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Measurement and Control

Pareto optimal design of square 35(3) 289–300

Ó The Author(s) 2012

sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav

DOI: 10.1177/0142331212444154

multi-objective optimization algorithm tim.sagepub.com

Abstract

In the present study, multi-objective optimization (MO) of square cyclones is performed in three steps. In the first step, the collection efficiency (h) and

the pressure drop (Dp) in a set of square cyclone separators are numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques. In the second

step, two meta-models based on the evolved group method of data handling-type neural networks are obtained, for modelling of h and Dp with respect

to geometrical design variables. Finally, a novel MO based on a combination of the particle swarm optimization, multiple-crossover and mutation opera-

tor is introduced. The proposed MO is applied to Pareto optimal design of square cyclones considering two conflicting objectives (h and Dp), based on

the obtained polynomial neural networks. Furthermore, the proposed Pareto result is compared with that of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic

Algorithm II.

Keywords

Multi-objective optimization, multiple-crossover and mutation operator, particle swarm optimization, square cyclone.

did not use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in their

A cyclone separator is a device for removing particulates from optimization procedure and used an analytical function for

an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through pressure drop and collection efficiency. The effects of differ-

vortex separation. Rotational effects and gravity are used to ent parameters, including length, diameter of vortex finder

separate mixtures of solids and fluids. The method can also be and inlet velocity on the performance of square cyclones were

used to separate fine droplets of liquid from a gaseous stream. studied by Qiang et al. (2003). Su and Mao (2006) used a

Cyclones are widely used in filtration and separation indus- three-dimensional particle dynamic analyser (3D-PDA) to

tries as a result of their low set-up and maintenance costs. A understand the nature and characteristics of the suspension

conventional cyclone, which has a circular cross-section is the flow in the square cyclone separator and found the factors

commonly used cyclone for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) affecting particle motion. The turbulent flow field inside a

boiler. With the development of large CFB boilers, the huge square cyclone was experimentally investigated by Su (2006)

body of the conventional cyclone became a major shortcom- to study the mechanism of particle separation and provide

ing because of the thick refractory wall, needing a long time guidance for the optimization of its structure. Junfu et al.

to start the boiler. An alternative way of overcoming these (2007) evaluated the performance of an advanced water-

problems is the use of a square cyclone. A square cyclone has cooled square cyclone with curved inlet. The results were

more advantages over the conventional cyclone, including compared with other cyclones through fly ash analysis and

convenient construction, easier membrane wall arrangement showed that the overall performance of the square cyclone in

and shorter start–stop time, and at the same time, easy inte-

gration with the boiler (Raoufi et al., 2009; Wang et al., 1999).

Several attempts have been made in the last decade to

improve square cyclone performance. Wang et al. (1999) 1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,

studied the separation mechanism of a square cyclone at a University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2

high inlet particle concentration. They proposed an instanta- Department of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad

neous separation model based on experimental observation University, Takestan, Iran

3

and measurement. Junfu et al. (1999) investigated the square Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali

Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

cyclone in a 75 t/h CFB boiler and presented a model to

study the cyclones. Ravi et al. (2000) investigated a multi- Corresponding author:

objective optimization (MO) process on cyclone separators MJ Mahmoodabadi, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of

using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II Engineering, University of Guilan, PO Box 3756, Rasht, Iran.

(NSGA II). They tried to minimize the pressure drop and Email: Mahmoodabadi@guilan.ac.ir.

290 Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 35(3)

=0 ð1Þ

Raoufi et al. (2009) obtained detailed flow information by ∂xi

CFD simulation within those cyclones tested by Wang et al.

