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When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills and plains" (Deuteronomy 11:11), "a good land, of brooks and of waters, and of fountains: in the plains of which and the hills deep rivers break out: a land of wheat, and barley, and vineyards, wherein fig-trees and pomegranates, and oliveyards grow: a land of oil and honey" (Deuteronomy 8:7-8). This glowing description, sketched exclusively from an utilitarian point of view, was far from doing justice to the wonderful variety of the country's productions, to which several causes contributed. First the differences of elevation; for between Lebanon, 10,000 feet above sea level, and the shores of the Dead Sea, 1285 feet below the Mediterranean, every gradation of altitude is to be found, within less than 200 miles. Sinuous valleys furrow the highland, causing an incredible variation in topography; hence, cultivated land lies almost side by side with patches of desert. The soil is now of clay, now of clay mixed with lime, farther on of sand; the surface rock is soft limestone, and basalt. In addition to these factors, variations of climate consequent on change of altitude and geographical position cause forms of vegetation which elsewhere grow far apart to thrive side by side within the narrow limits of Palestine. The vegetation along the west coast, like that of Spain, southern Italy, Sicily, and Algeria, is composed of characteristic species of Mediterranean flora. Near the perennial snows of the northern peaks grow the familiar plants of Alpine and sub-Alpine regions; the highlands of Palestine and the eastern slopes of the northern ranges produce the Oriental vegetation of the steppes; whereas the peculiar climate conditions prevailing along the Ghôr and about the Dead Sea favour a sub-tropical flora, characterized by species resembling those which thrive in Nubia and Abyssinia. Over 3000 species of Palestinian flora are known to exist, but the Holy Land of our day can give only an imperfect idea of what it was in Biblical times. The hill-country of Juda and the Negeb are, as formerly, the grazing lands of the Judean herds, yet groves, woods, and forest flourished everywhere, few traces of which remain. The cedar-forests of Lebanon had a world-wide reputation; the slopes of Hermon and the mountains of Galaad were covered with luxuriant pine woods; oak forests were the distinctive feature of Basan, throughout Ephraim clumps of terebinths dotted the land, while extensive palm groves were both the ornament and wealth of the Jordan Valley. The arable land, much of which now lies fallow, was all cultivated and amply rewarded the tiller. The husbandman derived from his orchards and vineyards abundant crops of olives, figs, pomegranates, and grapes. Nearly every Jewish peasant had his "garden of herbs", furnishing in season vegetables and fruits for the table, flowers, and medicinal plants. Only some 130 plants are mentioned in Scripture, which is not surprising since ordinary people are interested only in a few, whether ornamental or useful. The first attempt to classify this flora is in Genesis 1:11-12, where it is divided into: (1) deshe, signifying all low plants, e.g., cryptogamia; (2) ‘esebh, including herbaceous plants; (3) ‘es peri, embracing all trees. In the course of time, the curiosity of men was attracted by the riches of Palestinian vegetation; Solomon, in particular, is said to have treated about the trees (i.e., plants) from the lofty cedar "unto the hyssop that cometh out of the wall" (1 Kings 4:33). Of the plants mentioned in the Bible, the most common varieties may be identified either with certainty or probability; but a large proportion of the biblical plant-names are generic rather than specific, e.g., briers, grass, nettles, etc.; and just what plants are meant in some cases is impossible to determine, e.g., algum, cockle, gall, etc. A
complete alphabetical list of the plant-names found in the English Versions is here given, with an attempt at identification. Acacia. See Setim. Acanth. See Brier. Algum (A. V., 2 Chronicles, 2:8; D. V., 9:10, 11, "thyme trees", "fir trees"; written "almug" in A.V., 1 Samuel 10:11-12). No doubt the same tree is signified, the double name being due to a mere accidental transposition of the letters; if linguistic analogy may be trusted in, almug is correct (cf. Tamil, valguka). The algum tree is spoken of as a valuable exotic product imported to Palestine by Hiram's and Solomon's fleets (1 Kings 10:11; 2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10), suitable for fine joinery and making musical instruments (1 Kings 10:12; 2 Chronicles 9:11). Josephus (Ant., VIII, vii, 1) says it was somewhat like the wood of the fig tree, but whiter and more glittering. According to most modern scholars and certain rabbis, the red sandal-wood, Pterocarpus santalina, is intended, though some of the uses made of it appear to require a stouter material. The identification proposed by Vulg. (see Thyine) is much more satisfactory. Almond tree, Hebrew luz (Genesis 30:37; "hazel" in A. V. is a mistranslation; cf. Arab. laux), apparently an old word later supplanted by shaqed (Genesis 43:11; Numbers 17:8; Ecclesiastes 12:5); which alludes to the early blossoming of the tree. Almonds are (Genesis 43:11) considered one of the best fruits in the Orient, and the tree, Amygdalus communis, has always been cultivated there. Several varieties, A. orientalis, Ait., or A. argentea, A. lycioides, Spach, A. spartioides, Spach, grow wild in districts such as Lebanon, Carmel, Moab. Almug. See Algum. Aloes (Proverbs 7:17; Song of Songs 4:14; John 19:39; A. V., Psalm 45:8) is reckoned among "the chief perfumes". In A. V., Num. xxiv, 6 ("lign aloes"; D. V., "tabernacles" is an erroneous translation), a tree is clearly intended. The officinal aloes, Liliacea, is not alluded to; the aloes of the Bible is the product of a tree of the genus Aquilaria, perhaps A. agallocha, Roxb., a native of northern India; at a certain stage of decay, the wood develops a fragrance well known to the ancients (Dioscorides, i, 21), and from it a rare perfume was obtained. Amomum (Revelation 18:13, neither in the Greek New Testament, Vulg., A. V., nor D. V., but found in critical editions, such as Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Nestle), a perfume well known in antiquity (Dioscor., i, 14; Theophr., "Hist. plant.", ix, 7; "De odor.", 32; etc.). The Assyrian variety was particularly prized (Virg., Eclog., iv, 25; Josephus, "Ant.", XX, ii, 3; Martial., "Epigr.", vii, 77; Ovid, "Heroid.", xxi, 166; etc.), and probably obtained from Cissus vitignea, a climbing plant native of India but found also in Armenia, Media, and Pontus (Pliny, "Nat. hist.", xii, 13). Anise (Matthew 23:23), not the anise, Pimpinella anisum, but rather the dill, Anethum graveolens, shabath of the Talmud, shibith of the Arabs, is meant. Dill has always been much cultivated in Palestine; its seeds, leaves, and stems were subject to tithe, according to Rabbi
