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4,

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^

(s.)
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to.)
J- +I
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\,/s lel4
+
o
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' t
a) PoYos,t
\/

+ Po'ije q }1-) o < n< \oo


3) Oes.ec so{urdf'o' 1sJ)- Ygf *t""
v,
; f,"" d"j soil -) v(D =o I a, = o
S" {"rq soil -t Vy 'X'+v@ -+ st=t..o
-7
5ot.,:'\oted Rno'3 e o! SY o s 5 v<
loD
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4) "nw c"nLnt (o") = +:
-!e" 8orr3 gdtur.oted Aoi) v!-e ed i,3')
- ->
-a 6 o<o. s !
Ronqe
J-
F) pe-,.ce,"tqg e 4r o- voldg (xo) = )4- rtoo
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9 r.*. )3: xtoo
rY\
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= lo km[-3 - I {: /m3

ws

speci$ c 5"'"tY ) ;
ra) rno.se
qff
APPN^I
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J
Ac\k
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r f"' -PIrg Jottr:rotrd' sot | (Q-) '
(qq) ' t
) .Apo^ont- 3 c.{u atrJ soil
$d o go,+ic"\ o' sol).
B\"9::an,e:t
,)
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I

3)
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d eii - 0J q.
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9

If t* -

V.r t"/""

lp) dc+Srr I -, *"#


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.i
rq) e 3r -- oGs (d)
-l
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e, =-_ > wFqs ,

Ior. gs' ) )"1 ...;=t^irt"le

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f=::--
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c.o.^e Eot
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9i:^mi6ilit
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J\o Soi\s so .forrnei'.
9rr Qvovel q Sccd
-? Jn cose q, ohernioa\ ,7rheo*heri
1g , the
mtne;.al
$Ue 'Po".ent rlck qlrg modiS"d qn
Secoodog minero.ti ol pre,rent in *\^,e Soils q
:jo lbrYied
gi\t q,\d . o\or1
? goil is d-.hoe.d o,r -fhg morte-r.i+ | oonsia+in?
$ vrotora\ t3tl-J.t- db ra\ne,^o\s .Dhicl.\ cXn
be Sepolqte-d bJ 3e^t\€meong
)) $Povosi+3 co.n bo in * *i3.
$ o-too 1 it cn.nnot be- mlo- $^oo \oo.l.
3i^ce- Vv is leaa thon [d) gtua\ +o V
'3 1I.e wo.\",e$. void ra{io cqn bo mJe, +l-,qn lL
t-p\.. +t"*t r.o\u.n 5 voi ds g\.e<it/- {\d,\
qr Soi\ SYciM4.
\io\u..tu
i^ ?n1o@''.1 pvoc-dce *V'o vnid Rq}.o i'1
-7
f'rqu-.iry us;'d insieod S ?oYosi\' d'+h +he

St "-wo lmg""-d
on -|.''e- Soil r {h" s"otl €'"'ns
(')il+\ aho Re'su\t *he'
oornnot be- cvueVred
rqr_ ve 'f ofr crine C6)l)tc(ni'
vc,.\Lre'
i uJl.en o- \ood it, o-Po\l'd, *v'" t\"'ne-^'-fd \''
Jhe void Rc+io 9ho11e^ (oo\€, o.^ *lv d €,no.r"\Q^1
'Yey'\o;c gqme,. Hery'\ce vQid Rc*io io {re 9,.:
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e,rnt{1

J gi.\ce- V$ eon qt vert gluq\ +o vv -l\e vq\oe.


dlr
- 9sr oo, be
g^o/v.qo 01 O-. \oO /
tl v

the .r:ate_r cont.nt \ao.\u e co.q be more .\hqn


\oo l. lnc\ined +r"ot (,)elqh q\ urou; i5 '16ys
Loeioht qi so\\ .q Yoi^s'
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3t i a d"hY\eJ or,\ tDe$ht
to = j'.'-
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, uja lws
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ldo
unit ujeiqht ah ttric\,u]- :

,!'r ,.. i . "P


u$q d€l8h!:-.q,, sil 3Yg14s. r.. , ,

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Cso,r"
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-- (:E\r,p -td''
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=,4 L_--_*; 3
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I

r) 'LhP notulo.l content ft so\\ ie 2o.f


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+r.- g+k 9a/^s,! 6b +he 3gi\ is t.q €.r. fcc.lFo
v*\,- $ qs :'c".l. 4.nd o.+ <{Jg".e o6 Sot*raN
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$9, Qivc,v. do.to-
Qs' q.Gs fu--t
20 /.

yo^ TdyS [,+ u]l


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c(1

e, {' ru5-r -- z-\.5it-l


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9s

o,ro Srr{o"G6
q- o. Gq\? Gq lb ./.

Since- Srr- 6e.l -lhe Soit i,r


?o-t+i o.\\ dc.t,r otr t &i c-tr^di+ dn,

a) I m3uio\ goi\
6b (l)ot (l)@IY\r irt,) le
9or r tr)eiqvit tG kN, dvJ uJeiql
rN, dY.t uJelSh
J. -Iv\e
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uoX,r csnlmt , pdo,,,l\ , void g\o+io € deqve e,
!
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a;5 u.,rixt -- \td
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l,= I (d) v--- e


/d
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qs,-! q,3s^_t_
i*
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latcl a I

Vg: o.qQ\ f^
V?l = vS +vsj f va

--(- o qcrr- o.qol


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r) Y\ -- ::. - oj-3gllg]! 'j-
-. o.5q3 .,

P-- Vv - gqc!\to lSt


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Pe\q+o"' I5/u, td ? )4o.:
Vz Vg+v|oi vo.

