> Opinion Paper

Universal Integrated
Circuit Card
The (r)evolution of smart card technology 2007 / 11

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Universal Integrated Circuit Card

Table of Contents
List of Figures ............................................................................................................. 3 1 2 Executive Summary ............................................................................................ 4 Smart cards: Technical key characteristics ......................................................... 5 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 4 Functional use ............................................................................................. 5 Chip hierarchy ............................................................................................. 6 Multi-application capability .......................................................................... 7 Smart card classification ............................................................................. 8

Universal Integrated Circuit Card: An architectural overview ............................. 9 Universal Integrated Circuit Card: Use cases and opportunities...................... 11 4.1 4.2 UICC enablers and scenarios ................................................................... 11 Near Field Communication........................................................................ 12

5 6 7 8 9 10

Universal Integrated Circuit Card: Stakeholders and success factors ............. 16 Smart cards: Past, present and future............................................................... 18 Reading on........................................................................................................ 19 Glossary ............................................................................................................ 20 The Authors....................................................................................................... 21 The Company.................................................................................................... 22

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Smart card classification ........................................................................................... 8 Figure 2: Functional architecture of mono-application card versus multi-application platform 9 Figure 3: UICC architecture example (SIMphonIC 3G) ......................................................... 10 Figure 4: UICC use cases ...................................................................................................... 12 Figure 5: Mobile Payment postpaid use case ........................................................................ 13 Figure 6: Mobile Payment prepaid use case.......................................................................... 14 Figure 7: Mobile Ticketing use case....................................................................................... 15 Figure 8: UICC stakeholders.................................................................................................. 16

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1 Executive Summary
Universal Integrated Circuit Cards (UICCs) are superior from a functional and technical perspective in comparison to its non-multi-application capable predecessors. Nevertheless UICC smart cards have not had any significant market impact so far. Neither the mobile network operator (MNO) nor the customer realizes the outstanding benefits, this new smart card technology is able to provide to them. Promising new use cases have not been successfully launched yet. A combination of UICC and contactless technology like Near Field Communication (NFC) is evaluated as the most promising enabler for UICC use cases. Especially Mobile Ticketing and Mobile Payment will most probably first be adopted by mass market.

The UICC smart card

Source: Klaus Vedder, Smart Cards, 2007

The UICC is available in three formats. Two Nevertheless, these use cases and UICC are already known from the GSM context. technology will only be successful with the The Mini-UICC is a newly defined format with total commitment of all stakeholders includ- a size of only 15 x 12 mm. ing MNOs, customers, service providers, UICC and device manufacturers as well as standardization bodies. If all stakeholders succeed in building up lasting relationships and to steadily provide their commitment towards UICC and NFC technology new use cases can evolve in the next years helping UICC to become a market success.

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2 Smart cards: Technical key characteristics
About 1.5 billion SIM cards are deployed each year in the telecoms sector. EMV (Europay, Mastercard, Visa) migration towards smart cards has been partially or fully done in 100 countries. Contactless smart card based payment is already used for small transactions. 10 million of those cards have been deployed in the US and Japan. 30 countries worldwide already introduced the ePassport. National electronic ID cards are used in more than 15 countries. Health care system cards have been introduced in Germany, Austria, China, France and other countries. The examples point out the huge field of applications for smart cards. In order to make the term smart card more understandable, the functional use, chip hierarchy and multiapplication capability of smart cards will be discussed. Furthermore a classification of smart cards according to performance and convenience will be presented.

2.1

Functional use Benefits from being contactless
Speed: Contactless transactions provide a much faster total transaction time for consumers. Convenience: Contactless transactions require less effort for the consumer – just present the card and go. Low maintenance: Without components exposed to the elements and to the friction of contact scenarios, contactless systems require less maintenance. Consumer appeal: Contactless systems can employ a large array of form factors in addition to cards – watches, key fobs, rings, etc. Consumer appeal can be optimized depending on the application and the target market.

