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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF WHEEL HUB TO PROVIDE

IN-HUB ELECTRIC MOTOR FOR HMMWV VEHICLE

by

SANDEEP SINGH THAKUR, B.Tech.

A THESIS

IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University ui Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Approved

Cflairperson of the Coftijilittee

Accepted

Dean of the Graduate School

May, 2004

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would

like

to

thank

my

advisor

Dr

Timothy

Maxwell

for

his

support,

encouragement and assistance during my work. This work would have been very difficult

without his help. I thank Dr. Atila Ertas and Dr. Siva Parameswaran for serving on my

committee. I appreciate the help assistance and guidance received from Jaako Halmari at

Reese Center.

I would also like to thank my fiiends Anilkumar Chandolu, Kumar Buduri,

Ramachandra, Seethapathi, Suman Movva, Deepak Sahini, Ranjeet Rajanala, Prashanth

Nellore and Rajesh Vuta for their assistance in my work and their friendship.

Finally, I would like to thank my parents Sri Narender Singh Thakur, Smt Romila

Thakur, my fiance Amrutha, and my brother Vikram Thakur without whose support and

encouragement I would not have been able to achieve this task.

n

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ii

ABSTRACT

vi

LIST OF TABLES

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

ix

CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION

I

1.1 Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels

3

1.2 Alternative Fuels

5

1.3 Hybrid Concept

7

2

HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

9

2.1 Different Types of Hybrid Configurations

ID

2.1.1 Series Hybrid System

10

2.1.2 Parallel Hybrid System

11

2.1.3 Power Split Hybrid System

12

2.2 Different Kinds of Motor Configurations

14

2.2.1 One Motor Per Vehicle

14

2.2.2 One Motor Per Axle

14

2.2.3 One Motor Per Wheel

14

ni

2.3

Different Military Hybrid Vehicles

15

2.3.1 Hybrid Electric High Mobility Medium Wheeled Vehicle

 

(HEHMMWV)

 

15

2.3.2 Hybrid

Electric

LAV III Vehicle

16

2.3.3 Hybrid Electric Bradley Fighting Vehicle (HE-BFV)

18

2.3.4 Hybrid

Electric

Ml 13 Troop Carrier

18

2.4

Texas Tech University's Hybrid Program

19

DESIGN OF WHEEL HUB ASSEMBLY

21

3.1 Calculation of gear ratio

 

22

3.2 Forces acting on HMMWV

25

 

3.2.1 Aerodynamic Drag Force

25

3.2.2 Rolling Resistance

 

26

3.2.3 Grade

27

3.2.4 Tractive Force

 

28

3.2.5 Sample Calculation of Tractive force

28

3.3 Acceleration Calculation

 

68

3.4 Design Factors

^0

3.5 Final Design of Hub Assembly Final Design

70

iv

4

ANALYSIS OF COMPONENTS

79

 

4.1 G-Forces

79

4.2 Material Properties

79

4.3 G-Forces Acting on Gear Hub

80

4.4 Forces Acting on Housing

86

4.5 Forces Acting on Motor

90

5

CONCLUSIONS

94

REFERENCES

95

ABSTRACT

This thesis describes the design of the wheel hub of hybrid HMMWV so as to

introduce an electric in-hub motor inside the hub. Chapter I explains the consumption

and detrimental effect of fossil fiiels. Limitations of present alternative fuels are also

explained. In Chapter 2 deals with hybrid electric vehicle concept, various types and

configurations and the different military hybrid vehicles. In subsequent chapters vehicle

performance characteristics such as velocity, acceleration and gradability are studied for

different cases and gear ratio calculation is explained. Design constraints are listed and

design was done based upon available space and taking weight factor into consideration.

Further, the design was tested for the vehicle crushing forces known as 20G and 8G

forces. High strength steel was used as the material for the design. Results are verified

with available data for strength of the design. The Von Mises stresses are less than yield

stresses in all the cases. Nodal displacements are with in the acceptable range. Pro E is

used for modeling the components and Algor is used for analysis.

VI

LIST OF TABLES

1.1

Energy consumed for different purposes

1

2.1

Comparison

between

HE HMMWV and Standard HMMWV

16

2.2

Comparison between LAV III and HEV

17

3.1

Torque, speed, and power values generated by motor

23

3.2

Forces

for concrete surface with gear ratio 4:1 at peak torque

29

3.3

Forces

for

medium hard surface with gearratio 4:1 at peak torque

31

3.4

Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 4:1 at peak torque

33

3.5

Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 5:1 at peak torque

35

3.6

Forces

for medivmi hard surface with gear ratio 5:1 at peak torque

37

3.7

Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 5:1 at peak torque

39

3.8

Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 6:1 at peak torque

41

3.9

Forces

for medium hard surface with gear ratio 6:1 at peak torque

43

3.10

Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 6:1 at peak torque

45

3.11

Forces for concrete surface with gearratio 4:1 at continuous torque

47

3.12

Forces for medium hard surface with gearratio 4:1 at continuous torque

49

3.13

Forces for sand surface with gearratio 4:1 at continuous torque

51

3.14

Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 5:1 at continuous torque

53

3.15

Forces for medium hard surface with gear ratio 5:1 at continuous torque

55

3.16

Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 5:1 at continuous torque

57

3.17

Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 6:1 at continuous torque

59

vii

3.18

Forces for medium hard surface with gear ratio 6:1 at continuous torque

61

3.19 Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 6:1 at continuous torque