neka’at) probably meant in Genesis 37:25. and bears a sweet fruit. Egypt. and is now extinct. Astragalus a genus of Papilionaceous plants of the tribe Lotea.. rather than the ash. The word çori is also applied to the gum from the mastic tree. Kunth. Apple groves flourished at an early date (Ramses II) in Egypt (Loret. as the various species of Fraxinus grow only in the mountains of Syria. etc. Arab.). See Mulberry. Cant. 7. mentioned in Ezekiel 27:17.Eliezer (Maasaroth. stromatodes. rousseaunus. "apple") and the description of the tree and its fruit indicate the common apple tree. Shabbath. V. A. "aromatical balm") is quite frequently alluded to by ancient writers (Theognis Hippocrates. hist. Ash Tree. give. ii. Theophrastes.. "precious things" is correct. Pliny etc. "spices". Malus communis. Jerome. ’oren. Hebrew nekothoth has been mistaken for the plural of nek’oth and mistranslated accordingly "aromatical spices". dapih. Matthew 23:23). 20. and that from Balanites ægyptica. V. and Amyris gileadensis. tiffah.. 46:11. IX. xxiv.. Arab. The çori is described as coming from Galaad (Jeremiah 8:22. "pine") depicts a planted tree. falsely styled "balm of Galaad". thappuakh (cf. Del. however. the maritime or stone pine. The meaning of pannag. V. ii. which is extant in tropical regions of east Africa and Arabia and yields the "balm of Mecca". Greek. Jeremiah 8:22. D. was probably gathered from the species found in Palestine.. Arum. and on the shores of the Dead Sea (Talm. p. a variety of the former. D. A. 182). i. xxiv. xii. except in Ezekiel 27:17 (Hebrew pannag) and Sirach 24:20a (Greek ’aspalathos. viii. "Talmud de Jerus. it was extensively cultivated around the Lake of Tiberias.V. 5). V. V. A. outside Palestine. Joshua 15:53) indicate that they were a distinct feature of certain districts of Palestine. Josephus. 43:11 (D. 43:11. 1:I. others thought excessive (Schwab. "Ant.". Babyl.". 3. Balm. the aroma (Cant. and R.. 83). 46:11) and having medicinal properties (Jeremiah 51:8). which gave the more extravagantly prized "balm of Judea". xiv. It is impossible to identify it with certainty. is not known with . "Nat. Balsam.". "storax"). 8) of which is used in the East to revive a fainting person (cf. "Flore pharaonique". A. see Aspalathus). 25. Aspalathus (Ecclus. in margin. A. Apple tree. for Heb. III.) as a thorny plant yielding a costly perfume.. whose wood is suitable to be carved into images and useful as fuel (Isaiah 44:15). 2.. Isaiah 44:14 (A. A. several species of which yield the gum tragacanth (Hebrew nek’oth. "Quæst in Gen. or lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus. The gum spoken of in Gen. It is obtained from Balsamodendron opobalsamum. 20b (Greek smúrna). and Isaiah 39:2. 26a. cf. Pliny.V. also called Lignum rhodium (rose-scented wood). Heb. affording shade for a tent or a house (Cant. Arab. cf.V. "spicery". In 2 Kings 20:13. Plutarch.. See Cockle. in the Jordan Valley. watered only by rain. which opinion. Probably the tree intended is Pinus pinea. the regular translation of Hebrew çori (Genesis 37:25. 20. daru). kurdicus. which is beautiful. xxiv. vii. Aspen. 51:8). gummifer. place-names like Tappuah (Joshua 12:17) or Beth-tappuah (A. but most scholars believe it to be Convolvulus scoparius.". 5).
D. V. and indeed the Bible nowhere intimates this.. iii. See Bur. Numbers 11:7). The grain was either roasted (Leviticus 2:14. vii. and that imported from the islands of the Mediterranean. (marginal gloss) that it is "a kind of confection". Boiss. damp soil. cf. Media.V. . St. tetrastichum). "in its native soil". any kind of evergreen tree. like the Dipsacus fullonum. The correct meaning of the Heb. ful). distichum). 2 by "fuller's herb" (A. which description applies to a species of Saponaria. Ezekiel 27:6. kidney-bean. Jerome in his Commentary on Jeremiah 2:22. Blackthorn. S. also as a staple food among the poor. Judges. an allusion to the length of the awns) was cultivated through the East as provender for horses and asses (1 Kings 4:28). V. Ezekiel 4:9). extensively cultivated in the East. Vigna sinensis. which renderings are erroneous. Blasting. 2. instead of "ivory and cabins". The string-bean. 60:13. the horse-bean (Faba vulgaris. Boxthorn. so A. a sheaf of the new crop was offered in oblation on the "sabbath of the Passover". in D. The box tree does not grow in Palestine. and Babylonia. Mill.. hence the contemptuous force of Ezekiel 13:19. Jerome adds that the plant grew on rich. we should read: "ivory inlain in boxwood"). Hordeum ithaburense. Hebrew pol and Arab. text is: "as a green tree". and the people at large in times of distress. Buxus longifolia. and translated in Mal. which was not used.certainty. was considered a type of worthless things. a Heb.. modern commentators agree with R. and Osee. V.. but it mentions the box tree of Lebanon. yet many modern scholars think he refers to some vegetable alkali procured by burning plants like Salsola kali and the Salicornias (S. Beans (2 Samuel 17:28. also grow in Palestine. See Mildew. and Phaseolus molliflorus. Barley (Hebrew se’orah. to dress cloth. being the commonest grain. probably the Hebrew the’ashshur. identifies borith with the "fuller's weed". hexastichum) barley. iii. in Psalm 36:35.. Borith. according to Pliny. Box tree (Isaiah 41:19. in Arabia. Balsam. 2 Kings 4:43) or milled. a small resinous tree of northern India. kneaded and cooked in ovens as bread or cake. Bdellium (Genesis 2:12. The harvest begins in April in the Ghôr. four (H. either a precious stone or the aromatic gum of Amyris agallochum. Boiss. Phaseolus vulgaris. St. grows wild in many districts of Palestine. "scap"). "Cedar of Libanus". word transliterated in Jeremiah 2:22. See Aspalathus.V. 13. but to wash it. and continues later in higher altitudes. "hairy". working men. found also. Barley. See Bramble. cultivation has developed the two (H. Aromatical. and six-rowed (H. Bay tree. fructicosa. an ordinary article of food. herbacea) abundant on the coast.
V. Burnet. V. maritimus. probably a kind of whitethorn of goodly proportions (Cratægus sinaitica. ii. Bush. is intended. appears to be either the common reed. A. V. Yam Suph is the Hebrew name for the Red Sea. 8. Hebrew seneh. Broom. the flexible Paliurus aculeatus. Isaiah 19:6-7). "buckthorn". ix. etc. 14-15. V. leiosperma. ix.. Isaiah 58:5. V. growing in Lebanon is signified. Os. Buckthorn. D. If burdock is the equivalent of khoakh. 16) probably corresponds to the numerous species of Rubus which abound in Palestine. 9:18. "thorn" is the ordinary meaning of qosh. The plant whose flexibility is alluded to in Isaiah 58:5. some species of blackthorn or sloe tree Prunus ursina. Bulrush represents three Heb. and possibly designating prickly bushes in general. C. Phaceopappus scoparius. but still grows around the Lake of Tiberias. in Psalm 57:10. (3) Hebrew khedeq (Micah 7:4).. and particularly O. tûf. the many kinds of thistles common in the East suit better the description. "circle") is variously rendered (D. Briers. is unknown in Palestine. Isaiah 18:2.Bramble. or some kind of rush. 10:17. Bur.. (2) ’Agmon (A. J. 35:7). 2 Chronicles 25:18. 32:13). of which several species grow in Palestine and Syria. The Latin version has in both places rhamnus. Boiss. See Juniper.. but Arabic writers hold that the various kinds of Lycium or boxthorn are meant. for Hebrew khoakh and qosh.. where it was formerly regarded as the distinctive plant of the country (Strab. Boiss. Isaiah 19:15. See Thistle (5). a word not found outside of Isaias. J. is now extinct in Egypt (cf. words: (1) gome Exodus 2:3. See Bramble. Onamis antiquarum. Khoakh recurs in Proverbs 26:9. Acanthus spinosus. xv. hence it is generally believed to be either the acanth. the supposed material of Christ's crown of thorns. xvii. Lam. 2 Kings 14:9. Yet.. however. "thorny" (Exodus 3:2-4.) common throughout the Sinaitic Peninsula. Lam.. Job 40:21). Deuteronomy 33:16). "Metam.. samur. according to Moore (Judges. V.. . and others.).. Lake Huleh. 15) and the Nile was styled "the papyrus-bearer" (Ovid. two species of which. (5) Hebrew shqyth (Isaiah 7:23-5). D. Boiss. khaukh al-dib might be intended. khaukh with Hebrew khoakh. See Mad-apple. from the resemblance of Arab. "burdock". for these plants do not reach the proportions required by Job 30:7. V. Job 31:40 (D. Job 30:7. V. D. Juncus communis. as Lappa minor. Its translation as "thistles" or "nettles" is unsuitable. then Lappa major.". or rest-harrow. Cyperus papyrus. D. Arab. Burning. sanna is applied to all thorny shrubs. C. 753). probably designates the various kinds of rush and sea-weeds (Jonah 2:6). Arab.V. (3) Suph (Isaiah 19:6. Egypt. "flag". acutus are abundant in Palestine. also rendered "thorn". 6. "thorns"). Arundo donax. "thorns" in Proverbs 24:31 and Sophon. (1) Hebrew kharul rendered "burning" in D. (4) Hebrew shamir (Isaiah 5:6.. (2) Hebrew barquanim (Judges 8:7.. "thistle"). ad loc. according to which texts it must be large enough for people to sit under. 9. A. translating Vulgate lappa. are very common in the Holy Land. translated from Hebrew ’atad in Judges. ii. Arab. Cant. so. and must develop rapidly in uncultivated lands. 2 (D. x..).