Functional use refers to the means by which the smart card is able to transfer data to a smart card reader. In a contact scenario, the card must be inserted into a slot of the smart card reader. When inserted appropriately, the contact plate (visible metallic plate) of the smart card aligns with the electronic contacts inside the reader. Now data can be transmitted between card and reader across this connection. Contactless scenarios are those in which the smart card transfers data with the reader without the two making a physical contact. This transaction occurs when the cardholder presents the card within a close proximity (up to 15 cm) from the reader. The data is then conveyed across this distance via electro-magnetic fields.

While the original smart cards were all contact in nature, today’s requirements of increased transaction speed and especially customer convenience are driving the market towards contactless environments. In the contact scenario the cardholder must stop at the terminal, align the card with the reader slot, insert the card, perhaps press an “accept” button, and retract the card. Conversely, the contactless cardholder can present the card to the reader while walking past it. For applications requiring high volumes, such as mass transit, this difference between contact and contactless is tremendous. Even for applications in other arenas, the contactless advantage could be the difference between a repeat customer, and one who seeks optimal service elsewhere.

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2.2

Chip hierarchy Benefits from being microprocessor chip based
Security: Microprocessor-based cards can comply with the highest protocols of security and algorithms – e.g. 3DES, RSA and ECC. Performance: Microprocessors have the capacity and performance to handle multiple applications on the same card. The consumer gets the benefits of two or more services in one product. Hence microprocessors can be seen as an enabler for multiapplication platforms like UICC. Easy-to-update: The computing power of a microprocessor provides capabilities for updating the cards even after the launch. Whether adding a new application, or updating an existing one, consumers can update their cards on the fly.

The chip hierarchy refers to the method in which the chip that resides within the smart card is constructed and to the resulting capabilities of that chip. As with many technologies the more simplistic the construction the more limited the flexibility. In today’s market three primary chip categories can be distinguished: memory chips, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and microprocessor chips. Memory chips, the most basic, are a simple data repository with no processing capabilities. The memory can only hold static data like an ID number, name or a log of information not requiring dynamic encryption. Memory chips are unable to process any data and cannot be reprogrammed once they have been created. To alter the capabilities of a memory card, the card would have to be completely replaced.

ASIC chips are hard-coded to retain data and perform a particular processing task. This processing capability makes ASICs more powerful than memory chips. In addition to simple processing of data, this difference also provides for limited static encryption. Nevertheless this static encryption is not accepted by financial institutions and is usually only allowed on low security applications such as access control. While the ASIC is more powerful than a memory chip, it cannot be reprogrammed once created. Replacement is the only means to add/change chip capabilities for both memory and ASIC chips.

Microprocessor chips are most complex and powerful compared to memory and ASIC based chips. These microprocessors function similarly to a computer, with an analogous level of software flexibility. Like the first two categories, microprocessor chips retain data. Similar to the ASICs, microprocessors have processing capabilities. The distinguishing factors of microprocessors are that their processing capabilities allow for dynamic encryption and also for updating their software applications. This could mean either adding/removing applications or improving the version of an existing application. These updates can be easily downloaded to the microprocessor at the merchant terminal, special download kiosks or via the Internet. In today’s environment of constantly improving software and of combining multiple applications on one card, this capability of microprocessors can make the difference in a successful smart card program.

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2.3

Multi-application capability Benefits from being multiapplication capable
Convenience: Multi-application capable smart cards are able to execute multiple applications in parallel. This reduces the number of smart cards the customer is required to carry along. Cost reduction: Multiple service usage with a multi-application capable smart card is more cost efficient than the use of several native monoapplication cards.

The first smart cards were all native monoapplication cards that were only able to store and execute exactly one application at a time. Modern smart cards are able to execute multiple applications in parallel. As consumers already feel they carry too many cards - several credit cards, debit cards, a driver’s license and membership cards - asking the consumer to carry another card for each proprietary smart card program goes against the consumer’s inherent desire for consolidation and convenience. All other parameters being equal, consumers prefer carrying one smart card that can be used at multiple environments to carrying multiple cards, each with exclusive functionality at one environment.