63

3.20 Forces

for sand surface

with gear ratio 9:1 at continuous torque

65

vni

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1

Graph showing energy resources of mankind for years

2

1.2

Relationship between global temperature and carbon dioxide levels

4

2.1

Series hybrid vehicle concept

10

2.2

Power flow in series hybrid system

11

2.3

Power flow in parallel hybrid system

II

2.4

Parallel hybrid vehicle concept

12

2.5

Power flow in power split hybrid system

13

2.6

Power split system configuration

13

2.7

TACOM HEHMMWV

15

2.8

Basic design idea in hybrid LAV III

17

2.9

Layout of Texas Tech's hybrid electric vehicle

19

2.10

Different views of hybrid HMMWV

20

3.1

Layout showing the connections in the hub assembly

21

3.2

Torque speed curve for motor

24

3.3

Grade

27

3.4

Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on concrete at peak torque

30

3.5

Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on medium hard surface at peak torque

32

3.6

Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on sand surface at peak torque

34

3.7

Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on concrete surface at peak torque

36

3.8

Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on medium surface at peak torque

38

IX

3.9 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph

3.10 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph

3.11 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph

3.12 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph

3.13 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

on sand surface at peak torque

40

on concrete surface at peak torque

42

on medium surface at peak torque

44

on

sand surface at peak torque

46

on concrete surface at

.48

3.14 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

3.15 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

3.16 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

3.17 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

3.18 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

3.19 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph torque

3.20 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mpfi continuous torque

3.21 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph continuous torque

3.22 Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph' continuous torque and 9:1

on medium hard surface at

on sand surface at

on concrete surface at

on mediiun hard surface at

on sand surface at

on concrete surface at continuous

on medium hard surface at

on sand surface at

on sand surface at

3.23 Plot showing the comparison of tractive forces at different gear ratios produced by motors at continuous torque

.50

.52

.54

.56

.58

.60

.62

.64

66

67

3.24 Plot showing the comparison of tractive forces at different gear ratios produced by motors at peak torque

.68

3.25

Plot showing the velocity variation with

time

69

3.26

Gear hub and brake disc assembly

71

3.27

Housing

72

3.28

Motor

73

3.29

Hub assembly

74

3.30

Box design

75

3.31

Exploded view of the box design of assembly

76

3.32

Final assembly

77

3.33

Exploded view of final assembly

78

4.1

G-forces on gear hub

80

4.2

Von Mises stress, strain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

81

4.3

G-forces on splines

82

4.4

Von Mises stress, strain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

83

4.5

G-forces applied on gear end

84

4.6

Von Mises stress, strain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

85

4.7

G-forces on housing

86

4.8

Von Mises stress, strain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

87

4.9

Von Mises sti-ess, strain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

88

4.10

Von Mises stress, sfi-ain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

89

4.11

G-forces on motor shaft

90

4.12

Von Mises stress, sfi-ain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

91

4.13

Von Mises stress, sfi-ain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

92

XI

4.14

Von Mises stress, strain, and nodal displacement drawings and values

93

xu

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Fossil fuels are the major source of energy today. But different stages of fossil

fiiel use have a severe impact upon the environment, fi-om recovery to storage and end

use. Peti-oleum, coal, and natural gas all include very serious environmental concerns

with their essential energy usage abilities. Moreover, fossil fliels are being consumed

very fast. The world is currently consuming fossil fliels at 100,000 times faster than the

rate

at which

natural

forces

are recreating them. After

the available reserves

are

consiuned, it will be exfi-emely difficult and costly to extract the remaining resources.

Therefore, continued reliance on fossil fiiels for energy resources cannot continue into the

indefinite fiiture.

According to the available data, the energy needed by an individual is 2000

calories per day, but in a technological society individual consumes 230,000 calories per

day. At the rate shown in Table 1.1, all the known petroleum resources will be consumed

by 2050 and coal by 2500 (Ref 12).

Table 1.1: Energy consumed for different purposes (Ref 12).

Calories per day

10,000

66,000

91,000

63,000

Purpose Preparing food Home and Commerce Industry and Agriculture Transportation

Purpose Preparing food Home and Commerce Industry and Agriculture Transportation
Purpose Preparing food Home and Commerce Industry and Agriculture Transportation
Purpose Preparing food Home and Commerce Industry and Agriculture Transportation
Purpose Preparing food Home and Commerce Industry and Agriculture Transportation

40

O T

30

Oil

^ c

JO

0

1900

'^30

= 2 20^

1925

.^.

1950

umed Total Rssoitrce 2,100 BilHon Barrels

As&umed Total Resource 1,350 Billion Barrels

/

f

s^\

.

Actual

Prodtiction

,

1975

2000

Years

\

,

2025

2050

2075

Tow! Resources

8.1

rriHion Tom

Total Resources

2100

pi

s;^'

4,7 Trillion Tom

^%10

Pfi

80

1800

1900

Actual Pi-oducrion

2000

2100

Year

2200

2300

I

60

i

o Slaves,

40

Fossil fuels-

^

20 animals,

and firewood

Nudear. Geothermal,

and Solar Energy,

or

Slaves,

animals,

and firewood

2000

1000

B.C.

0

1000

2^^3000

A.D.

Years

4000

6000

8000

2400

2500

2600

Figure 1.1: Graph showing energy resources of mankind for years (Ref 12).

1.1 Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuel recovery affects the environment by destroying topsoil in coal mining,

causing orange creeks due to acidic water run-off, and causing land subsidence. Gushers

and accidents that are harmful

to the environment occur due to petroleum drilling.

Transportation is also a problem where accidents are polluting the sea and the land.

Above all, the end use produces pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur oxide

(SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and unbumt hydrocarbons (UHC). All these pollutants are

responsible for smog in the ozone, acid rain and the Greenhouse Effect.

