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On

Measurement System Analysis -

4th Edition

By

Vinay Kumbhar

Vinay S K 1

INTRODUCTION OF FACULTY

Name : Vinay S. K.

More than 10 years Experience in Automotive Industry,

Home appliances and Quality Management systems.

Areas of Work : ISO 9001, TS 16949, ISO 17025 (NABL), and

Core tools

(Manufacturing Industry, Calibration Lab, Consultancy

Service

Email – vinayskumbhar@gmail.com

Vinay S K 2

1

Measurement System Analysis

mobiles Switched off /

on Silent Mode…

Vinay S K 3

OBJECTIVE

To provide

studies for variable and attribute data

Vinay S K 4

2

Measurement System Analysis

Today’s Agenda

Brief Changes and overview of 4th edition.

Objectives

Introduction

Graphical Analysis

Vinay S K 5

Calibration and relationship to external systems ;e.g., ISO 17025.

Analysis of Results

acceptable practice for determining the acceptability of a

Measurement system.

lower GRR.

Vinay S K 6

3

Measurement System Analysis

Calibration System

technical processes that assure measurement traceability is

measurements

level standards

Vinay S K 7

Vinay S K 8

4

Measurement System Analysis

Vinay S K 9

Pp (or Ppk) target value

– use when sufficient samples to represent the process are not available and

an existing process with similar process variation is not available or the

new process is expected to have less variability than an existing process

Vinay S K 10

5

Measurement System Analysis

PLAN AND DEFINE

In the Plan and Define Program stage the team is to identify preliminary special

product and process characteristics.

The organization’s product quality planning team should build on this listing and

reach consensus through the evaluation of the technical information.

– the drawings

– Engineering specifications

Vinay S K 11

be identified at this time.

should add these requirements to the Timing Chart.

timing is Met

Vinay S K 12

6

Measurement System Analysis

The team must assess that proposed gauge /test system design:

– Understand which traceable standard are appropriate for the required testing

– The required frequency that the standards are to be used to assess the accuracy

of the measurement system

reproducibility, etc based on similar parts and similar measurement systems.

Vinay S K 13

program as possible. This should help prevent late gauging changes.

The gauging must be used on the prototype build. An early gage study can be

performed. While the full range of process variation will probable not be

represented, as preliminary study can be performed.

The gage can be verified at the prototype stage to ensure that the required

features are being correctly measured. This will help eliminate late changes to

the gauging method.

Vinay S K 14

7

Measurement System Analysis

Introduction

A decision to adjust a manufacturing process not is commonly based on

measurement data. Measurement data are also used in analytical studies to know

the relation between two or more variables, which in turn will lead to a better

understanding of process.

Benefit of using measurement data will depend on the Quality of data. Much of the

variations in a set of measurements is due to the interaction between the

measurement system and its environment .If the interaction generates too much of

the variations then the quality of the data may be so low that the data are not

useful.

If the Quality of the data is not acceptable, then it must be improved. This is usually

accomplished by improving the measurement system, rather than by improving the

data themselves.

Vinay S K 15

After measuring the part one of the action that can be taken to determine

the status of the part.

Eg,, some times good parts will be called as bad parts – Producers risk –

Eg

false alarm

Some times bad parts will be called as good part – Customer’s risk -

Miss rate.

Vinay S K 16

8

Measurement System Analysis

Introduction…

Variation :

It is the difference between two things or an entity .

Total variation :

Vinay S K 17

Introduction

Variation due

to Interaction

Total

Variation Appraiser

Variation

Equipment

Part to MSV

Within Part Variation

Part

Variation Variation

Always Measurement System variation must be

smaller than manufacturing process variation

Vinay S K 18

9

Measurement System Analysis

Selection of Instruments

small changes of the measured characteristic.

inadequate , MSA recommends 1/10th of six sigma (Total

manufacturing standard deviation).

Vinay S K 19

known standard. It is quantified by evaluating bias.

duplicate readings. It is quantified by evaluating repeatability as

well as reproducibility.