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t- +?1o (d,) -Yta " )i + Yll
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q9 tq9 -1. Y
i3,u -. g- r"J-
._r 9"t v
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t-1. ' .t ,o - 'xga* * gL.Ds 't
Qs i,e -
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t-
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"t
:

{aa = r'-',r.)
1+ u9 Cr.:,

I,c ubove Eluo+io^ \s o^e+i,l -b Stoclq +


-ct\orr be-i-rqviow q o. soil. I 'Y

condition db
u. Jrl (;/.)
€r ! r"/
. : ,./
{0/nd
Dr! o
L{urnld . . O_95
Do..np 2q- 5.o
ff\cieE
ct_:15
ul4 t
i6_qq
Uorlrq'te.d
' ' '.,o" i ' , ]
! ,eo.bove -tqb\e o.pp\i€a -{o
l^r\o. !l^ .6 ..
So.^ds. (d)
u
^;er\u
U
c.^l
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Soi\g. Houi gvea, it.connot.
be,
:$-"",-' :;,:::*,^": fi:i :_t
3tePt"^*i
"q G sn dr qnr.
u l". \Dhich
so 6. +|.,,
cor\ed Orq insteod a .,-*.

Soil Tg pe Qg
r) e\eon sond 9 3 'o"""r A.G5 - 2-6s
eitt I s,il! s..J-. Q Cr6- ?.1 o
3) J^l--t" ctog a.4 +o ,."o
\) Soile 6 i+h hi6h 'ni c.t Q +5 - 2 oS

--rTre qJPect 6b -l\e thope ft +hg Svdin on +l.e


pwosi\ on *!r€- A{Ye1o.t! \s €,nor moos. The- v<\t!
g r,r ie us"dt sf.t q o. #Si"o" e g!^e<r<.r'

dc q?./ dnd i^'I\e cleY\3ent oavro13. 'nen t in


?G'i Becduse db 13"reo.t i^N\o'nce 6b ti..e s\aPe-
\ r&\o Sydin oa potosi+J/'ihe poyo sr! 1\3e\P doe^
.^ot \nAicqto cohec.*he,. *f'e -{oil ie looee. d'de^,a"]
eol1 be. €pec-ified vlJ rneans
$ vetative, de,rui{X,
-) Re\o\.e de^sl| td) dens\ \qdex i,,
""p"""u
-nted bj *rre {ouooi13 g1.ra+ion.
Po toi :ro - € - 9
"nqr
e.^o. _ e*irn +
e"."., -
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enntn rn\n\nurn .void vq+io
-
e- NNt(('ld\ void Qo.+$
va -- S5_ y'ae

do,i
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l
r15 1.6

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ic"(''.,
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ja
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l.)
' tl
dn o Sotl
v
,ffi
a t'rotr- eovrt"nt\ 5/..'R'\d o.,t -f1^e ovnoonl
,$ .o;t i -tb be o.dded in -[t-^, jo \h3 dl, sol\
.-to roise '$e. Loo.t' ich^te.a.t +o 15 /' qqJ $ae
void Ra*io Yernoin3 dorae' The vo\t^e t qS
is Ao .\so RnJ oot -F"e dagv"e qi {dU,} o+"
aJ n.
qM-r,(
S' ) b .. la krr[y.\1
, .o 5 /.
| - ia,,,a (r t o)
rtE
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ta.t\ " Qsea

,-.N
Q,- 01\a s
o,.A uJ = rE ,/.
j = ta\ (tt "s )
= \? lq ltr lL\
|, ir.r r sg 1,^r
t= r + SlO
)'*
o r Sy XA !*t/ q 8)
t.r o.\t 8

s,- t.l .s q 't


.' $w:$nr ptorc\elor' rit 'jod{ I '^ent oY\ ed 'rh4
:
"lo\,
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o".;""i,Jn C6',^to""rt

\t '- 5'1. v: mj t

- LrJ -r _- uJX tDs


)'

)d ' l-1 \! -- t:
u\ e t" \\xv -- tl'\qx\ '
$$. o'o5^ll tq = O 95? kN\
v
'-f I q6-a-N<@r^
".