Greenhouse Effect means the incoming solar radiation is able to pass easily the

glass coverings of a green house, but the outgoing infrared radiation from the interior

does not. Earth's atmosphere (consisting of mainly carbon dioxide, methane nitrous

oxides and ozone) acts like glass coverings of a greenhouse. It is allowing incoming solar

energy but preventing the outgoing infrared radiation which is causing gradual global

warming. This warming of the earth could lead to the melting of the polar ice caps and

rising sea levels thus causing floods and droughts. These effects will continue if proper

steps are not taken to control CO2 emissions. According to the Energy Information

Adminisfration, carbon dioxide emissions from energy use are projected to increase from

1,562

million metric tons carbon equivalent in 2000 to 2,088 million in 2020 that

represents an average rate of 1.5 percent per year. Fortunately, however, steps are being

made by the governments of the world to reduce some of these problems caused by

fossils fiiels and their emissions.

.J,

I ncrease in CO 2 in recent decacJes

-'^

;:-

due to our increased fuels

burning of fossil

1357

1970

1930

2000

 

Global average temperature change in degrees Celsius in

 

^

the past 150 years

 

1360

1330

1300

1320

19^0

1360

1930

2000

Figure 1.2: Relationship between global temperature and carbon dioxide levels. (Ref II).

For example, the governments of the world are taking steps and important

legislation has been passed to reduce the impact of fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act of

1970

focuses on reduction of sulphur and nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions. The

1979

New Source Performance Standards for Utilities set SO2 emissions at 1.2 pounds

per 1 million BTU and The Kyoto Protocol calls for the U.S. to cut emissions 30% by the

year 2010. (Ref 12)

Major

challenges

are

still

to

be

faced

in

spite

of

these

attempts

by

the

governments. The solution to this problem could be reducing the usage of fossil fuels and

adaptation of alternative fiiels. Transportation sector that relies mainly on fossil fiiels

should increase the use of alternative fuels

developed.

and alternative fiiel vehicles should be

1.2 Alternative Fuels

Prospective alternative fiiels, which can be used by transportation sector, are

hydrogen gas, natural gas, methanol, ethanol and propane. Hydrogen gas is a clean fuel

with plentifiil supply in compounded form. Its low energy content per unit volume makes

it a good fiiel. But production, storage and distribution is still a major problem for this

fiiel, and fiirther research is needed. Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons and it is

more available than petiroleum-based fiiels. Natural gas can either be stored on board a

vehicle as compressed nattu-al gas (CNG) at 3,000 or 3,600 psi or as liquefied natural gas

(LNG) at typically 20-150 psi. It is a clean fiiel, but its main problem is also storage

Methanol today is mostly available from natural gas. It can be made from raw materials

like garbage, seaweed and trees, but it is very costly. Methanol is more corrosive than

gasoline causing durability problems. So more research needs to be done Ethanol is an

alcohol fiiel produced by fermenting and distilling starch crops that have been converted

into simple sugars. Low energy content and more fiiel consumption are the disadvantages

in using ethanol. ft has hazardous problems, as it will explode in confined environments.

Alternative fuels have major problems in storage and usage, but after

further

research

is

done

they

may

come

in

practical

use.

Alternative

energy

conversion/fransmission

can also help the transportation sector to reduce the usage of

fossil fiiels. Major alternative energy conversions are the fuel cell, flywheel and battery

energy storage.

A fiiel cell is a device in which hydrogen and oxygen combines to form water

producing electricity and heat. Electrochemical energy conversion takes place in a fiiel

cell. High efficiency and clean operation are the major advantages of fuel cells. The

major disadvantage of a fuel cell is the storage of hydrogen fuel and the weight and size

of fuel cell along with the cost. Battery is used to store electric energy that is converted to

mechanical energy with the help of a motor, and the power is supplied to wheels through

the fransmission. Battery-powered vehicles have similar advantages as a fuel-cell vehicle.

But storage battery limitations prevent them from practical use because batteries can

supply only enough energy for short trips. More study on battery systems needs to be

done for making the battery-powered vehicle practical.

From above, it can be concluded that all of the above altemative fliels and energy

sources have their limitations and none could provide immediate solution for reducing the

use of fossil fuels and preventing their impact on environment. The most reasonable near

term solution to this problem is using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV).

1.3 Hybrid Concept

Hybrid vehicles use a hybrid engine for power generation. A hybrid engine is a

combination of small internal combustion engine with battery and electric motor. There

are many other combinations in hybrid vehicles, i.e., using fuel cells, diesels and lean

bum gasoline engines with flywheels, batteries, and ultra capacitors. Improved

fuel

economy and lower emissions are practical benefits of HEV's compared to conventional

vehicles. Hybrid power systems compensate the shortfall in battery technology. Hybrid

vehicles can be used for longer trips whereas batteries could supply enough energy for

short trips only. Zero emissions can be achieved in sensitive areas by running the hybrid

vehicle only on electric power and switching off the internal combustion engine.

From the above it can be concluded that HEV's are an immediate solution until a

better technology is completely developed to replace conventional vehicles. The nature of

battlefield is changing at an alarming rate due to advancement in technology. Therefore a

rapid change in automotive and elecfronics sectors and its impact can be seen on combat

vehicle design. The US Government and industry have been and remain very active in the

R&D of military HEV's. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and

Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) are leaders in this area. The

Bradley Infantiy Fighting Vehicle (IFV), the HMMWV and the Family of Medium

Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) are examples of their products.

Present military vehicles use fossil fiiels for vehicle propulsion and use additional

power generation units to supply electricity for vehicular subsystems. The need for

electiic power is increasing which demands an integrated power system, which can

generate,

store

and

distribute power

required both

for

vehicle propulsion

and

for

vehicular

subsystems.

High-power

electronic

weapons

need

more

power

for

their

operations and need a battery, which can store the required power and supply whenever

needed. Therefore the battery needs to be charged at regular intervals, which can be done

by internal combustion engine. This can be done by hybrid electric technology, which

can fulfill the need of power system for U.S. military vehicles. Institute For Advanced

Technology, Austin along with Texas Tech University is currently doing research on

converting military vehicles into Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

This paper describes the design of a wheel hub to introduce a motor in hub and

convert the conventional military HMMWV to Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Chapter 2

describes configurations of hybrid vehicle and previous work done. Chapter 3 explains

the design idea, drawings and required calculations. Analysis on the design is done and

results are discussed in Chapter 4. Conclusions and further possibilities are dealt in

Chapter 5.

