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Chapter 1


This chapter presents the background of the study,

theoretical/conceptual framework, schematic diagram of the

study, statement of the problem, hypothesis, importance of

the study and scope and delimitation of the study.

Background of the Study

The new era assigns new challenges and duties on the

modern teacher. The tradition of teaching has been

drastically changed with the remarkable entry of

technology. Technology provides so many options as making

teaching interesting and also making teaching more

productive in terms of improvements. Technology is one of

the most significant drivers of both social and linguistic

change. Graddol, 1997 states that “technology lies at the

heart of the globalization process; affecting education

work and culture”.

Multimedia teaching stresses the role of students and

enhances the importance of “interaction” between teachers

and students. A major feature of multimedia teaching is to

train and improve students’ ability to listen and speak,

and to develop their communicative competence, during this

process, the teacher’s role as a facilitator is


particularly prominent. Using multimedia in context

creation creates a good platform for the exchange between

teachers and students, while at the same time providing a

language environment that improves on the traditional

classroom teaching model. In this way, teachers in the

classroom no longer blindly input information and force

students to receive it in a passive way.

It is proved through practice that adequate

application of multimedia technology to teaching can make

breakthroughs in class teaching. That is to say, during

multimedia assisting teaching, teachers still play the

leading role that their position could never be replaced by

the computer. For instance, the introduction to each lesson

and speaking communication are good way to improve

students’ listening and speaking which the computer cannot

fulfill, Therefore, teachers’ interpretation shall not be

overlooked. Meanwhile, as a practical linguistic science,

English should be used very often in class to cultivate the

students’ communicative competence, Multimedia, as an

instrument for assisting teaching, serves the teachers

despite its extraordinary effect, So, teaching determines

whether to adopt multimedia technology. Otherwise, the

teachers were acting as the projectionist, clicking the


At present, most multimedia mainly features on image

and animation of teaching materials in order to cause audio

and visual effect, which lively displays the content of

textual materials and helps the student deeply understand

the texts. A problem remains that displaying of the content

of texts in the PPT courseware cannot take the place of

students’ thinking or English communication in simulated

circumstance, when working on and utilizing the courseware,

we need to encourage the students to use their own mind and

speak more, actively join in class practice, we should not

overuse the courseware merely in the hope of adding the

modernized feature to class teaching.

Some teachers may possess the improper concept that

they would totally apply multimedia technology in their

teaching. It is also believed that the more utilization of

multimedia technology, the better class atmosphere may

grow, the more actively the students get involved in class

participation, the more easily the material access to the

students. Apparently, the students show some interest in

leaning, but actually, they feel like looking on. In

practice, the more unconscious attention the students pay.

The more interference of teaching information during

transmission, the less the students take from the language

materials. It is impossible to effectively train the


students’ language expression in class time. It is clear

that in spite of advantages of application of multimedia

technology, it assists in teaching. During practical

teaching, it is part of a complete teaching procedure. In

practice, if multimedia technology would be properly

implemented in English teaching, the students could make

full use of English speaking and listening materials and

develop their overall capacities, which is the objective

for us to introduce multimedia technology to modern

teaching thus, this leads to systematic training on

students’ listening, speaking, reading and writing, makes

teachers’ instructions come into great play, help the

student gain basic knowledge as well as language training

at classes, improves their expression ability in English

and lays a fundamental basis for their English


With these gaps, the researchers hypothesized that the

use of multimedia instruction had effects on the academic

performance of the students. This hypothesis motivated the

researchers to conduct the study to determine the effects

of multimedia instruction on the academic performance of

college students.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Many different learning theories have been designed in

an attempt to improve the teaching and learning process by

helping people understand how learning works. Three

critical factors of learning have been identified as

components of all learning theories: (1) the knowledge to

be learn, (2) the situation or, context to the learning and

(3) the activities that will be used as part of the

learning process (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Learning theories

offer focus and direction for the instructional design

process used in the development of MMIT. These theories

help indicate what components are important to include in

the instructional activities for learning to occur (McLeod,

2003). This research project was based on a combination of

constructivism and cognitive learning theory.

Constructivism is founded on the belief that learners

are responding for creating their own knowledge based upon

their own experience. Each learner creates meaning through

their own interpretation of the instructional material.

Learning takes place through the use of authentic real-

world authentic tasks and problems based on relevant

material that require to learners to extend their knowledge

through the use of problem solving (Ertmer, Newby, 1993).

Meaning is created by the learner as new information is


linked to the learner’s existing knowledge based.