A multi-application smart card could provide functionalities like mobile telephony, building/office access, purchasing capabilities at multiple stores and loyalty rewards. These multi-application capable smart cards are especially attractive to consumers being offered a second smart card. And as additional smart card programs are launched, and competition for “share of wallet” increases, providing consumers with multi-application functionality is a primary means of ensuring the success of a particular smart card. In addition, the industry is now openly acknowledging and accepting that there are no static solutions in the smart card world. Success requires the capability to update applications (and add new applications) to existing cards. Whether the primary focus of the card is mobile telephony or e-purse, the capability for the cards to be updated is imperative in the long term.

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2.4

Smart card classification

Smart cards can be classified according to performance and convenience. First smart cards on the market were contact based memory cards. The most advanced cards are microprocessor based contactless cards with multi-application capability. Convenience and performance of modern cards like the UICC tends to be much higher as for the traditional cards.

Contactless microproc. multi-appl.

Convenience

Contactless memory

Contactless ASIC

Contactless microproc. mono-appl.

Contact memory

Contact ASIC

Contact microproc. mono-appl.

Performance

Figure 1: Smart card classification

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3 Universal Integrated Circuit Card: An architectural overview
The SIM in GSM networks according to the standard GSM 11.11 works as a monoapplication card. With introducing the UICC there is a shift to multi-application platforms, i.e. layers and applications are separated from each other and can co-exist on one card. These multiple applications can run in parallel using logical channels.

Others EMV

eHealth ISIM
Banking Location Browser

SIM
(U)CAT Electronic Purse

SIMWIM SIM Application Toolkit (SAT)

Phonebook

SIM

UICC
GSM Purse

Figure 2: Functional architecture of mono-application card versus multi-application platform

1

The UICC is a standardized smart card platform used in mobile terminals of NGN networks. The UICC consists of RAM, ROM, EEPROM, I/O circuits and a CPU. It ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal data. With UMTS release 5, the IP Multimedia Services Identity Module (ISIM) was specified as the standard application for usage in IMS networks. The ISIM runs on the UICC and contains parameters for identifying and authenticating the user against the IMS, e.g. a private user identity, one or more public user identities and a long-term secret. The ISIM application can co-exist on the UICC with other applications, like (U)SIM or applications for value added services, and would make it possible to use one smart card for GSM, UMTS, IMS authentication and additionally for value added services like ePurse at the same time. Figure 2 shows an architectural overview of mono- and multiapplication smart cards. In Figure 3 the architecture of the SIMphonIC 3G card of Oberthur Card Systems is exemplarily shown. This card features four logical channels for multitasking operations, SIM, USIM and ISIM applications as well as support for different encryption algorithms (COMP128, AES, Milenage, CAVE, RSA).

1

Lenhart, Gaby: The Smart Card Platform, 2004

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It is compatible to SUN’s Java Card standard and enables the usage of the Universal Card Application Toolkit (UCAT). The Application Loader is implemented according to the Global Platform standard.

Dynamic E²PROM Manager Dynamic RAM Manager UCAT Applet 1 Phone Book UCAT Applet n Java Applet Java Applet

Card Application Toolkit APIs UCAT Run Time Environment

Global Platform Application Loader & Manager COMP 128 SIM AES Milenage USIM CAVE RSA

Java Card API Java Card Virtual Machine Java Card Run Time Environment

ISIM

4 Logical Channels UICC Operating System

Figure 3: UICC architecture example (SIMphonIC 3G)

2

2

Oberthur Card Systems: SIMphonIC 3G, 2007

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4 Universal Integrated Circuit Card: Use cases and opportunities
The UICC offers a broad range of opportunities, which can be easily demonstrated by realizing how many promising UICC use cases exist. As already introduced in chapter 2 the functional usage can be either based on a physical contact between card and reading device or contactless. The functional use seems to be the most appropriate differentiator for use cases. Most use cases may be realized either contact based or contactless, heavily depending on the customer needs and potential return on investment figures. Contactless application scenarios seem to be more dynamic and faster growing, with its main representative: Mobile Near Field Communication.

