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Submitted To Submitted By
Mr. Himanshu Goel Rishabh Kaushik
Roll no-1708570057
MBA 4th Sem.



As a consumer we are all unique and this uniqueness is reflected in

the consumption pattern and process purchase. The study of consumer
behavior provides us with reasons why consumers differ from one
another in buying using products and services. We receive stimuli
from the environment and the specifics of the marketing strategies of
different products and services, and responds to these stimuli in terms
of either buying or not buying product. In between the stage of
receiving the stimuli and responding to it, the consumer goes through
the process of making his decision.
Stages of the Consumer Buying Process:
Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex
decisions). Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all
decision processes lead to a purchase. All consumer decisions do not
always include all 6 stages, determined by the degree of
complexity...discussed next.

The 6 stages are:

1. Problem Recognition--difference between the desired state and

the actual condition. Deficit in assortment of products. Hunger--
Food. Hunger stimulates your need to eat.
Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information-
-did not know you were deficient? I.E., see a commercial for a
new pair of shoes, stimulates your recognition that you need a
new pair of shoes.
2. Information search--
o Internal search, memory.
o External search if you need more information. Friends and
relatives (word of mouth). Marketer dominated sources;
comparison shopping; public sources etc.

A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible

alternatives, the evoked set.

Hungry, want to go out and eat, evoked set is

o Chinese food
o Indian food
o burger king
3. Evaluation of Alternatives--need to establish criteria for
evaluation, features the buyer wants or does not want.
Rank/weight alternatives or resume search. May decide that you
want to eat something spicy, Indian gets highest rank etc. If not
satisfied with your choices then return to the search phase. Can
you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc.
Information from different sources may be treated differently.
Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives.
4. Purchase decision--Choose buying alternative, includes
product, package, store, method of purchase etc.
5. Purchase--May differ from decision, time lapse between 4 & 5,
product availability.
6. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or
Dissatisfaction. Cognitive Dissonance, have you made the right
decision. This can be reduced by warranties, after sales
communication etc.
After eating an Indian meal, may think that really you wanted a
Chinese meal instead.

 To under stand why customer buy a particular product.

 To know the marketing opportunities.
 To know about customer acceptance of the product.
 To analyse the customer expectation from the manufacturer.
 To help the company to know what consumer want in the

Research problems: To study buying behavior of consumer for indigenous and

imported products.

Data source: Primary data and secondary data

Research approach: Survey approach

Research methodology: Exploratory method

Research Instruments: Questionnaire


Population Definition

Sample: Malls ,Super Mark

Extent: Delhi/NCR

Sample Methods Random Simple Sampling

Sample size 75.
Primary data Questionnaire and Interview


While deciding about the sample of research, it is required from the researcher’s
point to pay attention to these under mentioned points:
a) Sample Units: A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit
before selecting a sample, sampling unit may be a geographical one
such as state, district, village Etc. so in this research sampling unit is
b) Source list: It is also called sampling frame from which sample is to be
drawn ,it caters name of all the items of a universe (in case of finite
universe only).Researcher has to prepare it
c) Sampling size: This refers to the no. of items to be selected from the
universe to constitute a sample. This is a major problem before the
researcher. The size of sample should neither be excessively large not
too small, it should be optimum. This size of population must be kept in
view for this also limits the sample size .Sample size in this research is
75 customers.
d) Sampling procedure: Finally the researcher must decide the type of
sample he must be .That is he must decide about the technique to be
used in selecting items for the sample .In fact this technique or
procedure stands for the sample design itself. In this we used the
random sampling on the basis of first survey results, which is from 75

We collected primary data through sample survey or census surveys from the
selected elements in malls and super markets. So for this purpose we have used
the most popular tool of primary data collection through direct communication
with respondents. The tools we used are questionnaires.

Source of data: Data required for the study was collected through primary
sources i.e. Market Survey.