Instructors provide important direction and guidance in the

learning process; however, the student’s mind determined

what is learn by what it receives from the outside world

(Kohang, Riley, & Smith, 2009). Constructivism is able to

provide a more complete picture of the conditions for

learning included the learner’s mental process and the

incorporation of the learners’ individual difference in the

instructional design process (Tennyson, 2010).

Cognitive was developed to explain perceived problems

in the pre-existing behaviorist learning theory.

Behaviorist believe that learning is a response to a

stimulus; therefor, the focus of learning should be

directed at creating or strengthening the relationship

between the stimuli and the desired response (Ertmer &

Newby 1993). However, cognitive learning theories point out

that not all reinforced behavior will be repeated and that

some behavior is repeated despite a lack of reinforcement.

Cognitive learning theory attempts to identify the thought

processes behind learnings behaviors (Mergel, 1998). The

focus on cognitivism is on complex learning processes

including problem solving, reasoning, thinking and

information processing. The learner, it is believed, is an

active participant who is taught how to learn (Ertmer &


Newby, 1993). Cognitive learning theory is based on changes

in learner behavior as it relates to learning. Cognitive

theorists believe that learning is achieved through

creating new internal links through repetition and

contiguity. Learning occurs when new information is

acquired and organized in context with the learners

existing knowledge (Deubel, 2003). Positive reinforcement

through the use of appropriate feedback is important for

learning success. Practiced, supplemented with rewards,

feedback, and reinforcement will improved learning and the

retention the knowledge (Good & Brophy, 1990). Contiguity

and repetition account for a large amount of the learning,

when feedback and reinforcements are noted as important

contributors (Mergel, 1998). Cognitive learning theory is

aimed at higher levels of learning than other theories

including behaviorism (McLeod, 2003).

Gagne’s theoretical framework was based on the

cognitive perspective of learning and emphasized largely on

the effectiveness of the instructional design. In his

theory, he has correlated the nine events of instruction

with the associated internal mental processes and

formulated these events as elements of a good lesson which

promote effective learning (Gagne, Briggs, & Wagner, 1992).

Hence, the development and creation of the Web-based


learning environment in this research incorporated with

Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction to be considered a good

lesson design (Ellington and Earl, 1999).

Based on his findings, the multimedia learning

environment can be considered as a “good lesson design”

should it acquire the nine events and instructions as put

forth by his instructional theory. (The Turkish Online

Journal of Educational Technology).


Use of
Multimedia- on the
aided Academic
Instruction Performance

Socio –
(SDP)of the

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study


Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the perceptions of the

criminology students on multimedia aided instruction on the

academic performance participants.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the

following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the student –


1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Civil status

2. What are the types of multimedia - aided

instruction used in the classroom?

3. What is the frequency of utilization of the

available multimedia?

4. What are the student-participants perception on

multi-media aided instruction?

Importance of the study

The findings of the study will give more insights to

the following person who play great role in molding the

students of the criminology students of JHCSC.

School Officials. This study will benefit the school

administrators through the development of the schools, such

as school facilities, student performance and the standard


of school. Also, it will upgrade the performance of the


Teachers. This study will benefit the teachers in

terms of teaching. It will be easy for them to give and

discuss lessons using multimedia as a way of teaching. It

includes teaching strategies that will engage students to

have interest in learning instructions.

Students. This study will benefit the students to gain

more knowledge through multimedia in relation to speaking

competence that can develop confidence and skills in

speaking Future Researchers.

Future Researchers. This study will benefit the future

researchers to provide needed materials in doing research

and will guide them in understanding multimedia learning

instructions and the existing level of competence in


Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study focused on determining the perceptions of

the student-participants on multimedia – aided instruction

in the academic performance of the 61 selected first year

criminology students at JHCSC-Dumingag Campus. It also

identified the different multimedia - aided instructional

materials employed by the instructors.


Definition of Terms and other Variables

The following terms are defined operationally to

provide the readers with the better understanding of the


Academic Performance. It is the extent to which a

student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or

long – term educational goals. It is measured by the final

grade earned in the course.

Animation. It is a method in which pictures are

manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional

animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on

transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and

exhibited on film.

Attitude. It is the way you think and feel about

someone or something, a feeling or way of thinking that

affects a person’s behavior.

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). It is a kind of

tutorial implications in which a computer helps the

learners to present material and acts as a tutor. Using a

branching model of lessons in discusses, the computer

presents information, ask questions, and give feedbacks.

Criminology. It is the branch of knowledge regarding

crime, delinquency and a social phenomenon.


Effect. It is a change which is a result or

consequence of an action or other cause.

General Weight Average (GWA). It is the average of

grades in all subjects taken, whether passed or failed.

Instruction. It is vital for education, as it is the

transfer of learning from one person to another.

