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# Basic Mathematical Operations

a. (+) + (+) = (+)
b. (-) + (-) = (-)
c. (+) + (-) = (+) or (-)
subtract, then take the sign of the number with greater absolute value
d. (-) + (+) = (+) or (-)
same explanation with c.

B. Subtraction
a. (+) - (+) = (+) or (-)
subtract then take the sign of the number with greater absolute value.
b. (-) - (+) = (-)
c. (+) - (-) = (+)
d. (-) - (-) = (-) + (+) =
(+) or (-)
subtract then take the sign of the number with greater absolute value

C. Multiplication
a. (+) x (+) = (+)
b. (-) x (-) = (+)
c. (+) x (-) = (-)
d. (-) x (+) = (-)

D. Division
a. (+) / (+) = (+)
b. (-) / (-) = (+)
c. (+) / (-) = (-)
d. (-) / (+) = (-)

Fractions
A. Adding and Subtracting Similar Fractions
Formula :
a. a/c + b/c = (a + b)/c
b. a/c - b/c = (a - b)/c
Example:
1. 1/3 + 2/3 = (1+2)/3 = 3/3 = 1
2. 2/3 - 1/3 = (2 - 1)/3 = 1/3
B. Adding and Subtracting Dissimilar Fractions
Formula :
c. a/c + b/d = (ad + bc)/cd
d. a/c - b/d = (ad - bc)/cd
Example:
3. 1/3 + 2/4 = (1×4 + 2×3)/ (3×4) = (4+6)/12 = 10/12 = 5/6
4. 2/4 - 1/3 = (2×3 - 1×4)/(4×3) = (6-4)/12 = 2/12 = 1/6
C. Multiplying Similar & Dissimilar Fractions
Formula:
e. a/c x b/c = ab/c²
f. a/c x b/d = ab/cd
1
Example:
5. 1/3 x 2/3 = (1×2)/(3²) = 2/9
6. 1/3 x 2/4 = (1×2)/(3×4) = 2/12 = 1/6
D. Dividing Similar and Dissimilar Fractions
Formula:
g. (a/c) ÷ (b/c) = a/c x c/b = a/b
h. (a/c) ÷ (b/d) = a/c x d/b = ad/bc
Example:
7. (1/3) ÷ (2/3) = 1/3 x 3/2 = 1/2
8. (1/3) ÷ (2/4) = 1/3 x 4/2 = (1×4)/(3×2) = 4/6 = 2/3
Let's Practice: Simplify.
1. 15/24 + 3/24
2. 5/6 - 3/5
3. 4/5 ÷ 2/3

## How to Solve Word Problems?

Topic : Percentage
Steps
2. Write down the given.
3. What is required of the problem?
4. Establish a formula.
5. Be familiar with units.
6. Solve
E.g.
1. 50 is what percent of 10?
Sol'n:
Given:
Result (R) = 50
Original Number (N) = 10
Required:
Percentage = ?
Formula:
(Percentage)(Original Number) = Result
rN = R
r (10) = 50
r = 50/10
r=5
to convert whole number to percentage, just multiply by 100%
r = 5(100%)
r = 500%
2. 44 is is 80% of what number?
Given:
Result = 44
Percentage = 80% or 0.8 or 80/100
Req'd:
Original Number (N) = ?
sol'n :
rN = R
0.80N = 44
2
N = 44/0.80
N = 55
For suggestions, queries and clarifications, just comment below:)
#OpenForDiscussions

