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(I) Differentiate between mini computers and mainframe computers.

Give suitable examples.

Ans. Main frame computers are large scale general purpose
computers systems.The word main frame has its origin in early
computers which were big in size and required large frame work in
house. Main frame computers have large storage capacities in several
million words. Secondary storage devicesare directly accessible by
these computers. These computers systems have more than one CPU
and can support a large number of terminals.These computers are
fast in operations and accept all types of high level languages. Mini
computers are general purpose computer system with reduced
storage capacity and performance as compare to main frame
computers. These computers operate a CPU speed of few million
instructions per second. These computers accept all types of high
level languages and word length in these computers is 16 or 32 bits.
These computers can support more than 20 terminals.

(II) How RAM is different from ROM?

Ans. ROM chips can also be found in computers, to store the
programming needed to begin the initial boot up process when
turning on a computer. Using non-volatile storage is the only way to
begin the start up process for computers and other devices that use
similar a start up process. The most common type of programmable
ROM ( PROM ) chip in a computer is the BIOS .
RAM chips are also used in computers, as well as other devices, to
store information of the programs currently running on the
computer. However, only volatile information can be stored on RAM
chips, due to that fact that if power is lost to the computer all
information stored in the RAM is lost. Below is a picture of what a
typical RAM module looks like in a computer.\

(III) What are the characteristics of good programming language?

. Characteristics of a Good Programming Language 

Simplicity:- A good programming language must be simple and easy
to learn and use. For example, BASIC is liked by many programmers
only because of its simplicity.
 Naturalness:- A good language should be natural for the
application area it has been designed.
 Abstraction:- Abstraction means the ability to define and then use
complicated structures or operations in ways that allow many of the
details to be ignored.
 Efficiency:- The program written in good programming language are
efficiently translated into machine code, are efficiently executed, and
acquires as little space in the memory as possible.
 Structuredness:- Structuredness means that the language should
have necessary features to allow its users to write their programs
based on the concepts of structured programming.

(iv) What do you understand by Protocols? Give examples.

Ans. Sometimes referred to as an access method, a protocol is a

standard used to define a method of exchanging data over a
computer network such as local area network , Internet , Intranet ,
etc. Each protocol has its own method of how data is formatted when
sent and what to do with it once received, how that data is
compressed or how to check for errors in data. One of the most
common and known protocols is HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol),
which is a protocol used to transmit data over the world wide web
(Internet). Below is a list of the various protocols currently listed in
the Computer Hope dictionary.

(v) What are Digital Signatures?

Ans. A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating

the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital
signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was
created by a known sender, such that the sender cannot deny having
sent the message ( authentication and non- repudiation ) and that
the message was not altered in transit ( integrity ). Digital signatures
are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions,
and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or

What are Topologies? Discuss five types of topologies with suitable

In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected
devices. This article introduces the standard topologies of
networking. Topology in Network Design Think of a topology as a
network's virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily
correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the
network. For example, the computers on a home LAN may be
arranged in a circle in a family room, but it would be highly unlikely to
find a ring topology there
 Bus
 Ring
 Star
 Tree
 Mesh
More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of
the above basic topologies.

BUS Topology
Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network
device is connected to single cable. When it has exactly two
endpoints, then it is called Linear Bus topology .
Figure of bus topology

Features of Bus Topology

1. It transmits data only in one direction.
2. Every device is connected to a single cable

Advantages of Bus Topology

1. It is cost effective.
2. Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
3. Used in small networks.
4. It is easy to understand.
5. Easy to expand joining two cables together.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology

1. Cables fails then whole network fails.
2. If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of
the network decreases.
3. Cable has a limited length.
4. It is slower than the ring topology.