CHAPTER 2

HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

There are several concepts describing hybrid vehicle technology. One concept is a

vehicle, which is propelled by either an internal combustion engine (ICE), as in a

conventional vehicle, or by electric motors on-board. Another concept define hybrid as a

vehicle which has an ICE used only to provide energy to storage units that in turn power

the electric motors used to propel the vehicle. There are many concepts using fuel cells,

gas turbines, diesels, and lean bum gasoline engines in combination with flywheels,

batteries, and ulfra capacitors. Whichever concept is used, there are three ways to build

the electric and fuel systems (parallel, series and power split configurations) and three

ways of motor configurations in HEV's.

Advantages of HEV can be summed up as follows,

1. Greater fuel economy by regenerative braking and by operating smaller ICEs

under more optimum conditions.

2. Toxic emissions are reduced greatly and zero emissions are provided in sensitive

areas.

3. Reducing vehicle's thermal and acoustic signatures when operating from onboard

electric storage units increases siu^ivability and stealth operation

4. Due to availability of immediate torque to wheels faster acceleration and greater

agility including pivot steering is provided.

2.1 Different Types of Hybrid Configurations

2.1.1 Series Hybrid System

In a series hybrid system the internal combustion engine is source and supplies

power to generator, which in tum supplies electricity to the battery pack. Electric motors

Connected to battery pack draws electric power whenever required and drives the wheels.

There is no mechanical connection between intemal combustion engine and the wheels.

This is called series hybrid system because the power flows in series.

Generator

PDUiprUnii

Motor Cant roller

,-l». V

"i^yxin.

Energy storage

Transmission

Figure 2.1: Series hybrid vehicle concept (Ref 13).

The engine is used to generate energy for the supply of electrical power to the

batteries, so a small engine is sufficient to serve the purpose compared to parallel hybrid

system. Some series hybrids do not need fransmission reducing the overall weight.

10

Engine

N

*• Oivo powiK

• • Eloctrc po*er

Generator -f

—r

Reduction Reduction^ ' gear

Baltory

Inverter

Motor

Drive wheels

X.

|| |

I

\J

Figure 2.2: Power flow in series hybrid system (Ref 20)

2.1.2 Parallel Hybrid System

In a parallel hybrid system, there is a direct mechanical connection between the

Intemal combustion engine and the wheels through a fransmission as in a conventional

vehicle. Both electric motor and intemal combustion engine drive the wheels through the

fransmission. In this system, the battery is charged by switching electric motor to act as

generator while braking and using regenerative braking concept. This is called parallel

system because power flows in parallel.

Engine

— • • Drive ptwer

- •-Eteinrk; (wwsr

[ I Batt«y

Irwsner

• "

Motw/generator

Drive wtiBsIs

Figure 2.3: Power flow in parallel hybrid system (Ref 20)

11

Parallel vehicles in most cases do not need the generator to produce electrical

energy for the storage unit. Parallel hybrid vehicle uses fiill size intemal combustion

engine so no significant reduction in weight compared to Series Concept. In a Parallel

Hybrid Vehicle, motors caimot drive the wheels while simultaneously charging the

battery.

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stituryrwjilnj^K

i^":'Jv "J

3?is^="?:

6 *-,"••

" V'.''>V;'.''r^:"''';'Vf i'lSa

1 rarisnuiiiori

l-'.;!-.|;':'.'if

'IfSx^

V'-JtC j !»'Ti.i:J!l.j;.lA,> J"'""'.^!} ,

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I

l'<Sf>»f

"

.">^i;".iI?<"3»';;.iji?;;i-.V.H>"f J

^ML/criin

Figure 2.4: Parallel hybrid vehicle concept (Ref 13)

2.1.3 Power Split Hybrid System

In this system, the engine is connected to a power split device, which is connected

to generator and motor. Initially electric motors provide all the power to the wheels. After

reaching certain speed, the gasoline engine tums on and once freeway speed is reached

vehicle will move under the combination of gas and electric power.

12

• Drive povs-e;

• - Eleclrtc pcwer

I9fi6ra(0f

Ganeralof

[ J Batlery

r

)

 

Inverter

Power spill device

jTr'

~y

 

MWor

0

U

it

^ 1

Rasudion f=

Drive wtieels

\J

Figure 2.5: Power flow in power split hybrid system (Ref 20)

Power

split

hybrid

system

combines

series

and parallel

hybrid

systems

to

maximize the benefits of both. Depending upon the driving conditions it uses either

electric motor alone or driving power from both electric motor and engine to achieve

highest efficiency level. This system drives the wheels while simultaneously generating

electric power using generator.

GASOLINE ENGINE

POWER

SPLIT DEVICE

GENERATOR

REDUCTION

GEAR

BATTERY

POWER CONTROL UNIT {Inverter, voltage-boosting converter)

ELECTRIC MOTOR

Figure 2.6: Power split system configuration (Ref 20).

13

2.2 Different Kinds of Motor Configurations

2.2.1 One Motor Per Vehicle

A Single motor is used per vehicle in this configuration. A large motor is required

and the assembly is not a space-saving design. This system occupies more space than a

conventional vehicle. This configuration is used on a Bradley test-bed vehicle part of US

Defense Hybrid Research Program.

2.2.2 One Motor Per Axle

In this configuration, one motor is placed per each axle. Number of motors is

reduced

thereby

lowering

the

cost.

But

it

will

not

eliminate

some

mechanical

components. Large motors are required to provide more power. Texas Tech University's

Future Tmck Team used this configuration in their earlier hybrid vehicle.