-- o ts'J-
q'9\
urh,n u}"r ' \5'/'
vd gtn 431_5 . L;3
' *:s- = b zco

hd
yLo € O.gcr t o.ot ?3
.,tut , O. \l.r C ,.'3

\ !t . tooo c,^"
o.I+ r^? = \aq .!L
d fd o sa..d q u\i +ttm SPhe\\c6\ poon+ic\Q^ ]ne
in *v'e lo,"at, Q de,"'e*t {to-tea 6,.
t\.*5 a" Q '<J
-\t=oql $- e
S,

\i9
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o.q" -- o(t:o.q+)
e= 9!3
sB
O.
e-"o 3*Q

€r- \--o tG .\= e

o.lcaio,Cqe -- e
o.!a: e(t-o.2ql

3)A gdIu^dd .tornA hanc q g unlt daid"t tt kul,


q 'lhr vdj,* $ Q5.is 9.o8. -F:ve- vo.\,.u-
$ {6 ro !s
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la, - Qstt+e)
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a Uo"^o"*eolt ho,' b-AS d€.hs\ 6
rn-1lJ cqbia n {b_('s 't +^e 'Soil .Sl U- reXt r.<d
-to c.onstvuot,ad6 or[inewre^lt
q
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\ls Qy to t olp11
1' {a, us
v
qs'i3- I n-!
=
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-- Qa)n-,r1 !")auh
l?x V16o'rro.,r) z \toxlr:F' '

V\royyo"J '- .H xtoo ' qq-\r '

fl r,:tlko,.r.t *!* {on*,- g'vsta\ern dvg


' !-'-'J
d3a1q;-1
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borrou.J iB \6 KN lh'' qnd Yhc,'L M gmb
!+ kql'\3
'ra. 199 .

(^rl
\ra botrovJ * r\,
\w,\.\joyrovJ -- \,{"iC!
fJ,\ !" r\,\'6ya\o
-,.yrLa4. ,t'

\ax Ycotvo\o = 11 x\oo

-]3 x\oo. ,'

Vh,or"oa q,ss
" toG.
€oi \3"a.--L

6 o^se,
3{
q!
?l An.3vo"!.
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Soil
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e*\ min Q^o\qsg

Q. gi ae.
qnildmi\

sglo$asd*

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J T
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6 R.i*ce HoQonds t^ a.-tr^gYltr"., me+ho&s
of,re eNeaui\ed -to deser\rn\no.tr blu di$le^ent
ki.As q sbi\s ln o col.o3<r:3. pyopsrtieh on
uj\^licY\
Jivan
SLrch diSti^o-tionS oae h,o.sed ore. Inororr
os 'Jnd"* j,"og" +ie-a.1 6,^,1 +r€. -re,r^ .reXuiyed ttr:
dota-\./i.\e 3rder. pvogert\ea o).! kno!,rr\ t\q,$iR
-
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D e.rcviplion Pet Io @ {u"i.
gound)

val loose,
"l
,qoose \5- 35 /. rr.l. 2j1 -Bz

96 -a5.1^ lo-3o .G5,/, 3o- s"a


Daa$4 G5-95 /. 30-5o Br-qo
G6.n.
velJ dens., 2 *51. 26t) \t-\3
RE S*':o'q
cav..e"'e \e-l^ goi\ V'as - o-95 e'ndt
r)
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gnin , o 6 . in ir".o *ard +'a soi\ i^ corhP sct
+o o. unit (l)e€ht oq rtoo g1".3:( iag) r,oi+r^,
cooJ.t-,- centl-t 3/- -IYr €- on\t q)e€ht
$
-]he vo.\ur, g is
t
t,.loj-,t is (ooo \ [r'] Q5. I
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f,c,tj,alU"
^t

{ a.." - I
r+-!-

la-- cts ;-
latrt.) . (s i":
t+e. -- 9s Jo - A-+t(\ooO
'to fCC,6 ' G
IIT-
O.GL

Fa = -- o.g 5-- b GL
e.rnd\ -esin o.a5 - o 5

I
R4 -- o c,sr ' a'GG IGG I

I gand is dense^ ereAi'd 3io.e, Qr>>as /'


Fgwr" - plpetu e g, 9qi\ :

-nro 9oi\ h,ev'ovoiv iB int\u e^cei


\ doo llPQ^ $
td""" ' o) %vce'r
3vovitotnono\
b) g\ectvicq\ 'lorcer (att"tac*iv" ip"p\,-r
gven +t,ou€v\ +\aese'\ujo 'totcea ope^oten Si.p,1ton
-eooe\1 I fe""oo-r.se €'rqin soi\s ojl e, {\"'N\" enc"J
b3 !''ovit^+ionor R."""r. .ohq^" 6'; -$ne gvoia
Si\s"o,n" in{t'reneed e\ac!v\co\ fo"cer'
:
\
Iobvic i€ define os -ine geornetvica[ ovvw
€erne.r\t \ soi\ pdn+ic\e d+ e\e,ctviccl\ No1qa,l
c,f,\e q\3o cmsider,od -\ien it 15 KY\o\O5 o.S o.
3tYuc\uie.
c\$ is si\ieo. a, n\\".nin a

Fs a sr11\e $voineA Fs I Ho.r3 cornb dt.ci.-


- 61a(trJA
nAJ
" ft1 +'
" Oi5pe5ed stvuctw

Ps 3 floccLNorto

->A Sit\. gr.ined st-clu, arestrttr in occtrrryloi,rr


9Xoo.\ Sgheres u:ts e,.e jhere is d \itrt\e o!
\ mov{
tendencg trom .t^€ por\+\c\!, +s o.dhere 10 oqe.
qno+Uer.. Such 36i\s qr terwrtd cr b.ohe.sion
\e,v
b3 du,^ds Q
3oi\6'1 Q, re.pve,rented -lilq
lrovel
Jio.ck 6b c(dha ence M\e qns *hq{ *|^e gediyne^t
-+io^ Pvoce' +he o-\\ pvoce,M L.)\aic\ c.oyyi. i ntr
f\\ o! s"\f .De '3\"r \ Dotr+cler
-> S^iJ coff1b Stluctoye occ..hs in Soi\S fi,re
e]lolth -fo hove- Coh€rion- .oh.n -too po]1-tricle1
c.r.\e in+o contoct utii\,\ gqch c'!.ol -$.e mol
/
-culer db 66e po.j.1io\e qt -the point $ eoritac
€i\s\ qn inte,r.qction enr -fl-,e -dil: po'Lticle
o uonl ,ss otrL.r.'rr.-,.e ,, Q