Knowledge. It refers to the facts, principles, and

understanding of topic that is obtained through experience

or study.

Perception. The state of being or process of becoming

aware of something through the senses. It is also a mental


Professional Subject. It is a college – level subject

designed to target those who are in, or about to enter, the

workface in corporate, government or technology fields.

Multimedia - As the name implies, multimedia is the

integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text,

graphics, audio, video, etc.

MMIT (Multimedia Instructional Tools). It is an

instructional computer program or application that is

created by the applying instructional design techniques to

present material for student learning through the use of

interactive media.

Multimedia Instruction. It consists of instructional

messages that contain words (such as printed or spoken

text) and pictures (such as illustrations, diagrams,

photos, animation, or video). The rationale for multimedia

instruction is that people can learn more deeply from words

and pictures than from words alone.

Student. He is a learner or someone who attends an

educational institution.

Chapter 2


This chapter presents various related literature and

related studies that provide the readers rich information

of the study on hand. The concept of these articles guides

and helps them in understanding the implications of the


Related Literature

Educators continuously seek innovative ways to present

quality instruction to a number of reason, including to:

(a) increase their service for students’ learning, (b)

fulfill their institution’s mission by integrating

institutions core concepts into each curricular, and (c)

address students demographic need (Morse, 2003). Castro,

(1989, as cited in Feinstein et al., 2005b) noted that

there was a current trend toward more active involvement by

students in their own education. The author also pointed

out that many educators thought that instructor-led

lectures where not effective methods of instruction. Other

instructional methods such as case studies, student-led

discussion, and Web-based modules allow students to learn

at their own pace and have been incorporated into


classrooms to enhance students learning (Hsu & Wolfe,


Many researchers agree that hospitality educators

currently are implementing innovative techniques that

extend their instructional methods (Feinstein et al.,

2005b; Harris & Cannon, 1995; Van Hoof & Colling, 2001).

Hospitality educators are facing the challenge of how to

apply successfully instructional system to provide future

hospitality professional with knowledge that balances

academic subjects and industry application (Feinstein et

al,. 2005a). Deale & Hovda (2006) stated that service was

the focus of the hospitality in the industry, but service

that was practiced in the hospitality industry was not the

primary focus of educational organizations and was not

reviewed succinctly in the educational literature. They

suggested that excellent service practices might allow and

educational institutions to distinguish itself from others

and offer ways to improve its performance and image,

especially in highly competitive markets.

Use of technology in hospitality programs in a major

instructional trend because technology maintain student’s

attention, increases their motivations, facilities

presentation of figures and graphs, and provides more

active teaching environments (Barlett & Strough, 2003).


Harris & West (1993) stated that multimedia programs are an

efficient and effective means of training for technical

skill and conceptual development. They indicated that by

using multimedia programs, trainers could save time,

increase retention, and increase motivation in learners by

involving them in the learning process. Harris and Cannon

(1995) also pointed out that an instruction format should

be review carefully from the perspective of the individuals

being educated, because the format affected their

involvement in the instruction session, and their

motivation and commitment to learning. A significant number

of emerging educational technologies derived changes in the

delivery of the Intime curriculum. Kasavana (1993) for

example, urged that some portion of hospitality curricular

would be taught with several emerging technologies;

distance learning, virtual reality, simulation, and audio

graphics. This technologies ultimately increase learner’s

retention by facilitating more active learning environment

(Astin, 1985, as cited in Feinstein et al,. 2005b).

Effects of instructional method also have been

measured by assessing students attitude towards the

instruction (Barlett & Strough, 2003; Buzzell et al., 2002;

Kim & Kim, 2005; Richardson, 1997; Susskind, 2005). Most of

these studies reported that student’s attitudes towards


instruction where becoming more favorable after they were

exposed to new technology-based instructional material.

Susskind examine the effects of non-interactive computer-

assisted on students’ self-efficacy an attitude. In an

introductory psychology course, 51 students chose which

sections of an introductory psychology course to attend, so

they were not randomly assign to conditions. Section one

was taught via a traditional instructor-led lecture with

notes on a whiteboard, and section two received the same

lecture except that the notes were presented by power point

presentation software. A survey was conducted with students

to assist their classroom motivation. Then, the lecture

format was switched so that students in section one could

have lectures with power point presentation software and

students in section two could experience the traditional

lectures. A second survey was administered to both

sections. Also, students in two groups were asked to answer

15 items that reflected their attitudes towards the course

and their self-efficacy belief. Student displayed more

positive attitudes towards power point lectures; they

claimed that when power point was used, the lectures were

more organized and their main points were emphasized more.

