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Solo Drumset: Revering the drumset as a solo

instrument with expansions for the instrument,

notation, physical expression and

compositional works.

Grant Collins
BMus

Queensland Conservatorium of Music

Griffith University

Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements


for the award of Doctor of Musical Arts

December 2013
AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thanks my sponsors whom have afforded me the opportunity to create and
build my instrument: Pearl Drums, Zildjian, Remo Drumheads, Vic Firth Drumsticks and
Latin Percussion.

I particularly express my appreciation to my supervisors Richard Vella, Paul Draper and Don
Lebler whose guidance and support were crucial.

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ABSTRACT

My main aim and motivation for this study is to demonstrate, exemplify and explain new
concepts and techniques that extend the nature and creative capacity of the drumset to
contribute to its development as an accepted medium for solo concert performance. In
realising the generation of a body of solo works for the drumset it also became necessary to
address other key areas including the extended drumset, extended notation for the drumset
and concepts for physical expression on the instrument.

This DMA comprises an exegesis and a website (of my artistic work). The theoretical
framework of my study lies in the exegesis as it is used to discuss and explicate past and
current trends of my key research areas and to bring forward my own work and concepts.
The website embodies my work which is represented with live video performances, video
demonstrations of physical expression, pictorial documentation of the extend drumset and
scores of all compositional works.

Part A conducts a review of my key focus areas and an investigative model is developed for
the examination of solo works for the drumset based on these key focus areas and embraces
the use of ostinato as a tool for performance and composition. This model was tested on an
existing seminal work before using it to investigate my own works.

Part B reveals my work based on a practice-led research approach to my compositions, my


drumset, my notation and my physical expression. Each of these focus areas contributes
interdependently to enhance understandings of the compositions, their notational
representation, and the methods used to develop their performances.

As an instrument requiring a multi-limbed approach, the drumset is capable of producing


melody, accompaniment, counterpoint and canon. It has enormous potential for multi-voiced
music, but due to its use in most musical styles as an accompanying instrument, limited
focus has been put on its solo performance potential. My extended drumset demonstrates my
move from conventional drumming with comprehensive documentation and information on
its layout, instrumentation and physical make up.

With the extended drumset established, I was then able to refine my notation system to
identify the numerous components of the instrument and establish independent notational
voices capable of representing the compositions effectively. This system allowed for the
notation, recognition and transcription of my solo drumset works in response to my research
questions from Part A.

In the final chapter of Part B my concepts for physical expression are brought forward,
building on the understanding and knowledge of existing approaches from the literature
review. I present my concepts for Independent Thinking and Temporal Stratification in

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theoretical form within the exegesis and include video examples of temporal stratification on
the DMA website. These approaches not only contribute to the physical skills required for
the performance of the final compositions but also utilize the make up of my extended
drumset and employ my notational system for their specific documentation. The four key
focus areas of my work are closely intertwined, with each making a contribution to the
overall outcome of the compositions and performances.

My output here reflects my work, my art and my theories within the model of practice-led
research as conducted by a practitioner in the field, branching out from traditional
approaches and practices with both physiological and mental challenges for the performer.
The compositional product has been on tour around Australia and internationally (as
documented with the video recordings from live performances on the DMA website) to
showcase my original motivation to succour the authentication of the drumset as a medium
for solo concert performance.

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STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY

The work contained in this dissertation is that of Grant Collins and has not previously been
submitted for an award at any other higher education institution. To the best of my
knowledge and belief, no material previously published or written by another person has
been included except where due reference is made in the dissertation. Selected material
drawn from this dissertation that is the original work of the author has been previously
published in a selection of conference proceedings throughout the course of completing this
work.

Grant Collins, November, 2013

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Solo Drumset: Revering the drumset as a solo instrument with expansions for the instrument,
notation, physical expression and compositional works. .......................................................... i!
Abstract ................................................................................................................................... iii!
STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY ..................................................................................... v!
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ vi!
Table of Figures .................................................................................................................... viii!
List of Tables ......................................................................................................................... xii!
PART A ................................................................................................................................. xiv!
Chapter One: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1!
Aims ..................................................................................................................................... 2!
Approach.............................................................................................................................. 3!
Structure of the Exegesis ..................................................................................................... 4!
Chapter Two: A Review OF Relevant Literature .................................................................... 6!
Ostinato ................................................................................................................................ 6!
Traditional drumset .............................................................................................................. 8!
Notation ............................................................................................................................. 11!
Performance Aspects ......................................................................................................... 14!
Chapter Three: Research Methods ......................................................................................... 22!
Investigative model ............................................................................................................ 26!
Outcomes ........................................................................................................................... 26!
Model for investigation...................................................................................................... 28!
Testing the investigative model: Marco Minnemann ........................................................ 32!
Physical Expression ........................................................................................................... 34!
Synopsis and reflections .................................................................................................... 40!
PART B .................................................................................................................................. 41!
Chapter Four: My Music ........................................................................................................ 42!
Investigation ...................................................................................................................... 42!
“Swordfish” ....................................................................................................................... 43!
Synopsis ............................................................................................................................. 62!
Chapter Five: The Extended Drumset .................................................................................... 64!
Synopsis ............................................................................................................................. 77!
Chapter Six: My Notation ...................................................................................................... 78!
Noteheads .......................................................................................................................... 79!
Note placement .................................................................................................................. 81!
Stave Systems .................................................................................................................... 82!
Synopsis ............................................................................................................................. 84!

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Chapter Seven - Physical Expression..................................................................................... 86!
Introduction........................................................................................................................ 86!
Independent thinking ......................................................................................................... 87!
Temporal Stratification ...................................................................................................... 95!
Execution ........................................................................................................................... 97!
Synopsis ........................................................................................................................... 112!
PART C ................................................................................................................................ 114!
Chapter Eight: Conclusion ................................................................................................... 115!
Chapter Nine: Final Word .................................................................................................... 117!
PART D ................................................................................................................................ 118!
DMA Website ...................................................................................................................... 118!
Appendix A - Rudiments ..................................................................................................... 120!
Appendix B – Taxonomy ..................................................................................................... 122!
References ............................................................................................................................ 124!
Scores ................................................................................................................................... 126!

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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1: A visual representation of the exegesis. ................................................................... 5!
Figure 2: Jazz ride cymbal pattern. .......................................................................................... 7!
Figure 3: Samba foot pattern. ................................................................................................... 7!
Figure 4: Salsa rhythm for drumset.......................................................................................... 8!
Figure 5: Contemporary funk-fusion groove. .......................................................................... 8!
Figure 6: Standard 5-piece drumset. ........................................................................................ 9!
Figure 7: Billy Cobham’s set up with The Mahavishnu Orchestra.......................................... 9!
Figure 8: Latin Percussion gajate bracket. ............................................................................. 10!
Figure 9: Terry Bozzio set up, 2011. ..................................................................................... 10!
Figure 10: Ranta's sketch of multiple staves for the different voices/limbs (Used with
permission from the Percussive Arts Society)............................................................... 12!
Figure 11: Dave Weckl's approach for multiple staves. Excerpt from Contemporary
Drummer +1. ................................................................................................................. 13!
Figure 12: Virgil Donati's multiple staves. ............................................................................ 13!
Figure 13: Clave and tumbao rhythms with the feet. ............................................................. 15!
Figure 14: Dennis Chambers’ single foot polyphony. ........................................................... 16!
Figure 15: Terry Bozzio, “Maya” single foot polyphony. ..................................................... 16!
Figure 16: Marco Minnemann foot movement. ..................................................................... 17!
Figure 17: Derek Roddy foot motion. .................................................................................... 17!
Figure 18: Chuck Silverman's Afro-Cuban foot pattern with 2:3 rhumba clave. .................. 18!
Figure 19: “Big Pants”, 1998 showing the multi-timbral approach to multi-limb ostinato in
motion. ........................................................................................................................... 18!
Figure 20: Bozzio’s Odd note grouping additions to Chapin’s system. ................................ 20!
Figure 21: Virgil Donati advanced coordination limb layering showing right hand/foot Zone
with left hand/foot Zone. ............................................................................................... 21!
Figure 22: Methodological relationships between different components of the research. .... 25!
Figure 23: Model for the investigation of works. .................................................................. 29!
Figure 24: Standard 5-piece drumset with Zone model. ........................................................ 30!
Figure 25: Expanded drumset with Zone model. ................................................................... 31!
Figure 26: Minnemann’s drumset Zones. .............................................................................. 33!
Figure 27: Ostinato 1, “Solo 2” showing the hands ostinato. ............................................... 34!
Figure 28: Layered limbs with groupings, “Solo 2”, bars 2-8. ............................................. 35!
Figure 29: Ostinato 2, “Solo 2”. ............................................................................................ 35!
Figure 30: Paradiddle hands in triplets over 1/16 note inverted paradiddle with the feet. .... 36!
Figure 31: Ostinato 3, “Solo 2”. ............................................................................................ 36!
Figure 32: Right hand/foot play against the left side hi hat ostinato. .................................... 37!
Figure 33: Ostinato 4, “Solo 2”. Left hand and foot in 5. ..................................................... 38!

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Figure 34: Ostinato 4, layer.................................................................................................... 38!
Figure 35: Ostinato 5, “Solo 2”. ............................................................................................ 39!
Figure 36: Ostinato 5, layers of 4, 5 and 7. ............................................................................ 40!
Figure 37: Hypermetric Structure. ......................................................................................... 43!
Figure 38: Melodic hook. ....................................................................................................... 44!
Figure 39: Three note tom melody of the introduction. ......................................................... 44!
Figure 40: Ostinato 1, bar 33. ................................................................................................ 44!
Figure 41: Ostinato 2, bar 41. ................................................................................................ 45!
Figure 42: Ostinato 2, layer 1, bar 45. ................................................................................... 46!
Figure 43: Ostinato 2, layer 2, bar 49. ................................................................................... 46!
Figure 44: Ostinato 3 and layers, bar 57. ............................................................................... 47!
Figure 45: Mirroring of limbs, bars 81-88. ............................................................................ 48!
Figure 46: Ostinato 4, bar 89. ................................................................................................ 48!
Figure 47: Ostinato 4, layer 1, bar 97. ................................................................................... 48!
Figure 48: Ostinato 5, bar 109. .............................................................................................. 49!
Figure 49: Ostinato 6, bar 121. .............................................................................................. 50!
Figure 50: Ostinato 6, layer with rhythmic canon, bar 129. .................................................. 50!
Figure 51: Ostinato 7a, bar 149. ............................................................................................. 51!
Figure 52: Ostinato 7a, layer 1, bar 150. ................................................................................ 52!
Figure 53: Ostinato 7a, layer 2, bar 154. ................................................................................ 52!
Figure 54: Ostinato 7b, bar 158. ............................................................................................ 53!
Figure 55: Ostinato 7b, layer 1, bar 162. ............................................................................... 53!
Figure 56: Ostinato 7b, layer 2, bar 168. ............................................................................... 54!
Figure 57: Ostinato 8. Shift from left hand to right hand, bar 176. ....................................... 54!
Figure 58: Ostinato 8, layer 1, bar 180. ................................................................................. 54!
Figure 59: Ostinato 9, bar 184. .............................................................................................. 55!
Figure 60: Ostinato 9, layer 1. 15/16 over 26/16 hypermeasure, bar 204. ............................. 56!
Figure 61: Ostinato 10, bar 215. ............................................................................................ 56!
Figure 62: Ostinato 10, layer 1, bar 219. ............................................................................... 57!
Figure 63: Ostinato 11, bar 229. ............................................................................................ 57!
Figure 64: Ostinato 11, time layers. ....................................................................................... 58!
Figure 65: Ostinato 11, layer, bar 256. .................................................................................. 59!
Figure 66: Ostinato 12, bar 256. ............................................................................................ 59!
Figure 67: Rhythms for Isorhythmic layers, bars 292-299. ................................................... 60!
Figure 68: “Swordfish” left foot isorhythm commencing at bar 300. ................................... 61!
Figure 69: “Swordfish” left hand isorhythm commencing at bar 308. .................................. 61!
Figure 70: “Swordfish” right foot isorhythm commencing at bar 316. ................................. 62!
Figure 71: “Swordfish” right hand isorhythm commencing at bar 324. ................................ 62!

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Figure 72: Modern large extended drumset: cymbals ............................................................ 67!
Figure 73: Modern large extended drumset: pedals. .............................................................. 68!
Figure 74: Layers of the drumset. .......................................................................................... 69!
Figure 75: Multi-timbral hocket, “Swordfish”. ...................................................................... 70!
Figure 76: Zones. ................................................................................................................... 71!
Figure 77: Zone 1. .................................................................................................................. 72!
Figure 78: “Commando”, Zone 1. .......................................................................................... 73!
Figure 79: “Swordfish”, Zone 1. ............................................................................................ 73!
Figure 80: “Catwoman”, Zone 2. ........................................................................................... 74!
Figure 81: Zone 2. .................................................................................................................. 74!
Figure 82: Zone 3. .................................................................................................................. 74!
Figure 83: “Tubby the Robot”, Zone 3. ................................................................................. 75!
Figure 84: Sticking for the single paradiddle. ........................................................................ 89!
Figure 85: Independent hand rhythms played by the hands in a single paradiddle sticking. . 89!
Figure 86: Two stave system of the single paradiddle. .......................................................... 89!
Figure 87: Variations 1 and 2 for the orchestration of the right hand. ................................... 89!
Figure 88: Left hand orchestration. ........................................................................................ 90!
Figure 89: Two combinations of the right and left hand orchestrations. ............................... 90!
Figure 90: Combinations of the variations. ............................................................................ 90!
Figure 91: Talea strike points for the right hand. ................................................................... 91!
Figure 92: The four color elements of the right hand part. .................................................... 91!
Figure 93: Full isorhythmic cycle for the right hand. ............................................................ 91!
Figure 94: Talea strike points for the left hand. ..................................................................... 92!
Figure 95: The two color elements of the right hand. ............................................................ 92!
Figure 96: Full isorhythmic cycle of the right hand............................................................... 92!
Figure 97: Right and left hand layered isorhythms of the single paradiddle. ........................ 92!
Figure 98: Interdependent and independent sticking for the Mozambique. .......................... 93!
Figure 99: Interdependent hand approach. ............................................................................. 94!
Figure 100: “Wonder Woman”. Independent thinking principle applied with foot .............. 94!
Figure 101: Visual representation of the limbs. ..................................................................... 97!
Figure 102: My temporal stratification of the limbs - Notation. ............................................ 98!
Figure 103: Visualization with a dominant focus on the right hand. ..................................... 99!
Figure 104: Adding the voice with sextuplets and septuplets. ............................................. 100!
Figure 105: Visualization with added voice layer. .............................................................. 100!
Figure 106: Breaking down of the rhythms to the lowest common denominator of 60. ..... 101!
Figure 107: Sounds sources used by each limb. .................................................................. 102!
Figure 108: Right hand natural grouping. ............................................................................ 103!
Figure 109: Left hand natural grouping. .............................................................................. 103!

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Figure 110: Right foot natural grouping. ............................................................................. 104!
Figure 111: Left foot natural grouping. ............................................................................... 104!
Figure 112: Temporal stratification with natural groupings. ............................................... 104!
Figure 113: Screen visualization of temporal strata............................................................. 105!
Figure 114: Groups of 2. Orchestrations. ............................................................................. 107!
Figure 115: Groups of 3. Orchestrations. ............................................................................. 108!
Figure 116: Groups of 4. Orchestrations. ............................................................................. 109!
Figure 117: Groups of 5. Orchestrations. ............................................................................. 110!
Figure 118: Temporal stratification of relatively prime numbers. ....................................... 111!

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Ostinato. ................................................................................................................... 31!
Table 2: Ostinato 1. ................................................................................................................ 34!
Table 3: Ostinato 2. ................................................................................................................ 35!
Table 4: Ostinato 3. ................................................................................................................ 37!
Table 5: Ostinato 5. ................................................................................................................ 39!
Table 6: Ostinato 1, “Swordfish”. .......................................................................................... 45!
Table 7: Ostinato 3, “Swordfish”. .......................................................................................... 47!
Table 8: Ostinato 4, “Swordfish”. .......................................................................................... 48!
Table 9: Ostinato 5, “Swordfish”. .......................................................................................... 49!
Table 10: Ostinato 6, “Swordfish”. ........................................................................................ 50!
Table 11: Ostinato 7a, “Swordfish”. ...................................................................................... 51!
Table 12: Ostinato 7b, “Swordfish”. ...................................................................................... 53!
Table 13: Ostinato 9, “Swordfish”. ........................................................................................ 55!
Table 14: Ostinato 10. “Swordfish”. ...................................................................................... 57!
Table 15: Ostinato 11, “Swordfish”. ...................................................................................... 58!
Table 16: Ostinato 12, “Swordfish”. ...................................................................................... 60!
Table 17: Isorhythmic layers .................................................................................................. 61!
Table 18: Components of the extended drumset .................................................................... 66!
Table 19: Modern large extended drumset: cymbal components, general............................. 67!
Table 20: Modern large extended drumset: cymbal components, china and stacked ........... 67!
Table 21: Modern large extended drumset: cymbal components, hi hats .............................. 68!
Table 22: Modern large extended drumset: pedals. ............................................................... 69!
Table 18: Notehead symbols with tone groups for the extended drumset. ............................ 80!
Table 19: Three basic steps in the discovery of independent thinking for rudimental and
other similar styles of stickings. .................................................................................... 88!
Table 20: Marco Minnemann limb construction for temporal stratification. ........................ 95!
Table 21: My limb layering for temporal stratification. ........................................................ 96!
Table 22: Groups of 2. Temporal mechanics. ...................................................................... 107!
Table 23: Groups of 3. Temporal mechanics. ...................................................................... 108!
Table 24: Groups of 4. Temporal mechanics. ...................................................................... 109!
Table 25: Groups of 5. Temporal mechanics. ...................................................................... 110!

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PART A

Part A introduces the study with a balance of my position within the discipline and the
research. It outlines the scholarly context of the study, research questions, my methodology
and the structure of the exegesis.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
As a vital and influential instrument of the modern era, the drumset has yet to be fully
recognized as a stand-alone concert stage solo instrument. My own experience as a
professional performer in diverse musical situations has allowed me to focus on the
development of strategies and creative works that address the constrained regard of the
drumset by professionals and the public (Collins, 2013). My ongoing effort to push the
boundaries of what a drumset is, how it can be played and composed for and how new music
for this developmental undertaking can be notated is the basis of this study.

This exegesis will describe my background and the experiences that led to the undertaking of
the study, as well as providing an insight into the processes used to produce new works and
their musical and technical strategies. The study consists of a variety of media through which
the new knowledge is transferred and experienced and provides experiential outcomes to
explore and extend the dynamic, tonal and rhythmic characteristics of the drumset by fully
demonstrating new concepts and techniques that I have developed.

The originality of this research is in its non-traditional approach to the instrument as a tool
for full-scale contemporary composition and also to extend the possibilities for the drumset
performer. This entails the expansion of the number of individual drums and sound sources
in the drumset for which new physical techniques and new notational systems are needed.
My aim is that this study will expand the technical and musical parameters of the drumset,
thereby developing the instrument’s capacities and enhancing its prestige as a solo concert
instrument.

Background

Being told as a ten year old boy by the instrumental teacher at school that I was too old to
start learning the drums was probably not the best of introductions to music. It would not be
until I was in my late teens after being encouraged by high school friends who required a
drummer for their rock band that I would then pick up the sticks and start my journey as a
musician. I have now been a professional drummer and composer for 27 years and have
performed around the world in a variety of musical ensembles and also as a solo artist.

Three prominent events in my early years of playing acted as turning points in the way I
regarded my instrument. Firstly, in 1993 I was introduced to the concept of foot percussion
by Peruvian born drummer and percussionist Alex Acuna on his instructional video,
Drumming and Percussion (Acuna, 1989). He had incorporated a woodblock on a bass drum
pedal to play the clave with his foot while soloing on the timbales with his hands. This
approach appealed to me very much as it involved using all four limbs to contribute layered
patterns to different beats.

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Secondly, in 1996 I was runner up in Australia’s Best Up & Coming Drummer Competition
(Drumtek). This led to international endorsements from various drum and percussion
companies. After very successful promotional performances for the companies, I became
one drum company’s primary endorsee in Australia and subsequently presented numerous
drum clinics in which I incorporated extended solos (Sponsor, 1996-present). This platform
of presentation was a catalyst for creating performances with an emphasis on creativity and
originality. With the support of these sponsors I was able to build an instrument with an
extended array of drums, cymbals and percussion without financial constraints. I approached
the clinics as solo performances and came to realize that there was interest in this new genre
of solo drumset concert performance.

The third event influencing my practice, particularly in the use of a multi-limbed approach to
drumset compositions was hearing Australian pianist Michael Kieran Harvey perform Carl
Vines Piano Sonata (Vine, 1990). The composition made extended use of melodic ostinato
with the left hand and phrasing with the right hand. I sought to adapt this approach of
ostinato to my drumset compositions. Traditionally, drummers use ostinatos of one or two
beats in duration. I started to experiment with longer ostinatos containing more syncopated
rhythms. The next part of this developmental process was to have the limbs move between
sounds/surfaces in order to achieve new progressive ostinato patterns that could then be used
as the basis for composition.

These three events led to my focusing on developing solo works with formal thematic
structural sections and precise musical events. To create these works, I experimented with an
extended drumset and with multi-timbral and multi-limbed orchestrations. This, in turn, led
to experimentation in notation to accommodate the new multi-layered compositions.

After building an original repertoire of music based around the new extended drumset and its
technical approaches, I produced my first full-length solo drumset CD, Primal Instinct
(Collins, 1999).This undertaking brought together the various strands of my experimentation
into new works that exemplify my creative practice. Since this time, several other recorded
works have been produced alongside a busy performance career, presenting these new
concepts and music to a variety of audiences.

Aims

My motivation for this study is to demonstrate, exemplify and explain new concepts and
techniques that extend the nature and creative capacity of the extended drumset so that it will
become an accepted medium for solo concert performance. An important aspect of this is to
distinguish the drumset from orchestral percussion. My focus is the development of the
drumset as an integrated instrument with multiple timbres, played by an individual, rather

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than regard it as a set of percussion instruments, usually played by multiple percussionists.
From this, the specific techniques in playing and notation, pertinent to this study, unfold.

As an instrument requiring a multi-limbed approach, the drumset is capable of producing


melody, accompaniment, counterpoint and canon. It has enormous potential for multi-voiced
music, but due to its use in most musical styles as an accompanying instrument, limited
focus has been put on its solo performance potential. In undertaking this study with concert
compositions drawing on new technical and conceptual approaches for the extended
drumset, I hope that others will be inspired to approach the instrument from a transformed
perspective to see its full capabilities and potential for composition and performance as a
serious solo instrument for the world stage.

The extension of repertoire is an important step in the development of the large modern
drumset for three reasons. Firstly, it will provide a new perspective on the instrument’s
capabilities; secondly, it will augment technical and physical skill-sets for the instrument;
and thirdly, with non-drumming composers becoming more familiar with the capabilities of
the instrument, new works may be composed to expand the solo drumset repertoire and
practice further.

This study focuses on four areas of my creative practice that extend the creative and
technical parameters of performance and composition on the extended drumset; the design of
the extended drumset, physiological performance approaches, the use of new notation
approaches to accommodate the new techniques, and new compositions exemplifying the
concepts.

Approach

The original aim of this study was to develop a series of compositional works for solo
drumset. As my research progressed it become obvious that there were more processes
involved than solely creating a compositional portfolio. The compositions are the result of
the application of conventional and novel approaches developed in a series of investigations
and developments and thus demonstrate how these are used in new musical works. The aim
of this exegesis is to reflect on these areas as expression of my artistic practice and problem
solving. The areas to be addressed will include:

1. Compositions for solo drumset;

2. Drumset: the design and set up of the instrument;

3. Notation: for the purpose of scoring the compositions;

4. Physical expression: performance techniques.

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There is very little existing repertoire that approaches the drumset from the point of view of
it being a solo concert instrument. There are many solos written for the drumset for
educational and assessment purposes, but these solos are typically based only around a style,
or type of beat with inflections, fills1 and variations. While they can be seen as having
educational value, they do not demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument for the concert
stage as a solo instrument.

The compositions in this study are the creative outcomes of a variety of techniques and
concepts developed for an expanded drumset using polyrhythms and rhythmic independence,
often demanding complex temporal organization. The outcomes of my research will include
video recording of live performances throughout my candidature and an exegesis discussing
the processes and products of the research. My creative processes and the conceptual stems
for the works will be discussed and explored to show the why and how within the pieces.
Overall, the emphasis will be on a creative practice-led research method that will involve
researching and analysing existing works, looking at compositional ideas that can stem from
this research and the development of the performance techniques required for the execution
of these ideas.

Structure of the Exegesis

This dissertation will be comprised of four parts. Figure 1 (below) shows a visual
representation for the structure of the exegesis:

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“A drum fill is a short musical passage played to transition into a different section of a
song, to embellish something else happening in a song, or just played randomly in a song. A
drum fill can be one note, many notes, or complete silence” (Veny, 2010).

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Exegesis Part A
Chapter 1 Introduction

Literature Review

Chapter 2 Traditional Performance


Notation
Drumset Aspects

Chapter 3 Methodology, Structure and Analytical Model

Part B
Chapter 4 My Music - Investigation of My Work

Physical
Chapters 5,6,7 Drumset Notation
Expression

Part C
Chapters 8,9 Conclusions Final Word

Appendixes References Scores

Website Part D
DMA Website

Figure 1: A visual representation of the exegesis.

Part A will recount my investigations (literature review) into the various musical aspects of
the drumset and investigative model as discussed in the methodology.
Part B will commence with an investigation of the compositional folio, revealing my
concepts and developments for the drumset, notation and physical expression aspects,
drawing on the research established in Part A.
Part C will be my conclusions and a final word on my research and findings with a view to
the future.
Part D will contain my portfolio and creative work on an interactive website.

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CHAPTER TWO: A REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
This literature review will address the placement of my study in terms of research design in
creative practice studies and the four foci of my research as outlined in the introduction. In
addition, a section dealing with the role of the ostinato in solo drumming is necessary
because this has been fundamental to my developing the four areas of my research and will
play a key role in my investigative model as discussed in chapter three. As stated previously,
ostinato, as played on the piano, was a primary inspiration for developing techniques and
concepts for the extended drumset. A basic review of the use of ostinato in traditional
drumming is seen as helpful to the reader with specific terminology in drumming defined in
Appendix A, which contains a list of the 40 standard rudiments as noted by the Percussive
Arts Society and Appendix B, which defines drumset and musical terminology specific to
my work. New terms developed for this study will be designated by italics and also included
in the glossary.

Ostinato

Ostinato is a central component of my approach to solo drumset performance and


composition. Like drones, ostinato enables a performer to improvise over a reliable and
predictable music accompaniment. The use of ostinato is a very effective technique for solo
drumset composition. It enables the solo performer to establish a sense of foreground,
middle ground and background. The ostinato functions as accompaniment, which then
allows for timbral/melodic structures and improvisation to be played in the foreground. I will
explore ostinato here as I use the technique as a basis for compositional form, structure and
the layering of limbs as represented in my investigative model in chapter three and my music
in chapter four.

In general there are two types of ostinato:

1. Exclusively rhythmic ostinato that uses pure rhythm as the basis of its creation;

2. Melodic/timbral/rhythmic ostinato that combines melodic and rhythmic functions


within its framework.

In particular, the second ostinato type concentrates on harmony and the role of
accompaniment. Because of its supportive role, the temporal organization of the ostinato is
often quite simplistic in order to accommodate its function as a background structure within
the musical formation. An ostinato usually has a clearly defined rhythmic shape (Brinle,
1991).

Existing approaches to ostinato on the drumset are based on patterns between the limbs,
generally assigning each to a monophonic sound source. My research will broaden this
practice with the application of multi-timbral ostinato organization for individual limbs. This

6
will involve varying timbres applied to a single limb, creating levels of timbral and melodic
polyphony and the illusion of multiple performers. This multi-timbral ostinato approach can
be applied to two, three and even four-way ostinatos between the limbs, creating the sonic
presence of multiple players.

Terry Bozzio succeeded Max Roach in bringing ostinato to the forefront as a tool for
generating solo drumset compositions. Drummers traditionally utilized ostinato for
improvisation and as a tool for ensemble accompaniment but Bozzio and Roach constructed
pieces to incorporate formal structures and ostinato extensions between the limbs. This is
evident in Roach’s piece, “The Drum Also Waltzes” (Roach, 1966) and Bozzio’s “Solo
Drums” (Bozzio, 1988) in which both performers feature ostinato within their work. The
ostinatos were an integral part of the compositional process contributing to both form and
structure.

Ostinatos on the drumset can be generated from the use of a single limb and expanded to the
use of all limbs. I refer to this in my practice and in my reviews and analyses below as 1-way
ostinato for a single limb, 2-way ostinato for two limbs, 3-way ostinato for three limbs, and
4-way ostinato for four limbs. Below are examples of these using traditional drumset musical
styles:

1-way Ostinato utilizing one limb; the right-hand pattern as played on the ride cymbal within
a jazz context shown below in Figures 2–5:

Figure 2: Jazz ride cymbal pattern.

2-way Ostinato utilizing two limbs; the drumset foot pattern for a Brazilian Samba:

Figure 3: Samba foot pattern.