2.2.3 One Motor Per Wheel

In this configuration, one motor is placed at each wheel. It allows ease of control

of torque to each wheel, which in tum provides faster acceleration and greater agility

including pivot steering In this configuration we have a comfortable mobility in the

vehicle, which can reduce the chance of striking a landmine. It reduces the number of

mechanical components such as transmission and differential. By placing the motor in the

wheel and making it as a single assembly, components are made available as spare parts

and can be replaced easily and quickly.

14

2.3 Different Military Hybrid Vehicles

2.3.1 Hybrid Electric High Mobility Medium Wheeled Vehicle (HEHMMWV)

PEI Electronics along with TACOM developed a prototype HEHMMWV (Figure

2.7) for the US Armed Forces. Four 100 hp motors are added to each wheel in this

vehicle to produce more torque and acceleration. It appears like standard HMMWV from

outside but has a remarkable power plant underneath which can produce acceleration of

about 80 miles per hour. It takes 7 seconds to reach 50 mph from zero and can climb 60%

grade at 17 mph. Its mileage is 18 miles per gallon double the fuel economy compared

with standard HMMWV. HEHMMWV can power a mobile command post for 24 hours

directly from the battery pack and is capable to mn a silent watch for about 80 hours.

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Figure 2.7: TACOM HEHMMWV (Ref 13)

15

Table 2.1: Comparison between HEHMMWV and Standard HMMWV (Refl3)

HEHMMWV

Standard HMMWV

Top Speed (0%grade)

85mph

70mph

(60% grade)

17 mph

6.8 mph

Acceleration (0-50 mph)

7 seconds

14 seconds

Fuel Economy

16mpg

8mpg

Emissions

75% reduction

Standard

Gross Vehicle Weight

9100

9100

Payload*

2880-2280

2580

2.3.2 Hybrid Electiic LAV III Vehicle

Major J. D. Fortin CD, Captain S. B. Luckhurst CD and Mr. C. B. Boyle of Royal

Military College, Canada studied different Hybrid technologies and recommended a LAV

III Hybrid Electric Vehicle. They used Series Configuration and one motor per wheel.

Battery provides electric energy to motors, which are controlled by PCU.When batteries

need energy PCU will engage ICE to the battery. Acceleration and deceleration controls

are directed by PCU. Pivot tums and traction control are possible. Basic design idea in

hybrid LAV III is shown in Figure 2.8 and comparison between LAV III and HEV in

Table 2.2.

16

l:k\tlk-

Mtilnis

Inverter./ Converter' Adapter x 8

PCI

Figure 2.8: Basic design idea in hybrid LAV III (RefI3).

Table 2.2: Comparison between LAV III and HEV

L.\ \

111 COMPONENT S

WEIGHT

 

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il'j i

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i.:iil -.1111 ••. h 'I i

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\> <••:•:['

 

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11^ BRI D

ELECTRI C

COMPONENTS

M

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ni l

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HM.K ku

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A

2.3.3

Hybrid Electric Bradley Fighting Vehicle (HE-BFV)

This

prototype

hybrid

vehicle

uses

single

motor

per

vehicle

configuration.

Therefore, this vehicle requires more powerfiil and capable hybrid electric power system

for operation than HMMWV and FMTV. This vehicle has a 275-KW APU, an induction

Motor based sprocket drive, a network based power management controller and a nickel

metal hydride battery based energy storage system. Advantages of this vehicle are greater

fiiel economy, reduction of thermal and noise signatiires and faster acceleration. But the

design is not a space saving one, as the configuration used is one motor per vehicle.

2.3.4 Hybrid Electiic Ml 13 Troop Carrier

This vehicles requires a powerfiil and robust hybrid electric power system as

Bradley than HMWWV and FMTV. It carries a 55-KW auxiliary power unit, advanced

lead

acid

battery

based

energy

system,

distributed

network

based

vehicle

power

management system and a low noise band track in the electric drive. This vehicle differs

from Bradley Fighting vehicle because of an electric drive transmission that was already

present in Ml 13.This vehicle has improved performance and better space efficiency.

18

2.4 Texas Tech University's Hybrid Program

Texas Tech University converted a military HMMWV into HEV for Institute for

Advanced Technology at UT Austin using series and two motor configurations. One

motor is used to power front wheels and the other back wheels.

Figure 2.9: Layout of Texas Tech's hybrid electiic vehicle (Ref 6).

19

Figure 2.10: Different views of hybrid HMMWV (Ref 6).

This vehicle has got all the advantages of a HEV such as Fuel Economy, low

emissions. 3, electiic power generation and reduction of thermal and acoustic signattires for

survivability. This vehicle cannot provide the benefit of making wheel hub and motor

combination as a single spare part, which is usefiil to reduce maintenance costs for army.

Moreover, the wheels of the vehicle can be confroUed individually, which is helpfiil on

rough terrains. So a design is needed for placing motors in wheel, which can provide

these advantages too.

20

CHAPTER 3

DESIGN OF WHEEL HUB ASSEMBLY

The wheel hub is part of vehicle that cormects the wheel to the suspension arms.

The wheel hub in a HMMWV has a gear inside which transmits power from the

differential to the wheel. To introduce a motor inside the wheel hub it must be modified.

A larger hub is required to accommodate motor, brake and gear. Disc brakes and a

planetary gear set were chosen for this design. The planetary gear set occupies less space

than other gear sets and provides greater gear reduction. A splined coupling was used to

connect motor to the shaft. A thin Motor from Premag with lOOkw peak output was used.

The design is based on the premag motor.

Wheel

Gearbox

brake

coupling

Motor

Figure 3.1: Layout showing the connections in the hub assembly

Gear ratio is calculated using torque-speed curve from premag motors and fractive

force diagram. Plots are drawn between Total force acting on the vehicle and sum of

forces produced by motor at all four wheels at each grade percentage.

