Feeding & Operation Assembly

The Barrel is a tube of metal with spiral cut channels on the inside. The high point of these channels are called lands the low points are called grooves. This set of lands and groves are called rifling inside a barrel. The barrel stabilizes the fired bullet before it leaves the rifle by imparting a spin on it as the bullet passes down the barrel. M1 Garand barrels have a tiny hole drilled through them near the muzzle. (The forward tip of the barrel.) This hole vents a bit of the gas produced by the combustion of the gunpowder into the Gas Cylinder so as to operate the semiautomatic mechanism of the rifle. The barrel on an M1 also has an integral 'chamber' machined into it which holds the cartridge before it is fired.
The Bolt and its internal parts are responsible for stripping a round from the clip, chambering it, indenting the cartridge's primer, extracting the spent shell casing from the chamber, and ejecting the casing from the weapon. The bolt itself is the large metal housing shown below which does most of the work and is subjected to most of the stress during operation and firing. The Bullet Guide supports and allows pivoting of the follower arm and helps to guide the follower rod. It also helps to define the area the cartridges are stored in. The Follower Arm is used to push the slide and follower assembly toward the top of the M1 Rifle in order to push cartridges into place for feeding. The Follower Arm gets its 'power' from the follower rod which is driven by the operating rod spring.

The Follower Arm Pin holds the Operating Rod Catch and Follower Arm in place and allows them to pivot.

The Follower presses up on the cartridges in the clip so as to prepare them for feeding. The Follower Slide rests on top of the follower and moves back and forth about 1/4 inch providing a more even pressure to the individual cartridges. The reason that the Follower Slide is designed to move back and forth is so that it can come into contact with the lower cartridge in the clip no matter if the cartridge is loaded into the clip on the left or the right. The Follower Rod transforms the power from the Operating Spring into pressure on the Follower. The Follower Rod also helps to hold the rear end of the spring in place. The Operating Rod serves a number of critical functions. The handle on it is used to cock the M1 Garand Rifle. When the oprod is released it pushes the bolt forward to strip and chamber a cartridge. The oprod also serves as a spring guide for the Operating (main) Spring. It also serves as the 'piston' which rides inside the gas cylinder and is thrust rearward during the firing of the weapon setting in motion the feeding and chambering of a new cartridge. The bolt is moved by the Op Rod and rides on a detent near the handle. The Operating Rod Catch performs the function of capturing the operating rod when it is in a fully retracted position and holding it in place thus keeping the bolt open. This happens when the weapon fires its last round and ejects the clip or when the weapon is cleared manually. Note the 'leg' on the Operating Rod Catch. This comes into contact with the Clip Latch and keeps the Clip Latch from being depressed when the bolt is locked back. In the center of the Operating Rod Catch you can see the Accelerator. This part rotates ever so slightly and simply moves the Operating Rod Catch into position faster. The whole assembly is held together by the Operating Rod Catch Pin. The Operating Spring provides the M1 with the power to feed and cycle the semiautomatic action. The M1 Receiver is the heart of the rifle. It is the main item that other parts are connected to or bolted on.

Clip Latch Assembly The Clip Latch retains the clip in the M1 rifle until the last cartridge is fired whereupon it is moved out of the way by the tail end of the operating rod catch and allows the clip to eject. The Clip Latch is also used to manually unload the weapon without firing. Clip Latch Pin fastens the clip latch and the clip latch spring on to the left hand side of the receiver (frame) of the M1 Garand. The Clip Latch Spring provides pressure to the clip latch thus moving the clip latch into position to hold the clip in place until the operating rod catch pulls the clip latch down in order to eject the clip. Gas Cylinder Assembly The Gas Cylinder is a critical part of the M1. It serves as the receptacle for a small amount of the gas which is vented from the barrel when the M1 is fired. The gas then propels the piston end of the the oprod rearward and this operates the semiautomatic action of the weapon. In addition the Gas Cylinder provides a mounting point for the front sight and the stacking swivel.

The Gas Cylinder Lock is responsible for keeping the gas cylinder in place on the barrel. The Gas Cylinder Lock Screw Valve is responsible for several things. First it is threaded through the Gas Cylinder Lock and into the gas Cylinder to hold the Gas Cylinder Assembly in place. Second there is a tiny relief valve built into this part which is used for shunting the gas for rifle grenade launching.

