You are on page 1of 15

Project Synopsis


PA system

1. Abstract.

2. Introduction.

3. Specification.

5. Basic block-diagram and description.

6. Circuit diagram and working.

7. Software and algorithms.

8. PCB design and layout.

9. Advantages and application.

10. Component list and bill of material.

11. Conclusion

12. Reference and Bibliography.

13. Datasheet.

Generally, an amplifier or simply ‘amp’ is any device that changes, usually increases, the
amplitude of a signal. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier—usually
expressed as a function of the input frequency—is called the transfer function of the amplifier,
and the magnitude of the transfer function is termed the gain.

In popular use, the term usually describes an electronic amplifier, in which the input "signal" is
usually a voltage or a current. In audio applications, amplifiers drive the loudspeakers used in PA
systems to make the human voice louder or play recorded music. Amplifiers may be classified
according to the input (source) they are designed to amplify (such as a guitar amplifier, to
perform with an electric guitar), the device they are intended to drive (such as a headphone
amplifier), the frequency range of the signals (Audio, IF, RF, and VHF amplifiers, for example),
whether they invert the signal (inverting amplifiers and non-inverting amplifiers), or the type of
device used in the amplification (valve or tube amplifiers, FET amplifiers, etc.).

A related device that emphasizes conversion of signals of one type to another (for example, a
light signal in photons to a DC signal in amperes) is a transducer, a transformer, or a sensor.
However, none of these amplify power.

Figures of merit

The quality of an amplifier can be characterized by a number of specifications, listed below.


The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of output to input power or amplitude, and is usually
measured in decibels. (When measured in decibels it is logarithmically related to the power
ratio: G(dB)=10 log(Pout /(Pin)). RF amplifiers are often specified in terms of the maximum
power gain obtainable, while the voltage gain of audio amplifiers and instrumentation
amplifiers will be more often specified (since the amplifier's input impedance will often be
much higher than the source impedance, and the load impedance higher than the amplifier's
output impedance).

Example: an audio amplifier with a gain given as 20 dB will have a voltage gain of ten (but a
power gain of 100 would only occur in the unlikely event the input and output impedances were


The bandwidth of an amplifier is the range of frequencies for which the amplifier gives
"satisfactory performance". The definition of "satisfactory performance" may be different for
different applications. However, a common and well-accepted metric is the half power points
(i.e. frequency where the power goes down by half its peak value) on the output vs. frequency
curve. Therefore bandwidth can be defined as the difference between the lower and upper half
power points. This is therefore also known as the −3 dB bandwidth. Bandwidths (otherwise
called "frequency responses") for other response tolerances are sometimes quoted (−1 dB, −6
dB etc.) or "plus or minus 1dB" (roughly the sound level difference people usually can detect).

The gain of a good quality full-range audio amplifier will be essentially flat between 20 Hz to
about 20 kHz (the range of normal human hearing). In ultra high fidelity amplifier design, the
amp's frequency response should extend considerably beyond this (one or more octaves either
side) and might have −3 dB points < 10 and > 65 kHz. Professional touring amplifiers often have
input and/or output filtering to sharply limit frequency response beyond 20 Hz-20 kHz; too
much of the amplifier's potential output power would otherwise be wasted on infrasonic and
ultrasonic frequencies, and the danger of AM radio interference would increase. Modern
switching amplifiers need steep low pass filtering at the output to get rid of high frequency
switching noise and harmonics.


Efficiency is a measure of how much of the power source is usefully applied to the amplifier's
output. Class A amplifiers are very inefficient, in the range of 10–20% with a max efficiency of
25% for direct coupling of the output. Inductive coupling of the output can raise their efficiency
to a maximum of 50%.

Class B amplifiers have a very high efficiency but are impractical for audio work because of high
levels of distortion (See: Crossover distortion). In practical design, the result of a tradeoff is the
class AB design. Modern Class AB amplifiers are commonly between 35–55% efficient with a
theoretical maximum of 78.5%.

Commercially available Class D switching amplifiers have reported efficiencies as high as 90%.
Amplifiers of Class C-F are usually known to be very high efficiency amplifiers.

More efficient amplifiers run cooler, and often do not need any cooling fans even in multi-
kilowatt designs. The reason for this is that the loss of efficiency produces heat as a by-product
of the energy lost during the conversion of power. In more efficient amplifiers there is less loss
of energy so in turn less heat.
In RF Power Amplifiers, such as cellular base stations and broadcast transmitters, specialist
design techniques are used to improve efficiency. Doherty designs, which use a second
transistor, can lift efficiency from the typical 15% up to 30-35% in a narrow bandwidth. Envelope
Tracking designs are able to achieve efficiencies of up to 60%, by modulating the supply voltage
to the amplifier in line with the envelope of the signal.