4.1

UICC enablers and scenarios

The UICC may be used for a variety of applications. Mobile telephony is the most obvious use case. In addition to mobile communication, the multi-application capability of the UICC may work as an enabler for mobile ticketing, e.g. to access public transport systems easily. Mobile payment solutions are already widely used for credit/debit/pre-paid stored value card payments at merchants/retail stores. This is another very promising use case and will likely be adapted to the UICC environment as one of the first applications. The UICC may also be used to secure the physical access to home or office facilities as well as to secure logical access, e.g. access to computer networks. Also in the automotive sector, access control, in this case to a car, comes to mind. In order to award loyalty points, today a vast multitude of different loyalty programs exists. Unfortunately thereby the customer needs to cope with a plethora of cards. In this respect, the UICC could increase usability and customer satisfaction tremendously, as different loyalty programs can coexist on one single card. Medical information for use in emergencies may be stored within health care applications on the UICC. Some countries already introduced smart cards for their health care systems. Therefore the integration of health care in secure multi-application UICCs seems to be very useful. Another use case may be the controlling of music or other multi-media data exchanges, i.e. Digital Rights Management. By looking a bit more into the future, information on a smart poster at a bus stop might be created dynamically, subject to who is approaching the poster. Therefore smart advertisement is another potential application for UICCs.

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Universal Integrated Circuit Card

Mobile Ticketing Mobile Telephony

Mobile Payment Smart Advertisement Application

Physical Access

UICC Use Cases

Automotive Application

Logical Access Loyalty Application Health Care Application

Digital Rights Management

Figure 4: UICC use cases

In general use cases may either be based on contact or contactless solutions, depending on the specific application scenario. Contact based smart card use cases are already widespread and covered by the UICC’s predecessors. In this context the UICC is an important tool to improve customer convenience and cut costs, by utilizing the multi-applications capability of the UICC. Contactless application scenarios are still not comparably popular. Especially for Mobile Near Field Communication the UICC is one of the most important enablers. Vice versa Mobile Near Field Communication will help the UICC to gain in acceptance. This creates the risk of a “chicken and egg” scenario.

4.2

Near Field Communication Key NFC use cases
Mobile Ticketing – for example to access public transport systems Mobile Payment – for example for credit/debit/pre-paid stored value card payments at merchants/retail stores

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a standardsbased, short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables simple and safe two-way interactions among electronic devices. NFC is designed to operate over very short distances, typically less than 4 cm. It creates a simple and secure environment for the evolving of new contactless mobile services. As a combination of contactless services and mobile telephony Mobile NFC emerged in the last years enabling new services and business models.

In the field of Mobile NFC UICC is the most appropriate Secure Element (SE) within mobile devices. UICC provides logical and physical security and offers many unique advantages for the customer. There are two possibilities to realize Mobile Near Field Communication:

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(1) NFC application integrated into the mobile device • • Mobile device contains contactless components (chip + antenna) Contactless applications are stored on and executed by the mobile device

(2) NFC application integrated into the UICC • • UICC itself is the contactless component (dual interface chip) Contactless applications are stored on and executed by the UICC

Alternative (2) is the preferred solution, because it offers higher security, higher performance and does not depend on the handset and its batteries. Mobile devices can serve not only as devices for communication but also for many other applications. We all walk past billboards and posters advertising products. By adding NFCcompatible “tags” to posters and magazine advertisements, we can read the tags with an NFC-enabled phone and immediately act – before we forget. NFC tags can be used on special documents like parking permits, credit cards and money to prove authenticity. An NFC hologram is copy-resistant and can be cancelled if it is stolen. NFC also enables simple and easy set-up of connections. For example, to connect a Bluetooth headset to a mobile device, you just hold the devices close to each other and the connection automatically starts. The combination of UICC and NFC technology enables different use cases. Mobile Payment and Mobile Ticketing will most probably be the use cases first to be commercially used. Figure 5 shows an example for the process flow of a mobile payment post paid transaction. In a first step the buyer holds his NFC enabled cell phone close to the NFC reading device. This device could be a dedicated NFC reader but also another NFC enabled cell phone. After authorizing the transaction by PIN the money is transferred from the buyer’s banking or credit card account to the seller’s account. The transaction is completed by confirming the successful conduction.