Students also believed learning was more effective when


power point accompanied lectures; they showed improvements

on self-efficacy concerning note taking capabilities.

Dwyer 2003 states that students can gain the knowledge

and information that would be impossible to get in

traditional ways; besides they could find the opportunity

to prepare their own products with multimedia technique

(1993, translated by Çeliköz, 1998). As a result, it could

be asserted that the use of multimedia possesses the aim of

helping students with different skills and learning styles.

Also, Dwyer points out that multimedia provides the

opportunity for every student to work individually. In

other words, a student can work on the subject(s) she/he

believes she/he needs to in the way she/he desires (Dwyer,

1993; trans by Çeliköz, 1998). Also, it can be observed

that multimedia gains authenticity and variety in learning

and instruction.

Semerci (1999) expresses the fact that the message via

multimedia reaches the receivers in various ways and thus,

it provides a richer learning environment. The subjects

being taught could be transmitted to the students with web-

based audio, visuals, video and animations in a way that

could not be taught in classrooms authentically with other

techniques. This way, closeness to reality could be

provided and complete learning could be achieved.


Also, multimedia eases education in terms of data

used, storage, share and transportation of the visual and

nonvisual written material, graphs, audios and other

materials (Bitter, 1989; cited in Semerci, 1999). Moreover,

multimedia creates a familiar, various, economic and

practical environment in education (Uşun, 2000).

Another contribution multimedia makes into education

is the increase in academic achievement of the students.

When compared to traditional instruction, multimedia use

increases the academic achievement of the students. The use

of multimedia affects education positively when designed

properly compared to traditional instruction, in terms of

academic achievement (Akkoyunlu and Yılmaz, 2005).

From the literature, it could be asserted that

multimedia use eases learning as it presents more than one

technological factor to the learner and it addresses more

than one emotion of the receiver.

According to Boye (1997) learning technology is a term

which is currently in vogue. However, the term aptly

captures the spirit of first attempt to provide machine-

based teaching systems. The central feature of behaviorist

is extreme reductionism. There are two main aspects to this

reductionism. The ‘scientific’ study of psychology is

reduced to the study of overt, observable behavior-


cognition is regarded as an ‘epiphenomenon’ that is not

central to the explanation of behavior. The explanation of

behavior is then reduced to the study of certain

fundamental laws of learning. For skinner the most

important form of learning was operant conditioning. The

central premise of operant conditioning is that behavior is

shaped by its consequences. Behavior is thus ‘shaped’ by

the pattern of reinforcements (or rewards) in the


Incorporating MMIT into the educational process can be

beneficial to student learning. Educational technology has

been shown to increase student learning, encourage active

learning, and aid in building competence (Eastman et al.,

2011). Research by Kawulich (2010) on the use of multimedia

in a management information systems course indicated the

technology provided students an innovative way to learn the

material and relate the lessons to real – life situations.

The students in this study preferred the integration of

technology in the course to the traditional lecture format,

with none of the students indicating the addition of the

technology was ineffective for their learning (Kawulich,

2010). Students report the addition of multimedia makes the

class more interesting and vivid, increasing their interest

in the topic and in learning (Dong & Li, 2011). Data from

early use of MMIT shows that the use of multimedia fosters

communication between faculty and students while focusing

on active learning principles. MMIT and the incorporation

of technology in education changed the learning process

from where students just heard and forgot, to where they

saw and performed actions that increased their learning and

understanding of the material (Gaines, Johnson & King,


The premise that technology can help students learn

more effectively and efficiently has not been substantially

supported by empirical evidence. Research has been

inconsistent and contradictory as some studies show

improvement and significant positive impact form the

integration of technology and other studies showing no

positive effect (Lei, 2010). These findings may be flawed

because the studies treat all technology the same, with no

distinction made between the type of technology or how it

is used. Additionally, the studies only examine how much

technology is used without regard to how it is used or the

quality of the technology used (Lei, 2010). There is a need

for further research on effective educational strategies

(Stegeman & Zydney, 2010).

Despite the typical resistance to change, the eduction

system and curriculum is undergoing a fundamental


transformation and all educators need to say focused and

aware of these changes. The rise of information and

communication technologies has changed the educational

process; it has help to ease the resource burden often

required for the teaching and learning process (Hoon et

al., 2010). There is a flattering of the world based on

digital content and communication tools. The same flatters

of the economic world are now changing the world of

education. Content must be digital in order to be globally

relevant. Today’s students often look to the Internet as

their first source of information (Waycott et al., 2010).

Information is now more widely and extensively available

than ever before. Students must be able to sort through it

all, understand it, and process it. Most of the information

is unfiltered. There is no editorial or review process for

much of what is posted to the internet. Students have to

learn how simply deal with all of the available material.