Refer Illustration 1 :

Vinay S K 20

10

Measurement System Analysis

BIAS – WHAT IT IS ?

Ref.

Value BIAS= X bar - Ref.Value

X bar

Vinay S K 21

BIAS - STEPS

1. Capture reference value

• Use masters calibrated- traceable to

standards

• Measure by better instrument than the

instrument being measured

• By Layout inspection

Vinay S K 22

11

Measurement System Analysis

BIAS - STEPS

3. Calculate BIAS for individual reading

Vinay S K 23

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

Bias distribution or

Bias should be within acceptable gage

error as defined in Calibration Proc.

Vinay S K 24

12

Measurement System Analysis

Bias :

Difference between observed average of measurements

and reference value

or master value, is a value that serves as an agreed upon

reference for the measured values

several measurements with a higher level of measuring

equipment

Vinay S K 25

Part No.:- Date:-

Part Name:- Characteristics:

Instrument Used for Ref:-

Instrument under study:

Bias =

Vinay S K 26

13

Measurement System Analysis

times repeatedly by the same operator. The data is

given below.

Bias = Observed Average – Reference Value

OD Values observed:

5.8, 5.7, 5.9, 5.9, 6.0,

6.1, 6.0, 6.1, 6.4, 6.3,

6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 5.6, 6.0

Vinay S K 28

Number of samples, n = 15

Average = 6.0067 mm

Bias = 6.0067 – 6.0000 = 0.0067 mm

r= Rbar / d2* = (6.4-5.6)/3.55333 = 0.22514

d2* from Appendix C for 15 trials

bias = r / Sq. root of n

0.22514 / sq. root of 15

0.22514 / 3.873 = 0.05813

t-Static= bias / bias

0.0067 / 0.05813 = 0.1217

Upper & Lower Limits of [ bias +&– [bias x t(v,1-L/2]

t-static@ 95% Confidence = v, the degree of freedom, = n-1 = 15-1 =14

for confidence level of 95% & L= 0.05, factor for C/L =(1-L/2)

= (1-0.05/2) = 0.975

from t-static table for v=14 & 95%confidence level value t

value for bias is 2.51

[0.0067+&-{ 0.05813 * 2.51}

EV %= 100(EV/TV)= EV= r , TV = process variation or tol/6

t-static Lower limit = -0.1395

CONCLUSION: As observed t-static is between upper & lower limits our Bias Study is acceptable.

However observed t-static is not exactly in the middle or very near to mid value some action has to

be initiated before next study is due.

Vinay S K 29

14

Measurement System Analysis

Vinay S K 30

LINEARITY

of the Gage

+ve Bias

- ve Bias

X bar X bar 31

Vinay S K

15

Measurement System Analysis

Linearity - Steps

operating range of the gage through process

variation

2. Capture reference value for the 5 parts

manner to cover all 5 parts

Vinay S K 32

Linearity – Steps

in a Spread sheet

limit and Higher limit of Bias.

Vinay S K 33

16

Measurement System Analysis

ZERO LINE MUST BE CONTAINED WITHIN THE

TWO LIMIT LINES OR WITHIN ACC.CRITERIA OF

CAL ERROR

+ VE Upper t limits

0

Lower t limits

- VE

Is this MS acceptable ?

Vinay S K 34

Date:

Instrument under study:-

Part 1 2 3 4 5

Ref val

1

2

T 3

R 4

I

A 5

L 6

S

7

8

9

10

11

12

Observed Avg

Bias

Vinay S K 35

17

Measurement System Analysis

Vinay S K 36

Variation of Bias w.r.t time when measured over a

Same Master

T1

T2

T3

Vinay S K 37

18

Measurement System Analysis

Stability :

Stability (or drift) is the total variation in the measurements obtained with a measurement

system on the same master or parts when measuring a single characteristic over an

extended time period.

Decide the part and characteristics for the study.

Make this part as a master part and ensure that the part is preserved till the study is

completed.