D. 4:13.. ægyptiaca are also found in Palestine.". its hard. herbacea. Song of Songs 4:14. and the Egyptian Kyphi.). D. owing to the fragrant resin exuding from every pore of the bark (Song of Songs 4:11. D. was a suitable material for carved ornamentations (1 Kings 6:18) and images (Isaiah 44:14-5). which pagans burned during sacrifices and at funeral piles (Hom. Carob. an ingredient of the oil of unction (Exodus 30:24). qad.). xxxi.. Cassia. "clusters") yield the henna oil. Greek kerátion (Luke 15:16). Ecclesiastes 12:5). "Fast. etc. appropriately figured the mighty Eastern empires (Ezekiel 31:3-18. "St. The modern "camphor" was unknown to the ancients. 13. Hist. Ovid. Ezekiel 27:19. Jeremiah 6:20: "sweet-smelling cane"). Hebrew abiyyonah (Douay Version. i. "stacte"). Sweet (Song of Songs 4:14. according to some. which "prince of trees". Song of Songs 1:14. probably Capparis spinosa. The qaneh is. i. In Psalm 44:9. From its trunk ship-masts (Ezekiel 27:5). Amos 2:9). the Aramaic equivalent of qiddah. V. Camphire (A. See Calamus. C. which usually thrives on dry mountain slopes. and C.. Cedar forests were a paradise of aromatic scent. "sweet cane". Cane. the coarse pods of the locust tree. Hebrew qiddah (Exodus 30:24. Ceratonia siliqua. (3) In most of the other passages of Holy Writ. Pliny identifies cyprus with the ligustrum of Italy. There is no Biblical reference to the cassia. to be the Cedrus libani. Ascalon and Engaddi were particularly renowned for their henna. which was used in Egypt for making the Kyphi or sacred perfume. V. D. indiscriminately applied to Cedrus libani. and boards for temples and palaces (1 Kings 6:9. 7. Jeremiah 6:20) and of the oil of unction (Exodus 30:23-5). Caper. but the plant is no other than the henna tree (Lawsonia alba) the Orientals are so fond of. See Calamus. Bl.is possibly an explanation of ’ahaloth.V. XIII. (2) The tree growing "by the waterside" (Numbers 24:6) appears from Ez. 538). V. From Hebrew kopher. and Isaiah 43:24. or J. from its powdered leaves is obtained the reddish-orange paste with which Eastern women stain their finger and toe nails and dye their hair. close-grained wood. the aromatic bark of Cinnamomum cassia. of India. Numbers 19:6) was either Juniperus phænicea. 49052. beams.. oxycedrus. "Odyss.. Andropogon schænanthus. Cedar. C. they were "the glory of Libanus" (Isaiah 35:2.V. as well as a source of riches for their possessors (1 Kings . Hebrew qaneh (Exodus 30:23. and Pliny calls "little cedar" (Nat. translated "husks" (A. v. is intended. 60. and Cupressus thymoides.V. 7:2) were made. Cant.". from which the senna of medicine is obtained. ’erez was used for three different trees: (1) The cedar wood employed in certain ceremonies of purification (Leviticus 14:4. Acorus aromaticus. Sweet-smelling (Jeremiah 6:20). bermudensis. 30). the fruit of the caper tree. Cedrus libani. Egypt.. 8. qeçi’ah.. John's bread-tree". Juniperus virginiana. capable of receiving a high polish. 60:13). Hosea 14:7). Barr. ii. Its red sweet-scented spikes (Douay Version. as Heb. Ezekiel 31:3. Ezekiel 27:19.. by its height (Isaiah 2:13. pillars. Cane. Isaiah 43:24). a scented reed yielding a perfume entering into the composition of the spices burned in sacrifices (Isaiah 43:24. 6. according to others.Calamus. "cypress").
of several Assyrian kings). Centaurea. vetch. Corn. 4) and the Talmud (Sukka. Citrullus colocynthis. Chestnut-tree. used regularly in the service of the synagogue and hardly distinguishable from cedrat. Isaiah 5:2-4. the hadar (D. V. "entirely like wheat till the ear appears". translates the Greek zizánia by cockle. the plural form is translated by "wild grapes". are much more correct. Cucumis c. Citron. Citrus limonum. henbanes. allied to aniseed and caraway. iii. Coriander seed (Exodus 16:31. Hebrew. as be’osha means stinking weeds. rye and oats are neither mentioned in Scripture nor cultivated in the Holy Land. like dagan in Heb. barley.5:6 sqq. the only grass with a poisonous seed... for Hebrew be’osha: D. be’ushim may mean stinking fruits. hence be’osha appears to be a general term applicable to all noisome and harmful plants. the "Targum" of Onkelos. spelt (fitches).. V. Song of Songs 4:14. and R. In 1 Kings 6:18. xxiii. The two names used in the original text point to plants of quite different characters: (1) According to etymology. D. a general word for cereals in English Bibles. the fruit of Coriandrum sativum. stems. an ingredient of the oil of unction and of the Kyphi. "the fairest tree") spoken of in Lev. In the English Bibles. and mandrakes in Palestine. probably the "wild gourd" of 2 Kings 4:3840. (2) zizánia. a weak rendering in view of the terrible judgment pronounced against the vineyard in the context. A. from Aram. Revelation 18:13). "thorns". Colocynth. "stinking weeds". cedra is. Sirach 24:20. we read about carvings around the inside of the Temple and the brazen sea. Schr. according to the Syriac and Arabic Bibles. . stands for Lolium temulentum. the inner aromatic bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. V. Numbers 11:7). be’osha must refer to some plant of offensive smell. xxiii. or C. The marginal renderings of A. See Thistles.. supposed by some Rabbis to be intended in the text of Lev. The rendering of both versions is therefore inaccurate. V.. Charlock. or bearded darnel. Proverbs 7:17. V. Cinnamon. Wheat. See Plane-tree. See Mustard.. tendrils. millet. Nees. Citrus medica. and fruits of the colocynth. 40. common throughout the Holy Land. Job 31:40. III.. besides the stink-weed (Datura stramonium) and the ill-smelling goose-weeds (Solanum nigrum) there are several fetid arums. 1 Chronicles 22:4) and an object of envy to the powerful monarchs of Nineveh (Isaiah 37:24. zonin. in reference to the feast of Tabernacles. V. Matthew 13:24-30. 5). inscr. Cedrat. qinnamon (Exodus 30:23. 7:24. 40. "boughs of hadar". "noisome weeds". x. Josephus (Ant. probably representing the ornamental leaves. Cockle. pulse.