7
3-way Ostinato utilizing three limbs; the drumset ostinato for a salsa rhythm:

Figure 4: Salsa rhythm for drumset.

4-way Ostinato utilizing four limbs; a contemporary funk-fusion groove:

Figure 5: Contemporary funk-fusion groove.

In identifying with ostinato, its various forms, and applications for the traditional drumset, I
will build upon these for the use within my own compositions. My works for solo drumset
will embody ostinato, contributing both form and structure to the works. The incorporation
of ostinato will develop layering of the limbs using coordinated independence and voiced on
my extended drumset. This will also include my notational method for the identification of
the voices within the ostinatos and will be developed further in Part B.

Traditional drumset

My music is centered on my extended drumset and the particular layout which I have
developed. The evolution of my set up has stemmed from the basic drumsets I have played
when starting on the instrument and the various influences I have been exposed to. This has
been apart of my research in the development of an extended drumset for solo performance.
When I first came to play the drumset in the late 1980s, the standard form was a 5-piece
drumset including ride, crash and hi hat cymbals, and this remains the dominant form of the
drumset (see Figure 6). Early jazz drummers originally employed a 4-piece set and then over
several years of experimentation and development with the drum manufacturers, the 5-piece

8
was established as the norm in the late 1960s. ‘Most significant advances in the development
of the acoustic drumset and the function and independent application of the limbs came
through jazz drumming’ (Breithaupt, 1989)

Figure 6: Standard 5-piece drumset.

While this standard set up is preferred by the majority of drummers, there are performers
who have extended beyond this norm. Billy Cobham’s drumset from the late 1970’s is an
excellent example of this, as he played an expanded drumset with up to three bass drums and
a wall of tom toms and cymbals as shown in Figure 7. This unique and extended set up also
catered for Cobham’s ambidextrous approach to the playing drums (Breithaupt, 1990)

Figure 7: Billy Cobham’s set up with The Mahavishnu Orchestra.

An additional influence is the infusion of Latin instruments with the drumset. The
development of foot percussion brackets (Figure 8) enabled cowbells, woodblocks etc. to be
played using one or more foot pedals, allowing drummers to expand their setups and multi-
timbral percussion voices.

9
Figure 8: Latin Percussion gajate bracket.

Terry Bozzio is a key figure in the development of the extended drumset well known for his
extravagant large solo drumset as his melodic approach requires him to have a chromatic
scale on the left side of his kit moving around to a diatonic scale on the right. His desire to
play melodically has resulted in the inclusion of numerous drums in the drumset, along with
a huge array of cymbals as shown in Figure 9 (Bozzio, 2011b).

Figure 9: Terry Bozzio set up, 2011.

The configurations of performers’ drumsets are customarily determined by both the genre of
music they play and their personal approach to the instrument. My drumset developed in my
research to expand existing drumset configurations. It makes use of multi-timbral sound
sources for sonic options in compositions for the hands, extending on the traditional drums
and cymbal timbres with other stick-striking sound sources inspired by Latin drummers and
percussionists. For the feet, it expands the traditional drumset foot-played components of
bass drum and hi hats to include an array of percussion timbres available for the feet. I use
the additional timbres for the creation of multi-timbral soundscapes in solo drumset
composition.

10
Garry Chester describes his organizational concept of the drumset up as having ‘territorial
rights’ (Chester, 1985, p. 4) referring to ‘playing the instruments on the left side with the left
hand, and playing the instruments on the right side with the right hand’ (Chester, 1985, p. 5).
This approach would have an additional floor tom and ride cymbal (traditionally on the right
side of the kit) placed on the left, and an additional set of hi hats (traditionally on the left) on
the right side of the kit. This is a concept that I have drawn upon with the formation of my
own drumset and I will identify ‘Zones’ and ‘layers’ as an adaptation of Chester’s notion of
‘territorial rights’.

The nucleus of the 5-piece traditional drumset remains constant throughout the many
variations of large and small set ups used by drummers and I draw on various arrangements
and extensions used by other performers to influence my own set up. My research in Part B
will further explore the creative possibilities of the drumset as I research the make up of the
instrument to be used for my solo drumset compositions.

Notation

Norman Weinberg helped to formalize the notation of the drumset, which had previously
been largely unregulated (Weinberg, 1994b) My research into the creation and notation of
solo drum compositions on a large scale drumset has expanded on the established knowledge
base in the traditional notation for the drumset for the notation of my compositions. From its
foundations, stemming from orchestral percussion notation, drumset notation has been on an
evolutionary journey. As composers were being more specific in their written parts for the
drumset, they were forced to create their own systems for notation. As there was no set
standard, a legend for each composition – ‘notational key’ or ‘key’ (Weinberg, 1994b, p.
17) – was designed by the composer showing the corresponding symbol and position on the
stave for a particular sound on the instrument being used. With many different composers
using many different systems and numerous techniques used for notation over the past 100
years, it has been difficult for drummers to embrace any particular notational style.
Weinberg’s DMA dissertation includes a study of over 200 reference and performance works
to produce his Guidelines for Drumset Notation.

These guidelines will not try to create a uniquely new notational system for the drumset. Instead,
they present a clarification and simplification (when required) of the notational systems already in
use in the majority of analysed works. I have chosen to follow the path of Frank McCarty, who
wrote that the main goal of a standardized notation “is to strengthen the notational language
between composers and performers by simplifying and clarifying its content and standardizing its
applicability without, however, limiting its potential for expansion. (Weinberg, 1994b, p. 15)

Weinberg’s work gives us the first standard guide for drumset notation that can be used by
composers and performers. Sibelius and Finale have also integrated his guidelines in musical

11
where P1 . . . . P4 equals the probability of obtaining a note ac-
notation/engraving
cording to: software. Weinberg covers all of the necessary territory for drumset
notation including notehead symbols, note placement, articulations, homogenous rhythms
1/2 -- P1
appearing on a stave and a variety of other representations. These guidelines for drumset
1/3 -- P2
notation are clear, concise and adaptable to the many conditions faced in notating music for
!/4 -- P3
the drumset. Weinberg also points out that he has endeavoured to create a set of standards
1/5 -- P~
that can be expanded upon to meet the needs of the future. I will be adopting these guidelines
and expanding on them for the
The complements ofnotation required
these ratios of of my extended
course drumset for solo
are rests.
composition.
Two additional rules were set in the bass drum and hi-hat lines:

D If a note is generated in the bass drum part, a rest must


Notation - Multiple Staves
appear in the hi-hat part i.e. no double stops will occur be-
tween
When it comes bass drum
to writing and hi-hat.
for different parts on the drumset, some composers have employed
the use of multiple
2) If a staves.
note Like standard piano
is generated notation,
in either which
part, commonly
at least two uses
16thtwo staves
note
rests must follow in that part, since ~ at a fast tempo
for treble and bass, the right and left hands respectively, drum notation can also separate the
would be difficult on the bass drum or hi-hat. Also in any given
limbs for the representation
jazz Piece the feetof different
are lessparts. Thethan
active pianothe
score can be extended for the organ,
hands.
using aMiscellaneous
third stave at the bottom for the bass lines played by the feet. This separation of the
Notes
staves enables
Thisclearer identification
version of where the
of the program music isnoto specific
contains be playedinteraction
physically, which
be- has
tween the bass drum and hi-hat, and the five upper instruments. Fu-
benefits for both the performer and the composer.
ture versions might generate bass drum and hi-hat parts according
to rhythmic groups selected in the upper voices, or according to re-
In an experimental composition for solo drumset using computer technology in 1968,
lative intensity of the upper voices; or this process might be re-
Michael W. Ranta uses a three stave system to showcase the ostinato played by the feet in
versed.
one stave and In theprint-out,
parts playedallbyintegers represent
the hands in the upper twonotes, or Ranta
staves. voices,
alsoand
takesall
the
zeros represent rests. For instance in a section of heavy probabili-
concept of voice
ties separation
for rests, into his notation
if integers with5 the
3, 4, and cymbals in
represent the upper
rests, andare
these the put
drums in
t h r oofuthe
the lower g h two
a routine
staves forwhich changes
the hands (Ranta,them
1968),toshown
zerosbelow
for in
ease of 10.
Figure trans-
cn'bing the print-out.

J ~l 9.o

Figure 10: Ranta's sketch of multiple staves for the different voices/limbs (Used with
permission from the Percussive
18 Arts Society).

Gary Chester’s book The New Breed, is primarily a system for the development of
coordination. He uses a two-stave system for notation to emphasise his concept of ‘territorial
rights’ on the drumset (Chester, 1985, p. 46). Dave Weckl (a former student of Chester) also
uses this system in his popular Contemporary Drummer + One educational package,

12
frequently using the upper staff for the cymbals and the lower staff for the drums while the
snare drum is notated in the middle as shown in Figure 11 (Weckl, 1987).

This approach of Ranta and Weckl uses timbre as the basis for separation of the voices in the
staves as opposed to using the limbs for separation. This system works well when both hands
are playing together.

Figure 11: Dave Weckl's approach for multiple staves. Excerpt from Contemporary
Drummer +1.

Virgil Donati, a coordinated independence2 specialist, has also utilized a two-stave approach
to the notation for some of his more complex orchestrations as shown in Figure 12 below.
He uses a top stave for the ‘Left Zone’ (left hand/foot) and a bottom stave for the ‘Right
Zone’ (right hand/foot) (Donati, 2009). This is a move away from the Chester and Weckl
models of notation for the timbres (cymbals upper, drums lower), which emphasizes the role
of the limbs from a coordination perspective. I have also used the ‘Zone’ notational method
to represent exercises for the development of coordination. This produces a very clear
picture in the mind as to what the limbs are playing.

Figure 12: Virgil Donati's multiple staves.

Drum soloist Terry Bozzio has adopted a classical melodic approach to his compositions by
tuning his drums to specific pitches. The almost forty drums are tuned over a range of
several octaves, from lower pitched bass drums through to higher pitched tom toms. Bozzio

2
Coordinated independence: a term applied by Jim Chapin for developing independent limb
function by first learning two (or more) parts in a coordinated format (together).

13
doesn’t do full scores for his compositions, citing the lack of a melodic drumset notation
method as a limiting factor for the notation of his works.

I have no real scores for my stuff. I sketch or work by ear. I will say that I have been very
frustrated w/ [sic] our drumset notation system, which does not take into account many melodic
oriented things…what I end up doing is writing maybe an ostinato foot pattern on a traditional
drumset staff, below a double (piano type bass & treble) staff to write the pitches so they look
correct melodically. (Bozzio, 2011a)

In his approach for the notation of his instrument, Bozzio is essentially setting up different
staves for the different parts of his composition. The feet play the ostinato represented in the
bottom stave and the hands play the melodic part represented in the top staves. Like Donati,
his objective is to isolate the parts so that they can be clearly observed independently and
then combined in the final orchestration.

The isolation of the parts and separation of the limbs for the ease of a visual representation
of the musical score is common to all of these multiple stave systems, from Ranta’s 1968
example through to the Chester/Weckl model and the systems currently used by Donati and
Bozzio. Both of these factors play an important roll in identifying the crucial elements in
developing a design for an expanded solo drumset notation.

My compositions will have a strong focus on developing the limbs as independent


contributors to the soundscapes within the works. While the percussion elements of the
drumset can be divided into different sub-groups with distinct timbral characteristics of
metals, woods and membranes (Brinle, 1991), my focus will be on the isolation of the parts
on the basis of the limbs used to perform each part. It is common for cymbals and drums to
be written on the same stave with various note heads types representing different elements of
the drumset making selections easier to read, and this will be explored further in Part B,
which includes examples of the various systems I have experimented with in my research.

Performance Aspects

The physical aspects of performance on the drumset are fundamental to the development of
my creative practice, therefore requiring a need to identify and understand both physical
applications for performance and physical approaches for coordination. The three key areas I
will address are footwork, ostinato in motion and coordinated independence. In order to
establish new developments in my own work, these areas will be used as building blocks for
the advancement of concepts and physical expression on the drumset.

14
Footwork

There have been various innovations in the use of footwork technique for the drumset since
its conception. Here I will be addressing muli-timbral arrangements, single foot polyphony,
and foot movement.

Multi-timbral

Multi-timbral footwork in drumming involves the feet using a variety of sound sources as
opposed to being constrained to the traditional bass drum and hi hat combination, adding a
new dimension to the sounds of the conventional drumset. Not only timbral attributes, but
also rhythmic qualities of Latin music such as clave, cascara and tumbao3, can be utilized on
the drumset, incorporating a new aspect of sonic presence and coordination skills for the
instrument. One common example as used in Afro-Cuban drumset performance is to play the
tumbao with the right foot on the bass drum and the clave with the left foot on a woodblock
or cowbell as shown in Figure 13. This concept of multi-timbral ostinato will be further
explored in the following sections when other techniques such as polyphony and motion are
examined.

Figure 13: Clave and tumbao rhythms with the feet.

Single foot polyphony: “Bridging”

Bridging is using a single foot across more than one pedal.

Both Dennis Chambers’ video release In the Pocket (Chambers, 1992) and Terry Bozzio’s
video release, Melodic Drumming and the Ostinato (Bozzio, 1993) demonstrate bridging of
foot pedals for the creation of additional timbres and rhythmic strata within ostinato
accompaniment. This technique allows drummers to increase the density and timbral content
of their foot patterns both in ensemble situations and in use as ostinatos for solo
improvisation. Chambers uses the left foot to play both the hi hat and bass drum on quarter
notes while the right foot plays the last two notes of each triplet on the bass drum, an
ostinato over which he plays with the hands as shown in Figure 14. This results in a
continuous flow of triplets on the bass drum while the hi hat marks out a continuous quarter

3
Clave, cascara and tumbao are rhythm parts used by the percussion section in an Afro-
Cuban music ensemble.

15
note pulse. The pattern is also highlighted by the differentiation of timbres between the hi hat
and bass drum.

Figure 14: Dennis Chambers’ single foot polyphony.

Terry Bozzio’s more recent use of single foot polyphony is found in his composition “Maya”
on Drawing the Circle (Bozzio, 1998). Both feet double up on pedals with contrasting
timbres for this foot ostinato with open bass drums layered with china hi hat cymbals. This
creates a very powerful background for hands to play melodies and improvised statements
over the top as shown below in Figure 15.

Figure 15: Terry Bozzio, “Maya” single foot polyphony.

Foot Movement

Foot movement refers to the moving of the feet between different foot pedals.

Multi-timbral movement of the feet is a new concept in drumset performance. Its modern
day applications are minimal as a large majority of drummers are more concerned with using
the instrument in a band accompaniment fashion and the use of such techniques is perceived
as being outside of this usage. The ability to apply this technique to solo performance and
incorporate it in my compositions is a valuable tool for my multi-timbral approaches to the
instrument.

Modern day applications: Marco Minnemann – groups of 3s example.

Marco Minnemann from Germany demonstrates a use for foot movement on his DVD,
Extreme Drumming (Minnemann, 2003). This excerpt shows his feet moving in a linear style
between pedals. The left foot uses four pedals and moves from the inside out and then back
again. The right foot uses two pedals and alternates between them. As the two feet move
between different sound sources, an additional layer of rhythmic contrast is added as shown
in Figure 16.

16
Figure 16: Marco Minnemann foot movement.

In his appearance at the Modern Drummer festival in 2008 (Siegel & Wallis), Derek Roddy
demonstrates a foot pattern with contrary motion between the feet in ¾ meter. Although only
two timbral qualities of bass drum and hi hat are used, his feet play a linear sequence using
single strokes, thus allowing each stroke to be heard. The right foot plays in groups of two
between the bass drum and hi hat while the left foot plays a three-note group consisting of
one bass drum strike and two on the hi hat. He then uses his hands to improvise over this
ostinato foundation. Figure 17 represents the contrary motion between the feet and the linear
notion of the pattern:

Figure 17: Derek Roddy foot motion.

Ostinato in Motion

Ostinato in motion is what I refer to as motion of the limbs within ostinato organization.

Existing approaches to ostinato on the drumset are based on patterns between the limbs,
generally assigning each to a monophonic sound source. My creative practice broadens this
practice with the application of multi-timbral ostinato organization for individual limbs. This
will involve varying timbres applied to a single limb, creating levels of polyphony and the
illusion of multiple performers. I was inspired by Carl Vine’s Piano Sonata, 1st Movement
(Vine, 1990), with the use of longer sweeping ostinatos with the left hand while the right
hand plays contrasting motifs. My composition “Big Pants” (Collins, 1999) demonstrates
one of the first elaborate applications of foot motion using five multi-timbral foot pedals.
The foot pattern uses an Afro-Cuban 2:3 rhumba clave on the left foot and a contrasting
rhythm on the right, inspired by a lesson published by Chuck Silverman on his website
(Silverman, 1997). Figure 18 shows Silverman’s example followed by my usage of similar
material for comparison in Figure 19.

17
Figure 18: Chuck Silverman's Afro-Cuban foot pattern with 2:3 rhumba clave.

Having developed this foot pattern as an ostinato and playing such rhythms as the
Mozambique with the hands in the foreground, I used the inspiration from Vine’s piano
sonata to orchestrate these into the main section of my composition “Big Pants” (Collins,
1999). Both feet move from inside to outside on the pedals respectively and the Mozambique
pattern played by the hands becomes virtually unrecognizable after the orchestration shown
in Figure 19.

Figure 19: “Big Pants”, 1998 showing the multi-timbral approach to multi-limb
ostinato in motion.

Coordinated Independence

The typical role of the drummer as a multi-limbed instrumentalist is based on necessity to fill
a musical role. Before the introduction of the drumset, drummers played a single instrument
such as bass drum, cymbals or snare drum. Drummers then began to play both the bass and
snare drum parts, which was the first development of the drummer requiring coordination in
what was called double drumming4. This used a variety of mixed double sticking patterns to
play a combined set up of the different instruments. This concept of sticking (a vernacular
term signifying the strokes played by the hands) laid a foundation for the future of the
drummers’ role and jazz drumming (Breithaupt, 1989).
Jazz drummers developed coordination on the drumset as their music became more complex,
which in turn encouraged enhanced expression. The bebop era of the 1940’s saw drummers
add musical phrasing between the limbs to the ride cymbal ostinato. Teacher and author Jim
Chapin examined these techniques and began to look at a system for what he called
‘coordinated independence’ (Chapin, 1948). Chapin’s book was seen as very progressive and

4
Playing both the snare drum and bass drum parts.

18
complex in its time. The coordination skills required by drummers today have resulted in this
book being widely used in the training of young drummers. The foundation of his system
was to “develop a measure of coordinated independence between the hands and feet in
executing rhythmic figures against the standard cymbal rhythm” (Chapin, 1948, p. 1). The
simplicity and practicality of the Chapin method has stood the test of time and has also been
adapted for the progressive nature of contemporary musical styles and the associated
technical demands on the instrument.

In the Postmodern Jazz era of the 1960s, Max Roach was an innovative and leading figure in
the development of the drumset as a solo instrument. His innovative approach to the drumset
can be heard on his recording of Drums Unlimited (Roach, 1966). This recording includes
several solo drumset pieces including “The Drum Also Waltzes”, a solo drumset
composition with a ¾ meter foot ostinato (Zang, 1996). This ostinato approach with the feet
frees the hands to play melodic and improvised passages while still retaining a constant pulse
and accompaniment.

This ostinato approach was expanded in the fusion music of the 1970’s and 1980’s that
included the influence of Latin music. Performances from Latin drummers such as Airto
Moriera in Return to Forever and Alex Acuna in Weather Report showed a new approach to
the instrument, with the drummers playing foot ostinatos between the bass drum and hi hat
while the hands played complex syncopated rhythms with varying sticking patterns
(Breithaupt, 1990).

Walfredo Reyes Snr’s concepts and applications of foot percussion were also exposed to a
larger audience with the release of the 1993 instructional video, Working it Out, parts 1 & 2
with Dave Weckl (1993). Latin percussionists incorporating ‘foot percussion’ within their
drumsets helped to introduce a more extended approach to the instrument and also a new
focus on four-way coordination. Drummers were now using multi-pedal set ups to add
variation in timbre for drumset ostinatos. With the concept of a multi-pedal set up still very
new in the expansion of the drumset, advancements in both performance and equipment are
developing as the use of foot percussion becomes more popular. Players of the modern era
such as Terry Bozzio, Marco Minneman and Virgil Donati utilize coordinated independence
and the ostinato extensively in their playing.

The basic formula for achieving coordinated independence has remained consistent with the
original approach present by Chapin in 1948. Playing all of the subdivisions of the beat and
then becoming progressively more syncopated remains the dominant method for the
development of multi-limb coordinated independence. Books such as Bryan West’s

19
Techniques in Interdependence 5 (West, 2004) systematically examine permutations of limb
combinations to gain multi-limb coordination. While extremely thorough, this mathematical
approach may not be an efficient way to develop performance skills in this domain. Terry
Bozzio applies a more practical method which he describes as a simple way to ‘build the ego’
(develop confidence) of the limb/s against the ostinato (Bozzio, 1993). His system is an
adaptation and extension of Chapin’s. He sees the use of ostinato as very logical for solo
drumming and even after working on them for many years, Bozzio still employs the same
system for developing his coordinated independence (Mattingly, 1998). In Figure 20, Bozzio
employs the rhythmic structures found in Chapin’s system and extends this concept with the
addition of odd note groupings, which are to be played against the ostinato for extended
coordinated independence.

Figure 20: Bozzio’s Odd note grouping additions to Chapin’s system.

Gary Chester was a studio drummer having played on hundreds of commercial recordings.
His approach is focused on ensemble music making. He also offers extensions of his initial
series of exercises within his method for what he calls ‘composite systems’ (Chester, 1985, p.
38), adding extra strata to the original coordinated independence studies by layering another
rhythm with an alternate limb.

Chester’s system is devised to develop control of all four limbs and aims to eliminate
weakness in any particular limb. For example, a drummer may have trouble leading with
their left hand if they are right handed. ‘… we must exercise all four limbs. The challenge
will be to break an old habit that seems to haunt most drummers, and that habit is always
emphasizing the strongest limbs and ignoring the weakest’ (Minnemann, 2001, p. 19).

As contemporary players search for more complex physical and mental challenges, there
have been considerable advancements in the realm of coordinated independence. “Piece for
Jazz Set” (1968) written by Michael W. Ranta using computer algorithms in 1968 is an
excellent example of composers looking ‘outside of the box’, requiring the drummer to move
on from the standard coordinated independence of the past.

5
The term ‘interdependence’ is sometimes used for books and studies such as West’s, which
are focused on developing independence between the limbs. My work focuses on developing
the limbs as individual independent parts and I view the word interdependence to mean two
or more things dependent on each other.

20
We said the piece is difficult to perform, as a quick glance at the score will show, but we did not
say it was impossible. The specific problem created by the computer is one of coordination of the
hands and feet of the percussionist. We are not here speaking of the so called independence of the
jazz drummer, which is a developed idiom and is only a limited independence, but we are speaking
of a complete independence of the four limbs involved. (Ranta, 1968, p. 15)

Players of the modern era have realized the performance potential of advanced coordinated
independence and have also seen this as one of the biggest technical challenges of the
instrument. Like driving a car for the first time and having to focus on the operation of so
many individual but interdependent aspects, musical coordinated independence is a learned
skill.

As an example of this type of extension and complexity of multi-phonic coordinated


independence, Virgil Donati (2009) has the limbs playing against each other and presents
different subdivisions of the beat against one another as shown in Figure 21:

Figure 21: Virgil Donati advanced coordination limb layering showing right hand/foot
Zone with left hand/foot Zone.

As the use of ostinato and layering of the limbs are most influential in the compositions of
my works, this important part of my research to understand and explore the key figures and
their approaches has been crucial in the development of my own physical expression
concepts as developed in Part B. Both ostinato and limb layers are also seminal for my
model of investigation as developed in chapter three to be used on my works and the works
of other key artists.

21
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
My original intention was to create a series of compositions for solo drumset. As my creative
practice-led research developed, it became obvious that my study involved more than just a
series of compositions. I identified three other areas of study: 1) the drumset, 2) its notational
requirements, and 3), issues dealing with coordinated independence of all four limbs. These
are all things that had been developing in my professional career, but had not become as
obvious until the commencement of this study. My physical approach led to my concepts
and applications on the drumset which I refer to as, Whole Body Drumming: The four limb
effect including coordinated independence, temporal stratification, and timbral stratification
of the limbs.

This preludes an evolving methodology, driven by a multitude of trials for the purpose of
discovering new findings and then testing these with practical applications. For example, one
instance may involve the placement of a cymbal, drum or foot pedal on the drumset and then
experimenting with a series of studies to test if this was beneficial to the outcomes of an
ergonomically refined set up and whether it incorporated an advantageous timbral quality for
practical use within a compositional framework.

This early methodology thus identified four key areas of my study; my expanded drumset,
notation for the instrument, and coordinated independence, with the compositions being
determined by the three previous key focus areas. I saw the need to expand upon all of these
in my own work after comparing traditional forms and approaches by means of my literature
review as shown in Figure 1. Essentially, my research focussed on how these four areas can
be extended. The study has resulted in my model for investigation, focusing on these four
key areas and allowing for a technical investigation in direct relationship within the compass
of my study.

I initially examined the work of Max Roach and Terry Bozzio, both pioneers in the genre of
drumset soloist. After further review, I decided that “Solo 2” by Marco Minnemumm was
also an appropriate example as this piece embodies multi-timbral rhythmic strata and an
advanced approach to multi-limb combinations more relevant to my own work. “Solo 2”
tests the four areas identified in my study that contribute to the expansion of solo drumset
performance. In Part B of this dissertation I apply the investigative model to my own work.

The importance of my research is my understanding of the practice and the amalgamation of


physical processes together with musical technique for artistic outcomes. My work reflects
the two layers within practice-led research being, ‘the work of art and all its symbolic
representations’ and ‘the theoretical model’(Vella, 2003, p. 4). My DMA website
documenting live concerts performances, demonstrations of my physical expression and

22
pictorial documentation of my extended drumset embodies the artistic representation of my
work to support the explicative detail of the exegesis.

The creative output of my practice-led research is significantly reflected in my


comprehension of the materials engaged throughout my research (Brown & Sorensen, 2009).
The knowledge I gain via my research is used to springboard an action or a series of actions
on my instrument to be adapted to systematic studies for physical expression and ultimately
artistic outcomes within compositions. As Vella points to the two layers of practice-led
research, these layers in my work have become interdependent in my approaches to evolving
the compositional developments of the drumset, the instrument, the notation and physical
expression. This unity of the practice-led research layers has been the foundation from which
my work has been produced and cultivated for both artistic outcomes and theoretical models.
“In a very real sense practice makes and excellent partner to research, because the benefits of
practice-led research flow in both directions” (Brown & Sorensen, 2009, p. 163).

In the development of my own work, there were many hours spent on the instrument in
experimentation. There was no particular order for the development of my four focus areas
as they were all elements in the process of my creative practice. Figure 20 illustrates the
combining of the key areas and their relationships within my study. For example, an addition
to the drumset may present a new idea for composition or a coordinated independence
challenge leading to enhancements to the notational method to accommodate the additional
element of the set up and performance. Conversely, in composing a new work, a new sound
may be included, resulting in an addition to the drumset. My focus is to apply my
investigative model (as describe later in this chapter) to the influential works of drummers
who use ostinato and contrapuntal rhythmic layering in a compositional form, as this applies
more directly to the character of my creative practice.

The techniques required to play drumset are quite complex and are very foreign to most
composers and even percussionists within the classical fields of music, so it is important to
distinguish between the two. While there are compositions for drumset written by non-
drummers, there is often a lack of understanding as to the physical and technical processes of
the instrument. This is not to say that the compositions lack integrity, but they can lack a full
awareness of how the instrument is approached by drummers.

Drum solos can generally be sorted into four categories:

1. Pedagogical: Solos written for the purpose of education to develop and challenge the
skills and musical abilities of students.

2. Improvised: The most common amongst drumset performance. These have been
taken to highly developed and creative levels by artists such as Buddy Rich and
Gene Krupa through to Billy Cobham and Simon Phillips to modern day virtuosos

23
like Virgil Donati and Thomas Lang. These solos contain highly evolved playing
incorporating rhythmic structures and advanced coordination and ostinato patterns
involving impressive hand and foot techniques.

3. Within a Musical Group: Exchanging phrases with a band, playing over a vamp,
playing over kicks or figures (Houghton, 1996).

4. Contemporary Works:

a) Drumset: written and performed by drummers with a deep-rooted understanding


of drumset technique and applications. These pieces often include some form of
improvisation within their contexts. This is a direct relationship to the experience
of the drummer’s typical role within a musical group.

b) Classical: works written for drumset by contemporary classical composers. They


tend to be styled more like classical percussion works delivered on a drumset.

Solo percussion works such as “Bone Alphabet” (Ferneyhough, 1991) could also be
interpreted on a drumset, however, my practice is,grounded in contemporary works based on
the drumset.

While Classical pieces generally deal with soundscape exploration, drumset pieces will
usually contain more constant rhythms with a strong sense of beat, drawing on the
drummer’s role within a musical group, which is to provide a steady beat for song forms.
The set up required to play a classical percussion work will vary greatly depending on the
composer’s choice of instruments and the sounds that they intend to create. The drumset
remains constant in its basic foundation with the bass drum, snare drum and tom toms all
present and then expanded with other drums, cymbals or other sound sources.