The TDA2030A is a monolithic IC in Pent watt [package intended for use as low frequency class
AB amplifier. With VS max = 44V it is particularly suited for more reliable applications without
regulated supply and for 35W driver circuits using low-cost complementary pairs. The
TDA2030A provides high output current and has very low harmonic and cross-over distortion.
Further the device incorporates a short circuit protection system comprising an arrangement for
automatically limiting the dissipated power so as to keep the working point of the output
transistors within their safe operating area. A conventional thermal shut-down system is also


Multiday loudspeaker systems provide the best possible acoustic performance since each
loudspeaker is specially designed and optimized to handle a limited range of frequencies.
Commonly, these loudspeaker systems divide the audio spectrum into two or three bands. To
maintain flat frequency response over the Hi-Fi audio range the bands covered by each
loudspeaker must overlap slightly. Imbalance between the loudspeakers produces unacceptable
results therefore it is important to ensure that each unit generates the correct amount of
acoustic energy for its segment of the audio spectrum. In this respect it is also important to
know the energy distribution of the music spectrum to determine the

cutoff frequencies of the crossover filters (see Figure 18). As an example a 100W three-way
system with crossover frequencies of 400Hz and 3 kHz would require 50W for the woofer, 35W
for the midrange unit and 15W for the tweeter.

 A Desktop Reference of Hip Vintage Guitar Amps - Gerald Weber. Published by Kendrick
Books, 1994. ISBN 0-9641060-0-0. Lots of good schematics, primarily Fender-oriented,
but some other amps as well. In addition, it contains a lot of mod information for
Fender amps, if you are into that kind of thing.

 Ampeg - The Story Behind The Sound- Gregg Hopkins and Bill Moore. Published by Hal
Leonard, 1999. ISBN 0-7935-7951-1. The definitive Ampeg book! This is without a
doubt the classiest-looking book on amplifiers I have ever seen. Very well done, with
lots of color photos and items of historical significance. Can be purchased directly from
Bill Moore at if you can't find it in your local bookstore.

 Audio Cyclopedia, 2nd Edition - Howard Tremaine. Published by Howard W. Sams & Co.,
Inc. The Bobbs-Merrill Co. Inc., 1974. International Standard Book Number 0-672-
20675-7, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 77-82885. This huge volume is
arguably the best book ever published on tube amplifier circuits and other electronic
circuitry, from filters to test equipment and everything in between. It is presented in a
question-and-answer format, and contains concise, easy-to-understand explanations of
almost every tube circuit known to man (some of the newer patents on amp circuitry
bear a suspicious resemblance to circuits in this book). Don't buy the later, solid-state
edition, the 2nd edition is the one you want. Good luck finding a copy, as it is long out of

 Audio Transformer Design Manual - Robert G. Wolpert. 1989. This book explains audio
transformer design in great detail. There is also a companion book on power
transformer design. These books were out of print for several years, after Mr. Wolpert's
passing, but his daughter has made them available again through this website link:

 Build Your Own Audio Valve Amplifiers - Rainer zur Linde. Published by Elektor
Electronics, 1995. ISBN 0-905705-39-4. High-level technical information on vacuum
tube circuit design.

 Dave Funk's Tube Amp Workbook - Dave Funk. Published by Thunderfunk Labs, Inc.
1996. ISBN 0-9650841-0-8. A good beginner's text on tube amp design.

 *Designing Tube Preamps for Guitar and Bass - Merlin Blencowe. Published by Merlin
Blencowe, 2009. ISBN 978-0-9561545-0-7. This is an excellent book, packed with
concise, factual information on tube (valve) preamp designs, complete with all
mathematical formulas for design. This book is destined to be a classic, and sort of
reminds me of a Radiotron Designer's Handbook for guitar. Highly recommended. If you
can only afford one book, make it this one.

 Fender Amps - The First Fifty Years - John Teagle & John Sprung, published by Hal
Leonard Corporation, 1995. ISBN 0-7935-3733-9 (soft cover), ISBN 0-7935-4408-4 (hard
cover limited edition). The title says it all. Very nicely done history of Fender amps.
 Electric Guitar Amplifier Handbook, 2nd edition - Jack Darr. Published by Howard W.
Sams & Co., Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana, 1968. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number:
68-59059. There is also a much better and larger third edition: ISBN 0-672-20848-2,
Library of Congress Catalog Card number: 78-157801. This is an excellent little book
with very good, easy-to-understand theory and troubleshooting tips.