∂ui ∂ui

1 ∂P ∂2 ui ∂

(1999) and Su and Mao (2006). + uj = +v Rij ð2Þ

Optimization of square cyclones is, indeed, a multi- ∂t ∂xj r ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj

objective optimization problem rather than the single-

where Rij = ut 9 uj is the Reynolds stress tensor. Here,

objective optimization problem that has been considered so

ui 9 = ui ut is the ith fluctuating velocity component.

far in the literature. Both the pressure drop and the collection

The RSTM provides differential transport equations for

efficiency in square cyclones are important objective functions

evaluation of the turbulence stress components where the tur-

to be optimized simultaneously in such a real-world, complex,

bulence production terms are defined as:

multi-objective optimization problem. These objective func-

tions either are obtained from experiments or computed using

∂ ∂ ∂ vt ∂ ∂uj ∂ui

very timely and high-cost CFD approaches, which cannot be Rij + uk Rij = R ij Rik + Rjk

∂t ∂xk ∂xk sk ∂xk ∂xk ∂xk

used in an iterative optimization task unless a simple but

effective meta-model is constructed over the response surface ð3Þ

from the numerical or experimental data. Therefore, model-

∂uj ∂ui 1

ling and optimization of the parameters are investigated in Pij = Rik + Rjk , P = Pij ð4Þ

∂xk ∂xk 2

the present study, by using group method of data handling

(GMDH)-type neural networks and a novel multi-objective with P being the fluctuating kinetic energy production.

algorithm in order to maximize the collection efficiency and sk = 1, C1 = 1:8, C2 = 0:6 are empirical constants ( Launder

minimize the pressure drop. et al., 1975).

Particle swarm optimization (PSO), introduced by The transport equation for the turbulence dissipation

Kennedy and Eberhart (1995), is one of the modern heuristic rate,e, is given as:

algorithms. It was developed through simulation of a simpli-

fied social system, and is robust in solving continuous non- ∂e ∂e ∂ vt ∂e e ∂ui e2

linear optimization problems (Angeline, 1998; Kennedy and + uj = v+ e C s1 Rij C s2 ð5Þ

∂t ∂xj ∂xj s ∂xj K ∂xj K

Eberhart, 1995). The PSO technique can generate a high-

quality solution within a short calculation time and stable In Equation (5), K = 12 u9t u9t is the fluctuating kinetic energy

convergence characteristics better than other stochastic meth- and e is the turbulence dissipation rate. The values of con-

ods (Eberhart and Shi, 1998; Yoshida et al., 2000). stants are se = 1:3, C s1 = 1:44 and C s2 = 1:92.

Furthermore, in the recent years, several approaches, such as The dispersion of small particles is strongly affected by the

dynamic neighbourhood PSO (Hu and Eberhart, 2002), dom- instantaneous fluctuation of fluid velocity. The turbulence

inated tree (Fieldsend and Singh, 2002), the sigma method fluctuations are random functions of space and time. In this

(Mostaghim and Teich, 2003) and vector evaluated PSO study, a discrete random walk (DRW) model is used for eval-

(Parsopoulos et al., 2004), etc. have been proposed to extend uating the instantaneous velocity fluctuations. The values of

the PSO algorithm to deal with multi-objective optimization u9, v9and w9that prevail during the lifetime of the turbulent

problems. eddy, Te are sampled by assuming that they obey a Gaussian

In this paper, the pressure drop (Dp) and the collection probability distribution. In this model, the instantaneous velo-

efficiency (h) in a set of square cyclones are numerically city in the ith direction is given as:

investigated using CFD techniques and compared with those qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

of experimental results of Wang et al. (1999) and the vali- u9i = j u9t u9t ð6Þ

dated CFD simulation of Raoufi et al. (2009). Next, GMDH-

type neural networks are used to produce the polynomial In Equation (6), j is a zero-mean, unit-variance, normally dis-

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

models for the effects of geometrical parameters of the square tributed random number, u9t u9t is the local root mean-

cyclones on both Dp and h. Such an approach of meta- square (RMS) fluctuation velocity in the ith direction , and

modelling of those CFD results allows for iterative optimiza- the summation convention on i is suspended.

tion techniques to design the square cyclones optimally. The characteristic lifetime of the eddy is defined as a con-

Then, the obtained simple polynomial models are used in a stant given by

Pareto-based multi-objective PSO approach to find the best

possible combinations of Dp and h, known as the Pareto Te = 2Tl ð7Þ

front.