21

3.1 Calculation of Gear Ratio

Gear reduction is required to reduce the rotational speed produced by the motor

when it is fransferred to the wheel. Power remaining the same, rotational speed is reduced

and torque is increased with the help of planetary gear.

Power = Torque * Speed

(3.1)

Gear ratio is determined based upon the performance required by the vehicle. To

start with a value, gear ratio is given by the ratio of the Speed required by the motor to

produce maximum power to the maximum Speed required by the wheel.

Gear Ratio =

^'"'"°'-

J\

max- wheel

(3.2)

Taking this value and numbers around this performance characteristics of the

vehicle are determined and based upon the requirement suitable gear ratio can be used.

Maximum rotational speed required by the wheel depends on the maximum speed the

wheel is going to move with. For maximum speed of 70mph, the maximum RPM of the

wheel can be calculated using the following relation.

Rotational

Nmax = ——

N„,ax=692RPM

speed

of the motor

(D is the diameter of the wheel= 35 in)

is

calculated

from

the

Torque-Speed

(3.3)

curve

generated by picking points from sheet supplied by Premag motors, which supplied the

motor. Rotational speed at 92% of the power, i.e., 92kw is taken (efficiency of motor is

92%) and the gear ratio is calculated at that value.

22

Table 3.1: Torque, speed and power values generated by motor.

Speed (mph)

TORQU E (N-m)

POWER (KW)

0

300

0

500

300

15.7

1000

300

31.4

2000

300

62.8

2500

300

78.5

2864

300

90

2927

300

92

3000

300

94

3324

288

99

3648

259

98.9

3973

237

98.6

4000

237

100

4296

222

99.9

4621

207

99.9

4946

192

99.5

5000

190.5

99.8

23

^

z

§

o

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2000

4000

Speed (rpm)

6000

8000

Figure 3.2: Torque speed curve for motor (Ref 8).

Rotational speed of the motor at 92 Kw power is 2927 RPM and maximum

rotational speed required by wheel is 692 RPM. Substituting these values in equation 3.2.

Gear Ratio =

Nmotor

Nmax-speed

2927

692

= 4.23

Therefore, values around 4 can be taken as gear ratio and performance of the

vehicle can be predicted for different gear ratios.

24

3.2 Forces Acting on HMMWV

Aerodynamic,

rolling

and

gradient

forces

act

on the vehicle

and

affect

its

performance. To determine the performance of a vehicle it is important to know the

forces acting on the vehicle and the Traction force generated by all the four wheels. A

graph is plotted between vehicle speed and Tractive force along with sum of forces acting

on the vehicle. Maximum speed attained by the vehicle is determined with this plot.

3.2.1 Aerodynamic Drag Force

Aerodynamic forces arise due to drag and friction. As a result of air sfream

interacting with the vehicle forces and moments are imposed. Vehicles encoimter drag at

normal highway speeds. Aerodynamic drag is given by the equation

where:

D,=^pV'C^A

CQ = Aerodynamic drag coefficient

A = Frontal area of the vehicle

p = Air density.

(3.4)

Drag coefficient is determined empirically and the value used for HMMWV is 0.4. Air

density is 0.076 Ib/ft^

and Frontal area of HMMWV is 35.4 ft^ .By taking different values

for vehicle speed Drag force acting on the vehicle is determined.

25

3.2.2 Rolling Resistance

Rolling resistance of the tires is the major force on level ground and at low

speeds. Rolling resistance is always present in the vehicle when tires are in motion.

Mechanisms responsible for rolling resistance are:

• Energy loss due to deflection of the tire sidewall near contact area.

• Scmbbing in the contact patch.

• Tire slip in the longitudinal and lateral directions.

• Air drag on the inside and outside of the tire.

Rolling resistance is the sum of front and rear wheel resistances. It is given by

where:

Rx=Rxf+RxR = fRW

Rxf = Rolling resistance of front wheels

RxR = Rolling resistance of rear wheels

fa = Rolling resistance coefficient

W = Weight of the vehicle.

(3.5)

Rolling resistance coefficient for concrete is 0.0I5,medium hard surface is 0.08

and for sand is 0.3.Mass of HMMWV is 7700 lb. Rolling Resistance for different cases is

calculated using the above equation.

Rx = 115.53 Ibf (concrete)

Rx = 616.17 Ibf (medium hard siu-face)

Rx = 2310.64 Ibf (sand)

26

3.2.3 Grade

Grade is defined as the rise over mn (vertical over horizontal distance). While

climbing an uphill a force acts on the vehicle that is called gradient force. It is given by:

Gradient force Rg =

W sinO

(3.6)

Where 9 (radians) is the Rise /mn for small angles.

Rg = WsinG = W e

(3.7)

Implies a grade of 5% (0.05) is equivalent to 0.05 g.

be calculated as

Tan e = 5/100 implies 0 = 2.86

Figure 3.3: Grade

By using the above equation grade force is calculated for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%.

Rg=0(0%)

Rg= 377.40 Ibf (5%)

Rg= 762.51 Ibf (10%)

Rg-1139.91 Ibf (15%)

Rg= 1509.61 Ibf (20%)

All the above forces are summed for different velocities and for different cases

and the total force acting on the vehicle is calculated.

27

3.2.4

Tractive Force

Tractive effort is the force generated at all of the four wheels due to power

fransmitted by the motor. This force mns the vehicle and is important to determine the

performance of the vehicle. Tractive force is given by torque generated by the motor at

the wheels divided by the radius of the wheel.

Tractive force =

Radius of the wheel =17.5 in

Radiusofwheel

(3.8)

Torque is taken from two different cases. One from peak torque curve and other

from continuous torque curve. Since the motor cannot generate peak Torque continuously

on uphill we need to calculate for both the cases.