This includes gathering information, evaluating, verifying

and comprehending this material. Accessing and using the

information is just the first step in the learning process.

This is followed by collaboration and new knowledge

creation. There are some worries about information

overload, ineffective teaching methods, and the possible

weakening role of the instructor. Multimedia can present


too much material without distinguishing between that which

is relevant. It can also provide information that is above

the students’ ability level, increasing their anxiety and

decreasing motivation (Drug & Li, 2011).

Related Studies

Studies carried out by Mukherjee and Roy (2003) have

found that the use of visual aids to contextualized spoken

speech is a great help for students, given that they can

understand 30% more than without the visual support.

Canning Wilson (2000) researches suggest that visuals

can be used to enhance the meaning of the message conveyed

by the speakers thanks to the paralinguistic cues. Another

important thing to note is that visuals may help in order

to build mental models and communicate relationships among

content objects in a more efficient way than can words

alone (Clark and Lyons, 2004). According to Canning-Wilson

(1997) the importance of the visual aids is highlighted

when focusing on the way language is processed.

Clark and Lyons (2004) explain that in the process of

learning two different types of memories are involved:

working memory and long-term memory. The new information is

stored in the working memory which is claimed to be the

center of active mental work, including the learning. When


the visual and phonetic information is received then it is

organized to form a cohesive idea. Finally, this idea must

be integrated with active prior knowledge from long term

memory. As it is seen, the two memories work together in

complementary ways, to form what is called an updated

mental model that will be stored in long-term memory, where

it lasts indefinitely (Clark and Lyons, 2004). The virtual

capacity of the working memory is affected by how much

related the knowledge of the long-term memory is with the

domain studied. The more it is related, the more is the

virtual capacity. Taking into account that in a learning

environment this related knowledge may not be too much,

cognitive overload can take place if the working memory

cannot process all the new information during learning. In

order to avoid this cognitive overload, the two

subcomponents of the working memory should be used in their

best way. One of these subcomponents is specialized in

visual input and the other one in auditory input. For

example, if a graphic is explained by words presented in

audio, learning the new information is better than if the

words are presented in text (Clark and Lyons, 2004). The

mental models that have been mentioned before are the

schemas Usage of Multimedia Visual Aids in the English

Language Classroom 16 stored in the long-term memory and


are the basis of thinking, and visuals are claimed to help

building them.

The usefulness of Instructional Material in Language

Teaching although teachers use different instructional

materials to motivate learning by using textbooks, charts,

models, graphics, real objects as well as improvised

materials (Awotua-Efebo, 2001). The success of achieving

what they are met to achieve in an instructional situation

depend on the suitability of the instructional materials,

adequacy and effective utilization of the materials

(Olaitan & Agusiobo, 1994).

The effectiveness of instructional materials in

promoting students‟ academic performance in teaching and

learning is indisputable. It provides the much-needed

sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective

and meaningful behavioral change. Instructional materials

are meant to improve the quality of education for effective

academic performance of students in schools. The

performance of the students on the intended learning

outcomes provide the validation – loop on the success of

the interaction and instruction.

The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate

instructional materials in teaching and learning of English


language is not void of quality instructor (Ntasiobi,

Francisca & Iheanyi, 2014).

On a research study by Cooper (2001) was identified

that specifically studied computer application courses.

This study compared a traditional computer applications

course that covered basic computer concepts and the

Microsoft Office applications with an online version of the

same course. A survey of the 94 traditional students and 37

online students showed that all of the students believed

the class met their expectations. Students in the

traditional class were more likely to strongly agree to

positive statements on the pace of instruction,

understanding of the course layout, teacher organization,

and course grading. A comparison of the quality of the

instruction showed that 389 of online students reported

they learned the same amount in the online class as they

did a traditional class, 31% reported they learned more in

a traditional class, and 12.5% reported they learned more

in the online class (Cooper, 2001).

Kodippile and Senaratne (2008) conducted research on

mymathlab in an introductory college algebra course. They

studied 72 students taking a required college algebra

class. In the study, one section of the course completed

traditional paper – based assignments while the other


section completed assignments using the MMIT. The MMIT

allowed students to receive immediate feedback on homework

answers including providing suggestions and guidance on how

to correctly solve the problem. Similar problems can be

requested and completed by the student until they are able

to solve them correctly without support. The results of the

study did not provide a significant statistical difference

in student achievement between the two sections. However,

one noteworthy limitation of the study was the small sample

size that the authors believed may have led to the non –

significant finding. The study did indicate a significant

difference in the student success rates as measured by the

percentage of students earning a grade of ‘C’ or higher for

the course. Seventy percent of the students using mymathlab

achieved success based on this standard as compared to 49%

of students completing traditional paper - based homework.