Actually data is of two kinds so researchers should keep in mind both types of
a) Primary Data: Primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the
first time and this happen to be original in character.
b) Secondary Data: Secondary data are those data which have already been
collected by someone else and which have already been used as per required.
There are basically two sources to collect secondary data
a) Internally: Provided by the company/organization
b)Externally: Various publication of central, state and local Government.
 Books, magazines, newspapers
 Internet
After only keeping in mind one can think about what type of data has to be
collected during research as our research is concerned we have to gather
primary data for Customer behavior

Every project faces some limitation; because of this limitation the required
And necessary data to complete the project may not gather in proper manner.
The limitations which we observe were as follows:
 With respect to actual population the sample size was too small. This
might be effect the final result.

 Since the responses were only from some part of Delhi, the report cannot
be generalized for whole Delhi and NCR.

 Respondents may have given bias information.

 The time limit for the research was one week that was small time to
collect adequate information for inference for the consumer buying

In order to write the literature review chapter component of my dissertation you

need to go through complete four basic stages.

i. Problem formulation stage:

ii. Literature Search:
iii. Data Evaluation:
iv. Analyze and Interpret Findings:

There are a number of key point that should be included in the actual
review of the literature. For example, you should provide an overview of the
subject as well as the theory or issue you are writing about. This area should
already be thoroughly covered in your dissertation and should connect smoothly
to the literature review component.

Introduction to Consumer Behavior: Role of Consumer Behavior in Marketing,

Distinction among consumer, customer, buyer, user and payer. Framework of
Consumer Behavior – Internal Influences, External Influences, Self-Concept &
Life Style and Decision Process. Interdisciplinary subject encompassing
concepts from psychology, sociology, anthropology, micro-economics and
organizational (buying) behavior. Applications of Consumer Behavior.

Consumer Perception: Perception Process & Involvement, Sensation & Sensory

Thresholds, Sensory Overload & Selective Perception, Use of Gestalt Principles in
Marketing Communications, Common Perceptions of Colors, Interpretation –
Semiotics. Perceived Risk. Marketing Strategies targeting the customer: Advertising
Strategy –Understanding the media consumption habits of the customer.

Consumer Needs & Motivation: Needs & Wants, Latent & Manifest Motives in
a Purchase Situation, Maslow’s Needs & Consumer Behavior, Trio of Needs
Theory, Motivation Theories - Optimum Stimulation, Hedonic Experiences,
maintaining behavioral freedom, avoiding risk, attributing causality.
Motivational Conflict, Motivational Research.

Consumer Attitude Formation & Change: Attitude functions. Tri-

component attitude model, hierarchies of attitude components. Multi-attribute
attitude models. Attitude measurement. Changing consumer attitudes.
Consumer Learning: Applications of behavioral learning theories (classical
conditioning & operant conditioning) and cognitive learning theories (iconic
rote, vicarious/modeling and reasoning/analogy) to consumer behavior.

Consumer in the Market Place: Factors influencing consumer outlet choice.

Shopping orientation & shopping styles. Types of purchases. In-store influences
on purchase. Consumer responses to marketing communications. Different
forms of advertising appeals & consumer behavior.

Post-Purchase Behavior: Satisfaction/dissatisfaction – loyalty/non-use or

complaint behavior. Measuring satisfaction, handling complaints, achieving
customer loyalty. Post-purchase dissonance – causes and approaches to
reducing the same. Disposal alternatives
Dark Side of Consumer Behavior: Concerns of marketers and dark side of
consumer behavior (addictions, devious behaviors).

Organizational Consumer Behavior: Organizational buying roles, buying

situations & buying processes. Influences on organizational buying behavior.
Scope of the Study

The study is confined to the life insurance market, about the investor

preferences towards life insurance and a specific focus on the Company Product has

been made.

1 To understand the psychology of customer behavior and the reactions of the

customers when they are approached.

2 To develop an overall view of the Marketing sector in the company.

3 To understand the selling mechanism and various techniques involved in the

marketing of Company products

4 To understand customers perceptions regarding for opting of Product.


News paper: - The Economic Times.

Business Standard.

Journals: - Business World, Business Today.

Website: -
Book: - Kotler Philip , Principle of Management

Khothri C R , Research Methodology