where Tl is the eddy turnover time given as, Te = 0:3K=e in

the RSTM. The other option allows for a long–normal ran-

CFD simulation and validation of the dom variation of eddy lifetime, given by

results Te = Tl log r ð8Þ

CFD simulation where r is a uniform random number between 0 and 1. The

For an incompressible fluid flow, the equation of continuity particle is assumed to interact with the fluid fluctuation field,

and balance of momentum are given as: which stays fixed over the eddy lifetime. When the eddy

Mahmoodabadi et al. 291

Table 1 Comparison of collection efficiency and pressure drop for Table 2 Dimensions and operating conditions in the computational

three different grid numbers. fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.

212,398 91.42 2.02 Temperature (k) 300

280,716 88.12 1.93 Particle feed rate (g/min) 3

Max. diff. (%) 3.601 4.452 Inlet width (Y/a) 0.25

Inlet height (X/a) 0.50

Gas outlet length (S/a) 0.53

is obtained by introducing a new value of j in Equation (6). efficiency (D P 50% ) needs to be determined, according to the

There are two main approaches for modelling multi- following equation:

phase flows that account for the interactions between the sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

phases. These are the Eulerian–Eulerian and the Eulerian– 9mY

D P 50% = ð9Þ

Lagrangian approaches. The former is based on the concept 2pNe Vin rp

of interpenetrating continua, for which all the phases are

treated as continuous media with properties analogous to The collection efficiency for any other particle size (DPj ) can

those of a fluid. The Eulerian–Lagrangian approach adopts then be determined by

a continuum description for the liquid phase and tracks the

discrete phase using Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis. 1

h= ð10Þ

Dp50% 2

In the present study, the volume-averaged and steady state 1+( DPj )

Navier–Stokes equation is solved for the gas phase. The

particle motions are simulated by the Lagrangian trajectory Many empirical models have been proposed for the pressure

analysis procedure. Forces acting on the dispersed phase drop in the conventional cyclones (Casal and Martinez, 1983;

include drag and gravity. The discrete phase equations are Coker, 1993; Shepherd and Lapple, 1939; Wang, 2004). In

solved using Runge–Kutta method for particles. In this Wang’s model, the total pressure loss in the cyclone is

paper, the collisions between particles and the walls of the obtained by summing up the five pressure drop components

cyclone were assumed to be perfectly elastic, and particle– as follows:

particle collision is negligible (Gimbun et al., 2005;

Safikhani et al., 2010, 2011). DPtotal = DPe + DPk + DPf + DPr + DPo ð11Þ

To test for grid independence, three grid types with

increasing grid density are studied. The computational results where the components of Equation (11) are explained in

of three grid types are compared in Table 1. As seen, the max- Table 3.

imum difference between the results is less than 5% so the

grid template 182, 282 is used for all computations in the Definition of the design variables

present study.

The simulations are performed using commercial software The design variables in present paper are: the dimensionless

FLUENT. Inlet mass flow boundary condition is used at the vortex finder diameter (De/a), the dimensionless upside and

cyclone inlet and a fully developed boundary condition is used downside body of square cyclone (LUp/a) and (LDown/a). The

at the outlet (Safikhani et al., 2010, 2011). The computation is design variables and their range of variations are shown in

continued until the solution converged with a total residual of Figure 1 and Table 4. It should be mentioned that each of the

less than 0.00001. design variables are divided to a specific number and the

cyclone is designed with each of these design variables. By

changing the geometrical independent parameters according

Definition of the objective functions

Both the collection efficiency and pressure drop in cyclones Table 3 The components of Wang’s pressure drop theory.