Repost
Solving Problems Involving Work:
Step 1: A problem involving work can be solved using the formula
[T/A]+[T/B]=1
, where T = time
working together, A = the time for person A working alone, and B = the time for person B working alone.
Step 2: Solve the equation created in the first step. This can be done by first multiplying the entire problem by the
common denominator and then solving the resulting equation.
Example – Walter and Helen are asked to paint a house. Walter can paint the house by himself in 12 hours and Helen
can paint the house by herself in 16 hours. How long would it take to paint the house if they worked together?
Step 1 : A problem involving
work can be
solved using the formula
,
[T/A]+[T/B]=1
where T = time working together, A = the time for person A working alone, and B = the time for person B working
alone.
[ T / 12 ] + [ T / 16 ] = 1
Step 2 : Solve the equation created in the first step. This
can be done by first multiplying the entire problem by the common denominator and then
solving the resulting equation. In this case, the least common
denominator is 48.
 [ (T/12) + (T/16) ]
4T + 3T = 48
7T = 48
T = 48/7
Step 3 :
Together = 48/7 = 6.9 hours
formula can also be written as:
1/A + 1/B = 1/T
or
T = [AB]/[A + B]
For A & B:
A = [BT] / [B - T]
B = [AT] / [A - T]

## Solving Word Questions

In Algebra we often have word
questions like:
Example: Sam and Alex play
tennis.
On the weekend Sam played 4
more games than Alex did, and
together they played 12 games.
How many games did Alex play?
How do we solve them?

3
The trick is to break the solution
into two parts:
-Turn the English into
Algebra.
-Then use Algebra to solve.
A. To turn the English into Algebra it helps to:
-Do a sketch if possible
-Assign letters for the values
-Find or work out formulas
-You should also write down what is actually being asked for, so you know where you are going and when you have
arrived!
-Also look for key words:
>add, total, sum, increase, more, combined, together, plus, more than
b. Subtraction (-)
minus, less, difference, fewer,decreased, reduced
c. Multiplication
>multiplied, times, of, product factor
d. Division
quotient, per,
>Out of, ratio, ratio, percent, rate
-Maximize or minimize geometry
formulas
>Rate, speed distance formulas
>How long, days, hours, minutes, seconds time.
Thinking Clearly
-Some wording can be tricky, making you think "the wrong way around",
such as:
Example:
On our street there are twice as many dogs as cats. How do we write this as an equation?
Let D = number of dogs
Let C = number of cats
Now, is that:
2D = C
or
should it be:
D = 2C
Think carefully now!
The correct answer is D = 2C
(2D = C is a common mistake,
as the question is written "twice ... dogs ... cats")
Example:
Sam has 2 books less than Alex.
How do we write this as an equation?
Let S = number of books Sam has
Let A = number of books Alex has
Now ... is that: S − 2 = A
or should it be: S = A − 2
or should it be: S = 2 − A
The correct answer is S = A - 2.
4
Example:
A rectangular garden is 12m by 5m, what is its area?
Turn the English into
Algebra:
Sketch:
Letters:
Use w for width of rectangle:
w = 12m
Use h for height of
rectangle: h = 5m
Formula for Area of a Rectangle :
A=w×h
We are being asked for the
Area.
Solve:
A = w × h = 12 × 5 = 60 m 2
The area is 60 square meters .
Now let's try the example from the top:
Example: Sam and Alex play
Tennis. On the weekend Sam
played 4 more games than
Alex did, and together they
played 12 games. How many
games did Alex play?
Turn the English into
Algebra:
Letters:
Use S for how many games Sam played
Use A for how many games Alex played
We know that Sam played 4
more games than Alex,
so: S = A + 4
And we know that together they
played 12 games: S + A = 12
We are being asked for how
many games Alex played: A
Solve:
Start
with:
S + A = 12
S=A+4,
so we can
substitute
"A + 4"
for S:
(A + 4) + A = 12
Simplify: 2A + 4 = 12
Subtract 4 from both sides:
2A = 12 − 4
Simplify: 2A = 8

5
Divide both sides by 2:
A=4
Which means that Alex played
4 games of tennis.
Check: Sam played 4 more
games than Alex, so Sam played 8 games. Together they played
8 + 4 = 12 games. Yes!