Decide the subgroup size (3 to 5), no. Of subgroup (20) & frequency (every day) of data

collection.

As per the frequency, measure the master part 3 to 5 times and record the details in

the Xbar-R chart.

After completion of data collection, calculate each subgroup avg and range.

Vinay S K 38

Calculate the upper control limit & lower control limit for range ( R ).

Calculate the upper control limit & lower control limit for X double bar.

After calculating the 't' value compared that value with 't' distribution

table value.

@95% confidence level. It means variation is accepted.

Vinay S K 39

19

Measurement System Analysis

Stability -example

Vinay S K 40

Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained with

one measurement instrument when used several times by

one appraiser while measuring the identical characteristic

on the same part.

Reproducibility is the variation in the average of the

measurements made by different appraisers using the same

measuring instruments when measuring the identical

characteristic on the same part.

Should be carried out for all measurement systems referred in

control plan.

Vinay S K 41

20

Measurement System Analysis

Procedure for Gage R&R study:

Identify the measurement system for which R&R study to be conducted.

Select the instrument and ensure the instrument is calibrated and is within

the acceptance criteria.

collected are representative of the total process variation.

Identify the location on the part where the measurement has to be done

repeatedly.

times. Enter these results in the data sheet.

Calculate AV, EV, PV, R&R & TV as per the data sheet and calculation sheet.

Vinay S K 42

Interpret the results based on the acceptance criteria given below :

R&R % between 10 & 30% - M.S. Can be acceptable under

Concession, based on the cost of

repair, importance on product

quality,etc..

R&R% greater than 30% - Not acceptable. M.S. Needs

Improvement.

NDC =/> 5

Notes:

If EV is greater than AV – Act on instrument & method

If AV is greater than EV – Act on appraisers method of

checking, training, make gage design

more sturdy, etc..

Refer Annexure 4 for the Data Sheet & Analysis Sheet

Vinay S K 43

21

Measurement System Analysis

Graphical Analysis :

It is used to analyze the results of a measurement system. It provides

insight in to the variation model and inter- relationship.

-Average Chart

Since the group of parts used in the study represents the process

variation. Approximately one half or more of the averages should fall

outside the control limits.

adequate to detect part to part variation and the measurement system

can provide useful information to analyzing and controlling the process.

- If less than half falls outside the control limits then measurement

system lacks adequate effective resolution or the sample does not

represent the expected process variation.

Vinay S K 44

Graphical Analysis

-Range Chart

is plotted on range control chart.

if all ranges are within control all appraisers are doing the same

job.

appraiser differs from other.

system is inadequate as appraiser methods –techniques needs

improvement.

Vinay S K 45

22

Measurement System Analysis

An Attribute Gage :

Compares each part to a specific set of limits and accepts the

part if the limits are satisfied.( It detects the Nonconforming

parts)

Is designed to accept / reject a set of master parts

Cannot indicate how good or bad a part is, only whether the

part is accepted or rejected ( Pass/Fail )

Vinay S K 46

Miss: Part is bad. Decision given is good.

False Alarm: Part is good. Decision given is bad.

Procedure for long method:

• Decide the no. Parts to be selected, no. Of appraisers & no. Of trials

for conducting the study.

• Identify all parts by a unique number and inspect the part to decide

the master value. This has to be approved by a expert.

• Have each appraiser measure the parts randomly for the no. Of trials

decided.

• Record the results as “good / bad” or “go/no go” or “accept / reject”,

etc..

Vinay S K 47

23

Measurement System Analysis

Procedure ( Contd…)

• After completion of collecting the data calculate the probability of

miss and probability of false alarm.

• Based on the probability of miss and false alarm, obtain the bias (miss)

and bias (false alarm) from the table.

• Calculate the effectiveness and bias factor as per the calculation

sheet.

• Interpret the effectiveness results as defined below.

Eff is > 0.9 - M.S is effective.

Eff is betwn 0.7 – 0.9 - M.S is acceptable under Concession

based on the importance, cost of

repair, etc..