 Fundamentals Of Vacuum Tubes, 2nd Edition - Austin V. Eastman. Published by McGraw-

Hill Book Company, Inc., 1941. A textbook on vacuum tubes, highly technical.

 *Guitar Amplifier Preamps - Richard Kuehnel. Published by Pentode Press, 2009. ISBN
9780976982227. This is another excellent book. It deals with guitar amplifier preamp
designs from an engineering standpoint, and contains derivations of formulas for all
phases of preamp design. If you want to know the math behind the circuit design, this
book is it. It is not just math, however, it also is filled with practical information. Highly

 *Guitar Amplifier Power Amps - Richard Kuehnel. Published by Pentode Press, 2008.
ISBN 9780976982241. This is another excellent book, a companion to the preamp book
listed above. It deals with guitar amplifier power amp designs from an engineering
standpoint, and contains derivations of formulas for all phases of power amplifier
design. Highly recommended.

 Noise Reduction Techniques In Electronic Systems- Henry W. Ott. Published by John

Wiley & Sons, 1976. ISBN 0-471-65726-3. A textbook on noise reduction, highly
 Principles of Electronics - M. R. Gavin and J. E. Houldin. Published by D. Van Nostrand
Company, Inc., 1959. A very nice little book written in easy-to-understand, yet technical,

 Principles of Electron Tubes - Herbert J. Reich. Reprint published by Audio Amateur

Press, 1995. ISBN 1-882580-07-9. A classic text, but hard reading. For advanced folks

 Principles of Power - Kevin O'Connor. Published by Power Press Publishing, London,

Canada. ISBN 0-9698-6081-1. A good tutorial on tube power amp design.

 Pulse Electronics - Raphael Littauer. Published by McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 64-22195. Mainly geared towards pulse
generation, but has some good tube amplifier information.

 Radio Designer's Handbook (aka Radiotron Designer's Handbook, 3rd Edition) - F.

Langford-Smith. Published by the Wireless Press for Amalgamated Wireless Valve
Company Pty. Ltd., 1953. Reproduced and distributed by RCA in America. This is a little
blue book, much smaller than the 4th edition (only 352 pages), but it contains quite
good information, and is well worth getting if you don't have the 4th edition, or even if
you do have it. This edition is long out of print and is seldom seen for sale.
 Radiotron Designer's Handbook, 4th Edition - F. Langford-Smith. Published by the
Wireless Press for Amalgamated Wireless Valve Company Pty. Ltd., 1953. Reproduced
and distributed by RCA in America. This book is the "granddaddy" of them all. If you
understand everything in this book, you will be a true guru. The original book is long
out of print, and will cost $50-$150 for a good used copy. However, Antique Electronics
has issued a nice hardback reprint for $69.95. They can be found on the web at It has also been reissued by Butterworth-Heinemann
(1999) and is available on - ISBN 0750636351, for $79.99.

 *The History Of Marshall - Michael Doyle. Published by Hal Leonard Publishing

Corporation, 1993. ISBN 0-7935-2509-8. If you are a Marshall fanatic like me, this book
is on the top of the list. It contains a wealth of information, including pictures,
schematics, and a full section on Celestion speakers. Highly recommended.

 The Tube Amp Book, 4th Edition - Aspen Pittman. Published by Groove Tubes Audio,
1993. There is also a newer 4.1th edition. Get this book for the extensive collection of
schematics and cool amp pictures, ignore the sales pitches and especially the tech info,
as much of it is incorrect. This is your best schematic reference book.

 The Ultimate Tone - Kevin O'Connor. Published by Power Press Publishing, London,
Canada. ISBN 0-9698-6080-3. This book is a good source of detailed circuit design and
tube amplifier modification information. There are occasional technical errors, but
overall, it is good. The companion book, Principles of Power, is also good. There are
several other volumes in the series, but most deal with esoteric information of little use
to the average experimenter, and they are quite pricey, upwards of $100 or so.
 The Vox Story - David Petersen & Dick Denney. Published by The Bold Strummer, Ltd.,
1993. ISBN 0-933224-70-2. A book on all things Vox, very well done.

 Valve Amplifiers - Morgan Jones. Published by Newnes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Ltd.

1995. ISBN 0-7506-2337-3. An excellent tube theory book, highly technical, but
relatively easy to understand. It contains a lot of the math behind tube circuits, but in
easy-to-understand form. Highly recommended. This book has been continuously in
print since 1995, and is now in it's third edition. The ISBN number for the third edition
is: ISBN 07506 56948. There is also an upcoming book entitled: "Building Valve
Amplifiers" (ISBN 07506 56956) that is due out any day now.