indigenous in Egypt. 27. (2) Hebrew ’elah (A. Hebrew hobnim. Gossypium herbaceum. Vicia ervilia. and Cupressus sempervirens. which. Winter. ebmus (Ezekiel 27:15). Cypress. iv. 21. i. "turpentine tree"). Hebrew or Persian karpas. ripen under the overshadowing leaves. the original word is not known. cf. Ficus carica. the fruit of the fig tree (Hebrew te’ênah). (Arab. "fine linen") were also cotton. Matthew 12:1. Arab. 13). See Camphire. Mark 2:23. 13. 17) a poor translation of Hebrew ’eç shemen (see Oil tree). i. translated "green". sativus is also extensively cultivated in Palestine.Corn. Ebony. C. which appear at the time of the "latter rains" (spring). the black heart wood of Diospyros ebenum. Cant. Hos. The fruit buds. See Thistle (6). the ears that one may pluck to rub in the hands. Isaiah 1:8). the ordinary ripe fruit is eaten fresh or dried in compressed cakes (Hebrew debelah: 1 Samuel 25:18. Elecampane. yet the close resemblance of Arab. possibly Ulmus campestris. kirsanah with Hebrew suggests a leguminous plant. Bethphage). Exodus 9:32. Ear of corn translates three Heb. the ripe ear ready for harvest.. Matthew 23:23). Among the identifications proposed for beroth are Pinus halapensis. Hebrew kussemeth (Douay Version. imported from coasts of Indian Ocean by merchantmen of Tyre. words: (1) shibboleth. in D. bearded. are called "green figs" (Song of Songs 2:13. 16. Hebrew pag. A... and eat the grains (Deuteronomy 23:25. Cotton.V. See Terebinth. V.V. and the parable of the barren fig tree (Matthew 21:19. evidently the species Cucumis chate (cf. Hebrew kammon. iv.). See Cockle (2). Luke 13:69). Luke 6:1). and allied species of the same genus. (3) abib. hence Mark 11:13.. Mark 11:20-6. elsewhere Hebrew berosh is rendered "fir tree". Cummin. Probably the shesh of Egypt and the buç of Syria (Ezekiel 27:7. qiththa). (2) melilah. Arab. 13. Miel. Sm. the seed of Cuminum cyminum (Isaiah 28:25. V. Cucumber. V. Cyprus (Cant. "rye").. in Sirach 24:17.. V. 16 (A. the green and tender ear of corn. growing spontaneously and cultivated throughout the Holy Land. Orientals . Hebrew qishshu’im (Numbers 11:5. etc. D. See Anise.. Dill (R. Precociously ripening figs (Hebrew bikkurah) are particularly relished. the latter more probable. Matthew 23:23). Arabic kammun. rendered "spelt" in Isaiah 28:25. Isaiah 41:19. "late in spring" (Matthew 24:32). derdar). Figs (Hebrew te’ênim). Isaiah 60:13: "pine trees"). Elm translates: (1) Hebrew thidhar (Douay Version.. Darnel.
which is also good.). C. a clump of trees. "trees". ii. Flower of the field. D. steveni). that at the edge of the Judean desert near Ziph (1 Samuel 23:15). Kotsch. very early cultivated in Egypt and Palestine.V. 60:6 (A. Arab. which some suppose to mean the meadow-saffron (Colchicum variegatum. . thicket. Abies cilicia. XXIV. Fir. Among the numerous forests mentioned in the Bible are: Forest of Ephraim. the frankincense par excellence.V. in the Canaanite period. extended from Bethel to Bethsan. and Picea orientalis are found in the Lebanon. 18: "meadow".V. a plant growing in marshes and good for cattle to feed upon. Hebrew khelbenah (Exodus 30:34. "green places in a marshy pasture". probably Cyperus esculentus. Proverbs 31:13).V. Flax. (4) ‘abhim.V. words: (1) Ya’ar. kussemeth (Ezekiel 4:9). Arabian frankincense. Hebrew pistah (Exodus 9:31. luban). Genesis 41:2. e. 47). Possibly N. "linen". Isaiah 38:21. Deuteronomy 22:11. serotinus. meant by Hebrew siakh (Genesis 21:15.still regard figs as the best poultice (2 Kings 20:7. by which Narcissus tazetta is designated by the Palestinians.g.. Forest of Hareth. Among these. a gum produced by Ferula galbaniflua. St.. shukh). "marshy places". See Borith. abundant in the Holy Land. and other umbelliferous plants of the same genus. which. Hebrew khabbaççeth (Isaiah 25:1). D. V.L. Fitches. 1). Forest of Aialon. cf. sharon (Cant.. Carmel. in P. Frankincense (Hebrew lebonah) should not be confounded with incense (Hebrew qetorah). and it was probably used in the composition of incense to drive away insects from the sanctuary. Boiss.. which confusion has been made in several passages of the English Bibles. Hebrew akhu (A. Jerome. Forest translates five Heb. that between Bethel and the Jordan (2 Kings 2:24). "In Isaiam". Amanus and northward. 396). Job 8:11. Incense was a mixture of frankincense and other spices (Exodus 30:34-5). "wooded height". west of Bethoron. Forest of the South (Ezekiel 20:46. B. kh. (2) horesh. Its odour is pungent. 21. a tree which grows in southern Arabia (Arab. on the western slopes of the Judean hills. like Arab. Forests of Kiriath Yearim. Lebanon. applied to all coniferous trees except the cedar. possibly Vicia ervilia. but should be restricted to the genera Abies and Picea. in Isaiah 28:25. Jeremiah 6:20.V. Linum usitatissimum. (5) pardeç. "rye" and "spelt" by A.. bûseil. Galbanum.. Hebrew. Fuller's herb (Malachi 3:2). D. "sedge-bush"). rendered "gith" by D. or fall Narcissus. orchard. (3) çebak. and R. is the aromatical resin of Boswellia sacra. Sirach 24:21). Flag. and those of Basan (Isaiah 2:13) and Ephraim (2 Samuel 18:6). xxxviii. Hermon were also covered with luxuriant forests. Isaiah 43:23. the forest where Joatham built castles and towers (2 Chronicles 27:4) in the mountains of Juda. was also meant by Heb. papyrifera of Abyssinia yields African frankincense..V. forest proper.
words: (1) deshe’. Grass translates four Heb. Hazel. Hos. See Vine. and other resinous trees have been proposed. but translated "groves" in Genesis 21:33. cedar. Job 6:5. 4). Grape. Hay. The E. not bitter. as in Genesis 47:4. "tamaric". a good equivalent for grass. V. frequently used to overshadow booths or as a screen along trellises. a dried herb for cattle. Hebrew shum (cf. Wild. and native of the Cape of Good Hope. D. (3) khaçir. Allium sativum. Grape. x. See Cockle.. Hebrew queçath (Isaiah 28:25. The species most commonly cultivated is the shallot.. (2) rosh. A. "ivy").V. "heath"). Papaver rheas.V. "timber planks"). English rendering of two Hebrew words: (1) asherah. Jeremiah 17:6. Matthew 6:30. V. Heb. Allium ascalonicum. Conium maculatum. as in 1 Samuel 31:6 and 31:13.. D. verdure in general. ’ar’ ar’ aro’er (A. "Stubble" in Isaiah 5:24.V. D. as G. colocynth. Probably the poppy. consisting mainly of forage plants. which "groves" do not concern us here. a sacred pole or raised stone in a temple enclosure. Forskal. The only species in Palestine is the Erica verticillata. herbage. a favourite article of food in the East. V. wild. but interpreters remain at variance. (4) ’esebh. and rendered elsewhere by "wood". multiflora is abundant in the Mediterranean region. a bitter plant associated with wormwood. 30:4 (see Mallows).V. Hebrew hasas (Proverbs 27:25). Grape. or P. etc. Arab. 27). the bottle-gourd. Arab. thum). Cucurbita lagenaria. Garlic. Nigella sativa. See Almond tree. It occurs frequently in the Bible. D. probably the tamarisk tree (q. . Hebrew qiqayou (Jonah 4:6-10. a green bush bearing red or pink blossoms. Post suggests. (2) ’eshel. 48:6. not grown in the fields. ’athl). Gopher wood (Genesis 6:14. Heath. Numbers 22:4. Lolium temulentum. somniferum. cf. Gith.. (2) yerek. 40:15. words: (1) mererah. "fitches" is wrong. "bitterness"). which stands for bile. also translates hasas. including vegetables suitable for human food. Grove. and darnel.v. a tree suitable for shipbuilding: cypress. Citrullus colocynthis. See Colocynth. is meant. nor does queçakh stand for the nutmeg flower. Goose-weed. pasture or tender grass. ras elhishhash. identified with: poison hemlock (A. and growing "in the furrows of the field" (Hosea 10:4. not found in ploughed ground. Gourd. Arab.E.Gall translates two Heb. See Cockle. 33:11.