A classical percussionist will often use a variety of stick choices depending on what they are
playing. For example: Snare drum - hard sticks, Cymbals - mallets, Bass Drum - beaters. A
drummer will typically use the same sticks throughout a performance, and the bass drum is
played by a foot pedal with either a soft or hard beater depending on the player’s choice. All
of these points differentiate my approach to the drumset from a classical percussionist’s
approach and it will be the fourth category (contemporary works: drumset) that will be my
primary focus for review here because this is the medium for the development of my own
practice.

My practice-led research proceeded as a studio study, developing my performance practices


in the four focus areas. These consist of my drumset expansion, a notational system for my
extended drumset, the physical expression of performance including advanced coordination
and layering of limbs (coordinated independence), and the creation of a body of solo drumset
works. This methodology outlines the processes I engaged with to develop my work as a

24
proponent of solo drum performances that aim to extend the sonic and technical capacities of
the instrument and player. I address five areas that contribute to this development: (1)
ostinato on the drumset, (2) the expanded drumset, (3) notation for the expanded drumset,
(4) physical expression including multi-limb techniques for layering of rhythms and timbres
on the drumset, and (5) investigation of an existing work using my own investigative model.

The literature review suggested a model for the analyses of my creative practice as
exemplified in the creative outcomes of this study, namely, the video performances and the
compositional scores. Figure 22 illustrates the examination and then the reflective outcomes
of my research.

Li Notation
te Performance
rat
Drumset
Aspects
ur
e
Re
vie
w Investigative
Model

Creative Practice-led Research


- Exploring Techniques
- Exploring timbral combinations
- Time to learn the works

Website
- My Music: Video & Investigation
- My Drum set
A notional - My Notation
system for my - My Physical Expression
extended
k
or

drumset
yW
M

My
My Extended approaches to
Drumset Physical
Expression

A body of
solo
drumset
Live Concerts works

Investigation of my compositional works

Conclusions

Figure 22: Methodological relationships between different components of the


research.

25
Investigative model

Having developed an investigative model for the investigation of drumset solo works. A
seminal drum solo work is analysed to test the model according to the specific areas of my
study with the focus being on the performer’s set up, the notation required, and coordinated
independence including the use of ostinato encompassing layering, polyrhythmic
organization and physiological aspects of the instrument.

Outcomes

This section presents the concepts that I have brought forward and developed for solo
drumset composition and performance.

This study will not be addressing the drumset in its typical accompanying role within a
musical group or ensemble. I will be creating compositions dealing with the use of all four
limbs, which I have called the Whole Body Drumming: The four-limb effect. These
independent parts will utilize four-way coordination for multi-timbral soundscapes and apply
multi-limbed ostinatos as backdrops for improvisation. The section is divided into the
following five parts:

1. A body of solo drumset works;


2. An investigation of my compositional work as exegesis;
3. My extended drumset;
4. A notational system for my extended drumset;
5. Advanced physical expression with the coordinated independence and layering of
parts.

A body of solo drumset works

Along with developing my drumset, a notational system and physical expressions, a body of
works for solo drumset has been written. These will be a conglomeration of the knowledge
accumulated from Part A and my expansions in Part B.

After being trialled with a series of live performances, the compositions will be presented on
the website, as a visual representation of the work will better put forward the practice base of
the research and allow for a better understanding of the limb functions and set up of the
drumset. All of the works will have detailed scores and investigations as presented on the
DMA website.

An investigation into my composition folio

An investigation using the investigative model developed will be applied to one of my own
works. This will be a key to interpreting the work of the research in terms of the drumset, the

26
notation used and the coordinated independence issues within the compositions. The purpose
will be to derive a system that performers and composers can use to extend their current
knowledge of the instrument and notation. I will end with a synopsis of my research and a
closing statement.

My extended drumset

Making the move from the traditional drumset to the extended drumset need not be an
overwhelming concern for the drumset performer. While certain parts of the traditional setup
will be overlooked, I will embrace ways that the instrument can be augmented and expanded
without becoming a completely new physical environment for the performer..
A notational system for my Extended Drumset

In devising a system of notation for such an expansive drumset and compositions


incorporating multiple-limbs works, it was essential to first ask myself if a new method of
notation is needed, and if so, for what specific purpose: Is the notation for me to use in the
development of my own performances? Is the notation to be used by others to play my
compositions? Is the notation to serve primarily as a transcription of what I will be playing?
In answering these research questions, I will establish a system to notate the drumset as a
multi-limbed instrument, embodying various staves for separate voices. Drawing from the
typical model for the notation of drumset, I will expand this for the extended drumset
learning from the research in Part A to put in place my own system for my compositional
works and the way they are notated as multi-limbed instrument.

My approaches to physical expression

There have been several influences that have inspired the ideas that I am presenting today
and in studying and examining these, I have been able to derive my own insights as to what I
am hoping to achieve from my coordination approaches. Key influences are:

• Jim Chapin: His Advanced Coordination for the Modern Drummer (1948) was
ground breaking at its time of release and its principles and practices have
remain tried and tested in the current era.
• David Jones and Virgil Donati: There was no Internet in my days of discovery
and these two world class drummers were a constant inspiration as they
presented clinics and workshops around Australia. Both players have always
looked at extending the use of the limbs on the drumset with advanced
coordination approaches and still continue to push boundaries.
• Terry Bozzio and Marco Minnemann: These two drummers were my first
influences with the use of larger multi-pedal set ups. This broadened my vision

27
to extend my pedal layout and to embrace this approach to modern
contemporary drumset performance.
• Alex Acunã: His first instructional video Drums and Percussion (1989)
contributed to my obsession with multi-timbral soundscapes. Not just with his
Latin percussion approach of incorporating many layered rhythms within
grooves on the drumset, but also his use of a jam block executing a clave pattern
with the foot while playing a solo with his hands on the timbales.
• Carl Vine Piano Sonata: a light bulb moment as to the potential of ostinato on
the drumset. It inspired me to look outside of traditional drumset practices and
approaches for the use of ostinato. My first extended multi-timbral ostinatos
were written soon after being exposed to this piece of music.

The research will develop and introduce new approaches to establish advanced levels of
coordination, independence and motion on the drumset. The history of the instrument shows
ostinato to be a useful and valuable tool used by drumset soloists. With this in mind ostinato
will be explored in both its traditional and non- traditional approaches. The non-traditional
approaches will incorporate complex rhythmic devices and we will see ostinato become
more than just a tool for simple accompaniment, also playing a much stronger role within the
compositional framework.

My personal goal is to develop systems to enable a practical application of layered rhythms


on the drumset, encouraging the use and exploration of multi-timbral orchestrations of the
limbs. These systems will extend current methodologies for the development of limb
independence and aid drummers’ development of the physical and mental movement of the
limbs within rhythmic frameworks. This will produce a set of tools that can be used for
performance as well as being used as an approach for compositional conceptualization for
solo drumset. Here I will push the boundaries for the performance aspects of the instrument
and open doors for future possibilities.

Investigation will utilize all four limbs within the compositions. Traditionally, drummers
have a lead hand, or a more confident limb that they put forward for the others to follow. The
performer will be required to develop both hands and both feet in order to make use of the
complex rhythmic organization for multilayered, multi-limbed polyrhythmic applications.

Model for investigation

The construction of my investigative framework is designed to pinpoint and focus on the key
areas of my research, establishing a body of drumset compositions. The key areas in the
investigative framework align directly with my research, purpose and aims. Physical
expression will look at the form and function of ostinato as a key element in the investigation

28
process, as this research will be used as a part of the structural building blocks used for my
own works, and will also inspect additional layers created with limb voicing. This will
reflect my review of ostinato and coordinated independence from Chapter Two revealing the
elements of physical expression in my compositional framework as discussed in Chapter
Four and reflect on my concepts of physical expression as discussed in Chapter Seven. The
model is not designed for typical musical analysis and will emphasize the investigation of
my research areas.

The seminal drum solo that I test my investigative model with is by German drummer Marco
Minnemann as this piece contains multi-limbed and multi-timbral ostinatos/layers using an
extended drumset with multiple foot pedals. Other significant drumset artists such as Max
Roach and Terry Bozzio have been influential, but the Minnemann piece will pose a greater
test for my investigative model due to its multi-timbral and mixed meters inclusions along
with the other criteria. The model is shown in Figure 23.

MUSIC

PHYSICAL
SET UP NOTATION
EXPRESSION

Hands Staves Ostinato

Drums Limb Arrangement

Cymbals Timbral

Cycle

Feet
Rhythmic
Organisation

Pedals
Physiological

Additional
Layers

Figure 23: Model for the investigation of works.

The following discussion explains the headings of Set up, Notation and Coordinated
Independence within the investigation model.

Set Up

A brief examination is made into the instrumental set up with relation to the standard 5-piece
drumset. Points of focus will be:

29
1. Hands: Drums, cymbals and percussion;
2. Feet: Foot pedals.

The identification of the Zones (different areas of the drumset) will be used in the
investigation of my work and to show the physical extensions required for the performance
of my solo drumset compositions. Figure 24 shows the Zone model as applied to the
standard 5-piece drumset. The standard set up is located entirely within Zone 2, providing a
reference for extensions into the outer Zones. The defining of Zones of the instrument will
also be used in the recognition of the various layers and where they are located within the
spatial environment of the extended drumset.

Figure 24: Standard 5-piece drumset with Zone model.

Figure 25 is an application of the Zone model used on a larger expanded drumset. Zone 2
highlights the standard 5-piece drumset with darker shaded drums while the outer Zones, 1
and 3 illustrate the areas of expansion.

30
Figure 25: Expanded drumset with Zone model.

Notation

As a part of my research involves the expansion of notation for the large modern drumset, I
will use a multiple stave system for the notation of my compositions. The aim of the multiple
staves is to clearly identify the different voices used in the pieces and which limbs are being
used, as well as making the voices easier to recognize, establishing their musical intent. My
notational system as described in part B will be used in my model of investigation for my
compositions and extended approaches to coordinated independence.

Coordinated Independence

The application of compositional ideas will be broken down to reveal the coordinated
independence involved for the execution of the piece. A key component in my research is
my development of coordinated independence with additional layers in the music extending
beyond the ostinato.

Ostinato

Ostinato will be prevalent in my work and I will investigate various aspects of the ostinatos
used and their construction. My criteria are displayed below in Table 1.

Table 1: Ostinato.
Ostinato

31
Limb assignment Type (1-way, 2-way etc) and the limb/s used to create the ostinato.
Opposing limb/s used to play over the ostinato.

Timbral composition The various timbres used for the creation of the ostinato.

Meter The time signature of ostinato.

Cycle The cycle length for the reoccurrence of the ostinato pattern.

Rhythmic organization The inclusion of rhythmic devices such as polyrhythm, grouping,


isorhythm and other rhythmic structures within the ostinato.

Physiological The physical Zone (described in figure 25) of the ostinato and any
movement between sounds that the limb/s employ for its execution.

Additional Layers

With the ostinato established, key additional layers can be examined as to their contrapuntal
characteristics and their effect on the music. These additional layers are an extension of the
coordinated independence inaugurated by the ostinato.

Testing the investigative model: Marco Minnemann

In his “Solo 2” (2001), Minnemann applies four way independence to his music by creating
varied independent layers of rhythm and metric structures between the limbs. His use of
ostinato comes in a variety of limb combinations, and the utilization of additional layers over
the ostinato is particularly relevant to my study and in testing the model for investigation to
be applied to my own work.

Staves for Notation

Because Minemann makes use of all limbs independently and also combines the hands as a
single voice or the feet as a single voice, a six-stave system will be utilized:

Stave 1:Right and left hands operating as a single voice;


Stave 2:Right hand;
Stave 3: Left hand;
Stave 4:Right foot;
Stave 5:Left foot;
Stave 6:Right and left feet operating as a single voice.

32
Set up

Minnemann’s drumset is reflective of the modern fusion style used by many drummers
today. He has added additional pedals, incorporating multiple hi hats and also a gong drum
on his far left which acts as a bass drum when his feet are active on the hi hat pedals and he
requires a bass drum note. Minnemann’s set is shown in Figure 26.

Figure 26: Minnemann’s drumset Zones.

Drum s

Core remains as a 5-piece drumset with the addition of toms and a gong bass drum.

Cym bals

Minnemann uses an expansion of the traditional cymbal set up with 4 sets of hi hats (1 static,
3 pedal operated) and additional crash cymbals.
He also uses a variety of china cymbals, efx and bells.

Pedals

Extended Layout: 5 pedals


Left foot x 3: Hi hat (remote cable), Hi Hat and Bass Drum (slave)
Right Foot x 2: Bass Drum (main) and Hi Hat (remote cable)

Zones

With the majority of the kit sitting in Zone 2, there are extensions into both Zones 1 and 3, as
Minnemann adds in additional elements and timbres, as shown in Figures 27 to 36.

33
Physical Expression

Ostinato(1(

Figure 27: Ostinato 1, “Solo 2” showing the hands ostinato.

Table 2: Ostinato 1.
Ostinato 1
Limb assignment 2-way. Right and left hands
Opposing limbs: right foot; bass drum and left foot; hi hat
Timbral composition High and low toms, and snare drum
Meter 4/4
Cycle A duration of 2 beats
th
Rhythmic organization A continuous flow of 1/16 notes with a flam at the start of
each beat. This is an orchestration of the common rudiment,
the Flammed Mill.
Physiological Zone 2. The hands move between the toms and the snare
drum using the Flammed Mill sticking.

Additional(Layers(
Minnemann structures layers against the hand ostinato using the feet. The arrows in Figure
28 show the double strokes played between the hi hat and bass drum, moving between
subdivisions to vary the rate of the groupings.

34
Figure 28: Layered limbs with groupings, “Solo 2”, bars 2-8.

Ostinato(2(

Figure 29: Ostinato 2, “Solo 2”.

Table 3: Ostinato 2.
Ostinato 2
2-way. Right foot bass drum and left foot hi hat
Limb assignment
Opposing limbs: right and left hands

Timbral composition The bass drum and hi hat are at opposite ends of the sonic spectrum
so the diversity in the timbral qualities allows for each of the rhythms
played by feet to be heard individually.

Meter 4/4

Cycle A duration of 2 beats

th
Rhythmic organization Continuous 1/16 notes are played using an inverted paradiddle
sticking.

Physiological Zone 2 with no movement.

35
Additional(Layers(
Figure 30 shows the hands playing a triplet subdivision over the 1/16th notes played with the
feet. The hands employ a single paradiddle sticking which has a cycle of eight notes,
creating triplets grouped in eight and a cycle length of three bars.

Figure 30: Paradiddle hands in triplets over 1/16 note inverted paradiddle with the
feet.

Ostinato(3(
Instead of the ostinato being set for the feet, allowing the hands to play in the foreground and
visa versa, Minneman places the ostinato on the left side of his body with other layering
done with the right side of his body.

Figure 31: Ostinato 3, “Solo 2”.

36
Table 4: Ostinato 3.

Ostinato 3
2-way. Left foot hi hat and left hand aux hi hat
Limb assignment
Opposing limbs: right hand and right foot

Timbral composition The ostinato utilizes two differently pitched hi hats. The one played by
the hand is not foot operated so is permanently closed. Using the two
separate hi hats avoids the open and close effect, which would have
been the result if these rhythms were played on the same hi hat.

Meter 4/4

Cycle A duration of 1 beat

th
Rhythmic organization The continuous 1/16 pattern is played using a double stroke sticking
pattern.

Physiological Outer left edge of Zone 2 with no movement

Additional(Layers(
Against the ostinato, Minnemann uses simple interplay between the right hand on the snare
and the right foot on the bass drum. These are timbrally different from the ostinato so are
very obvious with their presence.

Figure 32: Right hand/foot play against the left side hi hat ostinato.

37
(

Ostinato(4(

1/16th notes in groups of 5

Figure 33: Ostinato 4, “Solo 2”. Left hand and foot in 5.

Additional(Layers(
Figure 34 shows the opposing limbs playing a simple rock beat with an alternating bass and
snare drum (outlined in red). The beat is played for two bars as ¼ notes and then for two bars
as 1/8 notes. Two bars of 1/16th note doubles follow this. The orchestration of using the bass
and snare drums provides strong foreground timbres over the contrasting background of the
hi tom and hi hat.

Figure 34: Ostinato 4, layer.

38
(

Ostinato(5(

Groups of 4

Groups of 5

Figure 35: Ostinato 5, “Solo 2”.

Table 5: Ostinato 5.
Ostinato 5
3-way: Right hand plays on ride cymbal, right and left feet play on the
Limb assignment
bass drum and hi hat respectively
Opposing limbs: left hand
The bass drum and hi hat timbres allow for each to be heard as
Timbral composition
independent voices in the background while the ride cymbal sits in
the middle ground.

Meter 5/4

Cycle Total cyclic duration is five beats.

Rhythmic organization The right hand plays four groups of five while the feet play a ‘five-a-
diddle’ pattern to form groups of five played four times. The two layers
of rhythmic comfortably resolve over the 5/4 time signature.

Physiological Zone 2 with no movement.

Additional(layers(
Adding to the rhythmic density of the section is the inclusion of the left hand. The left hand
moves between the hi tom and snare drum playing in groups of 7 phrased 2+2+3. The timbre
of the hi tom and snare drum are contrasting enough that they are able to stand out in the
foreground of the section. Figure 36 shows the structure of the limbs and the layering of the
various rhythmic groups, highlighting Minnemann’s technical approach to coordinated
independence.

39
Groups of 4

Groups of 7 Groups of 5

Figure 36: Ostinato 5, layers of 4, 5 and 7.

Synopsis and reflections

As demonstrated above, the model of investigation pinpoints my areas of study in identifying


and understanding each of the foci and their contribution in the scope of a musical work. The
model exists to be adaptive to the varying ostinatos, both complex and simple within the
music and allows for the expansion of additional layers for the identification of other
physical expressions employed. The aim of my study is the expansion of solo drumming
through the presentation of new concepts and strategies explained in the exegesis and
demonstrated through live performances plus in the scores and videos. In the processes of
creative practice, my study was preceded and concurrent with the literature review of
existing works, followed by intense studio experimentation with established and developing
techniques and musical ideas. The above were incorporated in new compositions which were
trailed in concert performances as documented in the video on the website.

An investigative model focusing on the four identified areas of; the drumset, notation,
coordinated independence within the composition was devised and applied to my own work
to reveal the advances and developments that have emerged from my creative practice as
exhibited in my compositions. The new works embody learning by applying the
developments on the four key focus areas of my research to the evolution of solo drumming.

40
PART B

Part B introduces my body of work, commencing with the investigation of the composition
“Swordfish” using the investigative model established in the previous method section of Part
A. It continues with my drumset, my notational system for the compositions and my
concepts for physical expression on the instrument.

41
CHAPTER FOUR: MY MUSIC
After the examination of existing works, extending the instrument, developing a notational
approach and a series of physical expression challenges, it is important to remember that the end
result is always about the music. My compositions are the culmination of my research with an
artistic outlook for creative expression. Music theory would be nothing without performance, so
the compositions and the accompanying video of performances as included on my DMA
website is the ultimate outcome of all the ideas presented in this paper.

The investigations of my works will be based on the model utilized throughout chapter three.
The model is designed to focus on ostinato as its main compositional device. Each composition
contains multiple ostinatos and their related developments. Many will merge from one to the
next or draw upon a part first introduced as a layer over an ostinato then developed into an
ostinato in its own right. Some use very different patterns while others may have subtle
variations that contribute to a subtle change in mood of the composition.

As well as an investigation of ostinato use, some sections will expose the use of different
compositional tools such as isorhythm, mirroring and palindromic effects. These elements aid
the development of the composition and show that the works are not merely a collection of
ostinatos run together for a series of exercises. The musical aspects of the works are supported
by and driven by the use of ostinato and the layering of the limbs, which also adds to the
structure of the pieces and form styles for the various works.

As addressed in the investigative model, my works have a distinct focus on the contrasting
timbres in the parts for differentiation of the various layers. This is explored in the
investigations with some obvious and others with a more complex application. The recognition
of the layered parts has been an underlying feature throughout the study, along with the
development of a large multi-timbral set up, a multi-stave notational approach and stratification
of the limbs on the drumset. The use of timbral contrasts will be explored within the existing
investigation model to highlight the parts and processes within the compositions.

I will also highlight some of the more involved and complex rhythmic organization used within
the compositions. The combinations of these rhythmic layers will be explored to show
groupings, subdivision layers and metric layers as they work with and against each other along
with the role of each limb in execution of the sections.

Investigation

I have chosen the work “Swordfish” as the piece of focus for my investigation in this exegesis.
“Swordfish”, embodies the full essence of my work, representing and challenging all of my four
key focus areas for using the drumset as a solo instrument. It uses virtually every part of the
instrument, it puts emphasis on the notation for clarity and legibility, it engages the performer

42
with extremely difficult physical expression and it provides a solid piece of music using the
drumset as a solo instrument. My investigative model as introduced in Part A is used to
investigate this work with all other works included on the DMA website.

“Swordfish”

The original concept for the composition was conceived whilst viewing an aquatic documentary
on marine life. One of the stories in the film featured a “Swordfish” in the ocean, and I noticed a
particular rhythmic fashion in which the “Swordfish” was moving. Its side-to-side motion set
was in a 7,7,7,5 rhythmic structure, which remained in my thoughts as the documentary moved
on. This then became the basis of the rhythmic cells, which repeat for nearly the entire piece.

As well as being an exemplification of the key focus areas of my study, “Swordfish” also
showcases the drumset with the application of compositional techniques including;
hypermeasure, isorhythm (for both single and multiple layers), hoket, canon, counterpoint,
klangfarben melody and serial elements. Its length, inclusion of the key study areas,
compositional techniques and demands for physical proficiency will demonstrate my
developments throughout this investigation.

Music Investigation

Set up: as detailed in chapter five.


Notation: the piece will use the full six-stave system as detailed in chapter six.

The metric cycle and rhythmic structure of the piece flows across metric cycles of 7,7,7,5.
These phrases can also be looked at collectively in a hypermeasure of 26 as shown in Figure 37.

7+7+7+5/16 Metric structure

=
26/16 Hypermeasure

Figure 37: Hypermetric Structure.

The main tom melody flows over two of these hypermetric cycles to emphasize the time
signatures with its melodic form inspired by Deep Purple’s classic rock hit, “Smoke on the
Water” as shown in Figure 37. With the complexity of the metric structure, this memorable
hook helps the listener to follow the music. After the concert performance of the piece, I had

43
received messages and emails days later from audience members saying that they “couldn’t get
the riff out of their head”.

Figure 38: Melodic hook.

Introduction

The three note tom melody introduced around the improvised bells sets up the main theme of
the piece as shown in Figure 39.

Melodic theme to be expanded

Figure 39: Three note tom melody of the introduction.

Ostinatos used in “Swordfish”

Ostinato 1

Figure 40: Ostinato 1, bar 33.

44
Table 6: Ostinato 1, “Swordfish”.
Ostinato 1
Limb assignment 4-way.
Right hand: melody on high toms
Left hand: linear pedal on rocket toms
Right foot: hi hat, bell-tam and cowbell
Left foot: far left bass drum and snare drum
Timbral composition Each limb has a distinct timbral layer that can easily be
identified, even within the density of the section. Accumulation
is also used for the formation of the parts so the listener has the
opportunity to connect with each one before the introduction of
the next.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26 1/16 notes. The right hand is over two repetitions with the
alteration in the final 5/16 measure to accommodate the
melodic theme.
Rhythmic organization The right hand and right foot play a unison rhythm to outline the
metric structure and the left hand completes a linear pattern
filling in the 1/16 notes of the measures. The right foot plays in
counterpoint incorporating both short staccato notes and longer
notes with the opening/closing of the bell-tam.
Physiological Zones 1 and 2. Each limb provides movement in their
contribution to the section.

Ostinato 2
Ostinato 2 shown in Figure 41 is an extraction from the foot pattern from ostinato 1. The left
foot grove based part helps to maintain the character of the melodic tom rhythm, which was
played by the right hand. The right foot continues in counter point across its three pedals. This
ostinato with its strong rhythmic framework and timbral base allows both hands to improvise
freely in the foreground on the high toms.

Figure 41: Ostinato 2, bar 41.

45
Layers
LAYER 1
The first layer is a continuation of the improvisation with the hands over the foot ostinato. This
format is similar to the role of a big band drummer soloing around the hits or stabs of the brass
section. The hits are a reprise of the original motif used in the introduction of the piece and also
the main melody.

Figure 42: Ostinato 2, layer 1, bar 45.

LAYER 2
Layer 2 shown in Figure 43 is derived from the hand improvisation and is a reprise of the main
melody. In order to build the section, the left hand fills in with 1/32 notes on the highest 8” tom
and the right hand plays 1/16 notes while using dynamic accents to retain the original melody.

Figure 43: Ostinato 2, layer 2, bar 49.

Ostinato 3
Ostinato 3 enters in measure 57 (the start of the B section) and develops with layers which are
all included in the description as shown in Figure 44.

46
Figure 44: Ostinato 3 and layers, bar 57.

Table 7: Ostinato 3, “Swordfish”.


Ostinato 3
Limb assignment 1-way. Left hand plays on high toms
Opposing limbs: Right hand- gong drum, right foot - bass
drum/cymbal and left foot: bel-tam
Timbral composition The timbral qualities range from the bottom end of the bass and
gong drums, to the melodic feature of the high toms and the
metals of the bel-tam and cymbal. They all work together for
the unity of the section.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization The right hand plays a low pedal with 1/16 notes on the gong
drum while the right foot emphasizes the first beat of each bar.
The left hand motif extracts the tom part from the main melody
and adds a 1/16 note to the final note in each bar as the left
foot adds a sense of urgency catching the same rhythm as the
final two notes of the motif on the bel-tam.
Physiological Zones 1,2 and 3. The right hand is the only limb with motion
while the right foot bridges between the concert bass drum and
the cymbal.

Ostinato 4
Ostinato 4 (Figure 46) intensifies incorporating 1/32 notes within is pattern which is set up by
the previous bars for a dramatic transition into the new foot ostinato. Figure 45 shows measures
81- 84 using accented 1/32 notes on the lower toms with the accents doubled with the right foot
bridging the concert bass drum and cymbal. Measures 85-88 mirror the limb orchestration with
the accented 1/32 notes then played by the feet incorporating double strokes with the cymbals
played by the hands.

47
Figure 45: Mirroring of limbs, bars 81-88.

Figure 46: Ostinato 4, bar 89.

Table 8: Ostinato 4, “Swordfish”.


Ostinato 4
Limb assignment 2-way. Right and left hands
Opposing limbs: right and left feet

Timbral composition Multi-timbral with tambourine, cowbell, hi hat and splash


cymbal.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization The pattern uses a combination of 1/16 and 1/32 notes with
single and double strokes used by the hands to cater for the
flurry of notes and multi-timbral orchestration.
Physiological Zone 2. No movement with the left hand on the tambourine as
the right hand moves between the other sounds.

Layer
The feet come in playing the two main bass drums doubling the rhythmic structure of the hands
creating a rapid series of notes and timbres. This pattern also acts as a bridge in the following
ostinato 5.

Figure 47: Ostinato 4, layer 1, bar 97.

48
Ostinato 5
Ostinato 5 takes on the foot pattern from ostinato 4, layer 1 and extends it with the right foot
bridging on the power hi hats as shown in Figure 48.

Figure 48: Ostinato 5, bar 109.

Table 9: Ostinato 5, “Swordfish”.


Ostinato 5
Limb assignment 2-way. Main bass drums, cymbal and woodblock
Opposing limbs: right and left hands.
Timbral composition The first note of each bar is outlined with the punctuation of the
bass drum and cymbal combination with the woodblock adding
a pick up figure into each bar. This creates a power ostinato yet
timbrally allows the hands to play identifiable phrasing and
patterns around the drumset.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization As per ostinato 4
Physiological Zones 2 and 3. There is no movement by the left foot while the
right foot uses bridging and movement as it plays across three
different pedals.

Ostinato 6
Ostinato 6 (section E) presents a dynamic shift in the piece after the louder and more energized
section D with its rapid bass drum orientated ostinato and driving improvisation with the hands
in the foreground, shown in Figure 49. Its rhythmic content for the left hand is produced as
juxtaposition of the right foot part from ostinato 1.

49
Figure 49: Ostinato 6, bar 121.

Table 10: Ostinato 6, “Swordfish”.


Ostinato 6
Limb assignment 1-way. Left hand
Opposing limbs: right foot
Timbral composition The hand plays the 6” splash cymbal and a melodic motif on
the high to mid toms.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization The syncopated 1/16 note pattern is a displacement of the
rhythm first introduced in ostinato 1 by the right foot. The
original rhythm starts on the sixth 1/16 note in the third bar of
the ostinato.
Physiological Zone 1 and 2. The high toms of Zone 1 are mixed with the mid
toms and splash cymbal of Zone 2 requiring both lateral and
vertical movement from the arm.

Layer
This layer is built upon a rhythmic canon between the left hand and the right foot. The left hand
plays its melodic motif developed in ostinato 6 as the right foot enters with its part from ostinato
1, orchestrated between the tambourine, hi hat and woodblock. Figure 50 illustrates the layering
of the rhythmic canons and their respective start points.
Canon start point

Canon start point

Figure 50: Ostinato 6, layer with rhythmic canon, bar 129.