Stock Assembly
Front Handguard Front Handguard Spacer (liner)

The Stacking Swivel is used when three M1's are hooked together in the field so as not to allow them to fall over. The Stacking Swivel Screw holds the Stacking Swivel to the Gas Cylinder. The Rear Handguard protects the shooter of an M1 rifle from being burned by a hot barrel and from coming into contact with the moving Operating Rod.

The Rear Handguard Band/Clip is used to secure the Rear Handguard to the barrel of the rifle. The Lower Band is responsible for helping to hold the Rear Handguard and the Front Handguard to the barrel. The Buttplate on the M1 Garand Rifle served as both a protector for the exposed end-grain of the stock and as a cover for the cleaning kit holes drilled into the buttstock. The Buttplate is made of fairly heavy metal that won't crack or chip during drills or when used to buttstroke an enemy soldier. The hinged cleaning kit cover is spring loaded and snaps into place when closed. It is actually pretty darn secure. The short Buttplate Screw naturally enough holds the buttplate on to the buttstock. The longer Buttplate Bolt secures the Buttplate as well and it also holds the buttstock swivel in place. The Buttstock or Stock of the rifle is used to support the main assemblies of the rifle and to aid in stabilizing the weapon against the shoulder. It is also a repository for rifle cleaning equipment.

The Stock Ferrule protects the otherwise exposed end-grain of the front of the stock. The Front Swivel allows the attachment of a leather or canvas sling. The sling enabled the easier transport of the rifle by individual soldiers by hanging the rifle from their shoulders. Some slings also could be used to help stabilize the rifle when it was fired resulting in better chances of hitting the target. The Rear Swivel held a canvas or leather sling enabling the more easy transport of the rifle by individual soldiers. Most slings are designed to allow a soldier to hang his rifle from his shoulder and down his back. Some slings however are designed to help stabilize the rifle when it was fired resulting in better chances of hitting the target. The canvas slings issued for the M1 were mostly to help carry it and the leather ones could be used to stabilize it.

Sight Assemblies
The Rear Sight Aperture is the object that a shooter will look through and line up with the front sight and then the target in order to place an accurate shot. The rear sight is raised and lowered via a pinion on the elevation knob in order to change the level at which a bullet will impact the target.

The Rear Sight Cover protects the internal parts of the rear sight from being struck or damaged. TheRear Sight Cover also keeps dirt and grit from getting into the sight mechanism. The Rear Sight Cover also provides spring tension to keep the parts of the rear sight assembly together. The Rear Sight Base is the platform on which the rear sight of the M1 Garand is fitted. The Elevation Knob Assembly is used to raise and lower the rear sight aperture so as to direct the impact of aimed bullets up or down on a target. The Elevation Knob is primarily used to change the impact of bullets at various distances. The Windage Knob is an integral part of the Rear Sight Assembly. It is used to change the point that the bullet will impact to the right or to the left. This adjustment may be needed because of a strong crosswind just to 'zero' the rifle. The Front Sight is used in conjunction with the rear sight to line the rifle up on the target. Note the 'wings' on the front sight. These help to protect it from getting bent or dinged.

The Front Sight Screw is used to hold the front sight in place.

Trigger Assembly
Clip Ejector Spring The Hammer is responsible for sending the firing pin forward in order to set of the primer and discharge the cartridge. The hammer is set into motion by the rifle's trigger being pulled. The Hammer Pin fits into the forward part of the Trigger Housing and provides a pivot point for the rotation of the trigger guard and Hammer as well as holding both in place. The Trigger Pin fits into the rear of the Trigger Housing and provides a rotation point for the Trigger, and the Hammer Spring Housing. The Hammer Spring Plunger provides power to the Hammer from the Hammer Spring. The Hammer Spring is responsible for delivering power to the Hammer Spring Plunger in order to drive the hammer forward.