Heb. 2 Samuel 17:28. See Gall. 49." in Genesis 37:25. Herbs. Knapweed. Herb. The "hyssop" mentioned in John 14:29. was used in aspersion. an umbelliferous plant from which the poisonous alkaloid. a gum from several plants of the genus Cistus (rock-rose). Henna. Five species are known: wild lettuce. See Carob. 13. V. Hebrews 9:19). "cypress") probably Hebrew tirzah. also rendered "grass". ratam). In Sirach 24:21. "stacte". and Mark 15:36. whose translation is variously rendered a kind of millet or beet. ulsin. The water. Arabic adas. used by Septuagint in the above passages of Gen. chicory. Holm (Daniel 13:58. Allium porrum. Psalm 1:9.hemlock is found only in colder zones. a vegetable. D. A. Hebrew hazeret. and the bitter coriander or horehound. Ezekiel 4:9). Arab. endive. 1 Kings 19:4-5. "wild lettuce"). Bitter. Amos 6:12. an important article of diet. the Hedera helix. "storax". Job 30:4. Ivy (Jonah 4:6-10. or Lens esculenta. whether ladanum was meant is not clear. See Camphire. is the equivalent of Greek stachté. Lentils. A. Arab. Leeks. villosus and C. Hebrew lot (D. an aromatic herb forming a dward bush. . Hyssop. V.Hemlock. V.. Pottia trunculata) spoken of in contrast to the grandeur of the cedar. C. see Gourd). Husks. Conium maculatum and Æthusa cynapium are found in Syria. an equivalent of Hebrew rothem. See Grass. See Thistles. Juniper (Douay Version. Numbers 9:11. (2 Maccabees 6:78). Leviticus 14:4. cf. Hosea 10:4. Psalm 119:4: "That lay waste". ’ezob. Linné (Exodus 12:22. "wormwood"). which were eaten with the paschal lamb. comprise diverse plants of the family of Compositæ.. 6. a sort of broom (Retama retem. "bitterness". Hebrew ’adashim (Genesis 25:34. harhabina and maror.V. 43:11). 51-52. a kind of evergreenoak. which grows wild in Palestine. Hebrew meorim (Exodus 12:8. tamka. Moench. D. Isaiah 44:14. In 1 Kings 4:33.. Numbers 19:6. salvifolius are very abundant. Ladanum. The Hysoppus officinalis. Ervum lens. Hebrew khaçir (Numbers 11:5). "myrrh. a mistranslation). zufa. Hebrew rosh (A. hyssop is a species of moss (Orthotricum saxatile. V. is written "reed" in Matthew 27:48. Hebrew libneh. V. is derived. conia. as it is frequently the Greek rendering of Hebrew nataf.
are likewise abundant in pastures and swampy places. but of Iridaceæ. According to Galen. found near Jericho. Mallows. "salt". Lilium candidum is cultivated everywhere. Aram. was called in Egyptian seshni. the white species of which..V. Barb. atroviolaceus. Hebrew khodeq (Proverbs 26:9. but the lotus was probably intended in 1 Kings 7:19. Locust tree. Iris sari.) ate it (Kiddushim. may also be intended. derived from melakh. 26. e. septum. I. for Hebrew akhu. Heb. a generical term applicable to many widely different flowers. Alhaqi camelorum. Ehr. Tamarix mannifera. I. common in the East. dud‘. Amaryllidaceæ. it has none of the qualifications attributed to the manna of Exodus 16. See Flag. meaning "love plant". See Aloes. the windflower of Palestine. wine. Genesis 41:2. Micah 7:4: "briers").C. (2) The "lilies of the field" surpassing Solomon in glory were lilylike plants. needless to suppose that any others. Lotus. palestina. See Balm. Arab. "shades"). which exudes a fragrant resin extensively used to flavour sweetmeats. and Cant. an alliteration of the Greek schînos. the lentisk. (1) Hebrew shushan. rotundifolia. Solanum coagulans. Hebrew çe ’elim (A. Forskal. G. Fraxinus ornus. like the Hebrew shushan. Lign aloes.Lentisk. A. Baker. very common in Africa on the river banks. . susan. Arab. (2) A tree. the Talmud tells us that the Jews working in the re-construction of the Temple (520-15 B. D. iii. Meadow. of the same genus as our mad apple. Manna of commerce is a sugary secretion of various Oriental plants. Atriplex halimus. V. See Balm. I.. etc. Mastic tree. "marshy places"). Forskal.g. Nymphæa lotus. "thorn". helenæ. a mistranslation in A. vii. not only of the order Liliaceæ. See Flower of the field. as halimus from ’áls. which Orientals believe ensures conception.. the extremities are edible. Pistacia lentiscus.. Job 40:16-17: "shadow". Koch. khabbaççeleth.. Schott.. lorteti.V. fol. from Heb. Lily of the valleys. Boiss. Lily.V. Mad-apple. 18 (D. pistheqa-pesag (Daniel 13:54). Gladiolus illyricus. Mastic tree.. See Carob. were intended. Cotoneaster nummularia. Zizyphus lotus. 66a). sushin. (1) A water plant of the order Nymphæaceæ. and others. and F. from Hebrew malluakh. schísei. 22. 49. Gawl. are indigenous in the Holy Land.. khadaq. 13. Solanum cordatum. All interpreters hold Mandragora officinarum to be the plant intended in Genesis 30:14. Fish. Mandrake. Job 30:4. Sedgebush.V. which may have been applied to water-lilies. for the orache or sea-purslain. G.