50
Ostinato 7a
Ostinato 7a is a long roll played between the right hand on a lower tom and the left foot on a
bass drum, producing a fast flowing low pitched rumble, allowing for layers of timbral contrast
to be played with the other limbs as described below and shown in Figure 51.

Figure 51: Ostinato 7a, bar 149.

Table 11: Ostinato 7a, “Swordfish”.


Ostinato 7a
Limb assignment 2-way. Right hand and left foot play the low tom and bass drum
respectively creating a roll effect by use of hocket.
Opposing limbs: left hand and right foot
Timbral composition The bass drum and low tom blend together for a bottom end
roll, allowing any higher pitched timbres to be used with clarity
in the foreground.
Meter 4/4
Cycle 1/8 note
Rhythmic organization The hand and the foot combine to create a 1/32 note double
stroke roll.
Physiological Zone 2. No movement from the limbs. There is a sense of
specialization as the bass drum is played on the left of Zone 2
and the low tom comes from the right.

Layers
LAYER 1
As the ostinato makes use of hocket between the lower drums, layer 1 also makes use of hocket
between the left hand and right foot. This hocketing layer provides timbral contrast with the use
of tambourines and rhythmic contrast with 3-note groupings. This (and layer 2 to follow) is also
an application of cross body coordination within a compositional context as shown in Figure 52.

51
Figure 52: Ostinato 7a, layer 1, bar 150.

LAYER 2
Layer 2 as shown in Figure 53 extends on the use of hocket and timbral applications in layer 1
with 5 stroke, 9 stroke, 13 stroke and 21 stroke rolls. These rolls fly by as the left hand and right
foot interplay between the tambourines sounding like one.

7 stroke 7 stroke 7 stroke 7 stroke 21 stroke

5 stroke 5 stroke 5 stroke 7 stroke 5 stroke 13 stroke

Figure 53: Ostinato 7a, layer 2, bar 154.

Ostinato 7b
Ostinato 7b is an extension of 7a with the addition of the right foot layer established in ostinato
6, as shown in Figure 54.

52
Figure 54: Ostinato 7b, bar 158.

Table 12: Ostinato 7b, “Swordfish”.


Ostinato 7b
Limb assignment 3-way. Right hand - low tom, right foot: tambourine, hi hat and
woodblock, left foot: bass drum
Opposing limbs: left hand
Timbral composition The hocketing roll between the low tom and bass drum are
countered by the high metals and plastics of the right foot for
distinct rhythmic recognition.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization 1/32 note roll between right hand and left foot with the 1/16
note syncopated motif recognizable from ostinato 1.
Physiological Zone 2 and 3. No movement from the right hand and left foot
with the right foot moving between 3 pedals.

Layers
LAYER 1
Layer 1 (Figure 55) involves the use of a new tom motif moving between 1/16 and 1/8 note
triplets. The section in the score and this example has the 26/16 hypermeasure set as a measure
of 7/8 combined with a measure of 6/8 to simplify the display. This is a very difficult passage to
play, as the left hand does not just have to play the overlapping subdivisions but also the
melodic pattern across the three toms.

Figure 55: Ostinato 7b, layer 1, bar 162.

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LAYER 2
Layer 2 as shown in Figure 56 is the result of combining ostinato 7a and ostinato 6 with its
canonic layer. This creates a very dense rhythmic and timbral force as the final part for the E
section of the work. It reprises the main ostinatos and melodic motifs together for a climactic
build.

Figure 56: Ostinato 7b, layer 2, bar 168.

Ostinato 8
Ostinato 8 shown in Figure 57 is identical to ostinato 6 but it has now been shifted from the left
hand to the right.

Transfer from left hand to right hand

Figure 57: Ostinato 8. Shift from left hand to right hand, bar 176.

Layer
This layer is a return to the rhythms of the left hand and left foot from ostinato 1 as shown in
Figure 58. After their introduction, they will then be established as ostinato 9.

Figure 58: Ostinato 8, layer 1, bar 180.

54
Ostinato 9
A reprise of the left hand and left foot rhythms from ostinato 1 and the development from a
layer in ostinato 8 to its own ostinato, shown below in Figure 59.

Figure 59: Ostinato 9, bar 184.

Table 13: Ostinato 9, “Swordfish”.

Ostinato 9
Limb assignment 2-way. Left hand spoxe and left foot spoxe for a hocketing
pattern.
Opposing limbs: right hand and foot
Timbral composition High metal tone allowing for identifiable layering from the
other limbs
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization Follows suit to previous sections with the 2+2+3 and 2+3
grouping of the 7/16 and 5/16 measures respectively. The limbs
alternate in a linear fashion.
Physiological Zone 1. No movement.

Layer
With the ostinato defining the metric structure of the section, the right hand and right foot enter
with linear groups of five. The five note groups use timbral diversification in groups of three
between the 6” zil-bel, 12” china stax and the 6” splash cymbal. With the simple mathematical
equation of 5x3 the resultant is a metric cycle of 15/16, as shown in Figure 60.

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15/16
5+
5+
5+

Figure 60: Ostinato 9, layer 1. 15/16 over 26/16 hypermeasure, bar 204.

Ostinato 10
Ostinato 10 (Figure 61) consists of continuous 1/16th notes on the tom with the right hand.

Figure 61: Ostinato 10, bar 215.

56
Table 14: Ostinato 10. “Swordfish”.
Ostinato 10
Limb assignment 1- way. Commences with the left hand and shifts to the right
hand once established.
Opposing limbs: left hand, right and left feet.
Timbral composition Singular on the 12” tom
Meter 1/4
Cycle A duration of one ¼ note beat
Rhythmic organization 1/16 notes
Physiological Zone 2. No movement

Layers
Within the improvised sections of the ostinato, the 1/32 note with accents from measure 77 is
reprised and the meter moves from 1/4 to the 7+7+7+5/16 metric cycle of the piece, shown in
Figure 62. After this reprise, the ostinato resumes in 1/4.

Figure 62: Ostinato 10, layer 1, bar 219.

Ostinato 11
Ostinato 11 is a re orchestration of ostinato 9. The 1/16 note tom line from ostinato 10 now
becomes a layer as the new ostinato develops as shown in Figure 63.

Figure 63: Ostinato 11, bar 229.

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Table 15: Ostinato 11, “Swordfish”.
Ostinato 11
Limb assignment 2-way. Left hand woodblock, left foot bridges the snare drum
and bel-tam.
Opposing limbs: right hand and right foot.
Timbral composition Metals and plastics.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization Follows suit from ostinato 9 with the 2+2+3 and 2+3 grouping of
the 7/16 and 5/16 measures respectively. The limbs alternate in
a linear fashion.
Physiological Zone 1. No movement.

Layer
With the ostinato strongly marking the metric construction, the right foot and right hand
contribute layers of contrasting rhythmic counterpoints. Figure 64 shows the layering of times
used for this section, as the right foot plays strict 1/4 notes for the first two hypermetric cycles
and then strict 1/8 notes for the following two metric cycles.

Right Hand
15 15 15 15 15 15

Right Foot
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 etc

Left hand and left foot


7 7 7 5 7 7 7 5 7 7 7 5 etc

Figure 64: Ostinato 11, time layers.

As illustrated in Figure 65 the right foot plays on the concert bass drum and offers a 4/4 or 2/4
feeling over the established hypermetric cycle. The right hand part reprises its role in layer 1
from ostinato 9 with its 15/16 pattern played on the high cymbals and bells. The result of the
ostinato combined with the right hand and right foot layers results in stratified metric cycles
each with their own distinguishable presence and influence due to their timbral qualities.

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15/16 15/16 15/16

4/16

15/16 15/16 15/16

2/16

15/16

Figure 65: Ostinato 11, layer, bar 256.

Ostinato 12
Ostinato 12 as shown in Figure 66 presents the original part of the left foot from ostinato 1:

Figure 66: Ostinato 12, bar 256.

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Table 16: Ostinato 12, “Swordfish”.
Ostinato 12
Limb assignment 1-way. Left foot on bass drum and snare
Opposing limbs: right and left hands
Timbral composition The alternating of the bass and snare drums add a strong beat
like presence allowing for tom improvisation in the foreground
on the tom toms.
Meter 7+7+7+5/16
Cycle 26/16
Rhythmic organization The strike points reflect the 2+2+3 groupings for the 7/16
measures and the 2+3 groupings for the 5/16 measure used
throughout the piece.
Physiological Zone 1. The performer sits at 90° on the kit with the left foot
moving between the left side bass drum and the foot snare
drum.

Isorhythmic Counterpoint

The final part of my investigation looks at the isorhythmic counterpoint with the rhythmic
organization introduced in at rehearsal mark H, bar 276. The isorhythms are also used as
ostinato, creating timbral variance and extended duration to the cycle of the patterns. The parts
of the four limbs are introduced one at a time before Figure 67 shows measures 292–299 which
introduce the framework and rhythms used by each limb as they are introduced on single
timbres to be incorporated into the 4-way isorhythm. Isorhythm has been explored in my other
compositions such as “Tubby the Robot”, and “Swordfish” develops this concept further by
advancing the interplay and coordination required for the execution of the parts. The rhythmic
skeleton of the four limbs has a resolution of two hypermetric 26/16 cycles while the timbral
cycles are varied between two and six cycles.

Figure 67: Rhythms for Isorhythmic layers, bars 292-299.

With the rhythms of the limbs establish, the breakdown and assignment of the isorhythms can
now be addressed. The following discussion profiles each of the limbs, their rhythms, the talea

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and the color assigned for the creation of the isorhythm. I have listed these in their order of
entry; (1) left foot, (2) left hand, (3) right foot, and (4) right hand, as shown in Table 17. The
isorhythms have a staggered entry of eight bars for allowing the listener to engage with each of
the isorhythms as they accumulate throughout the passage.

Table 17: Isorhythmic layers

Limb Talea Color


Left foot 11 2 Left side bass drum and foot snare
Left hand 11 6 Left side high toms
Right foot 9 3 Bell-tam, hi hat and cowbell
Right hand 11 3 Low, medium and high woodblocks

Left Foot

An 11:2 ratio exists between the talea and color, shown in Figure 68.

Talea 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Color

Figure 68: “Swordfish” left foot isorhythm commencing at bar 300.

Left Hand

An 11:6 ratio exists between the talea and color, shown in Figure 69.

Figure 69: “Swordfish” left hand isorhythm commencing at bar 308.

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Right Foot

A 9:3 ratio exists between the talea and color, shown in Figure 70.

Figure 70: “Swordfish” right foot isorhythm commencing at bar 316.

Right Hand

An 11:3 ratio exists between the talea and color, shown in Figure 71.

Figure 71: “Swordfish” right hand isorhythm commencing at bar 324.

As shown in the previous analysis, each of the parts moves within in the framework of its own
isorhythmic ratio. From a performance perspective, this was a very challenging passage of
music to physically execute with constant changing and overlapping of the limbs. In the
physical expression of this, I was able to draw from the skills developed through my studies on
independent thinking and temporal stratification described in Chapter Seven. This section was
inspired by Conlan Nancarrow’s use of isorhythm and his adaptation of them as ostinato (Gann,
1995). As Nancarrow used a player piano for the execution of his parts, I saw this as a challenge
for live performance to stretch the boundaries of my instrument and for the incorporation of this
compositional tool within works for solo drumset.

Synopsis

“Swordfish” is the most physically exacting of this body of work and was two years in
production from the original concept inspired by the swimming pattern of the “Swordfish” to
the concert stage. It encapsulates the full essence of the drumset as a solo instrument from the
development of the instrument itself, to the notational system required to document it, and the
physical execution of the piece. The concert performance of “Swordfish” and my other
compositional works are on the DMA website along with scores, videos and investigations.

62
This new body of works has been the most challenging that I have had to learn and perform as a
musician and the most demanding to complete from a compositional perspective. These works
are a reflection of my view of the instrument for solo performance and its value as a serious
musical instrument. My use of ostinato in the works links with my personal preferences in
music with the repetition related to commercial influences, cultural influences and also
supporting audience awareness of themes, motifs and other musical suggestions used
throughout the compositions. The investigations reveal my use of ostinato and layering of the
limbs as independent voices within my compositions.

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CHAPTER FIVE: THE EXTENDED DRUMSET
In this chapter I will explore my drumset as it applies to my compositional works. The
compositions are specifically written for my drumset, and my drumset is specifically designed
for the execution of the compositions. The two operate in tandem as one has an effect on the
other as timbres may have been added to the set up for a specific purpose within a composition
or the composition may be based on a set of timbres incorporated within the drumset. My DMA
website includes additional photographic documentation of my drumset, depicting views from
various angles as a further visual portrayal of the instrument.

To extend the vocabulary, physiological aspects, timbral variety and compositional potential, I
will extend the standard drumset. A performer such as Terry Bozzio has an immensely large set
up, mainly due to the requirement of pitched notes. This requires twelve drums to make a single
octave. To have several octaves of drums will require an arsenal of tom toms. My approach to
this extended drumset is not to reinvent the way a drumset is set up, but to expand on it within
an ergonomic and practical framework. The drumset is just that, a 'set' and is customizable to
embrace the style and musical needs of its creator. As with science, new formulas are frequently
created, all while using existing signs and established values.

While my approach to the extended drumset will include skinned drums I will also be
examining timbral variation for my sound sources. A large array of toms are appropriate for a
pitched approach, but timbrally they are all very similar, therefore layers of rhythm can be lost
somewhat due to the overlapping timbre of the toms. The standard 5-piece drumset is the core
of what young drummers first learn to play and will remain in its primary position within my set
up. The majority of drummers investigated in Chapter Three, while incorporating multiple
pedals, utilize standard sounds associated with the feet, such as bass drums and hi hats. I will be
looking at additional percussion tones, including cowbell, woodblock, tambourine and bells to
the feet as described in Chapter Two. This allows for opposing layers to be heard without
constant timbral overlapping. For example, an ostinato played using a cowbell and woodblock
with the feet will be a formidable background for the use of toms and cymbals in layered
patterns over the top.

Layout

My original design of the large modern drumset will be used for compositions and studies
within my research. The drumset makes specific use of a vast array of timbres for both the
hands and the feet. The set of 18 foot pedals are used in operation for not just traditionally
assigned timbres such as the hi hat and bass drum but also for an array of alternative percussive
sources, adding to its individuality. The layout of the standard drumset incorporates hi hat and
bass drum timbres for the feet. My drumset features a variety of timbres accessible to feet as
they have access to woodblock, tambourine, cowbell, conga, snare drum and a variety of

64
cymbal and bass drum combinations. As with the feet, the hands are not limited to the
traditional set up of toms, cymbals and snare drum combinations found on a standard drumset.
My kit features an array of toms, snares, cymbals, percussion and a bass drum, all accessed by
the hands.

Drums

The nucleus of the drumset is a traditional configuration with placement of the snare, bass drum
and basic toms. In general, the additional placement of drums has the larger toms added to the
right while the smaller toms are added to the left side of the set up. This has the pitch of the
drums moving from high (left) to low (right) in the opposite direction to that of the piano and
other tuned percussive instruments. This is due mainly to the origins of the drumset and with
most players being right handed. The drums were added to the right side of the kit, as this was
their dominant hand. The kit is represented diagrammatically in Figure 71, and its components
are also listed in Table 18.

B6

B2 B3
T8
T10 T11
T9
T4 S2
T7
S4 S1 T12
T3
B4

T6

S5 T2 T13
B1

B5

S3
T14

T5 T1
S6

Figure 71: Modern large extended drumset - drums.

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Table 18: Components of the extended drumset
Tom Toms Description Snares Description Bass Drums Description
T1 10x8 S1 12x7 B1 22x18
T2 18x16 S2 12x4 B2 20x18
T3 6x12 S3 10x4 B3 20x18
T4 6x15 S4 10x6 B4 24x18
T5 8x7 S5 10x4 B5 20x14 Gong
T6 8x7 S6 10x6 B6 22x18
T7 8x7
T8 14x12
T9 8x8
T10 10x8
T11 12x8
T12 13x10
T13 14x11
T14 16x13

Cymbals

While the drums still comprise the nucleus of the traditional set up, the cymbal configuration
shown in Figure 72 bears little resemblance to that of a standard set up. For example, the main
left and right hi hats are placed below the toms and are therefore only playable using the pedals.
The cymbals are listed by categories in Tables 19, 20 and 21.

66
G5 G6
C3 G4 G7 C4
H4 H8
S2b
G9 G11
S2a G8
G12 S3b
H3 G13
C2 G10
S1b G3
G14 S3a C5

S1a H5 H6
H2 H7
C1 S4b

H1
S4a
G2 G15

G1 C6
G16
G15

Figure 72: Modern large extended drumset: cymbals

Table 19: Modern large extended drumset: cymbal components, general


General Description
G1 20” A Custom Sizzle G9 6” A Custom Splash
G2 11” Oriental Splash G10 12” A Custom Splash
G3 18” A Custom EFX G11 6” Zil-Bel
G4 14” ZXT Trashformer G12 9” Zil-Bel
G5 10” K Custom Splash G13 16” A Custom EFX
G6 10” K Custom Splash G14 8” A Custom Splash
G7 14” ZXT Trashformer G15 20” Oriental Crash
G8 10” A Custom Splash G16 18: Spiral EFX

Table 20: Modern large extended drumset: cymbal components, china and stacked
China Description Stacked Description
C1 12” Oriental China S1a 14” ZXT Trashformer
C2 14” Oriental China S1b 6” A Custom Splash
C3 18” A Custom Swish S2a 16” Oriental China
C4 18” Z Custom China S2b 12” A Splash
C5 20” Z Custom China S3a 12” Oriental China
C6 22” A Swish Knocker S3b 9” K Custom Hybrid Splash
S4a 17” K Custom China
S4b 12” Special hi hat bottom

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Table 21: Modern large extended drumset: cymbal components, hi hats
China Description
H1 6” Spoxes
H2 6” Zil-Bel hats (with added tambourine jingle)
H3 10” EFX hats
H4 19” K Custom China (top) and 18” K Custom Crash (bottom)
H5 12” A Custom Mastersound hats
H6 12” A Custom Mastersound hats
H7 12” Special recording hat (top) and 12 A Custom Mastersound (bottom)
H8 18” A Custom Swish (top) and 18” A Custom Fast Crash (bottom)

Pedals

The pedal arrangement is the unique feature of the complete set up as shown in Figure 73 and
listed in Table 22. The use of multiple pedals to this degree is unusual for conventional
drumming. With a variety of timbres ranging from bass drums to snare drums to toms, cowbells,
woodblocks and cymbals, numerous percussive sound sources are made available to the feet.
Many of the instruments have been fixed using unconventional applications of standard
hardware systems that are generally available. The feet are able to act as a percussion section by
themselves. This is not only a feature of the set up but also is an important aspect of the
performance basis of the instrument enabling the use of multi-timbral ostinatos with the feet.

Figure 73: Modern large extended drumset: pedals.

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Table 22: Modern large extended drumset: pedals.
Pedal Description
1 Bass Drum 1
2 Spoxe hi hat
3 Snare Drum 1
4 Bel-Tam
5 Cowbell
6 Hi Hat 1
7 Bass Drum 2
8 Power Hats 1
9 Power Hats 2
10 Bass Drum 3
11 Hi Hat 2
12 Jam Block
13 Tambourine
14 Bass Drum 4
15 Crash Cymbal

Layers

The extended drumset can be broken up into four layers of sonic output. The first three are all
upper layers played with the hands and the fourth is a lower layer played by the feet:

Layer 4
Largest cymbals: Power metals

Layer 3
Blocks and small cymbals: Metals and plastics

Layer 2
Drums: Skins

Layer 1
Pedals: Multi-timbral

Figure 74: Layers of the drumset.

69
These layers are an important part of the set up and play a huge role in the physical
orchestration of parts for studies and compositions. The layer descriptions are reliable with the
exception of certain timbres, which are situated within another layer’s description. For example,
in layer 3, which for the most part contains smaller cymbals and block percussion, there is also a
14” tom up high on the left. These additional colours within the various layers allow for access
to certain timbres outside of their normal placement and contribute timbral contrast within a
layer.

This format is consistent for all upper layers. The exception is the feet playing in layer 1. This is
by far the most multi-timbral layer within the drumset. While the hands have a larger range of
movement both left to right and up and down, the pedals are set to only left to right movement
due to physical balance requirements. As the feet cover a cross section of timbral options, foot
motion between pedals and bridging of pedals can be used for multi-timbral parts and ostinato.
A large majority of the ostinatos are devised for the feet, enabling a wide variety of sounds and
interesting patterns to act as accompaniment for the hand parts without excessive timbral
overlapping between foreground and background parts.

With all of the foot timbres coming from layer one, a sonic presence is established for the
listener in an unamplified performance as the part played by the feet all comes from a low
physical location. This helps to distinguish these sounds and separate the background ostinato
from the foreground figures and motifs played by the hands. The multi-timbral aspect of the
foot parts also invites the use of hoketing motifs and accompaniment between the feet and the
timbres contained with the upper layers played by the hands. Figure 75 shows an ostinato from
my composition, “Swordfish” that uses a fast hocketing pattern between the right hand and the
right foot.

Figure 75: Multi-timbral hocket, “Swordfish”.

The identification of the layers aids in the realization of physical localities for the performer
with regards to timbre and placement. With the establishment of layers mixed with Zones, the
performer will be able to identify timbres from an all-important physical perspective, especially
for the learning of complex timbral arrangements between the limbs.

70
Physiological/Timbral Placements: Zone & Subsets

Zones(
As the kit has a massive span in its width, Zones can be established which have a focus on a
particular section or sub-set of the drumset. While each voice on the drumset can be directly
related to a particular Zone, there are many instances where the boundaries are blurred as more
than one Zone can be utilized within various patterns. Each of the Zones contains a rich pallet of
timbral selections and allows the performer to cross the traditional left-side, right-side
boundaries on the drumset.

My application of Zones had its beginnings in the standard 5-piece drumset, the most physically
accessible sections of the extended drumset. As a performer, the identification of Zones can aid
in the development of coordinated independence and the physical execution of musical parts
and passages. The identification of the Zones diagram also illustrates the extensions of a
performers set up and the physical attributes of the ostinato and layered patterns used. The
Zones also have overlaps where part of Zone 1 is also contained within Zone 2, as shown in
Figure 76.

Figure 76: Zones.

I have purposely diverted from the concept of a symmetrical set up which can be sometimes
favoured by drummers with larger set ups. With space being a limiting factor to what tones I
can incorporate in the set up, I am looking for a diverse range of timbres that I can comfortably
incorporate in a logical manner. The symmetrical set up concept is based on the idea of being
able to play the same idea with either side of the body. While I am 100% behind the concept of

71
limb freedom and not having any particular limb dominate, the replicating of a particular part of
a set up would limit the range tones available.

The Zones are a reflection of physical locations of the body: Zone 1 - left hand/foot, Zone 2 -
both hands/feet, and Zone 3 - right hand/foot. From these Zones, subsets within the set up can
begin to be established just as a piano has different octaves that are obvious to pianists as a
visual identification where they are on the instrument.

Subsets(

Left((90(degrees)(–(Zone(1(
This subset contains mostly higher pitched toms with the exception of the foot bass drum, the
hand mounted bass drum and the hi-set 14” tom. The high percussive sounds of the smaller
toms, tambourine and multiple-toned jam block set allow for a distinct ‘Latin’ flavour to
emulate from this portion of the kit. Zone 1 and its percussive timbres are specifically utilized
within the compositions for contrasts to Zones two and three with their larger toms and mounted
bass drum.

There are occasions where all of the limb parts are written in Zone 1, illustrated in Figure 77
below. For this, it is required to sit in the 90 degree position on the kit with both legs off to the
left side of the main snare drum. Scores requiring this position are shown in Figures 78 and 79
from my compositions, “Commando” and “Swordfish” respectively.

High Set 14" tom tom

High Percussion

High Toms

Figure 77: Zone 1.

One of the sections in “Commando” has the performer sitting to the left and uses the multiple-
toned jam block set for an almost keyboard like effect, as accompaniment for an upbeat drum ‘n

72
bass style application. In this section of the composition, all limbs play exclusively in Zone 1
with the use of the far left bass drum (left foot), the foot snare (right foot), auxiliary snare (left
hand) and jam blocks (right hand) as shown in Figure 78.

Figure 78: “Commando”, Zone 1.

Another example of Zone 1 exclusivity is in the opening section of “Swordfish”. The foot plays
between the far left bass drum and foot snare; the right foot plays between the hi hat, bell-tam
and cowbell; the right hand plays on the hi toms; and the left hand plays on the auxiliary snare
(Figure 79).

Figure 79: “Swordfish”, Zone 1.

Front(Main((180(degrees)(–(Zone(2(
The front of the set up allows for physical access to the largest component of the drumset of all
the subsets. It allows for the complete range of Zone 2 and the inner portions of Zones 1 and 3.
This is where the bulk of compositions will be written for. It is the realm of the standard 5-piece
kit so all limbs operate freely in this Zone. The section shown in Figure 80 from my
composition “Catwoman”, shows all limbs playing in Zone 2 with the feet on the main front
bass drums and the hands do a cymbal roll on the front cymbals. Figure 81 illustrates Zone 2
pictorially.

73
Figure 80: “Catwoman”, Zone 2.

Figure 81: Zone 2.

Right((270(degrees)(Zone(–(3(
This far right subset has within it the largest drums and cymbals and is shown in Figure 82
below.

Shallow toms to allow


for pedal access below

Figure 82: Zone 3.

74
Figure 83 illustrates the use of the right hand exclusively in Zone 3 from my composition,
“Tubby the Robot”. This is a 1-way ostinato played in Zone 3 that allows for improvisation
between the opposing limbs in Zones 1 and 2.

Figure 83: “Tubby the Robot”, Zone 3.

Ergonomics

With the extended drumset, the performer requires physical prowess and agility to move around
the instrument with both the hands and feet. It is imperative that the set up is designed with this
in mind. While not every item of the kit can be place in an optimum physical playing position
due to the complexity of the kit, a free flowing layout with accessibility for the hands and feet is
imperative.

With so many pieces to put together, special attention needs to be focused on how it is
constructed. This has greatly been a process of trial and error. An example of set up process:

I have the idea to put a large drum part for the left hand in a section of a new composition.
I don’t currently have a large tom in a strike Zone area of the current set up. Then I am
posed with the challenge of:

i. How do I mount it?


a. Off the rack,
b. On an independent stand, or
c. Using an adaptor off an existing mount.
ii. Can I move things around to fit it in?
a. Will this affect my physical access to the already existing pieces on the kit that
I have already been using in compositions?
b. Will I need to pull things off and remount them from a different location?
c. Do I need to remove something of lesser importance that within existing
compositions can be substituted with a similar sound source in an accessible
location?
iii. How will it affect my physiology?
a. Does it allow for clean lines and movement?
b. Is it too high, which will lead to shoulder injuries when played in this position
for extended periods?

75
c. Is it too low, which will inhibit the use technique with the wrist having to be
bent back in a potentially damaging position?
iv. Is it worth it?
a. Do I really need this sound?
b. Is there a similar alternative sound in near proximity?
c. Do I need to be more creative and come up with another solution?

All of these are questions that need to be considered when making additions and adjustments to
the kit. I have often made changes to the kit which I thought was a good idea at the time, only to
have to reset everything back to how it was a week later as the new idea just didn’t work out.
This is all part of the process when striving for the most ergonomic drumset for my
compositions. It is these processes which have allowed me to design and construct a very
workable, logical and well organized extended drumset in a methodical manner, all extending
from the standard 5-piece drumset.

Special Specifications

While the kit utilizes many components, almost all are standard issue. The hi hats are the only
modified pieces of equipment used in the set up and are used in an unconventional manner
within the set up to cater for my approach to the solo drumset. The hi hat placement underneath
the toms has two functions: (1) to allow for a clear flow of the tom toms without interruption,
and (2) they are sonically layered to blend with the rest of the tones produced from the feet. The
ability to play the hi hats with the hands has been sacrificed as a result.

Main(Bass(Drums(
The main bass drums are two 20" diameter drums. The standard diameter for bass drums is 22”,
which are used by Terry Bozzio, Marco Minnemann and a large majority of players with
extended drumsets. The 20" bass drums in my set are used to enhance the ergonomics of the
environment in the lower layer of the foot pedals. Decisive factors include:

i. The 20" bass drums can be set up closer together at the front of the kit, therefore
reducing the distance for the feet to travel as the extended pedals move out to the right
and left.
ii. With all of the pedals in closer, it enables them to be situated as much as possible in
Zone 2 of the set up, allowing a closer proximity of physical accessibility to the outer
pedals for the performer.
iii. The cowbell (left) and woodblock (right) to be played by the feet cannot sit flush with
the inner pedals with the use of larger bass drums. The larger drums do not allow for the

76
mounting of the percussion to be close enough for the pedal to sit next to the inner
pedal.
iv. The smaller size of the bass drums also allows for the mounting of the hi hats to be
underneath the tom toms. As shown in Figure 82 there is little room for error with the
set up and larger bass drums would mean the hi hats would not fit in the set up unless
the toms were moved higher which would then mean the whole set would need to be
higher affecting stool height and compromising physical technique.