foccu\oltJ {truc\ur.:
A Focra\o.ted \ee q s\lvuctu.te is +d..'
urv\"n
+-oo o\\ po:rtic\e,,, ":i-S' 9\ o'ce snd €!q e cor'r

1oj"+Lea
--ar= D,9Pe 3ed
-\P" t stwctu.^e is go,^3 +o td""
nnee-t *h<-l+ o.{jLl.st corne

c\qq minero\oqq

c\\ conto.i.s gcrne c\1y rniaero\s


So."\ ur!'i ch
qs tDe\l ds crlhe^ .n\ne^c\e oo o pvope^\ g p\osf,.
-,c.i\ and co\eeio. -me be!-'o.vioov.S +oyce
g*or,-,.d soi\s -ro bo rnglt-renced po+io\e siAe_
qnd o\so
\
ond 5\o9e gor*ic\e sitre distyibu+ion.
-\Le urolr, con{e,nL uri\l not hdve m\Jch .jmpqct
On c[-use r]yo-in€d So''\a. on {ne ot\rer hord in caaq,
t +^e S'o,^ed Soi\s soi itil' in -the ..: qt
i rj)\icL is i\P\oe-^cinq ahe soi\ be,!ro.v iour hnd
IJ
.(\^,+i^\e
'?o1+,c,\e aiea i h,1+io- ;^
siAe dis{ribo*iorr -^ *..^-
o-" rro .ntrch --,^
tole -to
-

Ca:
^1, ^-{!

j e\ rn\ne,ro\s ole gesie^t\ol\ ob


{1d.'o.- oltu,,}";no
9i\\cqter"
jgi\r c- \'.mit :

l-
J' Jt Ccr.'po.isea $ o. contvo\ Si\ica (oto-) .t *he- ct-i
t qnd it i3 St].vlou^ded bJ olh {ou o\ylen o+o.ns_
li one qt -1\e Aip 9r 3 qt -$"e k ottoh
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b.t odocent gi\ic6. onits. s' ,^ JLaaPYe^ent
6 ^-t\"e
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o (d) oh-
I uei\.1vie &i\ &r,nq\^on h",
sh"ei a-o 'be .r^"k; ";'*'i\ieo,o'a q;55g
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"\ Kqg!,niu 3t ia o. t: t rniner-o.\ tl\-re^e- '3'el' eot
'

i3 Sto.cked ove C! C^ Ahee,t and +he; o^e


b\y bond. -The
tdrojen (tr$&{s\a
- bor\c unit is l G ,t:

I
t
1
I

I footi^it consis\rs c5 rept'\n1 \q{c/'s q. tc\


ond h-ov€. iebo
q,

0ters
] ie "^a o. ko.o\initq c'vyatol
ItL;cl
ii
,lb) r1o!f-or !\*t. r Ct io o g:r m\neto\ o\ere :lc1
l[ 3\.€€r d, sto.cked ![": -i$o S s\eats. .rha
I J\cvner ft $re .!o-qaa is q. G ao -\Re c-or$ec+.a
bona is -to \o"'d)-,r,,.lol\ 4ticea'l a^d $.. -"U,,
ll' rno\eclr\o
,Co\ gosi\,1 berr+kk pene\vote in bln:
: $e ghe-el" .!ead;n1 :t6 increose -t\^. \o\orne (dJ
i5\ao[inq.
u
I
I G __\J
I qGA
i z-r nuro t hchou"ule dirlic"v
I

J ;.
T
-=-gottcriorn

Suc.ccryrive
Iegyg!9l \+udts.
.! urc'e
grroln3 -tt e Boi\ *ovmqlion is silica gheet if siticq
is reg\oce,J A\\rmini d l|'en *[ere is d cJ^oale
\
iJef$ci".t 6n -4- ond '+"'e dd P;cie-'c1 ie -qoinq
i+. g*.". "xejctv e (-ve\ ch63g -*.
"{ a,lt""U
lsi^ce- *V'e crr;,tc\ onee -fo ba e-\€.ot\,icq\ . e!fi.l/
-lrV.e ccr\or.s +D $^e
',rd'",r
o,r ottvoctad -to'-tt"e
\ e"["c. T(eae co*.o'\ q+ ,
o..vrd hio\e^ vq\e^nc
u- X C-n-t ons hsp\qc€,, .!o."^ v;tar5
coli-sng f(e pV.encirr,enon i^ kho.o 6 o., arto1.so'Lle
Cocliqlg.
Ar{,^LPa }idJ.r r