are important objective functions to be optimized simultane-

ously. The collection efficiency statistics are obtained by Component Definition

releasing a specified number of particles at the inlet of the

cyclones and by monitoring the number escaping through the DPe = C2VPin Entry loss, C2’1

underflow. The range of particles size is 0.205 mm of a mate- DPk = VPin2VPout Kinetic energy loss

rial whose density is equal to 2250 kg/m3; some other operat- DPf = CVPin Frictional loss, C1D3D = 0.14, C2D2D = 0.28,

ing conditions are shown in Table 2. C1D2D = 0.15

DPr = rV2in(R/r021) Rotational loss, r0 = radius of the vortex

The first theory for collection efficiency in conventional

interface, R = cyclone body radius

cyclones was developed by Shepherd and Lapple (1939). It is

DP0 = C3VPout Pressure loss in the inner vortex and exit tube,

based on the assumption of a plug flow. In order to calculate C3’1.8

the efficiency, first the particle size with 50% collection

292 Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 35(3)

ble deviation from Raoufi et al. (2009) numerical data. A

comparison of experimental and CFD prediction for collec-

tion efficiency is shown in Figure 3. It is obvious that numeri-

cal simulation can properly adapt with a pattern of

experimental efficiency curves. Samples of numerical results,

using CFD are shown in Table 5. Moreover, the static pres-

sure contour in one of CFD simulations is shown in Figure 4.

The results obtained in such CFD analysis can now be

used to build the response surface of both the collection effi-

ciency and the pressure drop for those 80 different geometries

using GMDH-type polynomial neural networks. Such meta-

models will, in turn, be used for the Pareto-based multi-

objective optimization of the square cyclones. A post-analysis

using CFD is also performed to verify the optimum results

using the meta-modelling approach. Finally, the solutions

obtained using the approach in this paper exhibit some impor-

tant trade-offs among those objective functions, which can be

simply used by a designer to compromise optimally among

the obtained solutions.

neural networks

By means of a GMDH algorithm, a model can be represented

as a set of neurons in which different pairs in each layer are

connected through a quadratic polynomial, thus producing

new neurons in the next layer. Such a representation can be

used in modelling to map inputs to outputs. The formal defi-

nition of the identification problem is to find a function ^f so

that it can be approximately used instead of the actual func-

tion, f in order to predict output ^y for a given input vector

X = (x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , xn ) as close as possible to its actual output

y. Therefore, given M observation of multi-input–single-out-

put data pairs so that

Figure 1 Definition of design variables.

yi = f (xi1 , xi2 , xi3 , . . . , xin ), i = 1, 2, . . . , M ð12Þ

Table 4 Design variables and their range of variations. it is now possible to train a GMDH-type neural network to

predict the output values ^yi for any given input vector

Design variable From To X = (xi1 , xi2 , xi3 , . . . , xin ), i.e.

De/a 0.2 0.6

^yi = ^f (xi1 , xi2 , xi3 , . . . , xin ), i = 1, 2, . . . , M ð13Þ

LUp/a 0.9 1.6

LDown/a 0.9 1.6

The problem is now to determine a GMDH-type neural net-

work so that the square of difference between the actual out-

to the Table 4, various designs will be generated and evaluated put and the predicted one is minimized, i.e.

by CFD. Consequently, some meta-models can be optimally

constructed using the GMDH-type neural networks, which X

M

½ ^f (xi1 , xi2 , xi3 , . . . , xin ) yi 2 ! min ð14Þ

will be further used for multi-objective Pareto-based design of i=1

such cyclones. In this way, 80 various CFD analyses have

been performed because of those different design geometries. The general connection between input and output variables

can be expressed by a complicated discrete form of the

Volterra functional series in the form of

Validation of the CFD results

To attain confidence about the simulation, it is necessary to X

n X

n X

n X

n X

n X

n

compare the simulation result with the available data. A com- y = a0 + ai xi + aij xi xj + aijk xi xj xk + . . .

i=1 i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1 k =1

parison of CFD prediction for dynamic and static pressure

drop is shown in Figure 2. As seen, our numerical data ð15Þ

Mahmoodabadi et al. 293

Figure 2 Comparison of numerical result for dynamic and static pressure drop.