Tom(tom(depth(
The toms above the pedals need to be at a depth to allow access with the leg to play them, and
not to interfere with the physical placement of the pedal. The toms to the left of the kit are
shallow by nature due to their smaller sizing so this is not an issue. The larger toms to the right
of the kit in Zone 3 and the right side of Zone 2 are typically deeper due to their size. I have
incorporated shallower depths in the larger toms, allowing the low mounted hi hats to sit
underneath the toms without hitting them, and to allow room for the leg to be mobile in playing
a single pedal or in motion to play between several pedals.

Synopsis

The drumset will continue to evolve as new technologies and techniques are introduced and
performers incorporate these within their set ups and playing styles. A performer’s drumset is
very personalised and performers will arrange set ups dependent on the music they play, their
physical approach to the instrument, their technical skills and the musical concepts they adapt in
their playing. The process of extending the standard five-piece drumset is uncomplicated. This
may be done with the addition of tom toms and/or cymbals, it is the purpose and intention for
the additions to be of musical value that is of interest here.

My motivation in creating this extended version of the drumset has been driven by the
aspiration to implement the myriad hours and years I have devoted to the art of drumset
performance into the highest level of musical works, both complex and accessible. My extended
drumset is devised for the purpose of solo drumset performance but may not necessarily be
confined solely within these parameters. I have pushed myself physically and mentally,
searching for ways to apply my skills on the drumset which has lead to substantial
experimentation with the instrument in regards to physical angles, physical placement,
accessibility of sounds and how to construct them in unity to form an ergonomic, practical and
comprehensive drumset. While my existing drumset configuration is quite extensive, as
technologies change, my concepts grow and I am exposed to new ideas, my setup will change to
reflect this.

77
CHAPTER SIX: MY NOTATION
For the development and foundation of a notational system for my extended drumset and
multiple-limb works I address the questions as asked in my methodology in chapter three:

• is the notation for me to use in the development of my own performances?


• is the notation to be used by others to play my compositions?
• is the notation to serve primarily as a transcription of what I will be playing?

Notational systems developed for any of these three uses could be totally different. The notation
I use for study notes for myself might be totally different than the notation I would submit as a
manuscript for publication, or the notation used to enable a group of people to perform and play
my compositions. The primary use should influence how the final product looks and functions.
After considering these questions I established goals for the functions of my personal notation
system; (1) to preserve my compositions in written form, (2) to enable me to express my
compositional ideas on or off the kit, (3) to expand upon the established model of drumset
notation as set out in Guidelines to Drumset Notation (Weinberg, 1994a), (4) to be useful for
other drummers and composers, and (5) to be clear, concise and flexible enough to
accommodate future enhancements of my instrument.

The challenge for students, teachers, performers and composers of drumset works has been
inconsistency in notation methods. Utilizing Weinberg’s well-established guidelines as a basis
for writing for an extended drumset will result in a method using familiar notational devices in
an enhanced way. Weinberg’s system has been set up to allow for growth: “As drumset
performance requirements advance past their current point, these guidelines can be expanded to
fit the needs of both the composer and the performer” (Weinberg, 1994b, p. 26).

Because my drumset extends beyond the capabilities of Weinberg’s current guidelines, there are
three areas of the notation that I will be developing:

Noteheads: Traditionally cymbals have been identified with an ‘x’ note head while the drums
use a standard round note head. Although there have been variants used by some composers and
performers, these remain the stable constant employed for drumset notation.

Note placement: After the early years of uncertainty and experimentation the representation of
the standard 5-piece drumset is reasonably established, included in Weinberg’s guidelines and
also employed by leading music engraving software manufacturers Sibelius and Finale.

Stave systems: As noted in my literature review in Chapter 2, there have been a myriad of ways
for notating drumset parts. Most have used a single stave system though Weckl and Minnemann

78
have made use of multiple staves to help identify the rhythmic layers and to cater for more
expansive instrument set ups.

My notational system expands the established systems to accommodate the complexity of my


instrument with its multitude of sonic devices, and the use of multiple limb focused voices
within the compositions and studies. I will also be drawing on my practice-led research and my
prior experiences of notational processes. There has been a significant need to document ideas
during the development of the compositions, concepts and physical approaches in the practice
room, and this experience has contributed to the developmental process. I will also be
identifying separate voices present in the compositions, thus clearly identifying the role of each
limb in the construction of the rhythmic layering of events, and this is a key feature of my
system. My compositional style for the drumset, and my very large and unique drumset cannot
be represented by established notational systems.

Noteheads

The primary purpose of noteheads in my system is for the representation of particular


instruments within the drumset. The need to distinguish the large array of instruments is a
necessary component of the notational system for the large extended drumset. For example, if I
were to use a traditional ‘x’ for all cymbals, regardless of their distinct qualities, numerous
staffs would be needed to accommodate the large variety of cymbals included in my kit. The
elements of my drumset are categorized as;

Cymbals - General, hi hats, chinas and EFX.


Drums - Bass snare, tom toms, auxiliary and Zone 1 reverse directional drums.
Percussion - General and temple block set.

Establishing identifiable notehead types for each instrument using this system allows for quick
recognition of a tone group and hence, the specific instrument required. While this is unusual, I
have found it essential in the process of having a working, understandable and comprehensive
notational system for my works. The sounds and tones contained within my drumset are the
basis of the orchestrations and rhythmic layers in my works, so a clear system to represent them
by notation is necessary. All sub-categories within the groups share a similar feature of
identification; all cymbal noteheads contain some type of cross, be it normal, circled, squared or
vertical; all drums use an oval symbol or a circled oval symbol; and all percussion elements are
represented with solid block symbols, either square or triangular.

79
11 1
Table 18: Notehead symbols with tone groups for the extended drumset.

66 6
¿¿¿
Notehead Entry Legend for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius

1¿ ¿¿
Notehead Entry
Notehead Entry Legend
Type forfor
Legend Solo Drum
Solo Music:
Drum Sibelius
Music: Sibelius
2.2
Notehead Cymbal Description
2.2
.2
±±±X6 ¿)¿) ¿)
== 11 Sibelius = 16 Splash, Crash
OO O
end for Solo Drum Music: = 1 General Cymbals= 16
=116
= 16

1XX
= 19
19

6 ====24
== 26 =

)¿
ry Legend for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius == 22 Both foot operated and = 19
œœœ
26
O¿
Hi Hat permanently closed

6
= 26 = Sibelius
2
¿) ===27
Notehead=Entry 16 Legend for Solo Drum Music: = 27
O 19
2419China == 00 China Type = 27 = 27

¿)
= =2 1= 2
ϱ
16 = 18"
0 BD
œ O
24 88 for
for 18"

X
BD cymbals, bells, special sounds
=0
= =0 26 = 27EFX
=8 forStacked
19 18" BD
= 2 Drums
œ
8 for 18" BD
Description
8 for 18" BD = 27

¡ =2
6"6"
= 24 =0 Bass, snare, toms
6"
œ 8 for 18" BD

1
Auxiliary and Zone 1 reverse direction drums.

6O 6
dotehead
for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius
=¿ 16
Entry Legend for Solo Drum Music:Description
Percussion Sibelius

¿)œ ¿)
=1 = 16 Latin Blocks, tambourine, cowbell, woodblock etc.

X
±= 2= 26 == 219
= Temple
19 Blocks

== 027 = 27
= 0= 24 Cymbals( 8 for 18" BD
8 for 18" BD
Historically, ‘x’ note heads have been used for cymbals with a circled ‘x’ used for open hi hat
notes, similar to traditional notation for half and whole notes. Using the circled ‘x’ note for the
china cymbal groups means I am unable to write half or whole notes for the “general” or “hi
hat” cymbals. As most notes in percussion music indicate the point of attack time rather than

1 of=the16metals on the kit and many are featured in


duration, I employ the use of tied notes to represent a longer note value for the cymbals.

6 group
¿ : =these1 make up the bulk
Notehead Entry Legend for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius
nd 2.2
O ¿)as their= 27
General cymbals

¿ ¿
X
±
1
the traditional cymbals =contained
26 in the standard 5-piece drumset. As this = 19 of cymbals is
=2
œ
¡ 8 for 18" BD6
¿
Notehead Entry Legend forcarry
Solothe
Drum Music:‘x’Sibelius
œ Œ Ó
more the ‘norm’ within cymbal set ups, they traditional notehead symbol.
end 2.2 = 24 = 0

¿ Hi hat cymbals : This refers to the hi hats= 2and are played by¿) either
œ =1 = 16
¿ O
X =as24Entry
± = 26 = 19

many as eight œ
L GongDrum the feet or the hands. As

the notehead. This 1


ndœ¡œ2.2¡œ¡œdistinct
of the hi hat,=it27

allows ¡
¡ œ¡be positioned more legibly
my drumset contains =0
configurations was necessary to employ a

for them to¡


¿ ÓÓ the stave6as discussed further below.
¿¡ ¿
œ
Notehead Legend for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius
œ Œ
8" 6"

œ
8 for
Œ
symbol for makes 18" BD distinction for the reader and also
an obvious

± = 26 œœ O = 2 ¿) = 27
= 1 = 16

¡ ¡œ ¡œ X
within
= 19
œ
1 ¡œ= 16
œ =Œ 0 in theÓset up and offering a distinct eastern
8" 14" L 6"
10"L
14" L 10"L 12"L 13"L GongDrum

Œ¡œ 6Ó = 19 Œ Ó
12"L
snare 13"L GongDrum
nd for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius
œ
snare = 24
China cymbals : Generally the largest cymbals

O œ=¡œ 2 Œ
8 for 18" BD

¿) The= 27
sonic, these are easily distinguished with their circled ‘x’ symbol.
14" L 10"L

EFX : œ
12"L 13"L GongDrum

œ =0
snare
8" 6"
majority of EFX cymbals in my set up are:
ongDrum
12"L
8 for 18"13"L
snare BD a. Stacks (a cymbal stacked on top of another) - This produces a distinct white
GongDrum

noise effect and the use of the traditional ‘x’ in a box symbol makes these tone
easily distinguished within the score.

1 ¿¿
œ¡ 1 ¡œ¿)¿) ŒŒ Œ ŒŒ Ó
80
¿ – smaller1diameter
b. Trashformers – the cymbals have a wave like shape to their body producing a

=1 16
6
¿ =c. 1Bells
Notehead distinctLegend
Entry sound from
forthat of general
Solo Drum cymbals. Sibelius
DrumMusic:
2.2 6
Notehead Entry Legend for Solo Music: Sibelius
gend 2.2
¿) = 27
thick cymbals.

O =œ2 ¿) = 19
=1 = 16

¿¿ ¿ O
Drums(± = 26X
X
¿ ± = 26 =2
= 19

œ =0 = 27
= 24
= 0 8 for 18" BD
= snare
a) Bass, 24 and toms : The solid oval symbol used for these remain consistent with
8 for 18" BD

¡œ : =This
0" 8" 6"
traditional usage.
ve R
b) Auxilary and Zone 1 reverse direction drums 2 refers to those drums used on the
6"
extreme left hand side of the kit. The size of these drums may be very similar to those
contained within the more central body of the set up whose drums employ the
traditional oval note head. To avoid confusion and to enable sound sources to be easily
identifiable, these drums will be notated using a circle around the traditional oval
notehead.

2try Legend1 for Solo 1 Sibelius


6
¿ = Drum
Percussion(Entry Legend for Solo Drum Music: Sibelius
Notehead

6
Music:

¿) =set,27they have been categorized


1 = 16
triangle conforms O
a) Auxiliary Percussion : This incorporates cowbells, tambourines, and woodblocks.

¿
X
± The= 26
¿)
= 16 = 19

O
to Weinberg’s guidelines.
=2
b) Temple Blocks : As=the
= 2 with œ 19temple blocks are a tuned
=0

œ
= 24the use of a solid square. Weinberg’s guidelines indicate that auxiliary percussion
8 for 18" BD
=0 is best notated using a= 27
triangle, so this square shape, having a certain similarity to the
8 for 18" BDsymbol, represents the temple blocks as being in the percussion family. Using
triangle
6"
œ
this shape also allows for the temple block placement on the stave to overlap with that
œ
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ Œ Ó
of the more traditional auxiliary percussion without the need for excessive ledger lines
on the stave.
œ
" 10" R 14" L 10"L 12"L
snare 13"L GongDrum
snare

Note placement

As with the implementation of notehead refinements, there is a need to take into consideration

¡œvarious
of these¡ ¿¡
existing models to expand on the use of noteheads within staves in my own system. With the

¡œ1 œit represents.


œ For example, the ‘x’ Œrepresents Óthe general cymbals, so when looking at
noteheads and their determined tones, the performer will then need to know which one

1 1the score¿)one needs to be able


Œ toœdistinguish
Πwhich one of the 11 general cymbals the notehead
14" L 10"L 12"L
is representing. 13"L
The standards GongDrum
set by Weinberg must be expanded to accommodate the required
wbell W/Block Tamborine snare
Bel-Tam Crash
Cymbal
number of notes.

My drumset contains all of the drums and cymbals listed in the guidelines. These parts of the
instrument are represented in their traditional position. For example, the traditional hi hat
position remains the first space above the top line of the stave and the main bass drum and snare

81
drum are also represented in their traditional places. As my kit expands, so does the notation.
Smaller drums simply move higher on the stave, while the larger ones move lower. By using the
note head systems described earlier, a single line in the staff can be used for multiple tone
options. Figure 83 shows a detailed layout of the drumset key with instrument types with their
notehead subgroups represented. As mentioned, the placement of the notes in the staff are based
on Weinbergs’s, Guidelines for Drumset Notation (1994a). The drumset key is also included on
my DMA website.

Figure 83: Extended drumset key/legend

Stave Systems

As outlined previously in Chapter Two, there have been numerous approaches to the notation of
drumset parts using multiple staves. The drumming community has adopted numerous
variations as described in my literature review. It would appear that these systems for notation
have been adapted by the composer and established on a case-by-case basis. In saying that, my
system will be no different (built around my case); it will however strive for clarity, coherence,
intelligibility and simplicity.

As my works rely heavily on layers of parts within the music using each limb as an independent
voice, there is the need for a system that provides clarity in the identification of parts and the
voice playing that part. Stylistically, there is a need for a system that will cater for the notation

82
of multi-limb orchestrations and has the qualities of readability, and ease of part identification,
as well as the ability to represent limb combinations, a visual representation of the voices,
flexibility and the accessible identification of the limbs to aid in the learning process of
compositions and studies.

Voices(

Having four limbs as a drummer doing solo drumset music doesn’t mean that they will always
be in operation independently. There will be many instances that require the use of either both
hands or both feet to function interdependently as a single voice. My system for staves has the
flexibility to clearly notate for both; independent staves (right hand, left hand, right foot, left
foot) catering for the use of a single limb operating as a independent voice within the music, and
interdependent staves (right and left hands together, right and left feet together) allowing for the
notation on a single stave when the two limbs are playing together as a single voice within the
music.

Applying these principles allows for recognition of parts to be performed. Figure 84 shows the
layout for my six stave system (4x independent and 2x interdependent) that I have adopted for
the notation of my solo works. The central four staves are used for the four voices of the limbs,
while the top and bottom staves cater for the interdependent use of the hands and feet
respectively.

°
R & L Hands /

Right Hand /

Left Hand /

Right Foot /

Left Foot /

R & L Feet ¢/

°
2

Figure
R&L
(hands)84: /Six stave system for the notation of solo compositions on the extended
drumset.
RH /

LH / the effectiveness and simplicity of my system, the example shown in Figure 85


To demonstrate
below is a single measure excerpt from my piece “Wonder Woman” using traditional drumset
RF /
notational systems. I have not included a single stave version of this because it is almost
LF /
illegible due to the overlapping and cross beaming of notes.

¢/
R&L
(feet)
83
°
3
R&L
(hands) /
Figure 85: “Wonder Woman”, two stave example.

Figure 86 below shows the same measure appearing with a four stave system. Note the
definition of the individual parts and the clarity as to the role of each limb. This is an essential
feature of how my compositions are designed and is a key influence in the preparation,
understanding and learning of performances of the compositions.

Figure 86: “Wonder Woman”, four stave example.

Synopsis

In composing music on an instrument with over seventy parts, my system of symbols for
noteheads extends on existing knowledge in a way that is comprehensible and easily adaptable
for drummers with a general knowledge of drumset notation, without having to develop a
completely new language. After many years of composition and performance in this idiom, I
have through much trial and error developed this method which is clear, concise and informs the
performer of the what is to played and where. The execution of multiple parts with different
limbs is a difficult undertaking and the employment of my system has aided in the progressive
development of my works. The notational system is effective for both composing and
performing, capable of representing an expansive array of sounds and a variety of performance
modes.

The development of this system is in response to the research questions as raised in the method,
which has (1) supported the development of my compositions, (2) allows for others to

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understand and use the system for the performance of my compositions, and (3) serves as a
transcript of what I have played. My notational system is used extensively for the complete
scores of my compositions, in the investigation of my works and with my examples and studies
for physical expression on the drumset. As with the notation of drumset music over the last
century, composers and drummers alike have made their own personal adjustments to existing
systems and I would expect that future drummers and composers would continue to do this. I
would encourage that they embrace this system’s concepts and applications, knowing that it has
been tried and tested in theory and in practice as shown in my works and studies.

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CHAPTER SEVEN - PHYSICAL EXPRESSION

Introduction

In developing works for solo drumset based on rhythmic layers and multi-timbral
orchestrations, a concentrated focus is to be directed in the area of physical expression. Many of
the techniques and approaches used in my solo works are outside conventional systems and in
this chapter I present the strategies and methods I have used to gain a drumset facility for the
execution of these works.

As with the previous chapters on my extended drumset and my notation, my purpose is not to
reinvent the way drummers approach physical expression but to expand upon established and
proven systems. As my work requires a large amount of independence and skill from all of the
limbs, I have addressed this with the development of studies that push the performer both
physically and mentally. As with most developing ideas such as Chapin’s system (Chapin,
1948), it is hoped that while the concepts I present today may seem unplayable and unnecessary
to some, that in future they will become more of a norm and accepted for what they are; systems
for the advancement of physical expression and coordinated control for a four limbed approach
to the drumset.

My approach

The development of these ideas has come from my personal experience as a musician. They
have been fostered through years of playing within many genres of music and being exposed to
each of the styles particular techniques and approaches. Two predominant styles’ that have
advanced my development of physical independence between the limbs are Jazz and Latin
musics. Firstly, after acquiring the coordinated independence to play jazz music, I was then
challenged with musical and practical applications of these skills. This involved using ideas in
an improvised format and being able to let my body execute what my mind was hearing. This
was my first launch into coordinated independence.

Secondly, the Brazilian and Afro-Cuban styles within Latin music allow for the implementation
and application of a multitude of rhythmic layers for the drumset as discussed in Chapter Two.
There were many occasions for concerts where one of the percussionists would not arrive for a
performance so I was able to incorporate their parts within my drumset playing. While
challenging at first, I was required to do it frequently and I dove deep into seeing how many
parts I could layer within my playing to sound like the whole percussion ensemble on the
drumset. Combined with jazz approaches, this became a definitive time for me, acquiring the
skills required for developing an advanced four-limbed approach to playing the drumset.

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As with my influences outlined in Chapter Two, there have been several key factors in the
development of these physiological studies. The three key affecting components are: (1)
extended solos for drum clinics, being required to deliver two-hour presentations on the drumset
encouraged stretching beyond typically drumset techniques; (2) the creation of drumset solo
repertoire, allowing a platform for multi-timbral soundscapes, thereby creating a demand for
non-conventional physical and conceptual approaches to the instrument; and (3) exercises for
furthering my skills, developing many new ideas. While some ideas quickly become parts of
compositions, others remain as building blocks and experimentation for future use.

In this chapter, I will be discussing two concepts for furthering the coordinated independence
and physiological output for drummers. These concepts have applications that are used
extensively throughout my compositional processes and allow for the drummer to extend upon
previous systems for the development of rhythmic layers on the drumset. Firstly independent
thinking involves an approach for revealing and understanding a greater rhythmic independence
with the use of popular stickings, and secondly Temporal Stratification, a system for the
development of advanced coordinated independence for multiple limbs with various metric
combinations.

Independent thinking

As human beings, it is a normal facet of everyday life to use both of our hands in conjunction
with one another. The right works with the left and the left with the right for the execution of
everyday tasks such as eating with a knife and fork. This behaviour is also typical for most
standard drumset practices. In learning basic rudiments as a beginning drummer, the student is
taught a series of patterns and strokes using both hands interdependently for the execution of
these rudiments. This is of course a fine way to help develop the motor skills of a budding
drummer. Most people have a lead hand, be it left or right; this lead hand aids in steering the
less dominant hand through the rudiments.

After the physical learning of the rudiments and other interdependent sticking patterns, many
drummers do not fully utilize the potential of what they have learnt. While the two hands
combine to create a single rudiment, they can be broken down independently to reveal two
autonomous layers of rhythmic elements within the rudiment. The by-line two for one is
commonly employed by many an advertising campaign. Advertisers use this by-line as an
attractive offer, meaning that you receive one for free. This also rings true for an independent
thinking approach and implementation to traditional rudimental and other sticking patterns.
Drummers exposed to this way of thinking will have new opportunities to explore the layering
of rhythms to generate new ideas. Instead of one pattern which ties both hands up with an

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interdependent approach, the independent thinking principle grants the drummer two self-
determining rhythms that can be used for effective rhythmic layering. The drumset applications
for this new way of thinking are endless when combined with various timbral and rhythmic
concepts. It also offers an exercise process of furthering the development and understanding of a
rudiment and its construction. For example, rudiments that alternate lead hands produce a canon
when the independent thinking principle is applied. This in itself opens a wide variety of
possibilities for exploration for the drummer searching for the layering of rhythms and
compositional inspiration.

The initial physical approach is already set in the original learning of each rudiment. As
repetition is used for the development of the performance of the rudiment, the primary physical
execution of the rudiment is already established. This will lay the foundation for the mental
application of the independent thinking principle. A student who has been playing a simple
rudiment such as a single paradiddle for any number of years can struggle when asked to isolate
and play just the right hand of the rudiment. At first they struggle mentally to try and break it
down, then generally will play their right hand to sound while still playing the left hand in the
air as to not have it make a noise. Although the production of the sound of the right hand is
correct, they are still using an interdependent thinking system for the execution.

For my demonstration of independent thinking in practice, I use the single paradiddle, which is
a well-known rudiment and is often taught to students in their initial learning on the instrument.
This example will show the methodology I have applied to both learning and using independent
thinking in acquiring the skills for rhythmic layering following the steps outlined in Table 19.

Table 19: Three basic steps in the discovery of independent thinking for rudimental and
other similar styles of stickings.
Steps
1. A united part First and foremost the overall interdependent sound and rhythm
of the rudiment is recognized.
2. Individual parts It is essential to hear the independent rhythms produced from
each of the hands with the breakdown of each part and isolated
practice.
3. Two parts While playing the now recognized two independent parts
simultaneously simultaneously, the drummer can disassociate the ensemble
rhythm to reveal two autonomous rhythms.

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Example: Single Paradiddle

1.(A(united(part(

Figure 84: Sticking for the single paradiddle.

2.(Individual(parts(
Left Hand Right Hand

Figure 85: Independent hand rhythms played by the hands in a single paradiddle
sticking.

3.(Two(parts(simultaneously(

Figure 86: Two stave system of the single paradiddle.

Orchestration: Once comfortable with the understanding of the individual parts and
simultaneous execution of these, practical applications can lead to multi-timbral orchestrations
of the rhythms as applied to the drumset.

Right hand orchestration with motion

Variation 1 Variation 2

Figure 87: Variations 1 and 2 for the orchestration of the right hand.

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Left hand orchestration with motion

Figure 88: Left hand orchestration.

Combinations

With established orchestrations of the independent parts, combinations can be constructed for
the layering of the independent rhythms.

Right Hand Variation 1 + Left Hand Right Hand Variation 2 + Left Hand

Figure 89: Two combinations of the right and left hand orchestrations.

The joining of the variations will allow for a longer part and more combinations.

Variation 1 Variation 2

Variation 1 Variation 1

Figure 90: Combinations of the variations.

Extensions(

Isorhythmic application

One of the more advanced features of independent thinking is the application of isorhythm for
creating an extended rhythmic presence with elongated passages that can be utilized within
drumset solo composition. The isorhythms add irregular timbral variation to the simple

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independent rhythms and when layered together, produce interesting musical contrapuntal
elements which could be used as ostinato accompaniment or as a tool for melodic development.
With the application of this concept, the single paradiddle can be made to sound much more
than a simple rudiment as shown to beginner students and turn it into a powerful device for
creative constructions of timbre and rhythm for composition and performance. This application
also develops the physical and mental awareness of the drummer as they work through the
irregular combination of limb movement created by the isorhythms.

Right Hand

In this example, the talea will be consist of three durations as shown in Figure 91:

1 2 3

Figure 91: Talea strike points for the right hand.

The color component will have a pitch series of four.


Color Notation

3
1. Hi hat
1 4
2
2. 12” Tom

3. 6” Splash

4. 4th Granite block Hi hat 12"


6" 4th Granite
Splash Block
Tom

Figure 92: The four color elements of the right hand part.

When combining the talea and the color, the end result will resolve after four bars in a 2/4
metric cycle.

Color
4

Talea
3

Figure 93: Full isorhythmic cycle for the right hand.

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Left Hand

As with the right hand, the talea for the left will also be three durations:

1 2 3

Figure 94: Talea strike points for the left hand.

The colour component will have a pitch series of two:


Color Notation

1 2
1. Left side 14” tom

2. Tamborine

Left side
Tamborine
tom

Figure 95: The two color elements of the right hand.

The end result will see the left hand resolve after two measures of 2/4:
Color
2

Talea
3

Figure 96: Full isorhythmic cycle of the right hand.

The right and left hand isorhythmic layers result in a cycle over the duration of four measures:

Figure 97: Right and left hand layered isorhythms of the single paradiddle.

The end result of the two independent parts of the single paradiddle together create a rich layer
of colours and rhythms and could be used in the background as an ostinato for the feet to play
over, in the middle ground in combination with the feet for a 4-way layered pattern or in the
foreground over an accompanying ostinato played by the feet.

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What I have presented here is a simple example of isorhythmic application to the independent
thinking principle. While the talea will remain a constant due to the sticking pattern being used,
the colour can easily be expanded to create larger looping cycles.

Compositional(Link(
Applying the independent thinking approach used in the previously discussed single paradiddle
example, the following is a practical breakdown and demonstration of the principle applied to
my piece “Wonder Woman” (third movement from Chick Flick). With the foot pattern made up
of rhythmic cells used throughout the work Chick Flick6, it can be broken down to reveal a
common sticking pattern used in Afro-Cuban music, the Mozambique. As shown in Figure 98
the rhythm is played with the hands interdependently and then broken down to two rhythmic
layers using the independent thinking principle.

Interdependent

Independent

Figure 98: Interdependent and independent sticking for the Mozambique.

In the foot pattern for “Wonder Woman”, the original Mozambique part is reduced by a single
8th note. This is broken down to a seven 8th note (or 14/16) part with the supplementary of a
swiss army five making up an additional five 1/16th notes to create a 19/16 meter. Figure 99
shows the basic interdependent sticking as it would traditionally be played by the hands while
Figure 100 illustrates the independent thinking principle applied with orchestration of the right
hand part in the left foot and the left hand part in the right foot to show the completed foot parts
used in the composition.

6
The full breakdown of the rhythmic cells used can be found in the investigation of Chick Flick
on my DMA website.

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Mozambique in 7/8 Swiss Army Five

Figure 99: Interdependent hand approach.

Figure 100: “Wonder Woman”. Independent thinking principle applied with foot
orchestration.

How does the independent thinking principle link to the physical


expression of drumset performance?

1. Pattern memory and recognition: This is installed through the physical repetition of any
given pattern.
2. Coordinated independence of the limbs: Being able to identify and utilize each of the
limbs as independent parts.
3. The development of motion on the drumset: Done with the use of various orchestrations
and also by applying techniques such as isorhythm.

These applications will allow for the use of what are typical standard rudiments and patterns in
a way that will allow drummers to create new voicings and innovative drum parts. As these
patterns and parts can be constructed with means such as isorhythm, polyrhythm or meter, there
is also the opportunity to improvise using this approach to independent thinking. The influence
of the independent thinking principle will engage in the full understanding of rudiments and
sticking patterns, as well as being an important constituent in the development of coordination
of rhythmic elements, and as a tool for the discovery of new ideas and compositional
components.

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Temporal Stratification

In this section, I will discuss my creative practices and outcomes with the use of temporal
stratification. In the process of constructing solo drumset compositions with multiple layers of
rhythm and approaching the limbs as independent parts, it is essential to build a skill level that
meets these criteria. The studies and applications of temporal stratification that follow have
been born through a great deal of trial and error and my strong desire to execute these on the
drumset. They are without question the most onerous of physical and mental executions that I
have had to accomplish to date in over twenty-five years on the instrument. They involve
different processes and concepts for developing advanced understanding and performance skills
with regards to mental and physical separation of layered subdivisions and groupings.

As detailed in Appendix B, my interpretation and implementation of temporal stratification


refers to:
1. Temporal = Time
2. Stratification = The building up of layers

With this understanding I can focus on the principle concept of ‘layers of time’.

