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You are on page 1of 9

A. Addition

a. (+) + (+) = (+)

b. (-) + (-) = (-)

c. (+) + (-) = (+) or (-)

subtract, then take the sign of the number with greater absolute value

d. (-) + (+) = (+) or (-)

same explanation with c.

B. Subtraction

a. (+) - (+) = (+) or (-)

subtract then take the sign of the number with greater absolute value.

b. (-) - (+) = (-)

c. (+) - (-) = (+)

d. (-) - (-) = (-) + (+) =

(+) or (-)

subtract then take the sign of the number with greater absolute value

C. Multiplication

a. (+) x (+) = (+)

b. (-) x (-) = (+)

c. (+) x (-) = (-)

d. (-) x (+) = (-)

D. Division

a. (+) / (+) = (+)

b. (-) / (-) = (+)

c. (+) / (-) = (-)

d. (-) / (+) = (-)

Fractions

A. Adding and Subtracting Similar Fractions

Formula :

a. a/c + b/c = (a + b)/c

b. a/c - b/c = (a - b)/c

Example:

1. 1/3 + 2/3 = (1+2)/3 = 3/3 = 1

2. 2/3 - 1/3 = (2 - 1)/3 = 1/3

B. Adding and Subtracting Dissimilar Fractions

Formula :

c. a/c + b/d = (ad + bc)/cd

d. a/c - b/d = (ad - bc)/cd

Example:

3. 1/3 + 2/4 = (1×4 + 2×3)/ (3×4) = (4+6)/12 = 10/12 = 5/6

4. 2/4 - 1/3 = (2×3 - 1×4)/(4×3) = (6-4)/12 = 2/12 = 1/6

C. Multiplying Similar & Dissimilar Fractions

Formula:

e. a/c x b/c = ab/c²

f. a/c x b/d = ab/cd

1

Example:

5. 1/3 x 2/3 = (1×2)/(3²) = 2/9

6. 1/3 x 2/4 = (1×2)/(3×4) = 2/12 = 1/6

D. Dividing Similar and Dissimilar Fractions

Formula:

g. (a/c) ÷ (b/c) = a/c x c/b = a/b

h. (a/c) ÷ (b/d) = a/c x d/b = ad/bc

Example:

7. (1/3) ÷ (2/3) = 1/3 x 3/2 = 1/2

8. (1/3) ÷ (2/4) = 1/3 x 4/2 = (1×4)/(3×2) = 4/6 = 2/3

Let's Practice: Simplify.

1. 15/24 + 3/24

2. 5/6 - 3/5

3. 4/5 ÷ 2/3

Topic : Percentage

Steps

1. Read the problem carefully.

2. Write down the given.

3. What is required of the problem?

4. Establish a formula.

5. Be familiar with units.

6. Solve

E.g.

1. 50 is what percent of 10?

Sol'n:

Given:

Result (R) = 50

Original Number (N) = 10

Required:

Percentage = ?

Formula:

(Percentage)(Original Number) = Result

rN = R

r (10) = 50

r = 50/10

r=5

to convert whole number to percentage, just multiply by 100%

r = 5(100%)

r = 500%

2. 44 is is 80% of what number?

Given:

Result = 44

Percentage = 80% or 0.8 or 80/100

Req'd:

Original Number (N) = ?

sol'n :

rN = R

0.80N = 44

2

N = 44/0.80

N = 55

For suggestions, queries and clarifications, just comment below:)

#OpenForDiscussions

Repost

Solving Problems Involving Work:

Step 1: A problem involving work can be solved using the formula

[T/A]+[T/B]=1

, where T = time

working together, A = the time for person A working alone, and B = the time for person B working alone.

Step 2: Solve the equation created in the first step. This can be done by first multiplying the entire problem by the

common denominator and then solving the resulting equation.

Step 3: Answer the question asked of you in the problem and be sure to include units with your answer.

Example – Walter and Helen are asked to paint a house. Walter can paint the house by himself in 12 hours and Helen

can paint the house by herself in 16 hours. How long would it take to paint the house if they worked together?

Step 1 : A problem involving

work can be

solved using the formula

,

[T/A]+[T/B]=1

where T = time working together, A = the time for person A working alone, and B = the time for person B working

alone.