1

Buyer
Authorize the transaction by entering PIN

Holding cell phone close to NFC reading device

Seller
Confirm the success of the transaction

2
Transfer money from buyer´s account to seller´s account

4

Payment backend

3

Seller’s account

Figure 5: Mobile Payment postpaid use case

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In contrast to this approach prepaid Mobile Payment offers the possibility to top up money onto an ePurse. Thereby money can be transferred directly between the buyer and the seller without involving any payment backend (see Figure 6).

1

Buyer
Authorize the transaction by entering PIN

Holding cell phone close to NFC reading device

Seller
Confirm the success of the transaction

2
Transfer money from buyer´s account to seller´s account

4

ePurse

3

Figure 6: Mobile Payment prepaid use case

Nokia and further ten mobile operators (e.g. KPN, O2, Orange, and Vodafone) have set up an initiative to enable mobile payment services (GSMA “Pay-Buy-Mobile” Initiative). Other companies that joined the initiative are the handset vendors Samsung and LG and the credit card company MasterCard. Mobile Ticketing is another promising NFC use case. Thereby the customer buys a ticket by holding his NFC enabled mobile device to an NFC reader at the bus stop. After the successful settlement of the payment the eTicket is issued and delivered to the customer´s mobile device. The customer can present the valid eTicket to the controller in case of being asked for it.

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Controller

Payment backend

Settle payment details Check ticket 3 6

Customer
4 Buy ticket 2 Indicate payment

1 Deliver eTicket

5

Read bus stop ID

Bus stop

Ticketing backend
Figure 7: Mobile Ticketing use case

A successful pilot project for a Mobile Ticketing service has been successfully achieved with the German Public Transport Network Operator RMV (Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund) in Hanau, Germany. Bus passengers in Hanau had the option to buy their tickets via mobile phone. More than 90% of the test users in the pilot considered this a positive, convenient system worth continuing, and now this opportunity is available to all Hanau residents. Other successful Mobile Payment and Mobile Ticketing trials have been conducted in France, Finland, the Netherlands, Korea and Japan.

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5 Universal Integrated Circuit Card: Stakeholders and success factors
The key players in the context of UICC consist of customers, mobile network operators (MNOs), service providers, standardization bodies as well as UICC and device manufacturers. Customers expect convenient and secure services, within a trusted environment. Service providers want their applications to be housed and used on as many cards as possible. Device manufacturers want their mobile devices to be more appealing to the customer. MNOs and service providers seek to launch new mobile contact based or contactless services that are secure, of high quality and consistent with the existing services. MNOs and UICC manufacturers want to leverage the unique capabilities provided by the UICC to guarantee security and privacy to the customer as well as to increase the perceived level of convenience. MNOs will try to leverage their long-standing customer relationship and have to provide a seamless service to both the customer and the service provider. Furthermore it is no doubt that the UICC will only be a major success, if the card and related technology is based on reliable standards.

Customers

UICC Manufacturers

Mobile Network Operators

Service Providers Device Manufacturers

Standardization Bodies

Figure 8: UICC stakeholders

From the functional and technical point of view the UICC is superior to its predecessors. Therefore the future success of the UICC will heavily depend on the ability of the industry to establish a steady ecosystem. The commercial success of UICC technology is closely linked with the development of Near Field Communication. Only if NFC evolves from a promising technology to a sustainable business enabler UICC will have global market impact. Therefore NFC services like Mobile Payment and Mobile Ticketing have to quickly get adopted by the customer. To create efficient services and business models the commitment of all stakeholders is important. Not only the commitment, but also the ability to build up lasting relationships between the different stakeholders is decisive.