--
\9
t (+3 .)
_, as t!.
5h comPt,'tion lnde1{
.c t,,,i:Gi -r
r''-q* d -!*J in l

cDr

il' "'tJN
-fien +\e $Xoid \irntt 1-1 15 ssr-,docted io '$"e-
,\do*o{ou3 a6 rhs{, Fo,"l -\ l. 'Me o.tt
sa-aa!

co^laat clryerpo.'d\ -+. asg no {5 !'\o"-rs ir


d"d^"A o^ *\"" s'\fu (i"ni\
fhe e\opL q) E\o.,r cubve is de-li.,"d o-r' {p.cx,
JnJex tr denote d b3 f-''
sz--d,

l"u*1l
I vT
I I
I ril
3!!!'! ,I 5
'J
3s.*"4 l
LDs - ujt i$ 'io.\a
dt qJ soi\ <3Yd'ns
-.. jo=

?, .- dtl v.6r,l-
,9. -, -,--lq -"")
.Js (v,-v;l
r) 3n o-'s\vlnklle \im\t tertt, o conte\n or cr.ril
a Vo\ornc, t a-c cc lii ltt."\e,d tr:r'*h E ts\.glI
+he lDe.ilht \ gotqndted S5o\\ is t-1- Qcjr^<i
T.'" St;f roctb Svadoo.\ dv3 tnde^ otnos
-ere g +he.n ket't \n tha 6 ovan, fi+. d1y .,:ei
ord +\T o dq vo\ome r,:eie t\\,58 J.^^ q .5 2>c.
And t,.'" !h"t^uq; s"t t,
$or' C;u"- J-bo- \'
.\ , --'---"
Vo\ufn e -- q -G cc ,\o
u9q-r.,,,g31 yPe .o.Ji
.)'.
"irf
vrarqht \ - \\.ss
',it"-.i -- .,o-".! '1 fi."st l

...^9. . u.r,-1v,-v 1)1,1 -,,1,rg


D5
--- t1.qs - Lq,c -5 s')r - lr.69

\\-sg
-rx. f.u".oi11 &to
0) coo^ +-
.1e^o-L_J
d,re1i"l
c.ord.cd"1 t \.;d 0;-.t--r-t 8nJ ou{ lr"" r^t _
$ n.L J .q,.,.* 3l fne- P\cL.rd c Ji.^it is a8.s y'
+.d oui -{^r p\o^Fct 3ndr^
i1'"1ryi"N
3-No
1
,')"q.
L) q,t.Co
I 3\
?. 2A

3. \g 51.\.{o

\r- 5 5 C ,ir

$'""" r+.. Qvogr",


t:ol* co5L-t coweaponJii3 *'
is 4%5
: tu.t,
g\or\\c \i'"alt = q$5-2ss
o.l !,rF )
C

8dL es)
\;-rr' z,i,rri.
3)
l:t 1T*5
/. . ]W"
aq.s N\oi,r
-c1,
o",c\o.5 on
o! .,:ol* &,u-l ;. 3o.7
-ft",
o\oJ i: in _-- Statr
"

j$s p\oa*, c
3iJ1 atdn
r&o,isss 3"Jic", : I

Co',vis Le/\J

a-
&iquid\-lv
n.J-^ t
-Et)
tr
_-t- _!
-l}'etn':-'. pp .+h-n

+ Jf w* it +hon u| (\^rd <vrp) +l-.e-o -n^


\sl,.re q lL ili1*r,v3,
'€
-onsit .q
_'-&'X.,a {
D-c.e$;T r;-
:l {iX"id <6
p\o.s\to veg. solt o'o }s
Solt o.)5-o.iE'o
rnodi,-r" slrt o 5o 'o.ag
s\.e9 l o t5 -O

Sern ' 3o\id v95 s\lt 2l

hcm*-t '*3 7\ <o--


5o\id
I
'l o" q l-.,,'' e- r^der
,tJ = :j- e
- -,L \v!qr, cnder ,

r+ | \_\oor 3^der,
-Iog\na/, JnJex
$"er oc, ideo. o-toot +l-,. sL""ri..
*.UO t soi\ crt p\os-lic timit. Tu\re. soii,r hovln,]
-$.e gome g\".s+'ciN d.de.x posse,:
dilperent toLrla"
Sq:e J- ir :r ve.s.\1 g,opJhoro! +o T1 rr-.. I
votse $ fr rs ot -1is 1aqr"
+he <,o;ts o-3 td*o\l $ qr
o^d uJF\e^ - -\J,
.o- u" s*l;:;;*-.:r:;.1:1 *" *
Ir I
"{ :Ig fr - o_3

5L9rp1"1? oc+vi\ (\q51) :

It is d-qned or -t!'e Rodo fu pl.^,l-ii \ j,J"*


,lr ++.. '1. db c\al \\ or13iven gbi[. ocdvi\
"\d;o 3\e1c$Ji6: -\e ilae q m,^e],o\,
S\e,. or,
v stdf,, o^d +re gropd hoo q, e\*6
Se.o\oJ'c/n
sbocqh c-oh.-r\on esr{ritoted +b s\sor st"er5l.
q $i 3oi\
A = PT (A= Ac\ v;3)
t ql c(.s

