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FLOW MEASUREMENT

66
For a liquid pi P2, and if frictionless flow is as- gc = proportionality factor, 32.174 lbm ft per lb/
sinned, Mx
=
u2. Therefore, for incompressible fric- sec2
tionless flow. p = density of fluid flowing, lbm per ft3
Ap = pressure differential, lb per ft2
M{ = A2MV2gcp Ap (5-7)
For compressible flow the equation becomes much
where M = velocity of approach factor = \/l/(l —
/J4)
more
complicated. Substituting h for u + p/p in
Ap = differential pressure, pi — p2
equation 5-6 gives
This equation is for frictionless adiabatic flow of
an incompressible fluid. It should be noted that A2
Mi = p2A2
"
2gc
Vh1 - h2 (5-9)
is the flow-stream area at the section where p2 is meas 1 £4(P2/Pl):
ured and that the velocity profiles at sections 1 and 2
Assuming an ideal gas with constant specific heat and
are assumed to be rectilinear lor all planes. In an
isentropic expansion it can be shown that
actual installation, the velocity profiles are not rec
tilinear, there is friction; and in some meters, par
/¥, = A2V2grPl Ap
ticularly the orifice, D2 and p2 are not measured at
the same section. The area A2 is usually determined k (t-D/t-i-i i2
from measurements obtained at room temperature
and in use this area is influenced by the temperature
1 1 - pz/p1 W L v,/
X
of the fluid flowing through the meter.
The actual flow rate then becomes "'©"
(5-10)
Ma = A2MCEy/lgcp Ap = A2KEV2gcP Ap (5-8)
= A2MV2gcPl Ap
where ffla = actual mass flow rate, lbm per sec
ti
A2 = cross-sectional area of meter element, ft2
C = discharge coefficient = ffla/ffl;, dimen- (M2/*-/M(t+i)/*
1-04
sionless
- i

-'©"
k
K MC,

= flow coefficient = dimensionless
E = thermal expansion correction factor, di
mensionless, Fig. 5-5
(5-11)

1.020

1.015 , >ftcV
.^
ttfjj^
&z
o
& 9-" ^ xa\--

.S 1.010

c
c
o
LO \ *&£.
u *tf*s

"TcT
a^^-

^>*
»e\

CL ■^
1n 1.005
E
<D
-C
I-
1.000

0.995
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Temperature, F

FIG. 5-5. Thermal expansion factor of the primary element of head meters. (Abstracted from ASME Power Test Codes, Instruments and Apparatus,
Part 5, Chapter 4, "Flow Measurement by Means of Standardized Nozzles and Orifice Plates.")