time.

The final testing of the river system was conducted on March 3, 2016. On that day, it was slightly raining.
The results of the final testing showed a variation of increase and decrease of the amount of oxidizable
organic materials when compared to the results of the 5th testing. However, compared to the results of
the first testing conducted December of the previous year, the Ruran River majorly exibited normal levels
of dissolved oxygen. Sixty percent (60%) or 3 out of 5 sampling point