straminis which suck out of the grain. Amos 4:9: "burning wind". Mustard. Millet. bottikh. a tree. buttuga. when fully developed. V. as the charlock. Proverbs . Kethub. but the Pharisaic opinion subjecting to tithe all edibles acquired force of law. grow everywhere. the garden-mint. See Flower of the field. nigra. yet they were in old times cultivated as extensively as now. Several kinds of mustard-plant grow in the Holy Land. sativa. D. Psalm 44:9. variously rendered (2 Chronicles 6:28: "blasting". pulegium. the peppermint. occurs three times in D. Populus tremula.. the spear-mint. Arab. Alba. Isaiah 28:25. 7.. or smut. T. not only as a perfume (Exodus 30:23. or cultivated. M. as S. two species of which are cultivated in Palestine: Morus alba. dokhn. in periods of excessive drought. "pear tree"). either wild. yet it designated primarily the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris. "corrupted air". means "put in its place". V. V.V. piperita. the watermint. and with it is mentioned shiddaphon. Hebrew dokhan (Ezekiel 4:9). is not justified. with the aid of the khamsin wind. Hebrew yeraqon. was extensively used among the ancients. nigra. The passage of Numbers refers only to the melons of Egypt. and secondarily other melons. the context rather suggests a tree the leaves of which rustle like the aspen. Peah. Our Lord compares the kingdom of God to a mustard seed (Matthew 13:31-2). M. Luke 17:6. Translators evidently had no definite idea of the nature and difference of these two plagues. Luke 11:42). is caused by parasitic fungi like Puccinia graminis and P. the aromatic resin produced by Balsamodendron myrrha.Meadow saffron. V. Babyl. which grows in Arabia and subtropical east Africa. Yeraqon. morr). it is greater than all herbs".). which last seems the one intended in the Gospel. Arab. and there is no mention in the Bible of melons of Palestine. 2 Samuel 5:23-4. and the white mustard. Myrrh translates two Heb. Kth. old Egypt. Mulberry. like Arab. "mildew"). the mustard tree attains in Palestine a height of ten feet and is a favourite resort of linnets and finches. which. the pennyroyal. "mulberry tree" is probably a good translation. yeraqon is translated "blasting" (A. M. M. aquatica.. and Setaria italica. and 1 Kings 8:37. Shiddaphon. in D. V. Talmud Jerus. Mint (Matthew 23:23. or mildew. Shrad. In Deuteronomy 28:22. is cultivated in all gardens. The rendering "millet". "which a man … sowed in his field" and which "when it is grown up. on which they develop on account of excessive moisture. M. seems to have a generic connotation. and is caused by fungi of the genus Ustilago. as Hebrew nisman. Various species are found in Palestine: Mentha sylvestris. S. In D. manifests itself. "blast" the grain. iiib). Haggai 2:18: "blasting wind"). are also found in abundance. Neither this nor pear-tree is a likely translation. Hebrew beka’ im (A. the horse-mint. Melon. with its variety M. Mint is not mentioned in the Law among tithable things. Nees. Mildew. is applied to Panicum miliaceum. Sinapis arvensis. viridis. and shiddaphon. Hebrew ’abhattikhim (Numbers 11:5). 1 Chronicles 14:14-5. a familiar term to mean the tiniest thing possible (cf. found here. words: (1) mor (cf.
V. Nut. it must be a fat tree. From Osee iv. it appears that the ’elah is different from the ’allon. pseudo. ithaburensis and Q . medicine. are therefore excluded. a plant akin to the Urtica. Myrtus communis. (2) botnim (A. 23. Mark 14:3). it must grow in mountains near Jerusalem. and variously rendered in A. xv. (Arab. Oil tree. Oliv. (6) Q. cedrorum and Q. attaining to eight feet in moist soil. Poir. D. one of the most characteristic trees of the Mediterranean region. equivalent of two Heb. To meet the requirements of the different passages where the ’es shemen is mentioned. which are found everywhere on neglected patches. unguent. pinnatifida. V. ’elon. are understood by some to be the terebinth ’allah and ’allon representing the oak. ’elah. U. Zechariah 1:8. the Valonia oak.. kharulim (A. hadas. jauz. V. 11). dioica. and universally cultivated in the Holy Land. calliprinos. ’elon. of which there are three varieties: Q. a prickly evergreen oak with leaves like very small holly. Hebrew hadas (Isaiah 41:19. but also for embalming (John 19:39) and as an anodyne (Mark. See Pistachio. "thorns").: "oil tree". See Spikenard. zaqqum). see Ladanum. as to the number of individuals and species. Arab. cerris. U.. ilex. Oak. seven of which have been found: (1) Quercus robur is represented by two varieties: Q. (2) Q. 55:13. ’allah. U. "briers". (2) lot. Genesis 43:11). an emblem of fertility.7:17. "olive tree" and "pine". Arab. most common in the land. (5) Q. D. 31-3. margin. coccifera. oil which serves as food.. in fact. ægylops.coccifera. haleph).. capable of furnishing a block of wood out of which an image ten feet high may be carved. the olive-tree in D. 10. an evergreen shrub especially prized for its fragrant leaves. Q. hence an erroneous translation in almost all the above Scriptural passages. words: (1) kharul. Del. and fuel for lamps. Ky. Myrtle. and Isaiah 6:13. some kind of pine is probably meant. Olive tree. producing oil or resin. Song of Songs 1:12. Wild olive. libani. V. Nettles translates two Heb. this latter. Hebrew ’ayl. especially as brushwood. finally candles and . ’ayl. oleaster. whilst the deserts abound with Forskahlea tenacissima. V. Zephaniah 2:9. Arab. ’elah. Hosea 9:6): correctly rendered "nettles" (Urtica urens. Olea europæa. Its height is usually three to four feet. and found in great abundance in certain districts of Palestine.. (2) qimmosh. see Bramble.V. 13. (3) Q. A. Isaiah 34:13. the husbandman's only relish. and a variety cultivated in Damascus reaches up ten to twelve feet. infectoria.. and Q. Elæagnus angustifolius (Arab. plur. ’alon are thus indiscriminately translated. V. (4) Q. or holm oak. Balanites ægyptiaca. (7) Q. The genus Quercus is largely represented in Palestine and Syria. and have a dense foliage. probably the pistachio nut. membranacea. Proverbs 24:31. palestina. the walnut tree. Nard.). pistic (R. also very common and of which two varieties are known: Q. vi. pilulifera.. and the ruins of oil-presses manifest the extensive use of its enormous produce: olives. Job 30:7. the oleaster in R. look. 5:5). V. "thorns". V. universally cultivated in the East. Hebrew ’es shemen (Isaiah 41:19. words: (1) ’egoz (Cant. 1 Kings 6:23. 10). butm. qimmeshonim (Proverbs 24:31. III Esdras 8:15). Scriptural allusions to it are very numerous.
blessing.V. found throughout the East. but the Jordan Valley. very common in Palestine. unlike figs. Plane tree. Phænix dactylifera. date honey (Hebrew debash. V. Jericho.V. Wild (Romans 11:17. In fact. in Psalm 44:2 and Jeremiah 8:8. probably refers to the nut-fruits of Pistacia vera. "Palm grove". Olive.). but the seedling of the olive. Successes in America were immediately owing to the vigorous exertions and prowess of the Irish immigrants who bore arms in that cause" (Historical Review of the State of Ireland. Hebrew armon (Genesis 30:37. II. Bethany. Pen. as the allusion seems to be to the meadows on the banks of the Nile. as do also the modern Orientals. "ash". which are also prominent in architectural ornamentation (Hebrew timmorah. on which the Olea europæa is grafted. 1 Kings 6:29). and happiness. Platanus orientalis. for the chestnut tree does not flourish either in Mesopotamia or Palestine. they are not dried into compressed cakes. Sirach 24:19). The palm tree flourishes now only in the maritime plain. Onion. Hebrew aroth (A. name ("peeled").e.soap. Hebrew beçalim (Numbers 11:5). Arab. D. See Mulberry. Elæagnus angustifolia. but separately. A. 24). See Mint. yet Arab. Hebrew botnim (Genesis 43:11). formerly named Hazazon Thamar. is probably the stalk of Arundo donax. not the oleaster. date wine was known throughout the East and is still made in a few places. V. the abundance of palm trees in certain places suggested their names: Phœnicia (from Greek phoîniks). Mount Olivet. universally cultivated and forming an important and favourite article of diet in the East. "the house of dates". Dates are a staple article of food among the Bedouins. dibs) has always been one of the favourite sweetmeats of the Orientals. (2) thidhar (Isaiah 60:13. the date palm. The historians Marmion and Gordon write to the same effect. butm is applied to Pistacia terebinthus. tomer (Judges 4:5). Paper reed. 178). Palm tree. Engaddi. V. A. V. the emblem of peace and prosperity. translation is erroneous. A. See Mint. possibly Pinus pinea. as the outer layers of its bark peel off. Pistachio. Peppermint. fulfills well the condition implied in the Heb. and many other localities were renowned in antiquity for their palm groves. Pennyroyal. which the ancients used for writing.. Ezekiel 31:8. Hebrew thamar (Exodus 15:27). common throughout Palestine. Allium cepa. There are many allusions in Scripture to palm trees. The olive tree was considered the symbol of fruitfulness. Isaiah 41:19. Isaiah 19:7) preferably rendered "the channel of the river" (D. the elm rather than pine. surnamed "the City of Palm trees". Pear tree. Engaddi. "elm"). "chestnut tree". Pine tree translates the Hebrew words: (1) ’oren (Isaiah 44:14. are among the best known. i. . cf.