- -nr sol I i,'


o. +5 .'\ x5 _ JJ.^ol
/-;'
tt l- ) -- C+nT,,t6
>t.
AcAivit is intended -+D meo.doye -1he, behovi{l
o! e\oq {idc+io o on[.r t:h-e os '|t^,. !.g"'a h.ntt1
.\J !
giv€, o^ ide.a jego-rd;\ 1t-ie, beVnviouv +he
$ I
€rrhve soil
l) d Aqt,n-ted Soil .g6'np\.
\"d, o. vo\oyy)6clt 45
ot .Q-iq-ia \irit.*he .w(\u_r, \r'oid t s\vi
$
-te- \i.nit . C2.f. q 2-o"t . d&^,ntY!| j1^e
ff)in ,

v$u.nre con bc cRqin


u,t\ric,,k
Ge ro.\,,t S- O. -a.ao . t te"der
v:r: twe^ dqto' vo\ur,u (v).
95 e_5
Lt -- \o-'l-
q.
- tn./
b--2it

-d'"
3d\ o Sbi\

!.* ux.,d s^\ ot,Ekvinr.a!,. ji&l


*' slud Jlim lt
(n- q2.,/. : o.0.,
u' 9lp
NuJ-- O.q?-,JJg
- o Clr4"
l"r I

' C6-9.ro =
-)- @<

ve --_glL -,
qs t-
o" *uSiS)-" u' dS

\Jo\ome 3oi\ (vs).o3G1c" u9s


5 Src.ivra
vs-- o 3Q+G^3\'?q
\s-- \\.ac13c'ns
-- O. tra u9g

.At 8ha Si.nit .

^ko+
u5-20/.o9l' = L;D.o .l+ r\ri"^1-n ,
-O
.0r;-.1 o.^ ,J -u^,

=o?o)( 3l tq = cjrs dm, 1& d\\\ Sovyne

: G.3 S (c

v$,^ db s L:
<s r-ii 3'-- \! or
l\ qG +G
I

tl

_)
e) -m, .o,X*-d e plo"{ic .[i,nit g o.gv"- so
. G5'1. t4?. [ 4.a1c,,!'L *r\e- vo\tu $ ac, JL,
o,nd la -I(. .oot^ conttat in $1t 3o']
-3e^ +Le' ?o t -lE 40 l $d o. 1.^ +ld J. c'
'rn .{rr- r^.o, $-. Pto.oe bu.Xuned -1o close. $.el
gvove

9' 3i.ro +"".


LL-.
SL/ \*,/-
r.r.
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"k,1",1.
X9
c{5 -
so
G5 .-qo

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IP .t
=-I

Tf to--+o
-!oc I Nr\ loJ tro )

I
' T .- Gf-Ao ;
\^o (Jo , 2-
=. t5
. 6'61\

.,4, pa^ tqb\e


+\e'\J co.,nec\nq *\o bd-t'o'.'g
_Ic e Tc e bo-red on -fr.a gvere^t v

I
*\. .-i-o*iie\r^.c is .!-4..,i.J :+"L.
16. tiXeid Q g\oatic \lmit C'4 5o'/' Q ao 7"T^,
'i o. c\ou i^ 30/ ?'hrnoL -t\"r' acjnvo\+3
'0! Soi\ o^,rd ct*i\'
qs: qi.rc4 -$^db
rou-- 50 .[.
Pu-- 9o./.
'1 S c-\a'- 3o'1

5o ^ao
[chv\\
-
(a)
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rl 3o
L
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c\9tdgs$a'' 9b tlrl!)lJ
c\cssilicd+i@ o-^ t

[Q'"- 9'"e*+,- pc.\r.eqbi\i\ I


\ 9Te-,911,5 tr s\ed 3tlenjlh I
I
Mf e'oe. H"^ 6b sirt r cllJ like dq sr r"arr
com?"e"^\b\ \i o6d consietencJ ,vr.".r,
5 .t,.1ith
p\or]"
r'-"\s q 1,).,i
r\rbl
cqn be co-;elqleA 1\e \!tuP
ft otte^b:l
timir: nnd o\so b5 .neons
s
T,.,,*TT r ceirer
*d. .tj;i3r'"$t;J
(rov.\ t q.r s rn.a
-
Sand .' -q.ea.n- -fo :s-r1
si\t - :15 )-L -+a 2)-\
ttij - < 2u,

\ s,"". onolT,rs
I' -Hq

-tq.r5 qf E
1 P'P

'i,e rrnore r Sieve ovai\qb\e ir,


': tt.." :* r+" "l ob. si\t o.nd, otoJ
E5 hrnd\e-d o6\y bu
\.) \_l meons 6\ 0
q.let LAna\.^,<
-,1, -
rne r.nalerio\ po-min3 i\vor3 \
c\, I 's \rnoons 04 +nea =o- 1"5,t.
eve ie u.e.d -fo di 89ere-ntiqtr b/,.;
:]54 gi

Coorse q"roioed ! $^".q'-t^eJ eoil iP nJe,


*^."' al'y. c5 r&'a rno.{eriX ie vetoined 6145
rr. it ie coo^3e, Orc:nei E\ e\se-. !in'3roin'J'
. i,:\\e^ it \.3 esto.k'\ishej *har +\e goi\ i3
goorse ,qfo\neA,'the- rnole-rio\ 're.loined on 15 ! is
c"'oc -blons$^ -to 4-?5 m.n sieve tr] di ffQrentioL
ut..l 3r.'.t Q sond'
!\t +^e .ndto\'d\ +tetd,ned oq 4-18 .n,\ ie \?1t'\e
tho..\ 601. {ho,r its Svove\ o ose 34.ld
c\omi$oa*r'on d6 coorse. doil .