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Most important is the commitment of mobile network operators, as they will be the dominant purchasers of UICCs. Even if initial costs per units of UICCs will be higher than of less sophisticated cards, the possibility to add applications to the smart card and therefore to offer different services on a single card leads to lower costs in the end. The costs will be split between the mobile network operator and the different service providers. New value added services will help to speed up the time until initial investments are amortized. Other than the operators and service providers also the customers need to be convinced that the acceptance of the UICC implicates major advantages. Customers will benefit the most from the introduction of the UICC, as from their perspective the convenience increases and functions are added, while the costs stay as they are. Therefore the customers’ acceptance seems to be of a minor problem. Manufacturers of mobile devices struggle with the customers’ desire to always get new products with more and more functions and capabilities. The multiapplication capability of the UICC and the combination with NFC technology brings along the potential to add a vast amount of new functions and to enable the realization of use cases that were not accomplishable so far. These examples clearly point towards two major findings: • • The acceptance of ALL involved parties is of paramount importance. The combination of UICC and NFC technology is seen as an eminent enabler for convenient contactless solutions and therefore helps to overcome existing restraints.

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6 Smart cards: Past, present and future
In the late 80s France Telecom started to introduce low-end memory phone cards. In 1987 when smart cards seemed an interesting idea, but were only used in very small volumes, Michel Ugon, one of the founders of the smart card industry, commented about smart card usage in the year 2000: “There is no doubt that this small piece of plastic with an embedded chip will invade our everyday life in the coming years.”3 13 years ago, the Internet was literally nonexistent. From a smart card perspective, it was the boom time for prepaid phone cards to be used in phone booths (300 million cards sold in 1994). In 1994 the worldwide deliveries of SIM cards were a mere ten million units. This year they are going to be about 2.4 billion units: 240 times more! While these different cards were launched initially for the same purpose – to make a phone call – now there is the evolution of the UICC with gigabytes of memory and various applications running in parallel on the card, covering far more than just telecommunications. Think about contactless services today, governmental, banking and access control applications or the convergence between telecommunication, payment and Internet services. For 2007 it is expected that 400 million shipped smart card units will be contactless devices. Eurosmart (www.eurosmart.com) predicts a growth of about 20 per cent for 2007 with total shipments exceeding 4 billion smart cards. In the year 2020 worldwide 4 billion people will use mobile phones; more than 4 billion citizens will carry eIDs. Contactless, microprocessor chip based multi-application capable smart cards like the UICC will have a big impact on future use of mobile devices and future mobile business models. Mobile device based contactless payments are believed to facilitate over $36 billion of worldwide consumer spending by 2011. ABI Research predicts that by 2012 nearly 500 million cellular handsets will incorporate NFC capabilities. Due to UICC one smart card can be used for different applications like GSM, UMTS, IMS or an electronic purse. Combined with NFC technology, UICC will work as an enabler for value added services and create new use cases like Mobile Payment and Mobile Ticketing. Nevertheless the future success of the UICC and these use cases heavily depends on the commitment of all players in the UICC/NFC ecosystem.4

3

Michel Ugon: Smart Card Present and Future, Smart Card 2000, 1989

Figures were taken from Eurosmart: www.eurosmart.com, 2007, Eurosmart: The Smart & Secure World in 2020, 2007 and ABI Research, 2007

4

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7 Reading on
Amling, Stephan; Kreft, Christian; Schneiderbauer, Dieter; Stroh, Stefan: Next Generation eTicketing, 2007 Cozzolino, Sergio: Hot Topics for SIM Evolution from an Operator perspective, 2007 Daguise, Alain: Oberthur Card Systems Product Policy and Global Platform, 2002 ETSI: TS 102 221 UICC-Terminal interface; Physical and logical characteristics, v7.9.0, 2007 ETSI: TS 102 223 Card Application Toolkit (CAT), v7.9.0, 2007 ETSI: TS 102 224 Smart Cards; Security mechanisms for UICC based Applications - Functional requirements, v7.1.0, 2006 ETSI: TS 102 225 Smart Cards; Secured packet structure for UICC based applications, v7.3.0, 2006 ETSI: TS 102 241 Smart Cards; UICC Application Programming Interface (UICC API) for Java Card™, v7.8.0, 2007 Eurosmart: Smart card figures, http://www.eurosmart.com, 2007 Eurosmart: The Smart & Secure World in 2020, 2007 Gemalto: Smartcard figures, 2007 Giesecke & Devrient: About Near Field Communication, 2006 GSMA: Mobile NFC Services, 2007 GSMA: Mobile NFC Technical Guidelines, 2007 Lenhart, Gaby: The Smart Card Platform, 2004 Mobile Payment Worlds: Trends in mobile and contactless payments, 2007 NFC Forum: Near Field Communication Technology and the Road Ahead, 2007 OTi America: The Smart Card Evolution, 2003 Vedder, Klaus: Intermodal Means of Payment or The Contactless SIM, 2004 Vedder, Klaus: Smart Cards, 2007