RING Topology

It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected

to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two
neighbours for each device.
Features of Ring Topology

1. A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology with large number of
nodes, because if someone wants to send some data to the last node in the
ring topology with 100 nodes, then the data will have to pass through 99
nodes to reach the 100th node. Hence to prevent data loss repeaters are
used in the network.
2. The transmission is unidirectional, but it can be made bidirectional by
having 2 connections between each Network Node, it is called Dual Ring
3. In Dual Ring Topology, two ring networks are formed, and data flow is in
opposite direction in them. Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act
as a backup, to keep the network up.
4. Data is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit. Data
transmitted, has to pass through each node of the network, till the
destination node.

Advantages of Ring Topology

1. Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more

nodes, as only the nodes having tokens can transmit data.
2. Cheap to install and expand

Disadvantages of Ring Topology

1. Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.
2. Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity.
3. Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.

STAR Topology

In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through
a cable. This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the
central node.

Features of Star Topology

1. Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.

2. Hub acts as a repeater for data flow.
3. Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable.

Advantages of Star Topology

1. Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.

2. Hub can be upgraded easily.
3. Easy to troubleshoot.
4. Easy to setup and modify.
5. Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work

Disadvantages of Star Topology

1. Cost of installation is high.
2. Expensive to use.
3. If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes
depend on the hub.
4. Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

MESH Topology

It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All the network

nodes are connected to each other. Mesh has n(n-1)/2 physical channels to
link n devices.

There are two techniques to transmit data over the Mesh topology, they are :

1. Routing
2. Flooding

MESH Topology: Routing

In routing, the nodes have a routing logic, as per the network requirements. Like
routing logic to direct the data to reach the destination using the shortest
distance. Or, routing logic which has information about the broken links, and it
avoids those node etc. We can even have routing logic, to re-configure the
failed nodes.

MESH Topology: Flooding

In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all the network nodes, hence no
routing logic is required. The network is robust, and the its very unlikely to lose
the data. But it leads to unwanted load over the network.
Types of Mesh Topology

1. Partial Mesh Topology : In this topology some of the systems are

connected in the same fashion as mesh topology but some devices are
only connected to two or three devices.
2. Full Mesh Topology : Each and every nodes or devices are connected to
each other.

Features of Mesh Topology

1. Fully connected.
2. Robust.
3. Not flexible.

Advantages of Mesh Topology

1. Each connection can carry its own data load.

2. It is robust.
3. Fault is diagnosed easily.
4. Provides security and privacy.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

1. Installation and configuration is difficult.

2. Cabling cost is more.
3. Bulk wiring is required.
TREE Topology

It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It
is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the

Features of Tree Topology

1. Ideal if workstations are located in groups.

2. Used in Wide Area Network.

Advantages of Tree Topology

1. Extension of bus and star topologies.

2. Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
3. Easily managed and maintained.
4. Error detection is easily done.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology

1. Heavily cabled.
2. Costly.
3. If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.
4. Central hub fails, network fails.
HYBRID Topology

It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more

topologies. For example if in an office in one department ring topology is used
and in another star topology is used, connecting these topologies will result in
Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).
Features of Hybrid Topology

1. It is a combination of two or topologies

2. Inherits the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies included

Advantages of Hybrid Topology

1. Reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy.

2. Effective.
3. Scalable as size can be increased easily.
4. Flexible.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology

1. Complex in design.
2. Costly.

What is the use of encryption? discuss public and private key encryption

n computing, encryption is the method by which plaintext or any other type of

data is converted from a readable form to an encoded version that can only be
decoded by another entity if they have access to a decryption key. Encryption
is one of the most important methods for providing data security, especially
for end-to-end protection of data transmitted across networks.

Encryption is widely used on the internet to protect user information being

sent between a browser and a server, including passwords, payment
information and other personal information that should be considered private.
Organizations and individuals also commonly use encryption to protect
sensitive data stored on computers, servers and mobile devices like phones or

How encryption works

Unencrypted data, often referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an

encryption algorithm and an encryption key. This process generates ciphertext
that can only be viewed in its original form if decrypted with the correct key.
Decryption is simply the inverse of encryption, following the same steps but
reversing the order in which the keys are applied.
Today's most widely used encryption algorithms into two categories:

symmetric and


symmetric encryption is a form of computerized cryptography using a singular

encryption key to guise an electronic message. Its data conversion uses a
mathematical algorithm along with a secret key, which results in the inability to
make sense out of a message. Symmetric encrpytion is a two-way algorithm
because the mathematical algorithm is reversed when decrypting the message
along with using the same secret key.