The Hammer Spring Housing is designed to hold and guide the hammer spring and to keep it from buckling during operation. It also helps to keep the Hammer Spring Plunger properly aligned. The Safety keeps the rifle from firing when it is engaged (pulled toward to the rear inside the trigger guard). The Trigger is a small metal lever that sets off the mechanical workings of a firearm resulting in the discharge of the cartridge (ammunition). The Sear is responsible for 'catching' the Hammer when it is thrust rearward when cocking and releasing it when the trigger is pulled. The Trigger Guard is used to keep a soldier from inadvertently discharging his weapon should he snag an otherwise exposed Trigger on a branch, clothing, or other impediment. On the M1 Garand the Trigger Guard also locks the weapon together and is capable of cocking the hammer for field stripping. It also provides a mount-point for the winter trigger and guides the safety. The Trigger Housing is used to hold and protect all of the parts in the trigger group.

The Hammer Pin fits into the forward part of the Trigger Housing and provides a pivot point for the rotation of the trigger guard and Hammer as well as holding both in place. The Trigger Pin fits into the rear of the Trigger Housing and provides a rotation point for the Trigger, and the Hammer Spring Housing.

Bolt Assembly
The Ejector is responsible for 'popping' a cartridge (fired or not) off of the bolt, around the extractor, and out and away from the rifle. The Ejector Spring powers the Ejector. The Ejector is on the top right. The Ejector Spring is on the top left. The Extractor which is pictured on the top right is responsible for grabbing a chambered cartridge case (loaded or fired) and for pulling it from the chamber.

The Extractor Spring which is pictured at the top left is responsible for keeping tension on the extractor plunger. The Extractor Plunger can be seen at the bottom of the Extractor Spring and is responsible for pushing the Extractor back into position. The Firing Pin is responsible for setting off the primer of a cartridge which is chambered in the rifle. The firing pin is propelled forward into the primer by the M1's hammer after the hammer has been released from the sear by a pull on the rifle's trigger.

The Receiver / Barrel Group holds the Gas System, Front & Rear Handguards, Rear Sight Assembly, Feed Mechanism, and the Bolt Assembly. The Stock Group is the wood that the M1 is assembled with. The buttstock aids in aiming and the forestock portions protect the shooter. Note also the ferrule, sling swivels, and buttplate are part of this group. The Stock Group is the wood that the M1 is assembled with. The buttstock aids in aiming and the forestock portions protect the shooter. Note also the ferrule, sling swivels, and buttplate are part of this group. The Rear Sight Assembly holds the peep sight aperture (rear sight) which is lined up with the front sight which is in turn placed on the target. The Rear Sight Assembly also houses the elevation and windage knobs. Sights are used to help point the weapon in a correct and repeatable way at targets.

A Rifle Sling is handy for carrying a rifle, but perhaps its most important function is as a brace to aid in aiming. Using the sling to stabilize your support arm will increase the accuracy of your shooting.

The purpose of the Trigger Group is to transfer the pressure delivered to the trigger into a series of mechanical actions that result in the forward movement of the hammer to discharge the weapon. The Trigger Groupconsists of various pins, the trigger itself, the trigger housing, the trigger guard, the hammer, the hammer spring, the hammer spring plunger, the sear, the clip ejector spring, and the safety.

The bolt and its internal parts are responsible for stripping a round from the clip, chambering it, indenting the cartridge's primer, extracting the spent shell casing from the chamber, and ejecting the casing from the weapon. When all of these parts are assembled as shown below they are known as the Bolt Assembly or Bolt Group.

Caliber .30 M1 Garand
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Barrel Bolt Bullet Guide Buttplate Assembly Buttplate Screw, Long Buttplate Screw, Short Buttstock Swivel Clip Clip Ejector Clip Latch Clip Latch Pin Clip Latch Spring Ejector & Spring Extractor Extractor Spring & Plunger Firing Pin Follower Arm Follower Arm Pin Follower Assembly Follower Rod Front Site Front Site Screw Gas Cylinder Gas Cylinder Lock Gas Cylinder Plug Hammer Hammer Pin

28. 29. 30.

Hammer Plunger Hammer Spring Hammer Spring Housing

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

Handguard Clip Handguard Ferrule Handguard Liner Handguard, Front Handguard, Rear Lower Band Lower Band Pin Operating Rod Operating Rod Catch Assy Operating Rod Spring Rear Site Cover Rear Site Aperture Rear Site Base Rear Site Elevating Pinion Rear Site Windage Knob Receiver Safety Stacking Swivel Stacking Swivel Screw Stock Ferrule Assembly Stock Trigger Trigger Guard Trigger Housing Trigger Pin