6r;ia-r-d
F"*""s*."a rql ,

. 't. <6/.
+,-t" 5-r2 1 >\a'l'
+. o""d +o d"l,-; tDo\e mine ott'.b11 -)Dei!Y \.s I
Attxrba,qs \i,ni\, \irn'\s 'AHe\bt3 l"n;L
! +$iere onq\uis ie _)Sie!e orElrDis.
'::"l'["",il"'$l'",'J
qre\vYf
rDoo.\ sirsb; ib be do^e
e56bo\ o-
rnrq\e
"n$"3.o,
.!.cor'"- Dud\ sy6bo\, -The Srsr g,rm66,
$-u\l
$ve.s o.n ideo reqordi.g *he ?llect S coolsc_
\l \J
P'q"\o n ord '1}re second Srtmbol
\t oboot.R6s
{v-c{,er'

-J
i\os

yo{nc\e {,3e >LJis.t:ibutyr -{a$.r Aq,1


u.::. rL" ;/ \ +^e_-\e te ! Jfg". s%
c*\c,,!qlr- D6 , D3o e Dqe f.16. -$^e
Podlic\e $i
d\stv\b^'tis, c^ove ccvvergord\ _1o \o.f.3o.1.
! co.l
*"*'
U. .-rnil8'.,i\
t eoel\clent -, !9g oto
CL-- coeusieler\t \ euwc(tu.4 = o.j-
:, Doo e,o
-T6€. Soi\ cq\ be
6;ven
a SJmbo\ ob 6,D, qp, s
?. sP
A C6cve-\ccn be, uro\\ $oded (c.sl) dh.n
tr;4.
[. * t c< is v.rge
t o* oJ Jf one g-th
condi+bns de no\ s,qfis$ed *|ren 'rt ie co\\
fcor\ C*rdJ (ee).5.ovcr. s\mi\{..eond, egn
be o ore\\ Syoded sd d (sw). iF &-.-C.,.i

3. "
*a:" q a -aJ l+
"^" O tr"-" .-",a{
r\ea ;i is 6\,
t) A- s-gms \ eg s;l (l)o) eu.qeAted :lo Seive
orto.td\is. fi. uieilht db +he $il rieto.ined c"-, a;ffc,a"i
,S,e"r ie 31vtn odoo' .P\oa $e. Sr6in s\3e dietvihu*
-.ion q q,rd-o,n.
o) gllective sia"
b)u
c) ec
al don^i\ $* roi\
J3€ei-. Lrlt 6b
'qto,ottd

t50 -r
\A5 J'L )
e.r.nr.iS'" il
pi4 t: '1. .
(l)t Ye+41nt Ctcllttub
Pq",J I
\n Srs qs./'
lo 4-'2,t.
t{??
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e
55'l L(5-/ .

qas.l-^ 3ao A.9- /. >r l.


q"
l5o A e" 4.(. taf..
-@
o.oa 5
i! 1c{ \1'/.
Dro-- o f 3 cncn

Dn^ =
5-
o's .n""'
Dco -- ++ ".'",^.'

"rt. &e = = le-O f3. c


Dro o. tg
cc -- D ao" o.5r -,
D6o 016 I glo-gt
-ba trr
Ix. .nlr-i"} po. -{LoLrqh =llA
'U\J
t3 dern 'l\^a,.^ So1.^in1
i,! 4'r'.ii
e henc. l,u_r 8o.\ i5 Coo^a,
Srotw d.

Se rnotelic\ Bre-toined ovl 4.:r 5 mr4 is e./ l


hyvrcr it Comntyt be,
.grovet 91 it '^ t ond. ghr
{\* /. 6b *n- ir 4-.1. .,jh;oh i.r J4r^ .{44a
s.,
+U.ur \s \o rread -tp .4d d!i,,rxli^r, o lrberq lrn
eince- +\t voL! qJ U > G
t c"- tt s !o j
i3 o. .{r4alJ g*odrd Sona ( g 6l ) .

o'VP- bl sr,r c) qp d) AqJ


| ,-- 1-
st""" tt"u ' dt
$'t
c".
/
l---1 -&o-- 1
ao 6t.
U+-cooa
\ @ qo /.
,5F/
LO'J.
loP"" I
5a 5oo € lco'/.
qe-/. o
r-^
i lt"e
' i.
I
-;;-;"" D1q -, loo
[ -r.= Dcq , e
Goo -
5oo
2
Dto
poo'\ g*"d,* do. & lsP)
+-1h. rnol,'u,o9 pc^^,\ -tt\,oi{h 4rr -a ls .o '. .oilt,
o- t^e\o\t 'no *rof-ic'I \s e\ -to be- ovct\qb\e
+o be- 3a1ve Jhyooqh qsJr. He,vrce, *\e goi\ is
\J
Cool\Se q{orned
* -rt^'.u,a d at so"g- \! .ye-\dincd or\ Goor 5@
t Llb L o"d ,\ is gv,dear -$^ot No *,-lrr, ol
c-o-r gvda-1,'r"J Oq A+bmm .rith ye,t,)\t
-lhe it iS
sqn& . \ro.\oe S rL iS \-a ohioh is
lear *1"o.
G (oi*h o! y€ u\t it is a 3p.
c.lo,r\Acotoon /g Coose gvo,.ra^rJ 3oil ./. g *",._
f s.re- i\^on \? ./.
floa{ici\ .atlaed :
(or
-s )'-,
P1',
'-
o ^^
zo / )