seems to indicate the ordinary rose. Hebrew libneh (Genesis 30:37. and is translated by "parched corn" and "pulse". zero‘nim (Daniel 1:12-16) refer to no special plants. Rue (Luke 11:42). See Algum. Hebrew suph (D. Luke implies that Pharisees regarded the rue as subject to tithe. Saffron. Geth-Remmon. Pulse renders two Heb. Rock-rose. is rather the oleander. See Mallows. rimmon): Rimmon. Sandal-wood. Sedge. though roses were known in Egypt only at the epoch of the Ptolemies. and very plentiful in Palestine. Hosea 4:13). beans. See Briers. Crocus sativus. lentils. En-Rimmon.Pomegranate. which.. although it was not mentioned in the Law among tithable things (Leviticus 27:30. See Ladanum. Deuteronomy 14:22). hence the many allusions to it in the Bible. Isaiah 35:1) is probably the narcissus (see Flower of the Field). 39:17.. although seven different species of the genus Rosa grow in Palestine. a generic name for rush. Rush (Job 8:11). (2) zero‘im. Hebrew karkom (Canticles 4:14). (2) Wis. Pomegranates were frequently taken as a model of ornamentation. (1) Hebrew khabbaççeleth (A. words: (1) qali occurs twice in 2 Samuel 17:28. ix. Exodus 2:3). in the East. probably Ruta chalepensis. and the like. . certainly identified with the tree from the inner layer of whose bark the officinal storax is obtained. where it is doubtful whether roses ever flourished except in gardens. 8. gome. bread. Nerium oleander.. but possibly to all edible summer vegetables. See Bulrush. and the Talmud (Shebiith. several places of the Holy Land were named after the tree (Heb. This opinion of some overstrict Rabbis did not prevail in the course of time. a fragrant plant. See Bulrush. etc. Styrax officinalis. sûph (see Bulrush) and qaneh (see Calamus). very abundant around Jericho. V. Reed. a great favourite in the Orient. Poplar. Numbers 18:21. the officinal one. cf. Poppy. lubna. the allusion is to cereals. (3) The rose plant mentioned in Sirach 24:18. Arab. grown in the East and in Europe for seasoning dishes. graveolens. Rose. a general word translating several Hebrew names of plants: ’agmon. Sea-purslain. kurkum.. Song of Songs 2:1. are roasted in the oven or toasted over the fire. the fruit of Punica granatum. Arab. See Gall. etc. Rest-harrow. 1) distinctly excepts the rue from tithe. slightly different from R. the seeds of peas. St.V. ii.
Mark 14:3. and stacte. Smut. Spear-mint. a mistranslation for "precious things". see Cassia. Sweet cane. a particular kind of shrub.V. a fragrant gum identified with the storax (see Poplar). "meadow") probably designates all kinds of green plants living in marshes (cf. D. see Ladanum. 18. 55:13). See Astragalus. Soap. Stacte translates four Heb. probably some jujube tree. the perfume obtained from it was very expensive. and was reputed incorruptible. Stacte (1). Aromatical (2 Kings 20:13. Willd. a fragrant essential oil obtained from the root of Nardostachys jatamansi. See Cane. Genesis 41:2.V.Sedge-bush. See Vine. See Mint. Isaiah 28:25). 4:14. (2) ahaloth (Douay Version. Acacia Seyal.. See Borith. noka’ath. Sodom. (1) Genesis 43:11: see Astragalus. which abounds in the oasis of the Sinaitic Peninsula and in the sultry Wadys about the Dead Sea.V. or Z. for qeçakh (Exodus 9:32. (3) lot (Genesis 37:25. Del. and with myrrh in drops or tears. Isaiah 7:19. (3) noko ’oth. C. V. Hebrew na’açuç (Douay Version. V. Vine of (Deuteronomy 32:32). Job 8:11. for kussemeth (Ezekiel 4:9). Heb. words: (1) sammum. though hard and closegrained. Egypt. See Bur. See Fitches. ’akhu (Douay Version. akhah). Spelt.. spina-christi. the operculum of a strombus. See Mildew. . A. which is exported all over the East. another generic term under which come myrrh. (2) basam. R. words: (1) nataph (Exodus 30:34). Lamentations. and R. Shrub. The wood is light. Sloe. See Gith. Spices. (4) qiddah (Ezekiel 27:19). 43:11). cinnamon. "marshy places". either Zizyphus vulgaris. See Astragalus. a generic word including galbanum onycha. John 12:3). and cassia. Spices translates three Heb. sweet cane. and was known even to the Romans. a small herbaceous plant of the Himalayas. of a fine orange-brown hue darkening with age. Song of Songs 1:11-12. Psalm 44:9: "aloes". possibly the same substance as Arab. Spikenard (A. (2) Ecclesiasticus 24:21: see Poplar. Setim wood. A. See Flag. the gum arabic tree.. Storax. in particular Cyperus esculentus. Isaiah 39:2)..
argentatus. formerly more plentiful in Palestine. (8) shayith and (9) shamir. possibly Centaureas. Isaiah 9:10. etc. Teil tree (A. ’athl.. a tree of which eight or nine species grow in Palestine. Carthamus oxyacantha. Psalm 77:47. ’elon (see Oak). different from that of the pine trees..Sycamine (A. Desf. a generic word for thorny bushes. D. which is probably the terebinth. Thistles. most abundant in Palestine. in fallow-lands (Hosea 9:6). Pistacia terebinthus. See Fitches. star-thistles and knapweeds. "mulberry". Luke 17:6. (3) na’açuç. is a kind of pleasantsmelling oil. (7) qimmeshonim. a plant.V. but Ficus sycomorus. also a generic name. shauk). Sycamore or Sycomore. (5) sarabhim. Thorns. shaukat ed-dardar. also includes thorny plants. Thyine wood. or numerous prickly plants. the general name given to a hedge of any kind of thorny shrubs. (3) khedeq. tangled thorns forming thickets impossible to clear. (6) çinnim. hence they are designated by various Hebrew words. A. ’elah. V. See Terebinth. (5) sirim. (7) qoç. (2) mesukah. "grove". sukaminos is admitted by scholars to be the black mulberry. Hebrew ’eshel (Genesis 21:33. Scolymus maculatus). see Briers. see Bramble. they probably differ. V. or perhaps the thorny burnet. 1 Samuel 22:6. arvense. "wood". where guess-work seems occasionally to have been employed although the general meaning is certain: (1) barqanim. Isaiah 6:13). (6) sirpal. (2) dardar. "mulberry tree"). Arab. Morus nigra. Arab. Turpentine tree. Hebrew shiqmim or shiqmoth (1 Kings 10:27. Vetches (D. sula). Acer pseudoplatanus. (4) sillôn (cf. the turpentine tree. Tamarisk. Luke distinguishes sukáminos (here) from sukomoréa (xix. Inula viscosa. As St. an unidentified thorny plant. sweet-meats. Attractilis comosa.. and is widely used in the East to flavour wine. The turpentine. used in the English Bibles to designate plants like thistles. 31:13. from the Greek rendering.V. which grows amidst ruins (Isaiah 24:13).. common on the hills of the Holy Land. the various star-thistles. ii. for Hebrew ’ayl. Arab.V. (8) sikkim (cf. some kind of strong thorns. are one of the special features of the flora of the Holy Land. not the tree commonly called by that name. Amos 7:14). a mistranslation of Hebrew ’elah. see Mad-apple. see Shrub. with lilies (Cant. (4) khoakh (see Bur). D. see Briers. Isaiah 28:25). A. probably the elecampane. and in fallow fields where it is harmful to corn (Job 31:40). plentiful in ruins. "tree"). it grows in dry localities of south and eastern Palestine where the oak cannot thrive. 4). obtained by making incisions in the bark. V. such as (1) ’atal. see Nettles. Terebinth (Douay Version.. See Algum. Arab. all which features suit well the various kinds of thistles (Carduus pycnocephalus. probably Thuya articulata. Isaiah 6:13). V. C. . inconsistently translated by the versions. Circium lanceolatum. 2). especially in Apocalypse 18:12. C.