Eff is < 0.7 - M.S is not effective.

Vinay S K 48

SL. Master

Appraiser and trails

NO status

I II III IV V

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Vinay S K 49

24

Measurement System Analysis

Sl.No. Parameters Appraiser

I II III IV V

1 Total no.of samples (N)

2 No. of Trials (n)

3 No of good samples (NG)

4 No of bad samples (NB)

5 No of Miss (NM)

6 No of False Alarm (NFA)

7 No of Good Decision (NGD)

8 Probability of Miss P(M) = NM / NB X n

9 Probability of False Alarm P (FA) = N

FA / NG X n

10 Effectiveness (E) = N GD / N X n

11 * Conclusion

* Refer table

Vinay S K 50

Long Method

Evaluation criteria for inspection capability studies involving attribute data.

Parameter Acceptable Marginal Unacceptable

E 0.9 or More 0.8 to 0.9 Less than 0.8

P (FA) 0.05 or Less 0.05 to 0.1 More than 0.1

P (Miss) 0.02 or Less 0.02 to 0.05 More than 0.05

B 0.80 to 1.20 0.50 to 0.80 or Less than 0.5 or

1.2 to 1.5 More than 1.5

P (FA) P (Miss) B Decision or action

0 More than 0 0 Unacceptable

More than 0 0 No value Use E,P(FA),and P(Miss) directly

0 0 No value This is same as E=1 since ,P(FA)= P(Miss)

acceptable

More than 0.5 0.5 or Less More than 1.5 Unacceptable

0.5 or Less More than 0.5 Less than 0.5 Unacceptable

More than 0.5 More than 0.5 No value Bias unimportant, study is

unacceptable.Based on P(Miss) and

P(FA) being More than 0.5

Vinay S K 51

25

Measurement System Analysis

P(FA) or P(MISS) B(FA) or B(MISS) P(FA) or P(MISS) B(FA) or B(MISS)

0.01 0.0264 0.17 0.2541

0.02 0.0488 0.18 0.2613

0.03 0.0681 0.19 0.2707

0.04 0.0863 0.20 0.2803

0.05 0.1040 0.21 0.2874

0.06 0.1200 0.22 0.2966

0.07 0.1334 0.23 0.3034

0.08 0.1497 0.24 0.3101

0.09 0.1526 0.25 0.3187

0.10 0.1758 0.26 0.3251

0.11 0.1872 0.27 0.3312

0.12 0.1989 0.28 0.3372

0.13 0.2107 0.29 0.3429

0.14 0.2227 0.30 0.3485

0.15 0.2323 0.31 0.3538

0.16 0.2444 0.32 0.3572

Vinay S K 52

0.33 0.3621

0.34 0.3668

0.35 0.3712

Constants for evaluating attribute data

0.36 0.3739

0.37 0.3778

0.38 0.3814

0.39 0.3836

0.40 0.3867

0.41 0.3885

0.42 0.3910

0.43 0.3925

0.44 0.3945

0.45 0.3961

0.46 0.3970

0.47 0.3977

0.48 0.3984

0.49 0.3989

0.50 0.3989

Vinay S K 53

26

Measurement System Analysis

SL. Part Param Instrum Manufact

No. No eter ent urer Variable Attribute

Max/

Min

Bias Line Stabili R&R

arity ty

Vinay S K 54

Conclusion :

under the following areas

Criterion to accept new instrument

Comparison of one measuring device against another

Basis for evaluating a gage suspected of being deficient

Comparison of equipment before and after repair

Required element for calculating process variation

Develop Gage Performance Curve which indicates the

probability of gage accepting a part of some true value

Limitation of standard are it is Difficult to use in

destructive testing , Some Processes ,Product

Characteristics & Tests have no defined industry or

National standards

Vinay S K 55

27

Measurement System Analysis

Any

QUESTIONS ???

Vinay S K 56

Thank You !

Vinay S K 57

28

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