't st. jh.d,L,{,-t


Jnw3n'c, sor \ ,

oY3or,{L 3!i1

?X4r1,{^}J /"'t cL-dl1 be ,j;j.tia,S tD .dtu;\'


4;^" goi"ed $i\s Q o\so s c!"-;! % aree{v
(z tr'7 I 51t
{t is \^r p,ntr or" 0rcofrd q6o'r" o- -L^n, it
.ur\a,,.r" d3 tq)
df it is gn soLd u e,\o,o -.Q,\" \[e,n it
ba lora a^ dnJgonic a;\t" [F.\) d Cd{r'q' c soil
(o) i
$Idi$N'-r" t'& bi.! -si\t t( fto^4" :ol\s,
.!-rto'd \rM'\ $hor tre clelrYn\^e o.\ cLJr qod eA
o."rrA ov{t\ dt \"/ 5q.tnplg ..^.d ;f -r(r di t lqQr1(
is moe *\on go / iS cd\trJ d q no,c s6,f . _
r.Jgt' 46 pcr 3.S poin\ B 9{ point a (8,5.s r) e\o,,j
Te tqlB/ g.d.rc{ioj1 3^ a'i,il .0.;'dt ogtr ow"r
d.jr6 + o vot - !.- +x"^ 3lq$ S j,i"i d-
,$\m\t \:elc e qv er. dvXlnS i e a a.e id e,{++
- dlq $ otdnic SoiLs:
'r' S ' A^" o)r ztt./, $*, 'the,
&tt.;-,"5 33rnbo\s oru to'' be crv'i3ned
?lt'1.
qM

60^

dl it is o Qrove\ o,'.d d$ *ne. gont i3 \oqated I

o- Si^' 'r|^oai \ts lcrc)'o-'d 9o\nt is tocqiedi


obove
belo.o o \ins +ho.n it
is (qn ) I

Coorse q'qlqed -!oi\s .sDL+" [ 'fi"- ^ b[- a o"d u7


r'

a ai ,t,-o"f 'e +o b' Fa


o-'*!ned z+he' q5'U L

S* *u'" 3i\ftu""te S coorae fvoc{ion onfr


-o\ s\onds t +ion '
dB sgmb"\ +r.ot \ +r^e +{dc
r ',^ 'l+* to!.i.+f
0 ts..n L o'" ono\6is &,nd uet' q'J'
-{t",- SUaDI'S doir. "a-!a-it +u . \, ,/
^oil ]

?oroi^{ i rs 4 =
,1. 4
./ bd,r'l;{ aq A15d\ 2 50
C._'9 : L!= 5
-Ifr€, .f' Re.to\nJ6r! 4'"5 mm ie''oo g fie-'1s
.SDl,

'\) i6 ordvel 3ince


i1- *re -hne,, d \ear thon 5 /
',t cdn be gi{h'e^ dqd$ OP
Since q. is Yonse S | - 3 omd u z ,4 it ,

'" N1,3'$1!l'e gg_l


&) 6A Te,t uro &nductLd ; .Q.!o*4 ,tr,. 1/,b"
-\ 9* 3d"-}.l -a!a-\R .$ar Joil.
+ pq.nirl gi^r^ = loo./.
1. Pori..\ t{e5 .,! - 85 f-

.i
P*.ia +: ..,- , 3j.7
Lt '- zp 1

PL. re 1.
'1. Po,."\nj q5 !-: 3ts./
-Jr,lu
Co dase. qioi^ilJ !, "o''-
PI-- t-., ?L . >o -!!- -- I 'l
tl
Pr o"r: lo"->") s""* g
--

. o rrfro- ro) lq "t " "1,

I
?1. o
uh,g$*l.,* * I
z^ '"n'ari^"^
^": I
', H:*- ;,, .l*,;L,t':."i i":l
15 . J^,a, 4= rs 1. Pr--
cL= 3
SYt cL= 2; 3t ia r^o^X. d, (r-3) |
|
,
'l"-L:;';ni)'
.t (O,-,"g
S\^c, I. po;,"U 15 -4 B
=
I
I
p\"^+.
"i+J {nd-:. is !a,n +hon .4 -fhem
+\e Point
sw-6r.4
-r c$a-' flcatun q
.{.,;* o €"1\s : '
""-i.^"J
-$n" g1-l^,A so\\s oo.^ b" c\o"ni*.J
- o-d3 noi"
o\y Cc) / {n{. i. si\ts Lt.a) O &3".nic t,-\" (t'
$u^+l".e,.
o,. Pe^ Isc s {he chort hoa b€en di'/id1
in{o 3 Sors
c( sto' s $ Snovgonic- c\3 ,oi-$r -b.,-r plc"{ii.j
Grl ,, x$Jl- "

cH th P\o-!+;c\
o",J ob" L.^.o.o,.
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