[ T / 12 ] + [ T / 16 ] = 1

Step 2 : Solve the equation created in the first step. This

can be done by first multiplying the entire problem by the common denominator and then

solving the resulting equation. In this case, the least common

denominator is 48.

[48] [ (T/12) + (T/16) ]

4T + 3T = 48

7T = 48

T = 48/7

Step 3 :

Answer the question asked of you in the problem and be sure to include units with your answer.

Together = 48/7 = 6.9 hours

formula can also be written as:

1/A + 1/B = 1/T

or

T = [AB]/[A + B]

For A & B:

A = [BT] / [B - T]

B = [AT] / [A - T]

In Algebra we often have word

questions like:

Example: Sam and Alex play

tennis.

On the weekend Sam played 4

more games than Alex did, and

together they played 12 games.

How many games did Alex play?

How do we solve them?

3

The trick is to break the solution

into two parts:

-Turn the English into

Algebra.

-Then use Algebra to solve.

A. To turn the English into Algebra it helps to:

-Read the whole thing first

-Do a sketch if possible

-Assign letters for the values

-Find or work out formulas

-You should also write down what is actually being asked for, so you know where you are going and when you have

arrived!

-Also look for key words:

a. Addition (+)

>add, total, sum, increase, more, combined, together, plus, more than

b. Subtraction (-)

minus, less, difference, fewer,decreased, reduced

c. Multiplication

>multiplied, times, of, product factor

d. Division

quotient, per,

>Out of, ratio, ratio, percent, rate

-Maximize or minimize geometry

formulas

>Rate, speed distance formulas

>How long, days, hours, minutes, seconds time.

Thinking Clearly

-Some wording can be tricky, making you think "the wrong way around",

such as:

Example:

On our street there are twice as many dogs as cats. How do we write this as an equation?

Let D = number of dogs

Let C = number of cats

Now, is that:

2D = C

or

should it be:

D = 2C

Think carefully now!

The correct answer is D = 2C

(2D = C is a common mistake,

as the question is written "twice ... dogs ... cats")

Example:

Sam has 2 books less than Alex.

How do we write this as an equation?

Let S = number of books Sam has

Let A = number of books Alex has

Now ... is that: S − 2 = A

or should it be: S = A − 2

or should it be: S = 2 − A

The correct answer is S = A - 2.

4

Example:

A rectangular garden is 12m by 5m, what is its area?

Turn the English into

Algebra:

Sketch:

Letters:

Use w for width of rectangle:

w = 12m

Use h for height of

rectangle: h = 5m

Formula for Area of a Rectangle :

A=w×h

We are being asked for the

Area.

Solve:

A = w × h = 12 × 5 = 60 m 2

The area is 60 square meters .

Now let's try the example from the top:

Example: Sam and Alex play

Tennis. On the weekend Sam

played 4 more games than

Alex did, and together they

played 12 games. How many

games did Alex play?

Turn the English into

Algebra:

Letters:

Use S for how many games Sam played

Use A for how many games Alex played

We know that Sam played 4

more games than Alex,

so: S = A + 4

And we know that together they

played 12 games: S + A = 12

We are being asked for how

many games Alex played: A

Solve:

Start

with:

S + A = 12

S=A+4,

so we can

substitute

"A + 4"

for S:

(A + 4) + A = 12

Simplify: 2A + 4 = 12

Subtract 4 from both sides:

2A = 12 − 4

Simplify: 2A = 8

5

Divide both sides by 2:

A=4

Which means that Alex played

4 games of tennis.

Check: Sam played 4 more

games than Alex, so Sam played 8 games. Together they played

8 + 4 = 12 games. Yes!