My outcomes are compositions dependent on multi-layered works created by using the limbs as
independent parts. These studies in temporal stratification challenge the mind and body and aid
in training for the execution of such independent parts. As well as the physiological challenges
of the studies, they also embrace the other foundations of this exegesis and encourage the use of
the extended drumset with its multitude of timbral offerings both with the hands and with the
feet. The studies also embrace the developed notational system, representing a clear
embodiment of the studies for a better understanding and identification of the various parts to be
played by the limbs.

The original nucleus of the studies comes from German drumming maestro Marco Minnemann.
In his book Extreme Interdependence, Drumming Beyond Independence (Minnemann, 2001),
Minnemann presents an exercise that layers four different subdivisions with each of the limbs,
as seen in Table 20.
Table 20: Marco Minnemann limb construction for temporal stratification.
LIMB SOUND SOURCE SUBDIVISION
Right hand Ride cymbal 8th

Left hand Snare drum 12th

Right foot Bass drum 16th

Left foot Hi hat cymbals 20th

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Minnemann’s limb assignments has the hands playing the slower pulse rate subdivisions of 8th’s
and 12th’s with the hands and the faster subdivisions of 16th’s and 20th’s with the feet. He uses
singular timbral sources in the application of this study with each limb remaining on a constant
single sound source. After exposure to this particular exercise and being an enthusiastic study in
this field, I was intrigued with this concept of rhythmic layering and began examining it for
further exploration on the extended drumset. After a somewhat arduous test period of
exploratory investigations I derived an order for the layering of limbs that would allow for
maximum timbral and sonic recognition on the extended drumset (Table 21). This would
incorporate all limbs with an equal sense of purpose with regards to the ability to execute the
rhythms involved, and the ability to effectuate the use of multi-timbral sound sources.

Table 21: My limb layering for temporal stratification.


LIMB SUBDIVISION
Right hand 20th
Left hand 16th
Right foot 12th
Left foot 8th

As mentioned above, I have assigned each respective rhythm to each limb for rhythmic
execution and multi-timbral layering. The hands have a natural physical motion advantage over
the feet, which was decisive in the appointment of the rhythms to the limbs. For the purpose of a
single timbre execution, the rhythms could easily be played by any of the limbs. Although this
is how one must start the physical side of this study it is not the outcome. The faster paced
subdivisions of 20th and 16th notes are assigned to the hands and the more moderate 12th and 8th
notes have been assigned to the feet. The logic in this is based around the limbs’ ability to use
physical motion on the drumset. The more agile hands are assigned the faster rates as their
physical advantage over the feet will allow for more options in voicing and movement on the
upper layers of the drumset. The less agile feet are assigned the slower subdivisions allowing
for the same principle of motion at a slower rate.

As rhythmic definition of each of the layers of rhythm is imperative to the execution of these
studies, so is the implementation of temporal stratification. The limb assignments make both
practical and physical sense when looking at the design of the extended drumset and the
physiological distinctions existing between the upper and lower limbs.

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Execution

I employ a visualization approach, picturing four television sets in a quadrant, two side by side
on the top and two side by side below. Each screen represents a different limb and is showing a
different program or musical part. Using my direct and peripheral vision, I am able to observe
and recognise the happening in each of the screens. During performance, one limb may require
my additional focus for its part to be in the foreground of the music. As my attention inevitably
moves towards that particular screen, I am still able to maintain contact with the three others,
making me aware of their parts. This is the visualization technique I use for the coordination of
my layered limb patterns in the compositions. This concept came after reading about the visual
learning methods used for memorization in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) (Robbins,
1997). The NLP method uses a screen image in the mind to gather and retain information for
things such as the spelling of a word through to the achievement of a personal goal. This
process of using visualization moved me to apply it to the usage of my limbs for an advanced
development of coordination. Figure 101 below illustrates my visualization using the four
screens for each of the limbs and my DMA website includes video footage of a practical
demonstration of the technique.

Left Hand Right Hand

Left Foot Right Foot

Figure 101: Visual representation of the limbs.

These images are a direct representation of my limbs and how I ‘feel’ them. This technique
ensures that there is a direct relationship with each of the limbs at all times. With each of the
limbs being able to have individual attention, modifications can be applied to rhythms and
timbres being played by a particular limb while maintaining an awareness of the other limbs.
The purpose of this technique is its usefulness in focussing on individual limbs to ensure that
each is playing the correct part and not drifting because of excessive focus on other limbs. The
visualization is also a valuable tool when motion and the application of timbre are incorporated.

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The mind can split focus shapes and gestures, which represent the limbs and their applications
on the drumset.

The following is a talk through of the practical process I go through when putting all of these
rhythms together7:
The task is to set up four different rhythms with my four limbs. Starting with the left foot, I play
two notes per beat. Next I add the right foot playing three notes per beat. This by itself creates a
three over two polyrhythm. Then I introduce the left hand playing four notes per beat and
finally, the right hand playing five notes per beat as shown below in Figure 102.

Figure 102: My temporal stratification of the limbs - Notation.

Once I have these four rhythms established and layered, I will make sure that I am aware of the
individual limbs/rhythms. This then enables me to view them as the separate parts instead of
relying on the ensemble rhythm of all the limbs as my point of reference to execute the study.
Also, by being able to individualize the independent rhythms played by each limb, I am able to
apply each limb to the drumset in composition as a voice that can be moved
timbrally/melodically on the set up.

To enhance the awareness of each of the limbs, I use my voice to sing along with each
individual rhythm. Firstly with the left foot playing the two notes per beat, then the right foot,
then the left hand and finally the right foot. While executing this part of the study, as well as
using my voice, I am visualizing the screen of the limb that I am singing and making it larger in
dimension so that it stands out. The others are always still present in my visual field so that
although I am singing the dominant rhythm, I am totally aware of what the others are doing.
Figure 103 illustrates a more dominant focus on the right hand while the other limbs are still
visual in their respective quadrants.

7
Please see the temporal stratification section on my DMA website for a video example of my process.

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Left Hand Right Hand

Left Foot Right Foot

Figure 103: Visualization with a dominant focus on the right hand.

By doing this particular exercise, it is ensured that each of the limbs are operating independently
and not on an interdependent basis. This is an essential component within the study as it makes
clear the individuality of each limb. Without this step, it would be very difficult to accomplish
true independence of the limbs in this study.

Once comfortable with this part of the study and I have a clear vision of all the limbs and their
role in the ensemble rhythm, I can extend the exercise to include my voice as a fifth layer as
shown in Figure 104. Firstly I sing sextuplets (six notes per beat) over the existing two, three,
four and five pattern currently being played by the four limbs, then next I sing septuplets (seven
notes per beat) with my voice over the four limbs. The septuplets are an excellent challenge in
focusing the mind, as this subdivision is relatively prime to all of the other rhythms being
played.

When incorporating the voice, the same mental concept of feeling the quarter notes pulse is
utilized. This allows for a constant approach with a mental and physical flow of the
subdivisions.

99
Figure 104: Adding the voice with sextuplets and septuplets.

To enable myself to perform the fifth layer of rhythm using my voice, I add an additional screen
to the centre of my vision that allows me to focus on the newly added voice while still being
aware of and in control of the other four voices as shown below in Figure 105.

Left Hand Right Hand

Voice

Left Foot Right Foot

Figure 105: Visualization with added voice layer.

For multi-layered solo compositions, the development of this skill has become a necessity. It
allows me to treat the four limbs as individual instrumentalists in an ensemble. I may have three
of the limbs acting in the role of accompaniment, playing at a moderate dynamic while another
solo limb is allowed to be dominant and stand above the other parts. It also allows for rhythmic
control within the parts. For example, I may be playing a constant time structured ostinato with
my feet while the hands are playing a rubato style melodic phrase in the foreground. This
enables layered rhythmic compositions for the solo performer with all limbs being fully utilized.

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With the application of this visual approach and incorporating the elements of the independent
thinking principle as previously detailed it makes for a much more visceral approach to letting
the mind and body execute the rhythms. The objective at first is to learn how the limbs sit
against each other physically. While the 2 and 3 note subdivisions can be broken down with a
six note per beat cycle, much more dense subdivisions are required for other combinations
between the limbs. This can be very complex and is not a practical way of approaching the
layering of the limbs. For example, the lowest common denominator for all four subdivisions
would result in a subdivision of 60 notes per beat, with 60 being the lowest number divisible by
2,3,4 and 5, as shown below in Figure 106.

Figure 106: Breaking down of the rhythms to the lowest common denominator of 60.

As Figure 106 demonstrates, this is a very complex way to interpret how the subdivisions relate.
The numbers along the top system indicate the notes within the 60 tuplets where the 2,3,4 and 5
note subdivisions would sound. While technically speaking, this represents the absolute values
for the study, its practicality is extremely doubtful. This is the reasoning behind my approach of
visual representation as a means for the development of these studies. My execution of the
rhythmic strata involves more of a feeling of the quarter note pulse. Once a strong internal sense
of the pulse is achieved, the various subdivisions can then be heard in relationship to the first
quarter note as opposed to their internal relationship with reference to the 60 tuplets, allowing
for a much more flowing and less exacting execution by the performer.

Drumset(Orchestration(
Once the basic physical coordination is developed to execute the four rhythmic layers, they can
then be applied to the drumset to form a more musical implementation. To begin with, the
orchestration of the limbs will vary by the number of notes in each individual subdivision. The
limb assignment will focus on:

101
1. Timbral qualities: A key focus will be on a variance between timbres amongst the limbs
and their assigned rhythms. This will enhance the layering of rhythmic strata and also
the aural recognition of each of the strata.
2. Spatial qualities: The limbs will also be assigned differing Zones and layers as to aid in
the spatialization and identification of the rhythmic strata.

With the stratification of the four subdivisions complete and understood, the rhythmic aspects
can now be arranged with respect to their timbral qualities. The orchestration of the limbs will
vary according to the number of notes in each individual grouping. Five notes will be eventually
assigned to any one limb throughout the duration of studies, so it is necessary to have five
timbres per limb for each of the groupings. Figure 107 shows the individual limbs and the
timbres that they will be associated with. Their layout is set to replicate the screen visualization
technique for a direct correlation between the strata and their timbal qualities.

LEFT HAND – Drums RIGHT HAND – Temple Blocks

LEFT FOOT – Multi Timbral RIGHT FOOT – Multi Timbral

Figure 107: Sounds sources used by each limb.

Motion(and(timbres(for(limbs(for(Natural(Groupings(
‘Natural grouping’ refers to the grouping of each subdivision so that they resolve over the
duration of one beat. Two notes per beat would be grouped in twos, three notes per beat would
be grouped in threes, four notes per beat would be grouped in fours and five notes per beat
would be grouped in fives. The DMA website includes a video with a performance
demonstration of the natural groupings study.

Right Hand

The five notes of the quintuplet (20th notes) in the right hand are played on the temple blocks
consisting of five individually pitched blocks ranging from hi to low. The block set is also quite

102
compact with regards to the distance between surfaces allowing for the right hand with the
fastest subdivision, being quintuplets to be executed with a lessor motion between surfaces than
the other limbs.

The pattern commences on the highest block and continues in a clockwise motion as shown
below in Figure 108:

Notation Visual

2
5
3

Figure 108: Right hand natural grouping.

Left Hand

The left hand’s natural grouping is four, as 16th notes are the subdivision as it moves around in a
clockwise motion starting on the snare drum. The snare drum in the centre of the drumset is
used for the commencement of the pattern as shown in Figure 109:

Notation Visual

4
3

2
1

Figure 109: Left hand natural grouping.

Right Foot

The right foot plays 12th notes (triplets) with a natural grouping of three, using the bass drum, hi
hat and tambourine for the timbres. Where as the hands are consistent with the timbres that they
use with the right hand playing all blocks and the left hand playing all drums, the feet using a
variety of timbral sounds that are dictated by the set up. The right foot starts on the inside pedal
which allows the left foot to start on its outer pedals without the over stretching of the legs
between the pedals as shown below in Figure 110.

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Notation Visual

1 2
3

Figure 110: Right foot natural grouping.

Left Foot

The left foot plays 8th notes with natural grouping of two. The bell tam and snare drum alternate
to make up two contrasting timbres used as shown below in Figure 111.
Notation Visual

Figure 111: Left foot natural grouping.

With the motion and rhythmic details of the strata understood, they are then combined to create
the first and simplest version of our temporal stratification model as shown in Figure 112.

Figure 112: Temporal stratification with natural groupings.

Visualization

With all of the rhythms set and with the understanding of how this will be pieced together, the
importance of visualization comes into effect. Using the techniques discussed previously, the
images of the four independent strata are seen with a view thru the TV scenario shown in Figure
113 below.

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1
4
3 2
5
2 3
1 4

1 2
3
1
2

Figure 113: Screen visualization of temporal strata

Hand(Relationships(
The right hand timbre of the temple blocks and the left hand timbre of the toms are very distinct
from each other so their contrasts create an immediate recognition of the sources and the
subdivisions. Their sonic presence also aids in recognition with the right hand coming from the
right side of the kit and the left moving between the centre and left/centre regions of the set up.

Both hand motions utilize a clockwise rotation. This allows for a high to lower pitch sense for
the limbs both individually and collectively. This makes for easier physical movements within
this first study involving natural groupings as the limbs are rotated around to return to their
point of origin simultaneously.

Foot(Relationships(

With a breakdown of timbres between the feet using natural groupings, a contemporary figure
incorporating a backbeat style groove is produced. The right foot has a bass drum striking on
each quarter note and the left has a snare drum on each up beat. This creates a strong sense of
groove, which allows for the extra timbres to be filled in by the feet. It also provides a
recognisable sound structure for the listener to relate to. As this study involves quite complex
stratification of subdivisions and timbre, the groove generated by this foot pattern produces a
more relaxed and recognizable listening experience when all strata are implemented.

The motion of the limbs has the right foot starting of the inner pedals and the left foot starting
on the outer. This allows for a variation in timbre as the inner regions of both feet are made up
of similar timbres. Also, by having one foot play on the inner pedals it makes the outer pedals of
the opposite foot more accessible without excessive distances between the limbs, which can
affect balance and physical agility.

105
Advanced Application

To the uninitiated, the layering of the rhythmic strata will appear to be enough work for the
development of independence in the limbs. After the development of this layering, the
application can be extended further with the use of rhythmic devices such as isorhythm and
grouping.

These studies will create some of the more advanced rhythmic layering approaches for the limbs
as established in today’s practices and give the performer a new level of independent freedom
with their limbs.

The previous example demonstrated the orchestration of the layered subdivision in their natural
groupings; as an isorhtyhm the color and the talea are based on a ratio of 1:1, resulting in a
resolution of for all of the limbs over a one beat duration. In these advanced applications the
color and the talea will not always be equal which will create longer patterns. These can also be
referred to as groupings of the subdivisions within the studies. These isorhythms or groupings
allow for the creation of multiple temporal frameworks to operate simultaneously. This
application could also be used for the application of metric modulation in creating a new beat
and tempo with an array of options at the disposal of the composer/performer as further
examined in the temporal mechanics sections of the studies below.
In addressing the temporal mechanics of this application, another way to write out the rhythmic
strata without referring directly to the various subdivisions would be to write out each part with
an individual tempo. This compositional technique has been used within many contemporary
compositions of the twentieth century. The pieces are usually written for individual performers.
Temporal stratification allows for a new level of solo performance and composition.

The non-natural groupings of the limbs can be looked at individually. Once put together, the
temporal stratification becomes a powerful structural tool. The formula of Temporal Mechanics
will now be used as the template to determine the modulation tempi of the non-natural
groupings:

Metronome Marking x Subdivision ÷ Grouping = New Tempo

The original metronome marking for all exercises is 64 bpm. This is the tempo for the natural
grouping.

These temporal identifications are relevant as each limb when listened to independently will
allow for the experience of a tempo different from those created by the opposing limbs. As a
compositional tool, this may lead to a metric modulation that can be used to explore any of the
tempos as they are created by the different limbs8.

8
Video examples of Groups 2 and 3 are included in the Temporal Stratification section on my
DMA website.

106
Groups of 2

This study deals with orchestrated two note groupings of the various subdivisions. Non-natural
groupings will be utilized for the triplets, sixteenth notes and quintuplets. The natural grouping
will be the eighth notes as they already consist of two notes per beat. Because we are dealing
with two note groupings as shown in Figure 114 below, all of the subdivisions will resolve after
two quarter note pulses. The DMA website includes a video with a performance demonstration
of the groups of two study.

Notation Visual

2
2
1
1

1 2
1
2

Figure 114: Groups of 2. Orchestrations.

Groups(of(2(Temporal(Mechanics(
(64 x s) / 2
Metronome Marking x Subdivision ÷ Grouping = New Tempo

Table 22: Groups of 2. Temporal mechanics.


SUBDIVISION FORMULA TEMPO TEMPORAL NOTATION
RESULT

= 160
Quintuplets (64 x 5) / 2 160 bpm
Sixteenths (64 x 4) / 2 128 bpm
= 128
Triplets (64 x 3) / 2 96 bpm
Eights Natural 64 bpm
= 96
Grouping

= 64

107
Groups of 3

This study deals with orchestrated three note groupings of the various subdivisions. Non-natural
groupings will be utilized for the triplets, sixteenth notes and quintuplets. The natural grouping
will be the triplets as they already consist of three notes per beat. The DMA website includes a
video with a performance demonstration of the groups of three study.

Because we are dealing with three note groupings, all of the subdivisions will resolve after three
quarter note pulses as shown below in Figure 115.

Notation Visual

3 2
1
1 3

1 2
3 3
1
2

Figure 115: Groups of 3. Orchestrations.

Groups(of(3(Temporal(Mechanics(
(64 x s) / 3
Metronome Marking x Subdivision ÷ Grouping = New Tempo

Table 23: Groups of 3. Temporal mechanics.


SUBDIVISION FORMULA TEMPO TEMPORAL NOTATION
RESULT
= 106.66

Quintuplets (64 x 5) / 3 106.66


bpm = 85.33

Sixteenths (64 x 4) / 3 85.33 bpm


= 64
Triplets Natural 64 bpm
Grouping
= 42.66
Eights (64 x 2) / 3 42.66 bpm

108
Groups of 4

This study deals with orchestrated four note groupings of the various subdivisions. Non-natural
groupings will be utilized for the triplets, eighth notes and quintuplets. The natural grouping
will be the sixteenth notes as they already consist of four notes per beat.

Because we are dealing with four note groupings, all of the subdivisions will resolve after four
quarter note pulses as shown below in Figure 116.

Notation Visual

4
3 2
1
2 3
1
4

3 1 2
4 3
1 4
2

Figure 116: Groups of 4. Orchestrations.


(

Groups(of(4(Temporal(Mechanics(
(64 x s) / 4
Metronome Marking x Subdivision ÷ Grouping = New Tempo

Table 24: Groups of 4. Temporal mechanics.


SUBDIVISION FORMULA TEMPO TEMPORAL NOTATION
RESULT
= 80

Quintuplets (64 x 5) / 4 80 bpm


= 64
Sixteenths Natural 64 bpm
Grouping = 48

Triplets (64 x 3) / 4 48 bpm


= 32

Eights (64 x 2) / 4 32 bpm

109
Groups of 5

This study deals with orchestrated five note groupings of the various subdivisions. Non-natural
groupings will be utilized for the triplets, sixteenth notes and eighth notes. The natural
grouping will be the quintuplets as they already consist of five notes per beat.

Because we are dealing with five note groupings, all of the subdivisions will resolve after five
quarter note pulses as shown below in Figure 117.

Notation Visual

1
4 2
3 5 5
3
2 4
1

4 3 1 2
5 3
1 4
2

5
Figure 117: Groups of 5. Orchestrations.

Groups(of(5(Temporal(Mechanics(
(64 x s) / 5
Metronome Marking x Subdivision ÷ Grouping = New Tempo

Table 25: Groups of 5. Temporal mechanics.


SUBDIVISION FORMULA TEMPO TEMPORAL NOTATION
RESULT
= 64

Quintuplets Natural 64 bpm


= 51.2

Grouping
Sixteenths (64 x 4) / 5 51.2 = 38.4

bpm
= 25.6

Triplets (64 x 3) / 5 38.4


bpm
Eights (64 x 2) / 5 25.6
bpm

110
Next(steps(
After intensive application and cultivation of the temporal stratification concept, this has given
way to further adoption and implementation. With all of the above explorations, it can be noted
that the 8th and 16th note subdivisions are divisible so therefore make cause for an easier
understanding to this approach of limb independence. This creates a determined entry point for
the expansion of the temporal stratification system. My current developments have seen me
adopt of series of relatively prime numbers as the subdivisional focus of each limb forging even
further interest in the topic.

As shown below in Figure 118 the designation of the limbs has been based on the previously
determined principle of the faster subdivisions in the hands and the less rapid moving
subdivisions on the feet. This approach allows for cohesion between studies and a natural
evolution in the cognition of the rhythmic strata. The DMA website includes a video with a
performance demonstration of this study.

Figure 118: Temporal stratification of relatively prime numbers.

As with the previous sections layering 8th, 12th, 16th and 20th notes, this new relatively prime set
of subdivisions can be orchestrated and have the isorhythmic groupings applied to it. This is a
serious platform that will require much study for physical execution but will allow the
performer to reap the benefits of advanced layered rhythmic skills and allow for the furthering
of drumset composition and application. This is obviously a very challenging task to embark
upon as a performer and will take much time and study to build the skill required for the
execution of these concepts.

As mentioned in the introduction of this chapter, people may question such concepts given the
physical and intellectual time that is required to develop skills. Do the benefits out weigh the
negatives? My experience has been positive in all respects. This exegesis is all about the
extension of the instrument and its musical application. It has been these purposes that have
driven my desire to generate these concepts and systems for the advanced development and
understanding of layered limb functions on the extended drumset.

111
These ideas may also be shared by composers and as a springboard for compositional
motivation or simply as a tool within a current composition. While they are a process of
generation for the development of the performer they are not exclusive to this role.

Synopsis

With the creation and establishment of these concepts and approaches for physical expression
on the drumset, my aim has been to respond to my criteria from Chapter Three to create a level
of thinking for the modern drummer and an approach to the instrument for coordination and the
layering of the limbs. These approaches have been my passion for over a decade and within
these texts are the outcomes with a series of methods and procedures for the development of
limb coordination and a body of compositional work that has exploited and harnessed the power
and potential of these approaches. The approaches challenge the performer to extend on current
methods and to open a door for a new realm of creative output and drumset applications.

My work here has developed a level of thinking and a physical approach to the drumset but is
by no means an end result. The methods I have presented are designed to create a spark of
inspiration and it is hoped that these sparks will ignite further thinking from drummers in the
future to go beyond stereotypical models of drumset approaches with a passion and desire to
embrace and extend on the research within these pages.

For those with only a limited knowledge of drumset performance and its intricate workings who
wish to use the drumset as a context for compositional output, it can be difficult to capture the
nature of the instrument in their works. The concepts that I have introduced may lay a platform
and plant the seeds for growth and application by composers looking to create drumset solo
works in the modern era. These systems of independent thinking and temporal stratification are
devised to develop an understanding for the performer about the level of independence that can
be developed and harnessed as a powerful tool for the creation of new exciting drumset music.
The systems are also expandable with the independent thinking principle able to be applied to
any rudiment or sticking pattern and the temporal stratification systems allowing for the
substitution of any given subdivisions.

112
113
PART C

Part C recapitulates the inceptive research questions and the resulting research outcomes,
followed by a personal musing on the experience.

114
CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSION
As detailed in Chapter One, my main aim and motivation for this study was to, "demonstrate,
exemplify and explain new concepts and techniques that extend the nature and creative capacity
of the extended drumset so that it will become an accepted medium for solo concert
performance". In realizing the generation of a body of solo works for the drumset, it was also
necessary to address other key areas including the extended drumset, extended notation for the
drumset, and concepts for physical expression on the instrument.

In part A, I conducted my literature review to establish past and current trends of my research
foci as a point of departure for the development of my own work. This review raised a series of
questions to be answered in my research including the construct and detail of my extended
drumset, the purpose and nature of an identifiable notational system for multi-limb solo drumset
works and processes for the development of technical physical expression on the drumset. Also,
I developed an investigative model for the examination of solo works for the drumset based on
my key focus areas and embraced the use of ostinato as a tool for performance and composition
to be incorporated within the investigative model. The model was tested on an existing seminal
work to highlight its use within my research.

Part B revealed my work based on a practice-led research approach to my compositions, my


drumset, my notation and my physical expression with each of these focus areas contributing in
an interdependent nature for the outcome of the compositions.

I applied the investigative model to my work “Swordfish” to identify with the piece and
highlight the key focus area of my study within the composition. My accompanying DMA
website supports this with video footage of a live concert performance of the piece along with
other video, investigations and scores for the entire compositional portfolio produced. My
extended drumset confirms the move from conventional drumming as detailed in its layout,
instrumentation and physical make up, requiring the performer to look outside of archetypical
set up and performance techniques. With the extended drumset established, I was then able to
refine the notation system to identify the components of the instrument and the establishment of
independent voices for the limbs. This system allowed for the notation, recognition and
transcription of my solo drumset works in response to my research questions from Part A.

In the final chapter of Part B I brought forward my concepts for physical expression, building
on the understanding and knowledge of existing approaches from the literature review. I
presented my concepts for Independent Thinking and Temporal Stratification in theoretical form
within the exegesis and included video examples of temporal stratification on the DMA website.
These approaches not only contributed to the physical skills required for the performance of the
final compositions but also utilized the make up of my extended drumset and employed my
notational system for their specific documentation. The four focus areas of my work are closely

115
intertwined with each having a contribution to the overall outcome of the compositions and
performances.

My output here reflects my work, my art and my theories within the model of practice-led
research as done by a practitioner in the field branching out from traditional approaches and
practices with both physiological and mental challenges for the performer. The compositional
product has been on tour around Australia and internationally (as documented with the video
recordings from live performances on the DMA website) to showcase my original motivation to
succour the authentication of the drumset as a medium for solo concert performance.

116
CHAPTER NINE: FINAL WORD
My passion for presenting the drumset as a vehicle for solo composition and performance has
driven my work and I have had the opportunity to present the final outcome of musical
compositions through a series of concerts to both interest and entertain audiences from a wide
variety of backgrounds. My primary goal for this work is that drummers and composers will be
able to draw upon these works as inspiration for the development and further advancements of
the instrument and its musical applications. My compositions are ready to be taken to stages
around the world for concert goers to experience and there would be opportunities to use the
scores from an educational standpoint for the analyses of contemporary works and
compositional techniques. The performer, based on considerations of personal style, musical
style and personal skill level, determines the make up of an extended drumset. Adaptations of
these works are also possible for performers who have a set up different from that used within
my compositions.

As mentioned in the introductory chapter, there is a lack of repertoire for solo drumset
performance beyond the scope of etudes and other studies which have generally been focused
around a certain beat with fills and variations. My compositions are musically evolved and
generate pieces with interest, variety and a wide scope of musical elements. My live
performances of the compositions have attracted not just drummers, but also a general public
audience as witnessed at my multiple solo concert tours of Australia, Europe, Asia and the
United States. The works also help to raise the profile of the instrument in the more serious
realms of the musical world, encouraging the acceptance of solo drumset music as a genre for
contemporary composition and performance. The drumset is a familiar and popular instrument,
which presents an opportunity to extend on the general publics’ view of the instrument as well
as music enthusiasts, practitioners and scholars.
In my travels around the world as a professional musician and educator I have had the
opportunity to connect with many of the worlds leading drummers and educators, while some
are generally excited about the possibilities of my works, some question why I would want to
do this. The question is one that I have heard many times and I understand that those asking
why cannot recognize the power and potential of seeking such answers. I also understand that
they may not wish to commit the efforts required to obtain these skills when it is not relevant to
their work place as a performer. On many occasions this has fuelled my fire to develop my
systems in confirming my own belief in what I do. This is a path travelled by many a creative
person in the past, and one that I am happy to travel enthusiastically.

117
PART D

DMA WEBSITE

Part D refers to the accompanying DMA website. It will include additional photographs of my
drumset, contributing a visual reference to the text within the exegesis. Both concert video
footage and investigation of all my compositions are also included in an interactive format on
the DMA website.

118
119
Appendix A - Rudiments

Use with permission from the Percussive Arts Society.

PERCUSSIVE ARTS SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL DRUM RUDIMENTS


ALL RUDIMENTS SHOULD BE PRACTICED: OPEN (SLOW) TO CLOSE (FAST) TO OPEN (SLOW) AND/OR AT AN EVEN MODERATE MARCH TEMPO.