Additional benefits identified by the study include the

ability of the faculty to spend more time interacting one –

on – one with students due to the decreased grading time,

as well as the ability for students to learn at their own

pace and use their own preferred learning style, whether

auditory, visual or kinesthetic.

Kodippili and Senaratne (2008) recommended further

research on the use of MMIT using larger sample sizes.


Computer applications courses use the MMIT differently than

other disciplines as they focus on teaching additional

technical computing skills through the incorporation of

technology of the MMIT. Therefore, the researcher of this

study is hoping to provide valuable findings to the field.

Studies show that MMIT be more beneficial when it is

used in conjunction with traditional teaching methods to

help increase the learning of content material. The studies

are inconsistent in whether the use of MMIT provides

significant gains; however, most literature found, at

least, equal gains in the MMIT group and the traditional

learning (Stegeman & Zydney, 2010). Hoon et al., (2010)

found no significant learning difference for high achieving

students based on the use of multimedia instructional

strategies. However, there were significant differences for

low achieving students (Hoon et al., 2010). Carefully and

well – designed MMIT can deliver content to students in

ways that can increase their learning and improve the

learning of previously covered material. The MMIT should be

interactive, student – paced and engaging. The tool should

create a structured, student - centered, interactive

environment that allows for the development of critical

thinking and decision-making skills in a save educational

environment. This allows students to have an increased


ability to retain the material while allowing instructors

to cover the content at a deeper level (Stegeman & Zydney,


Rajendran et al., (2010) evaluated the utilization of

MMIT and virtual labs and found that students preferred the

MMIT and computer assisted tools over the use of

traditional teaching methods and textbooks. Results of the

study showed that 90% of the students recommended the use

of the MMIT and computer-based learning over the textbook.

The technology increased the students’ learning potential

by allowing them to complete active learning exercises on

their own instead of simply watching and/or listening. This

allowed the students to improve their knowledge and

learning and allowed the instructor to explain the concepts

more fully (Rajendra et al., 2010). Multimedia can add

multiple views of the content, adding richness and meaning

to the material, to increase students’ understanding of the

subject matter. Interactive promotes more engaging and

effective learning environments (Neo et al., 2011). There

are disagreements over the effectiveness and efficiency of

MMIT. Over the past several decades, supported by the idea

that increase student achievements have been made in

educational technology around the world, supported by the

idea that technology can help students to learn more


effectively and efficiently and can also increase student

achievement. This theory has not been conclusively

supported by research (Lei, 2010). Some studies show that

the use of MMIT increases motivation, active learning,

experimental learning and student-centered learning that

can lead to a better learning. Active learning engages the

students, and student-centered learning provides the

students with more control which can increase their

motivation to learn. However, other studies indicate little

positive impact from technology use (Lei, 2010). There is a

mismatch between the vision of education technology leaders

and reality. There is a strong need for increased research

on the development and used of MMIT to ensure improvements

in the teaching and learning process (Haris, Mishra &

Koehler, 2009).

Chapter 3


This chapter presents the method used, research

design, research setting, research participants, sampling

design, research instrument, data-gathering procedure,

statistical techniques used in the study.

Research Design

The study used of Descriptive-Quantitative Correlation

Research Design.

The study went through the following stages: first,

the conceptualization of the problem and formulation of

hypothesis among the students; second, preparation and

adaptation of the instruments used in research; third,

administration of the test by the help of teacher during

class discussion then the researcher would evaluate the

class; and finally, analyzing and interpreting of data to

know the correlation between language learning through

multimedia and speaking competence.

Research Setting

This study was conducted in the Municipality of

Dumingag which was located in the northeast part of

Zamboanga Del Sur. It was conducted on one of the schools


that offered great opportunity to the youth or people who

could afford to study in the bigger universities. It was

conducted specifically to the 61 participants.

Research Participants

The participants of the study were the selected first

year criminology students of JHCSC-Dumingag Campus. We

randomly selected 61 students in the three blocks of the

first year criminology students.

Sampling Design

This study used the descriptive type of research which

endeavored to describe systematically and objectively a

situation, problem or phenomenon.

Research Instrument

The instrument of this study was a modified

questionnaire-checklist to gather all the data needed.

Part I of the questionnaire was to determine the

profile of the respondents’ in terms of age, gender, and

civil status adopted from Tety, 2016.

Part II of the questionnaire was used to determine the

Types of Multimedia – aided Instruction used in the

classroom adapted and modified from Cohen’s Oral

Testing(1981) and Sterenson’s (1995).