(Farlow, 1984). This full form of mathematical description

can be represented by a system of partial quadratic polyno-

mials consisting of only two variables (neurons) in the form

^y = G(xi , xj ) = a0 + a1 xi + a2 xj + a3 xi xj + a4 xi 2 + a5 xj 2

ð16Þ

neural networks design, namely the parametric and the struc-

tural identification problems. In this way, some works by

Nariman-Zadeh et al. (2003) present a hybrid genetic algo-

rithm and singular value decomposition (SVD) method to

design such polynomial neural networks optimally. The meth-

odology in these references has been successfully used in this

paper to obtain polynomial models of Dp and h. The obtained

GMDH-type polynomial models have shown very good pre-

Figure 3 Comparison of numerical and experimental result for collection diction ability of unforeseen data pairs during the training

efficiency. Reproduced with kind permission from Elsevier (Wang et al., 1999). process, which will be presented in the following sections.

2 0.4 1.6 0.9 2.751 99.363

3 0.6 1.3 1.3 0.868 45.740

4 0.2 1.3 1.6 1.270 52.417

5 0.5 1.1 1.3 1.431 76.511

6 0.5 1.6 1.6 1.175 76.389

7 0.3 0.9 1.3 2.521 96.222

8 0.5 1.3 1.1 1.810 82.440

9 0.6 1.6 1.3 2.331 85.555

10 0.2 1.3 1.1 1.184 56.409

.

79 0.5 1.1 1.1 0.890 50.023

80 0.6 0.9 1.3 2.217 49.125

294 Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 35(3)

data pairs for Dp and h, is used for training the neural net-

work models using the method presented above. The testing

set, which consists of 20 unforeseen input–output data sam-

ples for Dp and h during the training process, is merely used

for testing to show the prediction ability of such evolved

GMDH-type neural network models. The GMDH-type

neural networks are now used for such input–output data to

find the polynomial models of Dp and h with respect to their

effective input parameters. In order to design genetically such

GMDH-type neural networks described in the previous sec-

tion, a population of 10 individuals with a crossover prob-

ability (Pc) of 0.7 and mutation probability (Pm) 0.07 has

been used in 500 generations for Dp and h. The correspond-

ing polynomial representation for dimensionless pressure

drop is as follows:

Y1 = 6940 3708( )4766( ) + 418( )

a a a

LDown 2 Lup LDown

+ 874( ) + 1466( )( ) ð17aÞ

a a a

De LDown De

Y2 = 727612096( )4597( ) + 6663( )2

a a a

LDown 2 De LDown

+ 874( ) + 3210( )( ) ð17bÞ

a a a

De De

Y3 = 550 + 584( ) + 2:94(Y23 ) + 82212( )2

a a

2 De

8:6180e 005(Y23 ) 3:88( )(Y23 ) ð17cÞ

a

Lup

Y4 = 151:66 + 1:9123 Y2 + 71:70( ) + 0:00016 Y2 2

a

Lup 2 Lup

26:021 ( ) 1:2012 Y2 ( ) ð17dÞ

a a

Dp

= 0:03992 + 1:55e 3 Y3 + 9:87e 4 Y4 + 7:4e

0:5r v2

7Y3 2 + 2:07e 6Y4 2 2:96e 6Y3 Y4 ð17eÞ

Figure 4 Static pressure contour, Vin=26 m/s, De/a=0.5, LUp/

a=1.093, LDown/a=1.093. model for collection efficiency is in the form of

De Lup De

GMDH-type neural networks (polynomial modelling) are Y 91 = 2:44 + 0:26( ) + 7:01( ) 0:860( )2

more accurate and simpler than traditional types (Nariman- a a a

Zadeh et al., 2003). Lup 2 De Lup

3:661( ) + 0:262123( )( ) ð18aÞ

The input–output data pairs used in such modelling a a a

involve two different data tables obtained from CFD simula-

tion discussed in previously. Both of the tables consists of Lup LDown Lup 2

Y 92 = 2:43 + 6:86( ) + 0:29( ) 3:66( )