Symmetric encryption is also known as private-key encryption and secure-key


Asymmetric Encryption uses two distinct, yet related keys. One key, the
Public Key, is used for encryption and the other, the Private Key, is for
decryption. As implied in the name, the Private Key is intended to be private so
that only the authenticated recipient can decrypt the message.

Private key encryption is the form of encryption where only a single private
key can encrypt and decrypt information. It is a fast process since it uses a
single key. However, protecting one key creates a key management issue
when everyone is using private keys. The private key may be stolen or leaked.
Key management requires prevention of these risks and necessitates changing
the encryption key often, and appropriately distributing the key.

Many private key encryption methods use public key encryption to transmit
the private key for each data transfer session.

If Bob and Alice want to use private key encryption to share a secret message,
they would each use a copy of the same key. Bob writes his message to Alice
and uses their shared private key to encrypt the message. The message is then
sent to Alice. Alice uses her copy of the private key to decrypt the message.
Private key encryption is like making copies of a key. Anyone with a copy can
open the lock. In the case of Bob and Alice, their keys would be guarded closely
because they can both encrypt and decrypt messages.

Public Key encryption

Public key encryption uses two keys - one to encrypt, and one to decrypt. The
sender asks the receiver for the encryption key, encrypts the message, and
sends the encrypted message to the receiver. Only the receiver can then
decrypt the message - even the sender cannot read the encrypted message.

When Bob wants to share a secret with Alice using public key encryption, he
first asks Alice for her public key. Next, Bob uses Alice's public key to encrypt
the message. In public key encryption, only Alice's private key can unlock the
message encrypted with her public key. Bob sends his message to Alice. Alice
uses her private key to decrypt Bob's message.

The things that make public key encryption work is that Alice very closely
guards her private key and freely distributes her public key. She knows that it
will unlock any message encrypted with her public key.

Internet is widely used in business and reseach’.Justify the statement with

suitable examples

Benefits of Internet in Business

 Improved Communications and Networking

The global nature of the web makes the world a lot smaller, making it more
efficient for companies to do business on the international realm. Through the
Internet, companies can stay in touch with their partners, investors, clients, and
customers, regardless of their locations. Email, web conferences, and VoIP
make the transmission of important data more seamless. For instance,
companies can quickly communicate with suppliers via chat or email to make
sure deliveries and payments are covered. The Internet can save the company a
lot of time and money as it reduces the need for additional paperwork.

 Customer Contact

A company website keeps customers abreast of new products and services,

24/7. Profit also increases as their virtual store can cater to customers anytime,

 Wider business networks

Companies can also maintain ties with other organizations and sister companies
through the Internet. In real-time, they can all stay updated with new
information about the business and other important matters.

 Access to Data

The Internet is very rich in information. Anything you need, you can find on the
web. For companies doing research in products, markets, industries, new ideas,
and other topics, the Internet is an effective tool to use. Individuals can even
join forums where they can interact with people from the same industry and
exchange ideas.

 Market Research and Internet Advertising

Businesses can conduct market research through the Internet. They can use
online surveys to study their market. They can directly ask consumers what they
think about a particular product or service. It is a very cheap and effective way
of doing market research.

The Internet offers a new medium for advertising. Mailings, newspapers ads,
and fliers are slowly becoming obsolete as the Internet has become a more cost-
effective way to reach consumers. E-newsletters can now be sent directly to the
in-boxes of customers with just a few clicks of a mouse button.

Since the Internet spans the entire globe, a business’ market increases as anyone
from anywhere in the world becomes a potential customer. This increases
market reach, thereby boosting product recognition.

As you can see, the benefits of internet in business are many… so it is time to
get your business online today.