I. ROLL RUDIMENTS 9  
œ~ œ~
9

A. SINGLE STROKE ROLL RUDIMENTS 10. NINE STROKE ROLL * œ œ


œœœœœœœœ   10 
R R L L
10

œ~ œ œ ¡ œ~ œœ¡
1. SINGLE STROKE ROLL *
R L R L R L R L
11. TEN STROKE ROLL *
3 3
œœœœ œœœœ
R RL R RL

 11 
L LR L LR
2. SINGLE STROKE FOUR 11

œ~ œ œ ¡ œ~ œ œ ¡
R L R L R L R L
L R L R L R L R

6 12. ELEVEN
œœœœœœœ
STROKE ROLL * R RL R RL
L LR L LR

 13 
3. SINGLE STROKE SEVEN RLRLRLR 13

œ~ ~
œ œ œ œ œ
LRLRLRL
13. THIRTEEN
STROKE ROLL *
B. MULTIPLE BOUNCE ROLL RUDIMENTS
 15 
R R L L

˙Z
15
4. MULTIPLE BOUNCE ROLL
14. FIFTEEN œ~ ~
œ œœ œ œ
3 3 3 3 STROKE ROLL *
œœœœœœœœœœœœ
R LR L

 17 
L RL R
5. TRIPLE STROKE ROLL
17

˙~ œ ˙~ œ
RRRL L LRRRL L L
15. SEVENTEEN
C. DOUBLE STROKE OPEN ROLL RUDIMENTS STROKE ROLL
R R L L

6. DOUBLE STROKE ˙~ II. DIDDLE RUDIMENTS


OPEN ROLL *  
16. SINGLE PARADIDDLE * œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
RRLLRRLL

 5
œ œ œ œ
5

 
RLRRLRL L
7. FIVE STROKE ROLL *

 6  6  œœœœœœœœœœœœ
R R L L

17. DOUBLE PARADIDDLE *


œœ œœœ œ  
R L R L R R L R L R L L

œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ
8. SIX STROKE ROLL
R LR L
L RL R 18. TRIPLE
PARADIDDLE
 7   
RLRLRLRRLRLRLRL L

œ œœ œ
7

9. SEVEN STROKE ROLL * 19. SINGLE œœœœœœœœœœœœ


R LR L PARADIDDLE-DIDDLE R L R R L L R L R R L L
L RL R L R L L R R L R L L R R
* These rudiments are also included in the original Standard 26 American Drum Rudiments.
Copyright © 1984 by the Percussive Arts Society™, 110 W. Washington Street, Suite A, Indianapolis, IN 46204
International Copyright Secured All Rights Reserved

120
PAS INTERNATIONAL DRUM RUDIMENTS PAGE 2
III. FLAM RUDIMENTS IV. DRAG RUDIMENTS
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
H H
20. FLAM * 31. DRAG *
 
R L

 
L R L L R RR L

œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
H H
21. FLAM ACCENT * 32. SINGLE
DRAG TAP *
   
L R L R R L R L

 
L L R L RRL R

œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœœœ œ
H H H H
22. FLAM TAP * 33. DOUBLE
R RR L L LR RR L L DRAG TAP *

L

 
L L R LLR L RRL RRL R

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
H H
23. FLAMACUE *
L R L R L L R 34. LESSON 25 *
L L R L R LLR L R
L R L R R L

 
R

 
RR L R L RRL R L

24. FLAM
PARADIDDLE *
œ
H
œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
H
35. SINGLE DRAGADIDDLE œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
 
R L R R R L R L L RR L R R LL R L L

 
L

25. SINGLE FLAMMED œ


H
œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
H
36. DRAG
PARADIDDLE œœœœ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œ œ
MILL #1 * R LLR L R R L RRL R L L
L R R L R R L L R L

  
37. DRAG PARADIDDLE #2 *

œ œ œœœ œœœ œ œ œœœ
26. FLAM
œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ
H H
PARADIDDLE- œ
DIDDLE * R L R R L L R L R L L R R

   
L
R LLR LLR L R R L RRL RRL R L L

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
H H H H 38. SINGLE RATAMACUE *
27. PATAFLAFLA
3  3 
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
L R L R R L LR L R R L

 3  3
œ œ œ œH œ œ œ
R L R L RRL R L R
H
L L
28. SWISS ARMY œ
39. DOUBLE RATAMACUE *
 
TRIPLET L R R L LR R L
3 3

    œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
R L L RR L L R

29. INVERTED
FLAM TAP
œ
H
œ œ œH œ œ œH œ œ œH œ œ L L R LLR L R L RRL RRL R L R

40. TRIPLE RATAMACUE *


 3 
L R L R L R L R L R L R

  3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ
H H
30. FLAM DRAG
L R L L R R L R R L L L R LLR LLR L R LRRL RRLRRL R L R
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON BECOMING A MEMBER OF THE PERCUSSIVE ARTS SOCIETY CONTACT PAS AT:
110 W. WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE A, INDIANAPOLIS, IN 46204 • E-MAIL: PERCARTS@PAS.ORG WEB SITE: WWW.PAS.ORG

121
Appendix B – Taxonomy

Drumset(Terms(

Rudiments: Rudiments for the drummer are a combination of sticking patterns used in the
education of technique and can also be used on the drumset. They can be seen as similar to other
instrumentalist studying scales.

Sticking: The pattern used between the limbs for an interdependent part. Rudiments can be
described as a variety of sticking patterns.

Linear: Linear drumming is a style of playing in which no two limbs strike a note at the same
time.

Bridging: Bridging is using a single foot across more than one pedal.

Swiping: When playing with a foot on a single pedal, swiping involves a momentary bridging
of another pedal with the same foot.

Jumping: Jumping the foot between pedals for execution of multi-timbral parts with the foot.

* I have included footnotes for other relative terms within the body text of the exegesis.

Musical(Terms(

Ostinato

The Grove Dictionary of Music (2004) defines ostinato as ‘A term used to refer to the repetition
of a musical pattern many times in succession while other music elements are generally
changing’.

Ostinato in motion is what I refer to as motion of the limbs within ostinato organization.

Grouping is the organization of counts into even or uneven collections. It arranges material into
units and is a crucial aspect of any rhythmic organization. It is the most basic component of
musical understanding, expressing a hierarchical segmentation of the piece into units such as
motives, phrases, sections, etc. (Lerdahl & Jackendoff, 1983)

Hocket: Oxford Dictionary (2013) describes hocket as being a spasmodic or interrupted effect
in medieval and contemporary music, produced by dividing a melody between two parts, notes
in one part coinciding with rests in the other.

Hypermeasure is the grouping of measures in which the measure itself serves as a beat
(Epstein, 1979).

122
Polyrhythm is the superposition of different rhythms or meters. It is an important characteristic
of some medieval polyphony (particularly late 14th-century French secular song), and also a
common technique of 20th-century composition (used successfully by such composers as
Stravinsky, Bartók and Hindemith, as well as in modern jazz). The term is closely related to
(and sometimes used synonymously with) cross-rhythm, though the latter is properly restricted
to rhythm that contradicts a given metric pulse or beat. (Kennedy, 2007)

Isorhythm

The Grove Dictionary of Music (2004) describes isorhythm as a modern term applied with
varying degrees of strictness to the periodic repetition or recurrence of rhythmic configurations,
often with changing melodic content, in tenors and other parts of 14th- and early 15th-century
compositions, especially motets.

Isorhythm consists of two separate values:

1. Talea – the rhythm and

2. Color – the pitch/timbre.

The relationship between the talea and color is not generally of a 1:1, 1:2 or other evenly
distributed relationship. Its use in the 14th century was before the existence of time signatures
and meter so the music was able to flow without the issue of metric concerns. The result is a
non-congruence of durational and/or accentual patterns between the two rhythms.

Rhythmic Stratification is a structure of different levels of musical meaning of rhythm in a


composition, with it organization derived via a Schenkerian theory of hierarchical pitch
structure (Yeston, Autumn, 1977)

Temporal Stratification is the use of simultaneous statements of different tempo. The effect of
temporal stratification may be achieved by the layering of subgroups.

123
References

Acuna, A. (Writer). (1989). Drums and Percussion: Music Source International.


Bozzio, T. (1988). Solo Drums. DCI Music Video.
Bozzio, T. (Writer). (1993). Melodic Drumming and the Ostinao, Volume 1: Slam International.
Bozzio, T. (1998). Drawing the Circle.
Bozzio, T. (2011a). Interview.
Bozzio, T. (2011b). http://www.terrybozzio.com.
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Epstein, D. (1979). Beyond Orpheus : studies in musical structure: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT
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Ferneyhough, B. (1991). Bone Alphabet. Edition Peters.
Gann, K. (1995). The Music of Conlon Nancarrow. New York NY: Cambridge University
Press.
Houghton, S. (1996). The Drumset Solist: Alfred Publishing.
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Lerdahl, F., & Jackendoff, R. S. (1983). A Generative Theory of Tonal Music: The
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Mattingly, R. (1998). Terry Bozzio, Ostinato Power. Percussive Notes, October.
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FL: Warner Bros Publications.
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124
Roach, M. (1966). Drums Unlimited. Atlantic Records.
Robbins, A. (1997). Unlimited Power (Reprint ed.): Free Press.
Siegel, P., & Wallis, R. (Writers). (2008). Modern Drummer Festival 2008: Hudson Music.
Silverman, C. (1997). website. from http://www.chucksilverman.com
Sponsor. (1996-present). Pearl Drum Company.
Vella, R. (2003). Artistic practice as research. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the
AARME XXVth Annual Conference, Brisbane , WLD.
Veny, M. (2010). Drum Fills Lesson: Playing the Right Ones at the Right Time. from
http://theparadiddler.com
Vine, C. (1990). Piano Sonata No. 1.
Weckl, D. (1987). Contemporary Drummer + One: DCI Music Video Productions, Inc and the
Weckl/Oliver Joint Venure.
Weckl, D., & Reyes, W. (Writers). (1993). Drums and Percussion Working it out Parts 1 & 2:
DCI Music Video.
Weinberg, N. (1994a). Guidelines for Drumset Notation. Percussive Notes(June).
Weinberg, N. (1994b). Guidelines for Drumset Notation. Percussive Notes(June), 15-26.
West, B. (2004). Techniques in Interdepencence: Trafford.
Yeston, M. (Autumn, 1977). The Stratification of Music Rhythm. Journal of Music Theory,
21(2), 355-373.
Zang, W.-h. (1996). Some Characteristics of Max Roach's Music. Percussive Notes, April, 7.

125
Scores

Commando

Tubby the Robot

Chick Flick
I Cleopatra
II The Geshia
III Wonder Woman
IV Catwoman

Swordfish

126
127
q = 186
Commando GRANT COLLINS

° ™™ ™™
/CU U U
Freely on Ride Swizzle approx. 40 secs

R & L Hands ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

/C ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™
XX¿ XX¿
Right Hand

>. >. ¿ ¿ ¿ >¿. >¿. ¿ ¿


™™ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰ ¿J ‰ ¿J ‰ ¿J ¿ ™™
mp

Left Hand /C ∑ ∑ ∑ ‰J‰J ‰J

™™ ™™
mp

Right Foot /C ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

™™ ™™
Left Foot ¢/ C ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

° ™
A
/ ™ ™™
8

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
X X ¿ X X ¿
RH

> > >¿. >¿.


/ ™™ ™™
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ . . ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
LH ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J

RF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
¢/ ™
LF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
12

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™

X X X X
RH
¿ ¿
>¿. >¿. >¿. >¿.
/ ™™ ™™
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
LH ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J

RF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
¢/ ™
LF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Copyright: Grant Collins
2

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™
16
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ
XX¿ XX¿
RH

> > > >


/ ™™ ™™ ™™
. . . .
mf
¿ ¿¿‰¿‰¿ ‰¿¿ ¿ ¿¿‰¿‰¿ ‰¿¿ ∑
LH J J J J J J

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
mf

RF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

™ ™™ ™™
mf

LF ¢/ ™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
mf

°
21

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ


RH /

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

¢/
LF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

° ™™ ™™
26

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ ™ ™œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ


RH / ™ ™

LH / ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑

™™ ™™ ™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™
¢/ œ™
∑ ∑ j‰ j j‰ j‰ j
LF œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ
Commando 3

° ™™
31
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ ™


RH / ™

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ j j j ™ j j j ™ ™™
¢/ Œ œ™ œ™
j j j j j j
LF œ‰ œœ œ‰ œ‰ œ Œ œ‰ œœ œ‰ œ‰ œ Œ œ‰ œœ

°
/ ™™ ™™
36

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
RH

LH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

/ ™™ œ œ œ œ ™™
Tamborine Jingles on Snare Beater
œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™
RF J J J J J J
™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ ™™
¢ / ™ œ™ œ™
j‰ j j‰ j
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
40

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ


RH /
¿) ¿) )¿ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ ¿) ¿) )¿ Ó
LH /

RF / œœœ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™
J J
œ œœœ
J
œ™ œ ‰œœ
J J
œ™ œ œœœ
J
œ™ œ
J
j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™
¢ / œ™ œ™ œ™
j‰ j j‰ j j‰ j‰ j
LF œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ
4 Commando

°
45
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
RH /

∑ ¿) ¿) 1 1 ‰ 1 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1
LH / J J

RF / ‰ œJ œ œ™ œ
J
œ œ œ œ™ œ
J ‰ œJ œ œ™ œ
J
™ Œ™
¢/ Œ œ™
j j j j j j j
LF œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ

°
/ ™™
48

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
RH

¿) ¿) )¿ ‰ ¿) ‰ ¿) ‰ 1 1 1 1 1 ¿) ¿) )¿ ‰ ¿) ‰ ¿) ‰ 1 1 1 1 1
/ ™™
f

LH J J J J J J

/ ™™ œ œ œ
f

œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ
RF J J J J J J
™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™
f

¢ / ™ œ™ œ™
j‰ j j‰ j
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
f

° ™™
52

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™
RH / ™

¿) ¿) )¿ ‰ ¿) ‰ ¿) ‰ 1 1 1 1 1 ¿) ¿) 1 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 1 1 1 1 ™™
LH / J J J J J

/ œ œ œ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ ™™
RF J J J J J J
j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ ™™
¢ / œ™ œ™
j‰ j j‰ j
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Commando 5

°
B 4x

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
56
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
>¿ 1st time only
(hands)

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
Change to Shaker Stick

RH ∑ ∑ Œ Ó ∑ ∑

1 1 1 1 ™ ™1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
/ ™™ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
mf

LH ™ ™

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
mf

RF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

™ ™™ ™™
mf

¢/ ™
∑ ∑
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
mf

° ™™ ™™ ™™
61

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH / ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™

>¿ 1st time only
1111 ™ ™
LH / 1111 ™ ™ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™
¡>œ
RF / ∑ ™™ ™™ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™™ ™™ ™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
/ ™™
66

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
RH / ™™ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡>œ ¡>œ ¡>œ ¡>œ ¡>œ
/ ™™ œ œ
f

LH Œ Ó Œ œ œ Œ Ó Œ œ œ Œ

/ ™™ œ œ Ó
f

RF ∑ œ œ Ó ∑ œ œ Ó


f

LF ¢/ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
f
6 Commando

° ™™ ™™
71
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

1111 11111111 11111111 ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


/ 1111
¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ
RH

¡>œ ¡>œ
LH / Ó Œ œ œ Œ ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™ ≈ R ‰ ≈R ≈R ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰

RF / ∑ œ œ Ó ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™ œ œ Œ ‰ œ Œ
J
‰ œŒ
J
‰ œŒ
J
™™ ™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
76

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ
RH

¡œ
R ≈R ≈R ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰ ≈R ≈R ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰
LH / ≈ ‰

RF / œ œŒ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ œ œŒ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

° ™™
80
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ
RH

¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡>œ


LH / ≈R ‰ ≈R ≈R ‰ J ? ? ? ? ™™ ≈ R ‰ ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰

/ œ œŒ ‰ œ Œ ? ? ? ? ™™ ˙ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œ ‰ œœ‰ œ Œ
RF J J J J
™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Commando 7

°
84
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡>œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ
RH

¡œ ¡>œ ¡>œ
R J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰ ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰
LH / ≈ ‰ ‰

RF / ˙ ‰ œ Œ
J
‰ œ ‰ œœ‰ œ Œ
J J
˙ ‰ œ Œ
J
‰ œ ‰ œœ‰ œ Œ
J J

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
88

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 111 1 1 11 1 111 1 111


¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ
RH

¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ
R ≈R ‰ ≈R ≈R ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰
LH / ≈ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

RF / ˙ ‰ œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ Œ œ œŒ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
92
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡>œ ™ ¡œ
RH

¡œ
LH / ≈R ‰ ≈R ≈R ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰ ≈R ≈R ‰ J ≈R ‰ ≈R ‰

RF / œ œŒ ‰ œ Œ
J
‰ œŒ
J
‰ œŒ
J
œ œŒ ‰ œ Œ
J
‰ œŒ
J
‰ œŒ
J

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
8 Commando

°
C use various stickings and accents
/ ™™ ™™
96 4x
±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±
R&L ∑ ∑
(hands)

>¿
mf

RH / ™™ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ Œ Ó
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ
LH / ™™ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ™™ ∑

RF / ™™ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ™™ ∑

™ ™™
LF ¢/ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
mf

°
/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
99 Add cymbal hits
R&L
(hands)

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™

X bars

°
D Turn to 180
/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™

106 Change RH back to normal stick degrees on drumset
R&L
(hands)

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ ∑ ∑
Commando 9

°
/ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™ ? ? ? ?
4x

? ? ? ?
112
R&L
(hands)

RH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ∑

LH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ∑

RF / ™™ 1 1 1 1 Œ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰1 1
J J
1 Œ

™ ™™ ™™ 1 ™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰1 1
mf

LF ¢/ ™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ J J J J J
mf

> > >


° X X
/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™
™ ™
™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
118
œ
œ œ
R&L
(hands)

™™ ™™
f RL R L R

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰1 1
J J
1 Œ ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰1 1
J J
1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J
1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™ ™ 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰1 1 1™ 1 ‰1 ‰1
LF ¢/ J J J J J ™ ™ J J J J J J J J

> > > >> > > >


° X X œ X X X X X X X X X X X X X >œ >œ œ œ X X œX XXXX
/ ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™ œ
123

œ œ œ
R&L
(hands)

™™ ™™
R L R L R L R R L L R R L L R R L L R L R L R L R L R L R R L L

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J

Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 ™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1
LF ¢/ J J J J J J J J J J
10 Commando

° X X X X >>>> > X >X >X XX X X X X >>>> >X >X >>>>


XX XX œœœœ œ XX XX XX œœœœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œJ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
127
R&L
(hands) / œ œ œ œ
™™
R R L L R R L L R L R L R L R L R L R R L L R R L L R R L L R L R L R L R L R L R L
R

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 1
J J
1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰11 1 Œ
J J
™™

™ 1 ‰11 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰11 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1‰11 ™™


LF ¢/ Œ J J J J J J J J J J J J

> >
X X >
5x

°
/ ™™ œ ™™ ™™ ?
X bars

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
132 Hands Open Solo
œ
œ
R&L
(hands)

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
R L R L R

RH ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑

RF / ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J
‰ 1 1
J
1 Œ ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J
™ 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 ™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1
LF ¢/ ™ J J J J J J J J

° ™™
/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
135

R&L
(hands)

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ ™™

Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™
LF ¢/ J J J J J J J
Commando 11
> > > >> > > >
X X X XXXX XXXXXXXX>>œ œ X X X XXXX XXXXXXXX>>œ œ
>>
°
/ ™™ œ
138
œ œœ œ œœ
œ œ œ
R&L
(hands)

/ ™™
R L R L R L R R L L R R L L R R L L R L R L R L R L R L R R L L R R L L R R L L R L R L

RH ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1
J ‰ 1J 1 1 Œ

™ 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1
LF ¢/ ™ J J J J J J J J J J

> > > >> > > >>>>


° X X X XXXX XXXXXXXX>>œœ X X
œ œ œ œ ‰ œJ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
142

/ œ œ œœ
œ œ œ
R&L
(hands)

™™
R L R L R L R R L L R R L L R R L L R L R L R L R L R L R L
R

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / 1 1 1 1™ 1
J
‰ 1 1
J
1 Œ 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 1
J J
1 Œ ™™

1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™
LF ¢/ J J J J J J J J J J

>
X X
> >
° X ™™ ± ? ? ? ? ™™
X bars

? ? ?
146 Hihats impro mixed subivisons
Œ ∑ ±
R&L
(hands) / œ œ
™™ ™™
R L R L R R L
mp

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 1
J J
1 Œ ™™ 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 1
J J
1 Œ ™™

1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ 1 ™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™
LF ¢/ J J J J J J J J J J
12 Commando

°
/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
150 Add cymbals
R&L
(hands)

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 1 1™
J J
1 1 1 1 1™
J
1 ‰ 1 1 1™
J J
1 1 1 1 1™
J
1 ‰ 1 1 1™ 1
J J J
1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1‰11 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1‰11 1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1‰11
LF ¢/ J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J

° ™™ ? ? ? ?
Turn to 90 degrees set

/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
156

R&L
(hands)

RH / ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / 1 1 1 1™ 1 ‰ 1 1
J J
1™ 1 ™™
J
∑ ∑ ∑

1™ 1 ‰ 1 ‰ 1 Œ™ 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™
¢/
LF J J J J J ∑ ∑ ∑

°
E
/ ? ? ? ? ™™
161

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH / ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ™™ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

RF / ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

™™
¢/
LF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Commando 13

°
/ ™™ ™™
166
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)
¿
/ ™™ ™™
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
RH Œ Ó ∑ ∑

/ ™™
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ™

¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
LH

RF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
LF ¢/ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∑ ∑

°
170

/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
X™ ¿™ X ¿™
R&L

X X
(hands)

œ œ œ J
RH / Œ ∑ Œ
mp
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
LH /
mp

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
mp

°
/ ™™ ™™
174 6x
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™ ™™
œœœœœ
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tom Improvisation

RH

/ ™™
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ™
LH ™

RF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
LF ¢/ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
14 Commando

° ™™
178
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ ™œœœœœœœœ


RH / ™
¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ ™¿
mp


1st time only

LH / Œ Ó

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑

™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
mp

° ™™
183

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
RH /

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑

™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
188

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ


RH /

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Commando 15

°
F
™™ ™™
193
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ ™œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ ™


RH / ™ ™

LH / ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ∑ ™™ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ™™

™™ ™™
LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
198

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 78 ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 1 81
>œœœœœœœ >œœœœœœœ >œœœœœœœ >œœœœœœœ7>œœœœœœ
RH
mf
> > > > 78 > ‰ Ó
LH / œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó œ
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) 78 ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿
mf

RF / J
mf
78
¢/ œ
j
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
mf

°
203

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ 68 ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 81 1 1
>œœœœœœ >œœœœœœ >œœœœœœ6>œœœœœ >œœœœœ >œœœœœ
RH

>
/ œ ‰Ó
> > 68 > ‰ Œ ™ > ™ > ™
LH œ ‰Ó œ ‰Ó œ œ ‰Œ œ ‰Œ
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) 68 ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RF / J J J

68
¢/ œ œ œ œ
j j j
LF œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
16 Commando

°
209
R&L
/ ∑ 58 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 48 ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ 1 81 1 1 1 81 1 1
>œœ œœœ5>œœœœ >œœœœ >œœœœ >œœœœ4>œœœ >œœœ >œœœ
RH

/ œ ‰ Œ™
> 58 > ‰ Œ > > > 48 > Œ > >
LH œ œ ‰Œ œ ‰Œ œ ‰Œ œ œ Œ œ Œ
¿) ¿) ¿) 58 ¿) ¿) )¿ )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ )¿ ¿) ¿) 48 ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RF / J J J J

5 4
¢/ œ œ
j j j j
LF œ 8œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ 8œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
217

R&L
/ ∑ 38 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 28 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ C ∑ ∑
(hands)

>œœœ3 >œœ > œœ >œœ > œœ 2 >œ >œ >œ >œ œœœœœœœœ ¿
RH / 1 81 1 1 1 81 1 1 1 C Œ Ó
ff
> 38 > ‰ > ‰ > ‰ > ‰ 28 > > > > >
LH / œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ C œœœœœœœœ œ
Œ Ó

¿) ¿) 3 )¿ ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) )¿ )¿ )¿ 2 ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) C ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) Œ Ó
ff

RF / 8 J J J J 8
ff
3 j j 2
¢/ œ œ 8 œ œ œ œ
j j Cœ œ œ œ Œ Ó
LF œ œ œœ 8œ œ œ œ œ
ff

°
G
/ ™™
228 3x
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™
œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ
RH

¿) ¿) )¿ ‰ ¿) ‰ ¿) ‰ 1 1 11 1 ¿) ¿) )¿ ‰ ¿) ‰ ¿) ‰ 1 1 11 1 ¿) ¿) )¿ ‰ ¿) ‰ ¿)
/ ™™
f

LH J J J J J J J J

/ ™™ œ œ œ œ™
f

œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
RF J J J J J J J
™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™ j ‰ j ‰ j Œ™
f

¢ / ™ œ™ œ™ œ™
j‰ j j‰ j j‰ j‰ j
LF œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ
f
Commando 17

° ™™ ™™
233
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ ™ ™1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


RH / ™ ™
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ
1 1 1 1 1 )
¿ )
¿ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ™™
LH / ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

/ ‰ œJ œ œ™ œ œœœ œ™ œ ‰ œœ œ™ œ ™™ ™™ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ
RF J J J J
™ j j j ™ ™™ ™™
¢/ Œ œ™
j j j j
LF œ‰ œœ œ‰ œ‰ œ Œ œ‰ œœ œ œ œ œ
mf

° ™™
237

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
RH / 1 1 1 1 ™™
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ
LH / ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ™™

RF / ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ™™

™™
¢/ œ
Œ
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
240

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH /
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ
LH / ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

RF / ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
18 Commando

°
243
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(hands)

/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ
RH

LH / ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

RF / ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ

LF ¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
246

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
1 1
(hands)
>¿ >¿
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Ó
RH /
¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ > >
ff

LH / ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ Ó
œ œ >¿) Œ Ó
ff

RF / ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰

>
ff

¢/ œ
Œ Ó
LF œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
ff
q = 100
Main Snares Off
Tubby The Robot Grant Collins

° 6 > œœœœ > œœœœ > œœœœ > œœœœ œ>œ œ U > œœœœ > œœœœ > œœœœ > œœœœ œ>œ œ U
Freely
Right & Left
Hands / 4 œœ ≈œœ œœ œœ ≈ œœœ œœ ≈œœ œœ œœ ≈ œœœ
fz mp fz mp
Right Hand / 46 ∑ ∑

Left Hand
6
/4 ∑ ∑
>¿ >¿
Right Foot
6
/4 Œ ∑ Œ ∑
mp

Left Foot
6
/4 ∑ ∑

6
¢/ 4
Right & Left
Feet
∑ ∑

U
° >œœœœ q >= œ100 >
œœœ œœœœœ œ ≈œœœœœ œœ œ œœœœ ≈ œœœœœ œœœœœ œ ≈œœœœœ>œ œœ œ
> > > > > > >
rit.
œ
3 a Tempo

R/L H / œœ ≈œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ Œ Ó Ó
fz mf
RH / ∑ ∑ ∑
mf

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑
mf
>¿ >¿ >¿
RF / Œ ∑ Œ ∑ Œ ∑
mf

LF / ∑ ∑ ∑
mf

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑ ∑
mf

° ™
A
/ ™ ™™
6

∑ ∑
¿) )¿ )¿ ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) )¿ )¿ ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) )¿
R/L H


™ ™
RH / œ ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ ™

LH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

RF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

LF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑
Copyright © Grant Collins
2

°
/ ™™ ™™
8

∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
R/L H

¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ™™ œ ≈
œœ œ

œœ œ

œœ œ
≈ ™
œœ ™

/ ™™ ™™
œœ œ œ œœ œœœœ œœ œ œ œœœ œ œ Œ Ó Ó
LH

/ ™™ ™™
3 3 3 3 3 3

RF ∑ ∑

LF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
¢/ ™
R/L F ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
10 1.
∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ™
R/L H

¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ™™ œ ≈ œœ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ ™
>¿ >¿ >¿ >¿ >¿ >¿ ™ >¿ >¿™ >¿ >¿ mf
>¿
LH / ™™ ≈ ‰ J ≈J Œ Ó Ó ™™

/ ™™ ™™
f fz

RF ∑ ∑

LF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™



> ™™
¢ / œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó Ó
R/L F
œœ œ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ
f fz

°
12 2.