S. and winnowed with a shovel. Ezekiel 17:5. monosperma. and a relatively large vocabulary was devoted to expressing varieties of plants and produce. In Old Testament times vine and wine were so important and popular that in it they are constantly mentioned and alluded to. of which two varieties are especially cultivated in Palestine: Triticum æstivum. or weeping willow. ’Arabim. . A. See Mint. whereas çafçafah may point out some particular species possibly the weeping willow. "dust and ashes" (Josephus). zaizafun. which bursts when touched and contains only white silky tufts and small seeds. Corn is threshed by cattle or pressed out with a sledge. V. Bible and more. and T. used only in the plur. In Ezekiel 15:6. winter wheat. see Willow. herba-alba. which peculiar plant grows round the Dead Sea and produces a fruit of the size of an apple. several species of which (A. Job 40:17. See Nut. the ordinary grape-vine. Walnut. annua.. Willd. coupled with their usual dreariness of habitat. and the evil results of sin. Asso. Wheat. V. arborescens) are common in Palestine. Hebrew la’anah (Revelation 8:11). The characteristic bitterness of the Artemisias. Vitis vinifera. and "fair to behold". from Arab.. Church Fathers. probably designates all willows in general (Salix safsaf. hence the willow. alba.. Marsh. Fragilis. GET THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA ON CD-ROM This entire website is available on CD-ROM. safsaf. are frequent in the Palestinian Wadys). "Apple of Sodom". Wormwood. injustice. of which many varieties are cultivated and thrive in the Holy Land.. is properly in Hebrew khittah (cf. (1) Hebrew çafçafah (A. aptly typified for Eastern minds calamity. Arab.. S. Vine of Sodom (Deuteronomy 32:32). notably on tablelands and in deserts. Summa. babylonica.. plants of the genus Artemisia. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia. hybernum. Hebrew çafçafah is rendered "vine". Isaiah 44:4). A. gharab. Wheel (Psalm 82:14) probably refers to some kind of Centaurea.. "vine"). S. Calotropis procera. from Hebrew bar and dagan. by throwing the grain against the wind on threshing floors upon breezy hills. like Arab. Arab.. Water-mint. khintah). probably willow though some prefer Elægnus khortensis. as does "whirlwind" (Isaiah 17:13). A.Vine. D. judaica. possibly the well known shrub. the harvest takes place from May (Ghôr) to June (highlands). (2) Hebrew ’arabim (Leviticus 23:40. A. summer wheat. Del. Psalm 136:2. Willow.. also translated "corn" and applicable to all cereals.
BOISSIER. FONCK. IDEM. CULTRERA. Botanique biblique (Geneva. 1900).SALE: 20% off if you buy now. etc. 1884). Retrieved September 17. HILLER. DUNS. Biblical Natural Science. 1745. GANDOGER. TRISTRAM. URSINUS. 1884). Flora Palestinæ (Upsala. Handbuch der Biblischlen Altertumskunde.7). Hierophyticon. HOOKER AND TRISTRAM. Flora Biblica. 1871).GROSER. articles on various plants in VIG. Dictionnaire de la Bible (Paris. Bible Plants and Animals (London.Arabica (Copenhagen. 1626). Flora Ægyptico. 1776). The Fauna and Flora of Palestine (London. La flore pharaonique. (Calw and Stuttgart.htm . Bibl. of all references in Holy Scripture to geology. XXXV... Bible Plants. C. Biblische Naturgesch. Plantes de Judée in Bulletin de la Societé botanique de France. with the chief allusions collected and explained in Aids to the Student of the Holy Bible (London). Souvay. HAMILTON. Wild Flowers of the Holy Land (London. Sources BALFOUR. LORET. LINNE. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1892). 1894). Plants in the Bible. La botanique de la Bible (Nice. ovvero spiegazione della plante menzionate nella Sacra Scrittura (Palermo. articles on several plants in VIGOUROUX. 1725). SMITH. The Plants of the Bible (London. sive de plantis Sacræ Scripturæ dissertationes breves (Upsala. 1699). KNIGHT. 1867-88). d'après les documents hiéroglyphiques et les spécimens découverts dans les tombes (Paris.. Strifzüge durch die Biblische Flora (Freiburg. 1889). 1896). Biblische Naturgesch. Similitudinum ac parabolarum. from the Taurus to the Ras Muhammad. 1786-95). dilucida explicatio (Frankfort. WOENIG. The Flora of the Assyrian Monuments and its Outcomes (Westminster. Flora Orientalis (Bale and Geneva. 1863-5). Die Pflanzen im alten Ægypten (Leipzig. XXXIII. FORSKAL. 1756). 1876). Hierobotanicon. LÖW. 2010 from New Advent: http://www. Flora of Syria. 1830). 1699). 1878). Arboreti biblici continuatio (Nuremberg. IDEM. KINZLER. The Natural History of the Bible (London. Plants of the Bible.. 1861).. IDEM.. being the expl. Aramäische Pflanzennamen (Leipzig. XXXVI (Paris). In The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1861).newadvent. 1895). ZELLER. 1884). (1911).. Click here. Vermischte Sammlungen aus der Naturkunde zur Erklärung der Heiligen Schrift (Leipzig. with a review of the opinions of various writers regarding their identification (London. 1889). Arboretum biblicum (Nuremberg. 1886). sive Commentarius in loca Scripturæ Sacræ quæ plantarum faciunt mentionem (Treves. Dict. 1885). LEMNIUS. FREE Shipping Worldwide. botany. Palestine and Sinai. Atlas d'histoire naturelle de la Bible (Paris. ROSENMÜLLER. LEVESQUE. IV. their history. POST. The Trees and Plants mentioned in the Bible (London. CELSIUS. BONAVIA. 1881). ORDMANN.. FILLION. CULTRERA. (London. quæ in Bibliis ex herbis desumuntur.org/cathen/12149a. and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Syrian desert (Beirut. (Leipzig. 1895—). 1. About this page APA citation.
but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. Ohio. Archbishop of New York. 12. (To help fight spam. Imprimatur. Censor. +John Cardinal Farley.htm>. 1911." The Catholic Encyclopedia. John Hilkert.newadvent. Vol. 1911.MLA citation.D. I can't reply to every letter. . "Plants in the Bible. Ecclesiastical approbation. 17 Sept. My email address is feedback732 at newadvent. With thanks to Fr.T.) Regrettably. Transcription. Souvay. Charles. This article was transcribed for New Advent by WGKofron. this address might change occasionally. Contact information.org. S. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. June 1. Nihil Obstat.. 2010 <http://www. Remy Lafort. New York: Robert Appleton Company.org/cathen/12149a. Akron.
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