Part III of the questionnaire was used to determine

the frequency of utilization of the available multimedia

adapted and modified from Shariffudin, 2007.

Part IV of the questionnaire was used to determine the

effects of multimedia – aided instruction on the academic

performance of the students adopted from Shyamlee, 2012.

To determine the perceptions on the attitude of the

criminology students and its effect on using multimedia –

aided instruction:

Rating Scale Continuum Adjectival Equivalent

5 4.21-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

4 3.41-4.20 Agree (A)

3 2.61-3.40 Fairly Agree (FA)

2 1.81-2.60 Disagree (D)

1 1.00-1.80 Strongly Disagree (SD)

Data-Gathering Procedure

After the research instruments were found to be valid

and reliable, the study began by requesting permission from

the liaison officers and the class instructor of JH

Cerilles State College Dumingag Camous. The list of

criminology students were taken from their advisers to find


out the total number of respondents from the two (2)

sections of criminology. The Slovin’s formula was used to

determine the sample size and relative distribution of the

population of each section were computed to determine the

proportion allotted for each section. The selections of

respondents were done using the random method. The

questionnaires were distributed to the selected

participants following their class schedules as guides to

locate them. After the questionnaires were retrieved, the

data were encoded, translated and encoded to the SPSS

(statistical package for social science) research version

17.0 for the statistical treatment.

Statistical Treatment

Frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data

in determining the respondents’ engagement in the use of

multimedia-aided instruction and in evaluating the level of

academic performance of those respondents - who engage

excessive use of multimedia-aided instruction and those who

seldom use. To test the significant relationship, chi-

square test for independence was used.

Formula for percentage:

𝑃 = 𝑁 𝑥 100%


P refers to percentage coefficient

f refers to frequency

N refers to the number of respondents

Formula for chi-square test of association:

∑ (𝑓0−𝑓𝑒)2
𝑥2 = (𝑓𝑒)


x2 refers to chi-square coefficient

fo refers to observed frequency

fe refers to expected frequency

fe = (row total) (column total)

(grand total)

Chapter 4


This chapter presents the major findings obtained in

the study, the corresponding analysis and interpretation.

Demographic profile of the student – participants


Types of Multimedia – aided instruction are used in

the classroom

Frequency of utilization of the available multimedia

Effects of multimedia instruction on the academic

performance of the students

Academic performance of the students

Significant relationship between the use of multimedia

– aided instruction and the academic performance of the


Table 1. Profile of the Students Participants

Table 1 presents the demographic profile of the


As displayed on the table, among the 61 participants

there were 44 or 72.13٪, ages 18-19 years old; 16 or 26.23٪
ages 20-21 years old; 26.23; 1 or 1.64٪, participant aged
22 years old above. It is also shown that there were 32 or
52.46٪ male; and 29 or 47.54٪ female.
The results show that majority of the participants are
all single.
Table 1. Profile of the Respondents

Profile Frequency Percentage

16-17 years old 0 0.00
18-19 years old 44 72.13
20-21 years old 16 26.23
22-years old and above 1 1.64

Male 32 52.46
Female 29 47.54

Civil Status
Single 61 100.00
Married 0 0.00

Table 2.Types of Multi-Media Aided Instruction

Table 2 presents the types of multimedia – aided

instruction used in the classroom.

As displayed on the table, according to the students -

participants’ responses from the list of six multimedia –

aided instructions maybe used in the classroom identified

by the students – participants’ as “available and not

available”. These includes laptop with the weighted average

value of 90.16 in available and 9.84 is not available;

projector, 93.44 available and 6.56; animation, 86.89

available and 13.11 not available; TV, 65.57 available and

34.43 not available; videos, 67.21 available and 32.79 not

available; and internet connection, 49.18 available 50. 82

not available. The data shows that of the multimedia –

aided instruction listed, laptop and projector are the most

available in the class. Meanwhile, the least available

multimedia – aided instruction which got the lowest


weighted average mean as perceived by the students –

participants are animation and internet connection.

Table 2. Types of Multi-media Aided Instructions

Multi-media Available % %
1. Laptop 55 90.16 6 9.8

2. Projector 57 93.44 4 6.56

3. Animation 8 13.11 53 86.89

4. TV 40 65.57 21 34.43

5. Videos 41 67.21 20 32.79

6. Internet
31 49.82 31 50.82

Table 3

Table 3 presents the average weighted value of each

available multimedia – aided instruction used in the


As displayed on the table, according to the student -

participants’ responses from the seven questions listed,

no. 1 got an average weighted value of 2.08; no. 2, got

2.39; no. 3, got 2.31; no. 4, got 2.36; no. 5, got 1.97;

no. 6, got 2.28; and no. 7, got 2.33. The data show that of

the multimedia technology listed, nos. 2 and 4 have the

highest frequency by the students -participants. Meanwhile,


no. 5 got the lowest average weighted value as perceived by

the students - participants.