3.2.5 Sample Calculation of Tractive force

Peak Torque generated by motor is 300 N-m and after using gears the torque will

be multiplied by the gear ratio at the wheel. For the 4:1 gear ratio, the available at wheel

is the 1200 N-m. Converting this value in Ibf-in the available torque is

Tractive force =

17.5/«

= 606.86 Ibf

10620 Ibf-in.

The value for continuous torque will be 303.43 Ibf Tractive force at different

speeds of the vehicle and for different

gear ratios is calculated and the values are

tabulated along with different forces. Graphs are plotted using these forces.

28

Table 3.2: Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 4:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

force for

0% Grade

(Ibf)

128.5

129.4

132.2

136.8

143.2

151.5

161.7

173.7

187.5

203.2

220.7

Total

force for

5% Grade

(Ibf)

222.8

226.2

231.5

238.6

247.5

258.3

271.0

285.5

301.8

320.0

340.1

Total

force for

10%

Grade(lbf)

319.1

320.0

322.7

327.4

333.8

342.1

352.3

364.3

378.1

393.8

411.3

29

Total

force for

15%

Grade(lbf)

413.4

414.3

417.1

421.7

428.2

436.5

446.6

458.6

472.4

488.1

505.7

Total

force for

20%

Grade(lbf)

505.8

506.8

509.5

514.1

520.6

528.9

539.0

551.0

564.9

580.6

598.1

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)

606.8

606.8

606.8

606.8

606.8

606.8

606.8

606.8

606.8

562.3

509.7

700

600 -•

500

400

300

200 -

100

20

40

60

speed mph

80

100

120

Figure 3.4: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on concrete at peak torque

From Figure 3.4, it can be said that the maximum speed attained by the vehicle is

more than 80 mph on concrete surface at a grade of 20% with gear ratio 4:1.

30

Table 3.3: Forces for medium hard surface with gear ratio 4:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

force for

0% Grade

(Ibf)

force for

5% Grade

(Ibf)

force for

10%

Grade(lbf)

force for

15%

Grade(lbf)

force for

20%

Grade(lbO

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)

154.0

248.3

344.6

439.0

531.4

606.8

154.9

249.3

345.5

439.9

532.3

606.8

157.7

252.0

348.3

442.7

535.1

606.8

162.3

256.6

352.9

447.3

539.7

606.8

168.8

263.1

359.4

453.7

546.2

606.8

177.1

271.4

367.7

462.0

554.5

606.8

187.2

281.6

377.8

472.2

564.6

606.8

199.2

293.5

389.8

484.2

576.6

606.8

213.0

307.4

403.7

498.0

590.4

606.8

228.7

323.1

419.3

513.7

606.1

562.3

246.2

340.6

436.9

531.2

623.6

509.7

31

700

60

speed mph

80

120

Figure 3.5: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on medium hard surface at peak

torque

From Figure 3.5, it can be said that the maximum speed attained by the vehicle is

more than 80 mph on medium hard surface at a grade of 20% with gear ratio 4:1.

32

Table 3.4: Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 4:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

force for

force for

force for

force for

force for

Traction

0% Grade

5% Grade

10%

15%

20%

Force (Ibf)

 

(Ibf)

(Ibf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

0

577.7

672.0

768.3

862.7

955.1

606.8

10

578.6

673.0

769.2

863.6

956.0

606.8

20

581.4

675.7

772.0

866.4

958.8

606.8

30

586.0

680.3

776.6

871.0

963.4

606.8

40

592.5

686.8

783.1

877.4

969.9

606.8

50

600.8

695.1

791.4

885.7

978.2

606.8

60

610.9

705.3

801.5

895.9

988.3

606.8

70

622.9

717.2

813.5

907.9

1000.3

606.8

80

636.7

731.1

827.4

921.7

1014.1

606.8

90

652.4

746.8

843.0

937 4

1029.8

562.3

100

669.9

764.3

860.6

954.9

1047.4

509.7

33

1200

800

600

40

60

speed mph

Figure 3.6: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on sand surface at peak torque

From Figure 3.6, it can be said that there are difficulties while fraveling on sand

and this problem can be solved by increasing fractive force by increasing gear ratio.

34

Table 3.5: Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 5:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

speed

force for

force for

force for

force for

force for

Traction

(mph)

0% Grade

5% Grade

10%

15%

20%

Force (Ibf)

(Ibf)

(Ibf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

0

128.4

222.8

319.1

413.4

505.8

758.5

10

129.4

226.2

320.0

414.3

506.8

758.5

20

132.1

231.5

322.7

417.1

509.5

758.5

30

136.7

238.6

327.4

421.7

514.1

758.5

40

143.2

247.5

333.8

428.2

520.6

758.5

50

151.5

258.3

342.1

436.5

528.9

758.5

60

161.6

271.0

352.3

446.6

539.0

758.5

70

173.6

285.5

364.3

458.6

551.0

758.5

80

187.5

301.8

378.1

472.4

564.9

758.5

90

203.2

320.0

393.8

488.1

580.6

702.9

100

220.7

340.0

411.3

505.7

598.1

637.2

35

force

^

700

600

500

400

300

-

-

-

200

100

-

0 -

C 20

trarti>/n fnr/-o

20% grade

 

^

15% gracie

 

'

10% grade

.

'

5% grade

 

'

"

0%

grade

^^

-

40

60

80

vehicle speed mph

100

12

Figure 3.7: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on concrete surface at peak torque

From Figure 3.7, it can inferred that the available force is good enough to produce

more speed and acceleration.