Fractions
A. Adding and Subtracting Similar Fractions
Formula :
a. a/c + b/c = (a + b)/c
b. a/c - b/c = (a - b)/c
Example:
1. 1/3 + 2/3 = (1+2)/3 = 3/3 = 1
2. 2/3 - 1/3 = (2 - 1)/3 = 1/3
B. Adding and Subtracting Dissimilar Fractions
Formula :
c. a/c + b/d = (ad + bc)/cd
d. a/c - b/d = (ad - bc)/cd
Example:
3. 1/3 + 2/4 = (1×4 + 2×3)/ (3×4) = (4+6)/12 = 10/12 = 5/6
4. 2/4 - 1/3 = (2×3 - 1×4)/(4×3) = (6-4)/12 = 2/12 = 1/6
C. Multiplying Similar & Dissimilar Fractions
Formula:
e. a/c x b/c = ab/c²
f. a/c x b/d = ab/cd
Example:
5. 1/3 x 2/3 = (1×2)/(3²) = 2/9
6. 1/3 x 2/4 = (1×2)/(3×4) = 2/12 = 1/6
D. Dividing Similar and Dissimilar Fractions
Formula:
g. (a/c) ÷ (b/c) = a/c x c/b = a/b
h. (a/c) ÷ (b/d) = a/c x d/b = ad/bc
Example:
7. (1/3) ÷ (2/3) = 1/3 x 3/2 = 1/2
8. (1/3) ÷ (2/4) = 1/3 x 4/2 = (1×4)/(3×2) = 4/6 = 2/3
Let's Practice: Simplify.
1. 15/24 + 3/24
2. 5/6 - 3/5
3. 4/5 ÷ 2/3

Sample Problem:
56
-------- + --------
69
1. Find the Least Common Denominators.
LCD:
6 = 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36
9 = 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54
LCD = 18
Now back to the fractions,
2. Divide the denominators by the LCD.

6
(18/6) (5) + (18/9) (6)
----------------------------------
18
4. Multiply the result to the numerator.
(3)(5)+(2)(6)
= ----------------------------
18
5. Combine
15 + 12
= --------------------------
18
27
= -------------
18
3
= -------------
2
— Para po sa mga nahihirapan sa fractions.

USEFUL FORMULAS
Key Terms
S : Side
C : Circumference
P : Perimeter
A : Area
V : Volume
v : velocity
d : distance
t : time
h : height
L : Length
W : Width
b : base
π : pi
D : diameter
θ = theta (angle)
hyp : hypotenuse
Square
P = 4S
A = S²
Rectangle
P = 2L + 2W
P = 2 (L + W)
A = LW
Triangle
P = S1 + S2 + S3
A = bh/2
Circle
C = 2πr or πD
A = πr² or πD²/4
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Cone :
V = 1/3πr²h
Sphere
V = 4/3 πr³
Cylinder
V = πr²h
Trapezoid
A = (b1 + b2)/2
Velocity
v = d/t
d = vt
Box / Rectangular Prism
V = LWh
Cube
V = S³
Right Triangle (Pythagora's Formula)
d² = b² + h²
d² = x² + y²
d² = (x2 - x1)² + (y2 - y1)²
d = √[ x² + y² ]
d² = h² + hyp²
Angles
180° = θ + β + α

## USEFUL CONVERTION OF UNITS

Length
1 cm = 10 mm
1 in = 2.54 cm
1 ft = 12 in
1 yd = 3 ft = 36 in
1 mtr = 3.28 ft = 100cm
1 dekameter = 10 mtrs
1 km = 1000 mtrs = 0.621mi
1 mi = 1.609 km = 5280 ft
Time
1 min = 60 sec
1 hr = 60 min
1 day = 24 hrs
1 week = 7 days
1 month = 30 days (regular)
1 year = 366 days (leap year)
= 365 1/4 days
1 score = 20 years
1 century = 100years
Weight
1 g = 1000 mg
1 kg = 1000 g = 2.205 lb
1 lb = 16 oz
Area
1 hectare = 10,000 m²
1 m² = (3.28ft)²
1 ft² = (12in)²
1 in² = (2.54cm)²

8
Volume
1 L = 1000 mL
1 gal = 3.785 L
1 cm³ = 1 mL
1 in³ = (2.54cm)³
1 ft³ = (12in)³
1 m³ = (3.28ft)³
1 yd³ = (3ft)³