In general, the overall weighted average mean of 2.25

for the students showed that multimedia – aided instruction

was sometimes utilized.

Table 3. Utilization of multi-media

1. Are you using Laptop every day? 2.08 FA S
2. Do you always find laptop and
projector valuable as a tool in 2.39 FA S
multimedia instruction?
3. Do you always find the subject
matters interesting through the 2.31 FA S
use of multimedia?
4. Do you always find multimedia
aided instruction useful in your 2.36 FA S
5. Have you always find any
difficulty in using the multimedia 1.97 FA S
aided instruction?
6. Is multimedia instruction always
improve your interaction with your 2.28 FA S
7. Does multimedia always encourage 2.33 S
you to learn more in your field? FA
AWM 2.25 FA S

Table 4

Table 4 shows the data which reflect the student -

participants’ responses on the effects of multimedia

instruction on the academic performance. That multimedia


instruction was effective in teaching but it differed in

the weighted average mean.

Generally, the overall mean of 3.89, interpreted

as “Effective” with the adjectival equivalent of “Strongly

Agree” by the students - participants. Taken collectively

would mean that majority of the students – participants

believed that multimedia instruction was “Effective” in


Multi-media Aided Instruction helps a lot in the

teaching and learning process.


Weight Scale Adjectival Equivalent Interpretation

Table 4. Effects of multimedia instructions

1. Promotes student’s VE
4.33 SA
communication capacity
2. Widens students’ knowledge
to gain an insightful 4.16 A E
3. Improves teaching effects 4.34 SA

4. Improves interaction E
4.00 A
between teacher and student
5. Creates a context for E
3.69 A
language teaching
6. Provides flexibility to E
3.92 A
course content
7. Becomes the major means E
replaced by the assisting 3.70 A
8. Gives a loss of speaking E
3.49 A
9. Restricts students’ E
3.56 A
thinking potential
10. Encourages abstract E
thinking replaced by 3.69 A
imaginable thinking
AWM 3.89 A E

Chapter 5


This chapter presents the summary of the study, the

findings obtained, the conclusions drawn, and the

recommendations formulated on the results and findings.


This summary was undertaken to determine the effects

of multimedia – aided instruction on the academic

performance of the students in J.H. Cerilles State College

Dumingag Campus. Specifically, the study sought to answer

the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the student –

participants in terms of:

1.1 Age;

1.2 Gender;

1.3 Civil Status;

2. What are the types of multimedia – aided instruction

used in the classroom?

3. What is the frequency of utilization of the available


4. What are the effects of multimedia – aided instruction

on the academic performance of the student –


The descriptive method was used in the study. There

were 61 participants utilized in the study. Twenty Nine

were female and thirty two male students – participant.

It employed a questionnaire – checklist to gather data

and information from the 1st year Criminology student –

participants in J.H. Cerilles State College Dumingag

Campus. It involved a total of 61 students of the 1st year

Criminology taken randomly during the first semester,

school year 2018. The statistical tool like frequency

count and percentage were used to analyze the data in

determining the respondents’ engagement in the use of

handheld gadgets and in evaluating the level of academic

performance of those respondents - who engage excessive

use of handheld gadgets and those who seldom use. To test

the significant relationship, chi-square test for

independence was used.


Based on the data gathered, the following are the

significant findings of the study:

1. As to the demographic profile of the student –

participants; majority of the student participants

were males aging from 18 to 19 and as to the civil

status, all of them were single.


2. Majority of the available multimedia–aided instruction

were the animations.

3. The multimedia-aided instruction was sometimes


4. The perceptions of multimedia-aided instruction on the

academic performance of the student’s participants

were strongly agreed by the student-participants.


Based on the findings obtained, the following

conclusions are hereby drawn:

1. The single and male participants ages 18 to 19

dominate the participants of the study.

2. The most common multimedia aided instruction is


3. The student-participants occasionally used

multimedia-aided instruction.

4. The student-participants find the multimedia-aided

instruction effective.


Based on the conclusion drawn, the following

recommendations are hereby endorsed:


1. That the teachers are encouraged to use multimedia

aided instruction for them to greatly facilitate

teaching easier.

2. That the students may be taught on how to use the

multimedia-aided instruction for them to be oriented

on what to do and on how to use it.

3. That another study may be conducted with increased

number of variables.