/ ∑ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) œ œ )¿ œ ¿) ¿) œ œ ¿) œ œ )¿ œ ¿) ¿) œ œ ¿)
R/L H

RH / œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ
¿ X
LH / Œ Ó Ó Œ Ó Ó ∑

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑ ∑

R/L F
¢/ œ Œ Ó Œ ‰ ™ œœ œ Œ Ó Ó ∑
Tubby The Robot 3

°
15

/ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) œ œ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) œ œ ¿)
R/L H

œœ œ œœ œ
RH / œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ

LH / ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑

/ 1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1


> > >
LF

¢/
R/L F ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
17

∑ ∑
œ œ )¿ œ ¿) ¿) œ œ )¿ œ œ ¿) œ ¿) ¿) œ œ )¿
R/L H

RH / ™™ œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ≈

œœ ™

LH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1
RF / ™™ ™™

LF / ™

>1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 ™™

™ ™™
¢/ ™
R/L F ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
19 3x
∑ ∑
œ œ )¿ œ ¿) ¿) œ œ )¿ œ œ ¿) œ ¿) ¿) œ œ )¿
R/L H

RH / ™™ œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ≈

œœ ™
œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™
/ ™™ œ œ
LH ≈ ‰ ≈ ≈ œ œ œ ™™

1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1
RF / ™™ ™™

/ ™™ 1 111 ‰ 111 111 ‰ 11 1 111 ‰ 111 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™


> > > > > > > >
LF

™ ™™
¢/ ™
R/L F ∑ ∑
4 Tubby The Robot

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
21


Impro
R/L H

/ ™™ œ ™™ ™™ ™™
>
RH Œ Ó Ó ∑

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™

LH Œ Ó Ó ∑

1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 ≈ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ 1 1 ≈ 1 1
RF / ™™ ™™

/ ™™ 1 111 ‰ 111 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 111 ‰ 111 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™


> > > > > > > >
LF

™ ™™ ™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑

°
23
B
R/L H / ∑ ∑

RH / ∑ ∑
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
LH / ∑ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1
RF /

/ 1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1


>
LF

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑

° ™™16 ™™ 46
25 4x
R/L H / ∑ 6
16 ∑ 9 ∑ ∑

RH / ∑ 6
16 ∑ ™™16
9 ∑ ∑ ™™ 46

œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ 6 œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ™™ 9 œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ™™ 6
LH / 16 16 4
1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 6 ∑ ™™16
9 ∑ ∑ ™™ 46
RF / 16

/ 1 111 ‰ 111 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1 16 ™™16 ™™ 46


> > > > 6 9
LF ∑ ∑ ∑

6 ™™16
9 ™™ 46
¢/
R/L F ∑ 16 ∑ ∑ ∑
Tubby The Robot 5

°
/ ™™4 ™™
29
6 ∑ ∑
66 6 6 66 66 6 66 6 6 66 6
± ≈6 6
R/L H

/ ™™46 œ ™
œœ ™
≈ ± ± ± ≈ ≈ ± ±
RH
œœ œ

LH


/ 4
6 œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ™
≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈™

/ ™™4 ™™
RF
6 ∑ ∑

LF / ™™46 ∑ ∑ ™™

™6 ™™
R/L F
¢ / ™4 ∑ ∑

°
31

/ ∑ ∑
66 6 6 66 66 6 66 6 6 66 66 6
R/L H

≈ ± ± ± ≈ ≈ ± ± ± ≈
RH / œ œœ œ œœ
œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ
LH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

RF / ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑

¢ / ≈ œœ‰
± ±≈ ≈≈ ± ±≈ ‰ ± ±≈ ≈≈ ± ±≈ ‰ ≈ ± ±‰ œœ≈ ± ±≈≈ œœ≈ ± ±‰ œœ≈ ± ±≈≈ œœ≈ ± ±‰
R/L F
œœ œœ œœ œœ

°
33

/ ∑ ∑
6 6 6 ± ± 6 6 6 ± 6 6 6 6 6 6 ± ± 6 6 6 ± 6 6 6
R/L H

/ œ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈
RH
œœ œ œœ

LH / ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑
6 Tubby The Robot

°
/ ™™
35


6 6 6 6 6 6 6
R/L H

6 6
/ ™™ œ ≈ ± ± ± ≈
RH
œ œ

/ ™™
¿
LH Œ Ó Ó

RF / ™™ ∑

LF / ™™ ∑

™≈
¢/ ™ œœ ‰
± ± ≈
œœ ≈ ≈ ± ≈ œ œ ‰
± ± ≈
œ œ ≈ ≈ ± ≈ œ œ ‰
R/L F
± ±

° ™™
36

/ ∑
6 6 6 6 6 6 6
R/L H

6 6 ™
œ œ ™
≈ ± ± ± ≈
RH / œ

LH / ∑ ™™

RF / ∑ ™™

LF / ∑ ™™

™™
¢/ ≈
± ± ‰
œ œ ≈ ± ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ ± ‰ œ œ ≈ ± ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ ± ‰
R/L F
± ± ± ±

°
/ ™™
37


6 6 6 6 6 6 6
R/L H

6 6
/ ™™ œ ≈ ± ± ± ≈
RH
œ œ

/ ™™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
LH

/ ™™
3 3 3 3 3

RF ∑

LF / ™™ ∑

™≈
¢/ ™ œ œ
R/L F ‰ ± ± ≈
œœ≈ ≈ ± ≈ œœ‰
± ± ± ≈
œœ≈ ≈
± ± ≈
œœ‰
Tubby The Robot 7

° ™™
38

/ ∑ ∑
66 6 6 66 66 6 66 6 6 66 66 6
R/L H


œœ ™ œ
≈ ± ± ± ≈ ≈ ± ± ± ≈
RH / œ œœ

LH /
œ Œ Ó Ó ™™ ∑

RF / ∑ ™™ ∑

LF / ∑ ™™ ∑

≈ ± ±‰ œ ≈ ± ±≈≈ œ ≈ ± ±‰ œ ≈ ± ±≈≈ œ ≈ ± ±‰ ™™ ≈ œ ‰ ± ±≈ œ ≈≈ ± ±≈ œ ‰ ± ±≈ œ ≈≈ ± ±≈ œ ‰
R/L F
¢/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

°
40

/ ∑ ∑
66 6 6 66 6 66 6 6 66 6
±≈ 66 ±≈ 66
R/L H

≈ ± ± ≈ ± ±
RH / œ œœ œ œœ
œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ
LH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

RF / ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑

¢/ ≈
± ±‰ ≈ ± ±≈≈ ≈ ± ±‰ ≈ ± ±≈≈ ≈ ± ±‰ ≈ œœ‰ ± ±≈ œœ≈≈ ± ±≈ œœ‰ ± ±≈ œœ≈≈ ± ±≈ œœ‰
R/L F
œœ œœ œœ œœ

°
C
™™ ™™
42 8x
R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑

± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ™™ ± ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ™™
RH / œ

™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
Main Snares On
∑ ∑
Freely
LH /

RF / ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ™™

LF / ∑ ∑ ™™ ∑ ™™

™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
¢/ ∑ ∑
Freely X bars
R/L F
8 Tubby The Robot

° ™™
45

R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ™ ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ™ ≈ ≈
>X
mf

LH / Œ Ó Ó ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ?

™™
mf
>
RF / œ Œ Ó Ó ∑ ∑

™™
mf

LF / ∑ ∑ ∑

™™ ?
mf

R/L F
¢/
∑ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
mf

° ™™
48

R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ≈ ≈ ™™ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

/ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™ Œ ≈ œ™ Œ ‰™ œ Œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ
LH
J R

RF / ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑

/ ∑ ™™ Œ ‰ jŒ Œ Œ Œ Œ
LF
œ œ œ œ œ œ
™™
¢/ ? ? ? ? ? ?
R/L F ∑ ∑

°
51

R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

LH / œ ‰ œJ Œ œ ‰ œJ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ ‰ œJ Œ Œ œ

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑

LF / ‰ ™ œr Œ ≈ j™ ‰ ™ r Œ
œ œ
≈ j™
œ
Œ
œ
Œ
œ
Œ
œ
Œ ≈ j™ Œ ‰ ™ r Œ
œ œ
Œ

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑ ∑
Tubby The Robot 9

°
54

R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

/ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ ‰™ œ Œ ≈ œ™ ‰ ™ œ Œ ≈ œ™ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ
LH
R J R J

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑

LF / œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ ‰ œj Œ œ ‰ œj Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑ ∑

°
57

R/L H / ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

/ Œ ≈ œ™ Œ ‰™ œŒ Œ œ Œ ‰ œ Œ Œ œ
LH
J R J

RF / ∑ ∑

/ œ Œ ‰ j Œ Œ Œ ≈ œ™ Œ ‰™ œŒ Œ
LF
œ œ J R

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑

°
59

R/L H / ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈

LH / Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ ? ? ? ? ? ?

RF / ∑ ∑

LF / ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œr œr ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œr œr ≈ œ œ ? ? ? ? ? ?

¢/
R/L F ∑ ∑
10 Tubby The Robot

°
/ ™™ ™™
61

R/L H ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿)
RH / ™™ ≈ ≈ ™™

/ ™™ ™™
¿
LH ? ? ? ? ?

RF / ™™ ∑ ™™

LF / ™™ œ ? ? ? ? ? ™™

™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑

>¿ >¿ >¿ >¿ >¿ ™ >¿™ >¿ >¿


>¿ >¿
° ™™ ™™
62

R/L H / ≈ ‰ J ≈ J ∑

™™ ¿) ¿) ¿) ≈ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ≈ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ™™
f

RH / ∑

™™ ™™
¿
LH / ∑ ? ? ? ? ?

/ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ ™™ ™™
1st time only

RF ∑

™™ ™™
f

LF / ∑
œ ? ? ? ? ?

™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
64 4x
R/L H ∑ ∑

™ ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ¿) ™ ™ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) )¿ ™
RH / ™ ≈ ≈ ™ ™ ≈ ≈ ™

/ ™™ O™ O Œ ™™ ™™ O™ ™™
f

Ó Ó O‰ œ ≈ O™j O™ O‰ œ ≈ O™j
LH
J J

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
f

RF ∑ ∑

LF / ™™ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ™™

™ ™™ ™™ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ™™
¢/ ™

R/L F
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
f
Tubby The Robot 11

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
66 X Bars 3x
R/L H ∑ ∑ ∑
¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ™ ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ¿) ™ ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ™
RH / ™™ ≈ ≈ ™ ≈ ≈ ™ ≈ ≈ ™
p

/ ™™ ? ™™ ™™ œ œœ ≈ œ œœ œ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ œœ ™™
¿
LH ? ? ? ? ? Œ Ó Ó

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
p

RF ∑ œ Œ Ó Ó ∑

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
p

LF ∑ ∑ ∑

™ ™™ ™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
69

R/L H ∑ ∑

/ ™™ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
>
RH

>¿
/ ™™ ™™
Main snares off

LH Œ Ó Ó ∑

/ ™™ ™™
1st time only

RF ∑ ∑

LF / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑

° ™
D
/ ™ ™™ ™™ ™™
71

R/L H ∑ ∑

/ ™™
RH
œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ ™™ ™™ ∑ ™™

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
mf

LH ∑ ∑

™ ™™ ™™ ™™
o ±. ± ±o ±. ± ± ≈ ±o ±. ± ±o ±. ≈
/ ™ œ œœ
mf
≈ ± ± ≈ ± ≈œ œ≈œœ ≈
RF
œ œœ œ œ≈œœ
± ±± ±± ± ±± ±±
/ ™™ œ ‰™ R ™ ™™ ™™ ‰™ R ™ r ™™
mf
r
LF
œ œœ‰ œ œ œ œœ‰ œ
™ ™™ ™™ ™™
¢/ ™
mf

R/L F ∑ ∑
12 Tubby The Robot

°
/ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
73
Impro X bars
R/L H

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
mf

RH ∑ ∑

LH / ™™ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ™™


™ ≈ ± ± ≈ ±o ±. ± ±o ±. ≈ ™™ ™™ ± ± ≈ ±o ±. ± ±o ±. ≈ ™™
RF / œ œœ œ œ≈œœ œ œœ ≈ œ œ≈œœ
± ±± ±± ± ±± ±±
LF / ™™ œ ‰™ R ™
œ œœ‰ œ
r ™™ ™™
œ ‰™ R ™
œ œœ‰ œ
r ™™

™ ™™ ™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
75 4x
R/L H ∑ ∑

/ ™™ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
RH ∑ œ œ

/ ™™ ∑ ™™ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
Impro X bars
LH

>± >±
™ ™ ™ ™™
o o o o
™ ≈ ± ± ≈ ± ±. ± ± ±. ≈ ≈ ™ ™ ≈ ± ± ≈ ± ±. ± ± ±. ≈
RF / œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ ≈œœ
± ±± ±± ± ±± ±±
LF / ™™ œ ‰™ R
œ œœ
‰™ r ™ ™
œ ™ ™œ
‰™ R
œ œœ
‰™
œ
r ™™

™ ™™ ™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
77 4x
R/L H ∑ ∑

/ ™™ œ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
RH

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ


™ ™™ ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R
œœœ œ œ
LH / ™ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈R ≈R
>± >± >± >±
/ ™™ œ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ™™ œ œ œ ≈ ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ≈ œ œ
o. o. o. o.
± ± ≈± ± ± ± ± ≈ ≈œœ
RF
œ œ
± ±± ±± ± ±± ±±
LF / ™™ œ ‰™ R œ œœ ‰ ™ œr ™™ œ ‰™ R œ œœ ‰™ œ
r

™ ™™
¢/ ™
R/L F ∑ ∑
Tubby The Robot 13

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
79 4x
R/L H ∑

/ ™™ œ ™™ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Impro X bars
RH

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ


™ ™™ ™™ ™™
œœœ
LH / ™ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ∑
>± >± >±
/ ™™ œ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ ≈ ± ± ≈ ± ± ± ± ± ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ™™
o. o. o. o. >
± ± ≈± ± ± ± ± ≈
RF
œ œ
± ±± ±± ± ±± ±±
LF / ™™ œ ‰™ R œ œœ ‰ ™ œr ™™ ™™ œ ‰™ R œ œœ‰ œ
™ r ™™

™ ™™ ™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
81 3x
R/L H ∑ ∑

/ ™™
RH
œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ ™™ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ

/ ™™ ™™
p

LH ∑ ∑

™ ± ± ≈ ±o ±. ± ±o ±. ≈ ™™
>
RF ™
/ œ œœ ≈ œ œ≈œœ œ Œ Ó Ó
± ±± ±±
LF / ™™ œ ‰™ R
œ œœ
‰™
œ
r ™™
œ
Œ Ó Ó

™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ∑ ∑

°
83

R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑

RH / œ œœ ≈ œ œœ œ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ œœ œ œœ ≈ œ œœ œ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ œœ œ œœ ≈ œ œœ œ œœ œ ≈ œœ œ œœ

∑ œ œœ ≈ œ œœ œ œœ ≈Ó œ œœ ≈ œ œœ œ œœ ≈Ó
LH /

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑ ∑

¢/
R/L F ∑ ∑ ∑
14 Tubby The Robot

°
86
E
R/L H / ∑ ∑ ∑
>
RH / œ œœ≈œ œœ œ œœ œ≈œœ œ œœ œ œœ≈œ œœ œ œœ œ≈œœ œ œœ œ Œ Ó Ó
mf
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ
LH / œ œœ≈œ œœ œ œœ ≈Ó ≈ ≈ Œ Ó Ó
mf

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑

1 111 ‰ 111 111 ‰ 11


mf
> > > >
LF / ∑ ∑
mf

R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑ ∑

° ™™
89

R/L H / ∑ ∑

RH / ∑ ™™ ∑

LH / ∑ ™™ ∑

RF / ∑ ™™ 1 1 1 ≈ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1
>1 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 1 1 ™ >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1
LF / ‰ ‰ ™

™™
¢/
R/L F ∑ ∑

° ™™ ™™
91

R/L H / ∑ ∑

RH / ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑

LH / ∑ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œœ œœ≈œœœ‰ œœ

RF / 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 ≈ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1

/ 1 111 ‰ 111 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 111 ‰ 111 111 ‰ 11


> > > > > > > >
LF

™™ ™™
¢/
R/L F ∑ ∑
Tubby The Robot 15

° ™™ ™™
93

/ ∑ ∑
œ œ )¿ œ ¿) ¿) œ œ )¿
R/L H

∑ ™™ ™™ ≈ œœ
RH / œ œ≈ œœ
œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œœ œœ œœœ œœ
LH / ≈ œ ≈ ‰

RF / 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 1 1 ≈ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ 1 1 ≈ 1 1

/ 1 111 ‰ 111 1 1 1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ ™™ 1 111 ‰ 111 111 ‰ 11


> > > > > > > >
LF

™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑

° ™™ ™™ ™™
95

/ ∑ ∑
œ œ )¿ œ ¿) )¿ œ œ )¿ œ œ ¿) œ ¿) )¿ œ œ )¿
R/L H

™ ™ ™
RH / œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ ™ ™œ ≈ œœ œ≈ œœ ™
œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œœœ ™™ ™™ ™™
LH / ≈ œ ∑

RF / 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 ≈1 1 ≈1 1 ™™ ™™ ∑ ™™

/ 1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 >1 1 1 >1 ‰ 1 1 ™™ ™™ ™™


>
LF ∑

™™ ™™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ∑ ∑

F> > >


° ™ ¿)
>¿) >¿) ¿) ¿)
/ ™œ œœ œœ ™™
97

R/L H œœ œœ ≈ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ ≈ œœ œœ œ

/ ™™ ™™
f

RH ∑

LH / ™™ ∑ ™™

RF / ™™ ∑ ™™

LF / ™™ ∑ ™™

™≈ ™™
¢/ ™ œ œ
R/L F ‰ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ‰
f
16 Tubby The Robot
> >
> >¿) >¿) ¿) ¿)
° ™ œX
3x

/ ™ œ œ ™™
98

œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ
R/L H
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

RH / ™™ ∑ ™™

LH / ™™ ∑ ™™

RF / ™™ ∑ ™™

LF / ™™ ∑ ™™

™ ™™
R/L F
¢/ ™ ≈ œ œ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ‰

>
> >¿) ¿)
> > >¿) > >
° X X
> X X >X X X
99

R/L H / œ œœ œ≈
œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
ff

RH / ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑

R/L F
¢ / ≈ œœ‰ œœ≈ œœ≈≈ œœ≈ œœ‰ œœ≈ œœ≈≈ œœ≈ œœ‰ ≈ œœ‰ œœ≈ œœ≈≈ œœ≈ œœ‰ œœ≈ œœ≈≈ œœ≈ œœ‰
ff

>
° X >X >X >X >X >X >X >X >X >X >X >X >X
101

R/L H / œ œœ œœ ≈ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ≈ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œ Ó Ó ∑
fff
RH / ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑

LF / ∑ ∑ ∑

¢/
≈œ ‰ œ ≈œ ≈≈œ ≈œ ‰ œ ≈œ ≈≈œ ≈œ ‰ ∑ ∑
R/L F
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Jingles on BD Beaters
Sticks: I Cleopatra
1. Mallets 1st Movement from "Chick Flick"
2. Normal
3. Single with bells attached

°
GRANT COLLINS

™ ™ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ
q = 75
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
™ ™
A
¡
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mallets Cymbals swells and flurries approx 60"

R & L Hands / c

/ ™™c ™™
mf mp

Right Hand ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

/ ™™c ™™
mp

Left Hand ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

/ ™™c ™™
mp

Right Foot ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

™ ™™
mp

Left Foot ¢ / ™c ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
mp

°
7

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
X X
(hands)

æ æ
/ æ æ æ æ
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
RH æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

RF / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

¢/
LF ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

°
11
A
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
>X X X™
(hands)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Cymbals

RH / Œ Ó Œ Ó

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

j j
RF / œ ‰ Œ Ó ∑ œ ‰ Œ Ó ∑
sf Tamb jingles on beaters sf

¢/
≈ j ≈Œ Ó ∑ ≈ j ≈Œ Ó ∑
LF œ œ
sf sf
Copyright © Grant Collins
2

°
/ ™™
15
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑
X X™ X X™
(hands)

RH / ™™ Œ Ó ? ? ? ? Œ Ó

LH / ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

/ ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™ œ™ œ 11≈11 11 11 11
mp
j j j
RF œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™

™ j 11≈11 11 11 11 ≈ j
¢ / ™ ≈ œ™
mp

œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
j j j j
LF œ
mp

° ™™ ™™
18 1. 2.
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH / ? ? ? ? ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ? ? ? ?

/ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ
ƒ Left stick with bell attached

Change to stick with bells attached
LH

/ ≈ œ™j œ™ j j ™™ ≈ j j j ™™ 11≈11 11 11 11
RF œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ
11≈11 11 11 11 ™ 11≈11 11 11 11 ™≈ j
LF ¢/ œ ™ œ ™ œ™ œ™ œ

œ œ™
j ≈ j

°
B
™™ ™™ ™™
21
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH / ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™

/ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™
mf

LH

RF
j
/ ŠϪ
j j
œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ ™™ ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™j œ™
j j
œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ ™™

1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ™™ ≈ j 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™
¢/ œ œ™ œ™ œ œ™
‰ j ≈ j
LF œ œ
I Cleopatra 3

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™
24
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™ ™™
œœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœ œœ œœœ œ œœœ≈œœœœœœ
RH

LH / ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

RF / ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™j œ™
j j
œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
™™ ™™ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
œ

™ j 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ™™ ≈ j
¢ / ™ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
j j j j
LF œ

° ™™
27

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
>X
(hands)

RH / œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™ Œ Ó ? ? ? ?

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

/ ≈ œ™j j j ™™ 11≈11 11 11 11 ≈ j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
11≈11 11 11 11 ™ ≈ j 11≈11 11 11 11
LF ¢/ œ ™ œ™ œ™ œ

œ œ™
j ≈ j
œ

° ™™ ? ? ? ?
30 Light impro with mallets
R&L
/ ∑ ∑
>X
(hands)

™™
LH changes to mallet

RH / Œ Ó ? ? ? ? ∑

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ∑

/ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™ ™™ 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ
1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ≈ j
¢ / œ™ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ œ™
≈ j ‰ j ≈ j ‰ j≈ j
LF œ œ
4 I Cleopatra

°
C
™™
> >
/ ? ? ? ? ? ?
33 Lite cymbal fill
Œ Ó Ó
œ œ
R&L
(hands)

™™
R R

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑

j
/ ŠϪ
j j ™™ 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ≈ j 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¢/ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
j j
LF œ

° ™ > > œfij œ™ œ ≈ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ >œ >œ œfijœ™ œ ≈ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ ™™ ™™ > >


4x 4x

/ ™œ œ ¡ ¡ œ œ ? ? ?
36 Lower Toms: Call
R&L
(hands)

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
R R L L R R
mf

RH ∑ ∑ ∑

/ ™™ ™™ ™™
mf

LH ∑ ∑ ∑

/ ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™ ™™ ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
mf
j j ŠϪj
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ

™≈ j 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ™™ ≈ j
mf

¢ / ™ œ™ œ™
≈ j™
œ™ œ™ œ œ œ™
‰ j ‰ j≈ j
LF œ œ œ œ
mf

° > > Higher Toms: Response > >


™™ > > œfijœ™ œ ≈ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ ¡œ ¡œ œfijœ™ œ ≈ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ ™™
/ ¡œ ¡œ ? ? ?
39

œ œ
R&L
(hands)

™™ ™™
L L R R L L

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑

LH / ∑ ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™

j
/ ŠϪ
j j ™™ 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ j j ≈ œ™j ™™
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ
1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ≈ j 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™
œ™ œ™ œ œ
≈ j™
¢/ œ
‰ j
LF œ œ
I Cleopatra 5

° > > >X


42
D
R&L
(hands) / œ œ œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑
R R
mp

RH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
mp

LH / ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

/ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™j œ™ œ ‰ œj ≈ œ™j 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ j
mp
j j
RF œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ j 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
mp

¢ / ≈œ ™ œ ™ œ‰ œ ≈œ ™ œ ™ œ ™ œ‰ œ ≈œ ™
j j j j j
LF œ œ
mp

°
/ ™™ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™
46 Cymbals
R&L ∑
>X
(hands)

RH / ™™ ∑ ∑ ™™ Œ Ó

/ ™™ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ
ƒ Left stick with bell attached
∑ ∑
Change to stick with bells attached
LH

/ ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™ ™™ 11≈11 11 11 11
j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ

™≈ j 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™ ≈ j
¢ / ™ œ™ œ™ œ œ™ ™ œ™ œ™ œ œ œ™
‰ j≈ j ‰ j ≈ j
LF œ œ

°
E
/ ™™
3x

™™ ™™ ™™
49

R&L ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH / ™™ ∑ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™

/ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™
mf

LH

/ ™™ ≈ œ™ ™™ ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™j ™™
j j j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™

™™ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ™™ ≈ j 11≈11 11 11 11 ™

¢ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
/ j j
LF œ œ
6 I Cleopatra

°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™
52
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™ ™™
œœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœ œœ œœœ œ œœœ≈œœœœœœ
RH

LH / ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

RF / ™™ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™j œ™
j j
œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
™™ ™™ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
œ

™ j 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ™™ ™™ ≈ j
¢ / ™ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
j j j j
LF œ

°
F
™™
55

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

/ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™
œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ
RH

/ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ™™ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ
mp

LH ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ

/ ≈ œ™j j j ™™ 11≈11 11 11 11 ≈ j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
11≈11 11 11 11 ™ ≈ j 11≈11 11 11 11
LF ¢/ œ ™ œ™ œ™ œ

œ œ™
j ≈ j
œ

°
58

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ
RH /

/ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ≈ ¡œ ¡œ
LH changes to mallet

LH ∑

/ œ 1 1 ≈ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ œ™ 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
j j j
RF œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ
11≈11 11 11 11 ≈ j
p

≈ j™
¢/ œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ œ™
‰ j ≈ j ‰ j ≈ j
LF œ œ œ œ
p
I Cleopatra 7

°
61
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ
RH /

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ

1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ j
p
j j j j j
RF / ≈ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ≈ j 1 1 ≈1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¢/ œ œ™ œ™ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™
j j
LF œ

°
64

R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ
RH /
p

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ
¿ ¿
pp

RF / ∑ Œ Ó Œ Ó

¢/
LF ∑ ∑ ∑

°
67

R&L
/ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
RH /

LH / ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ¡œ ∑
¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿ ¿
RF / Œ Ó

¢/
LF ∑ ∑
8 I Cleopatra

°
69
R&L
/ ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ >
rit.

RH / w
3
mf
LH / ∑ ∑ ∑
>¿
RF / ∑ ∑ Œ Ó
mf

¢/
LF ∑ ∑ ∑
III Wonder Woman
2nd Movement from "Chick Flick"
q = 75

°
A GRANT COLLINS

/ ™™4 ? ? ? ? ? ? ™™ ™™16 ™™
4x
3 19
Freely

R & L Hands ∑ ∑

X X X X X >X >X XXX XX X X XXXXXX


mp


™3 1 ™™ ™™19 1 ™™
Rubato a tempo

Right Hand / 4 ≈ ∑ ∑ 16 ≈ ≈R

/ ™™4 ™™ ™™19 ™™
mp

Left Hand
3 ∑ ∑ ∑ 16 ∑

/ ™™4 ™™ ™™19 ™™
Right Foot
3 ∑ ∑ ∑ 16 ∑

™3 ™™ ™™19 ™™
¢ / ™4
Left Foot ∑ ∑ ∑ 16 ∑

°
/ ™™ ™™
5
3x
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)

XXX XX X X XXXXXX XXX XX X X XXXXXX XXX XX X X


RH / ™™ 1 ≈ ≈R 1 ≈ ≈R ™™ 1 ≈ ‰ ‰™ ‰
œ œ œ œ r ¿)
/ ™™ œ ‰ ‰™ ™™ œ
œ œœ œ œ œ
mf

LH œœ ‰ ∑ œœ ≈œ œ œ

/ ™™ ™™
mf
RF ∑ ∑ ∑

™ ™™
¢/ ™
LF ∑ ∑ ∑

°
B
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ™™
8 4x 4x
R&L ∑ ∑ ∑
(hands)
>¿ >¿
XXX XXXœ
1 X X ≈œ
mf



œ œ ™™ ‰ ‰ ™ ‰ ™™ ? ? ? ? ™ ? ™™
j
Improvisation on hi splash cymbal/s

RH / ≈R Œ Œ ?
œœ œ œ r )¿ ™ œœ œ œ r )¿ ™ œ œœ œ œ r )¿ ™
/ ™™ œ
œ œ
mf

LH œœ ≈ œœ ™
œ œ œœ ≈ ™
œœ œ œ œœ ≈œ œ œ ™

™ X. ™ X 1 ™ Xo X. Xo ™ X. ™ X 1 1 ™ 1 ≈ XR X 1 X ™™ X ™ X ‰
o . o .
1 1 ™ 1 ≈ XR X 1 X ™™
o . o
mf

RF / ™ ‰ 1 1 ≈R 1 ™ ‰
J J J
1 1 X X. 1 ≈ X X. 1 1 1 X ™ 1 1 X X. 1 Xo X. 1 1 1 X ™ 1 1 Xo X. 1 Xo X. 1 1 1 X ™
o o o

mf

LF ¢ / ™ J ™ ≈ J ™ ≈ J ™
mf
Copyright © Grant Collins
2
C
°
/ ™™ ™™ ™™ ? ? ? ™ ? ™™
j
? ?
11 Impro x bars

R&L ∑ ∑
(hands)

RH / ™™ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ™™ ∑

LH / ™™ ∑ ™™ ™™ ∑ ™™ ∑
X™ X XX X X™ X XX X X™ X XX X
/ ™™ ‰ 1 1 ™ 1 ≈ R 1 ™™ ™™ ‰ 1 1 ™ 1 ≈ R 1 ™™ ‰ 1 1 ™ 1 ≈R 1
Note: no open/close on hi hat

RF J J J
™™ 1 1 X X 1 ≈ X X 1J 1 1 X ™™ ™™ 1 1 X X 1 ≈ X X 1J 1 1 X ™™ 1 1 X X 1 ≈ X X 1J 1 1 X
Note: no open/close on hi hat

LF ¢ /

° ™
D
/ ™ ™™
14 8x
R&L ∑ ∑
(hands)
>¿ >¿
X X X X X œœX X X œ ™ X X X X X œœX X X œ
mf

/ ™™ 1 ™ 1
œ œ
RH ≈ ≈R ≈ ≈R

¿) ¿)
/ ™™ œ œ ™™ œ
œ œœ œ œœ
mf
œœ œœ
LH œœ ≈ œr œ œœ ≈ œr œ œ
X. ™ X Xo X. Xo X.
/ ™™ 1 1™ ™™ ‰™
mf

‰ 1 ≈R 1 Œ Œ ‰ ‰
RF J
™1 1 X X. 1 ≈ X X. 1 1 1 X
o o
™™
mf

LF ¢ / ™ J ∑
mf

°
16

R&L
/ ∑ ∑
(hands)
>¿
X X X X X ≈ œ
1 ≈ œR œ œ œ œ œ 1 ‰ ‰™
>
RH / Œ Œ ‰

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LH / œ œ œ ≈ œr œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ ‰
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RF / ∑ ∑

LF ¢/ ∑ ∑