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8 Glossary
3DES ADF API ASIC CAPEX (U)CAT CPU DF ECC EEPROM EF eGK EMV GSM GSMA I/O IMS M(V)NO MF NFC OPEX OTA PIN RAM ROM RSA SAT SE (U/I)SIM TSM UICC UMTS VAS Triple Date Encryption Standard Application Dedicated File Application Programming Interface Application Specific Integrated Circuits Capital Expenditure (Universal) Card Application Toolkit Central Processing Unit Dedicated File Elliptic Curve Cryptography Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory Elementary File elektronische Gesundheitskarte Europay, Mastercard, Visa Global System for Mobile communications GSM Association Input/Output IP Mulitmedia Subsystem Mobile (Virtual) Network Operator Master File Near Field Communication Operational Expenditure Over The Air Personal Identification Number Random Access Memory Read-only Memory Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman SIM Application Toolkit Secure Element (Universal/IMS) Subscriber Identity Module Trusted Service Manager Universal Integrated Circuit Card Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Value Added Services

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9 The Authors
Bernd Jaster has been a Business Analyst for Detecon in the Competence Practice Information Technology since 2006. Following his studies of computer science and business at the University of Bamberg, Germany and Keele University, UK his career started at Detecon within the Strategic Technology group. Through his diploma thesis and several projects he has gained knowledge of different ICT technologies and Next Generation Networks. His emphases are ICT strategies and ICT blueprints as well as the deep-dive into new and disruptive technologies. He can be reached at: +49 228 700 1941 or Bernd.Jaster@detecon.com

Frank Weiß is Business Analyst with Detecon, Munich. In September 2007 he joined the Strategic Technology Group within the Competence Practice Information Technology. Through his studies in business and computer science with a focus on telecommunications and network technologies as well as through first consulting projects he gained knowledge in the field of ICT Technologies and ICT Strategy. He can be reached at: +49 89 54636578 or Frank.Weiss@detecon.com

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10 The Company
Detecon International GmbH Detecon International is a leading worldwide company for integrated management and technology consulting founded in 2002 from the merger of consulting firms DETECON and Diebold. Based on its comprehensive expertise in information and communication technology (ICT), Detecon provides consulting services to customers from all key industries. The company's focus is on the development of new business models, optimization of existing strategies and increase of corporate efficiency through strategy, organization and process improvements. This combined with Detecon's exceptional technological expertise enables us to provide consulting services along our customers' entire value-added chain.. The industry know-how of our consultants and the knowledge we have gained from successful management and ICT projects in over 100 countries forms the foundation of our services. Detecon is a subsidiary of T-Systems, the business customers brand of Deutsche Telekom. Integrated Management and Technology Competence We possess an excellent capability to translate our technological expertise and comprehensive industry and procedural knowledge into concrete strategies and solutions. From analysis to design and implementation, we use integrated, systematic and customer-oriented consulting approaches. These entail, among other things, the evaluation of core competencies, modular design of services, value-oriented client management and the development of efficient structures in order to be able to distinguish oneself on the market with innovative products. All of this makes companies in the global era more flexible and faster – at lower costs. Detecon offers both horizontal services that are oriented towards all industries and can entail architecture, marketing or purchasing strategies, for example, as well as vertical consulting services that presuppose extensive industry knowledge. Detecon's particular strength in the ICT industry is documented by numerous domestic and international projects for telecommunications providers, mobile operators and regulatory authorities that focused on the development of networks and markets, evaluation of technologies and standards or support during the merger and acquisition process. Detecon International GmbH Oberkasselerstr. 2 53227 Bonn Telefon: +49 228 700 0 E-Mail: info@detecon.com Internet: www.detecon.com

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