36

Table 3.6: Forces for medium hard surface with gear ratio 5:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

force for

0% Grade

(Ibf)

force for

5% Grade

(Ibf)

force for

10%

Grade(lbf)

force for

15%

Grade(lbf)

force for

20%

Grade(lbf)

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)

154.0

248.3

344.6

439.0

531.4

758.5

154.9

249.3

345.5

439.9

532.3

758.5

157.7

252.0

348.3

442.7

535.1

758.5

162.3

256.6

352.9

447.3

539.7

758.5

168.8

263.1

359.4

453.7

546.2

758.5

177.1

271.4

367.7

462.0

554.5

758.5

187.2

281.6

377.8

472.2

564.6

758.5

199.2

293.5

389.8

484.2

576.6

758.5

213.0

307.4

403.7

498.0

590.4

758.5

228.7

323.1

419.3

513.7

606.1

702.9

246.2

340.6

436.9

531.2

623.6

637.2

37

800

40

60

vehicle speed mph

80

Figure 3.8: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on medium surface at peak torque

From Figure 3.8, it can inferred that the available force is good enough to produce

more speed and acceleration.

38

Table 3.7: Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 5:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

force for

0% Grade

(Ibf)

577.7

578.6

581.4

586.0

592.5

600.8

610.9

622.9

636.7

652.4

669.9

Total

force for

5% Grade

(Ibf)

672.0

673.0

675.7

680.3

686.8

695.1

705.3

717.2

731.1

746.8

764.3

Total

force for

10%

Grade(lbf)

768.3

769.2

772.0

776.6

783.1

791.4

801.5

813.5

827.4

843.0

860.6

39

Total

force for

15%

Grade(lbf)

862.7

863.6

866.4

871.0

877.4

885.7

895.9

907.9

921.7

937.4

954.9

Total

force for

20%

Grade(lbf)

955.1

956.0

958.8

963.4

969.9

978.2

988.3

1000.3

1014.1

1029.8

1047.4

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)

758.5

758.5

758.5

758.5

758.5

758.5

758.5

758.5

758.5

702.9

637.2

1200

40

60

80

vehicle speed mph

120

Figure 3.9: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on sand surface at peak torque

On the sand surface, vehicle can climb a grade of 5% and can attain a speed of

80mph with 5:1 Gear ratio.

40

Table 3.8: Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 6:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

Total

Total

Total

Total

force for

force for

force for

force for

force for

Total

0% Grade

5% Grade

10%

15%

20%

Traction

Force (Ibf)

(Ibf)

(Ibf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

128.4

222.8

319.1

413.4

505.8

910.2

129.4

226.2

320.0

414.3

506.8

910.2

132.1

231.5

322.7

417.1

509.5

910.2

136.7

238.6

327.4

421.7

514.1

910.2

143.2

247.5

333.8

428.2

520.6

910.2

151.5

258.3

342.1

436.5

528.0

910.2

161.6

271.0

352.3

446.6

539.0

910.2

173.6

285.5

364.3

458.6

551.0

910.2

187.5

301.8

378.1

472.4

564.9

910.2

203.2

320.0

393.8

488.1

580.0

843.5

220.7

340.0

411.3

505.7

598.1

764.6

41

20

40

60

vehicle speed (mph)

120

Figure 3.10: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on concrete surface at peak torque

From Figure 3.10, it can inferred that the available force is good enough to

produce more speed and acceleration.

42

Table 3.9: Forces for medium hard surface with gear ratio 6:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

force for

0% Grade

Total

force for

5% Grade

Total

force for

10%

Total

force for

15%

Total

force for

20%

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)

(Ibf)

(Ibf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

Grade(lbf)

154.0

248.3

344.6

439.0

531.4

910.2

154.9

249.3

345.5

439.9

532.3

910.2

157.7

252.0

348.3

442.7

535.1

910.2

162.3

256.6

352.9

447.3

539.7

910.2

168.8

263.1

359.4

453.7

546.2

910.2

177.1

271.4

367.7

462.0

554.5

910.2

187.2

281.6

377.8

472.2

564.6

910.2

199.2

293.5

389.8

484.2

576.6

910.2

213.0

307.4

403.7

498.0

590.4

910.2

228.7

323.1

419.3

513.7

606.1

843.5

246.2

340.6

436.9

531.2

623.6

764.6

43

0)

o

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

20

40

tractjveforce

60

vehicle speed mph

20%grade

15% grade

80

100

120

Figure 3.11: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on medium surface at peak torque

From Figure 3.11, it can inferred that the available force is good enough to

produce more speed and acceleration.

44

Table 3.10: Forces for sand surface with gear ratio 6:1 at peak torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

force for

0% Grade

(Ibf)

577.7

578.6

581.4

586.0

592.5

600.8

610.9

622.9

636.7

652.4

669.9

Total

force for

5% Grade

(Ibf)

672.0

673.0

675.7

680.3

686.8

695.1

705.3

717.2

731.1

746.8

764.3

Total

force for

10%

Grade(lbf)

768.3

769.2

772.0

776.6

783.1

791.4

801.5

813.5

827.4

843.0

860.6

45

Total

force for

15%

Grade(lbf)

862.7

863.6

866.4

871.0

877.4

885.7

895.9

907.9

921.7

937.4

954.9

Total

force for

20%

Grade(lbf)

955.1

956.0

958.8

963.4

969.9

978.2

988.3

1000.3

1014.1

1029.8

1047.4

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)

910.2

910.2

910.2

910.2

910.2

910.2

910.2

910.2

910.2

843.5

764.6

1200

200

Vehicle speed (mph)

Figure 3.12: Plot between force (Ibf) and speed (mph) on sand surface at peak torque

From Figure 3.12, it can be said that a vehicle speed of more than 60 mph can be

achieved even on sand and on a grade of 15%. But the motors run on continuous torque

on upgrade hill. So Tractive force at continuous torque is calculated and similar graphs

are plotted.

46

Table 3.11: Forces for concrete surface with gear ratio 4:1 at continuous torque

Vehicle

speed

(mph)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Total

force for

0% Grade

Total

force for

5% Grade

Total

force for

10%

Total

force for

15%

Total

force for

20%

Total

Traction

Force (Ibf)