Fractions

A. Adding and Subtracting Similar Fractions

Formula :

a. a/c + b/c = (a + b)/c

b. a/c - b/c = (a - b)/c

Example:

1. 1/3 + 2/3 = (1+2)/3 = 3/3 = 1

2. 2/3 - 1/3 = (2 - 1)/3 = 1/3

B. Adding and Subtracting Dissimilar Fractions

Formula :

c. a/c + b/d = (ad + bc)/cd

d. a/c - b/d = (ad - bc)/cd

Example:

3. 1/3 + 2/4 = (1×4 + 2×3)/ (3×4) = (4+6)/12 = 10/12 = 5/6

4. 2/4 - 1/3 = (2×3 - 1×4)/(4×3) = (6-4)/12 = 2/12 = 1/6

C. Multiplying Similar & Dissimilar Fractions

Formula:

e. a/c x b/c = ab/c²

f. a/c x b/d = ab/cd

Example:

5. 1/3 x 2/3 = (1×2)/(3²) = 2/9

6. 1/3 x 2/4 = (1×2)/(3×4) = 2/12 = 1/6

D. Dividing Similar and Dissimilar Fractions

Formula:

g. (a/c) ÷ (b/c) = a/c x c/b = a/b

h. (a/c) ÷ (b/d) = a/c x d/b = ad/bc

Example:

7. (1/3) ÷ (2/3) = 1/3 x 3/2 = 1/2

8. (1/3) ÷ (2/4) = 1/3 x 4/2 = (1×4)/(3×2) = 4/6 = 2/3

Let's Practice: Simplify.

1. 15/24 + 3/24

2. 5/6 - 3/5

3. 4/5 ÷ 2/3

Sample Problem:

56

-------- + --------

69

1. Find the Least Common Denominators.

LCD:

6 = 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36

9 = 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54

LCD = 18

Now back to the fractions,

2. Divide the denominators by the LCD.

6

(18/6) (5) + (18/9) (6)

----------------------------------

18

4. Multiply the result to the numerator.

(3)(5)+(2)(6)

= ----------------------------

18

5. Combine

15 + 12

= --------------------------

18

27

= -------------

18

3

= -------------

2

— Para po sa mga nahihirapan sa fractions.

USEFUL FORMULAS

Key Terms

S : Side

C : Circumference

P : Perimeter

A : Area

V : Volume

v : velocity

d : distance

t : time

h : height

L : Length

W : Width

b : base

π : pi

r : radius

D : diameter

θ = theta (angle)

hyp : hypotenuse

Square

P = 4S

A = S²

Rectangle

P = 2L + 2W

P = 2 (L + W)

A = LW

Triangle

P = S1 + S2 + S3

A = bh/2

Circle

C = 2πr or πD

A = πr² or πD²/4

7

Cone :

V = 1/3πr²h

Sphere

V = 4/3 πr³

Cylinder

V = πr²h

Trapezoid

A = (b1 + b2)/2

Velocity

v = d/t

d = vt

Box / Rectangular Prism

V = LWh

Cube

V = S³

Right Triangle (Pythagora's Formula)

d² = b² + h²

d² = x² + y²

d² = (x2 - x1)² + (y2 - y1)²

d = √[ x² + y² ]

d² = h² + hyp²

Angles

180° = θ + β + α

Length

1 cm = 10 mm

1 in = 2.54 cm

1 ft = 12 in

1 yd = 3 ft = 36 in

1 mtr = 3.28 ft = 100cm

1 dekameter = 10 mtrs

1 km = 1000 mtrs = 0.621mi

1 mi = 1.609 km = 5280 ft

Time

1 min = 60 sec

1 hr = 60 min

1 day = 24 hrs

1 week = 7 days

1 month = 30 days (regular)

1 year = 366 days (leap year)

= 365 1/4 days

1 decade = 10 years

1 score = 20 years

1 century = 100years

Weight

1 g = 1000 mg

1 kg = 1000 g = 2.205 lb

1 lb = 16 oz

Area

1 hectare = 10,000 m²

1 m² = (3.28ft)²

1 ft² = (12in)²

1 in² = (2.54cm)²

8

Volume

1 L = 1000 mL

1 gal = 3.785 L

1 cm³ = 1 mL

1 in³ = (2.54cm)³

1 ft³ = (12in)³

1 m³ = (3.28ft)³

1 yd³ = (3ft)³

Unit Circle (Degrees & Radians)

π = 3.1416

π radians = 180°

2π radians = 360° = 1 revolution

Angles

Right angle = 90°

Complementary angles = sum of 90°

Straight line = 180°

Supplementary angles = sum of 180°

Miscellaneous

1 baker's dozen = 13 pieces

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