three variables as inputs, namely (De/a), (LUp/a) and (LDown/ a a a

a) and outputs, which are Dp and h. The tables consist of a LDown 2 Lup LDown

0:33( ) + 0:22( )( ) ð18bÞ

total of 80 patterns, which have been obtained from the a a a

numerical solutions to train and test such GMDH-type

neural networks. However, in order to demonstrate the pre- LDown

Y 93 = 0:330 + 1:071 Y 91 + 0:731( ) + 0:131 Y 91 2

diction ability of the evolved GMDH-type neural networks, a

the data in both input–output data tables have been divided LDown 2 LDown

into two different sets, namely training and testing sets. The 0:331( ) 0:241 Y 91 ( ) ð18cÞ

a a

training set, which consists of 60 out of the 80 input–output

Mahmoodabadi et al. 295

Lup

Y 94 = 8:302 8:292Y 92 8:431( ) + 2:582Y 92 2

a

Lup 2 Lup

+ 2:131( ) + 4:721Y 92 ( ) ð18dÞ

a a

h = 4:823 + 75:911 Y 93 + 11:310 Y 94 601:31 Y 93 2

582:119 Y 94 2 + 1194:2109 Y 93 Y 94 ð18eÞ

model for dimensionless pressure drop is also depicted in

Figure 5, for both the training and testing data. Such beha-

viour has also been shown for the training and testing data of

collection efficiency in Figure 6. It is evident that the evolved

GMDH-type neural network in terms of simple polynomial

equations successfully model and predict the outputs of the

testing data that have not been used during the training pro-

cess. It should be noted that these polynomials are valid just

for design variables in the range of present case study (Table Figure 5 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) versus network for

4). The models obtained in this section can now be utilized in dimensionless pressure drop.

a Pareto multi-objective optimization of the square cyclone

considering both Dp and h as conflicting objectives. Such a

study may unveil some interesting and important optimal

design principles that would not have been obtained without

the use of a multi-objective optimization approach.

and mutation operator

In this section, a novel PSO is proposed, which is improved

by utilizing a multiple-crossover and mutation operator to

update the particle positions. In the following, basic concepts

of the PSO, multiple-crossover and mutation operator are

introduced, and in the next section, a hybrid of these opera-

tors is described.

Kennedy and Eberhart (1995) originally proposed the PSO

Figure 6 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) versus network for

algorithm for optimization. PSO is a population-based search collection efficiency.

algorithm based on the simulation of the social behaviour of

birds within a flock.

! !

Let xi (t) denote the position of particle pi, at time step t. velocities on the current velocity of a given particle. x pbest is

! !

The position of pi is then changed by adding a velocity vi (t) the personal best position of the particle i, so far. x pbest is

to the current position, i.e. position of the best particle of the entire swarm (Chau, 2007).

! ! !

xi (t + 1) = xi (t) + vi (t + 1) ð19Þ

Basic concepts of multiple-crossover and mutation

The velocity vector reflects the socially exchanged information

and, in general, is defined in the following way: operator

! ! ! ! ! ! Multiple-crossover. Unlike the traditional crossover using only

vi (t + 1) = W vi (t) + C1 r1 ( x pbesti xi (t)) + C2 r2 ( x gbest xi (t)) two chromosomes, a crossover formula that contains three

ð20Þ parent chromosomes is used in this study. We assume that

!

chromosome xi (t) selected from the population randomly.

where r1 , r2 2 ½0, 1 are random values, C1 is the cognitive Also, let r 2 ½0, 1 be a random number. If r ˜ pCrossover , then

learning factor and represents the attraction that a particle the following multiple-crossover is performed to generate the

has toward its own success. C2 is the social learning factor new chromosome

and represents the attraction that a particle has toward the

success of its neighbours. W is the inertia weight, which is ! ! ! ! !

employed to control the impact of the previous history of xi (t) = xi (t) + s(2 xi (t) xi1 (t) xi2 (t)) ð21Þ

296 Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 35(3)

over operation is performed.

!

ble mutation on some chosen chromosome xi (t). Also, let

q 2 ½0, 1 be a random number. If q ˜ pMutation , then the fol-

lowing mutation operator is performed to generate the new

chromosome

! !

xi (t) = xi (t) + j3k ð22Þ

If q ˜ pMutation , no crossover operation is performed.

The flowchart of the combination of PSO, multiple-crossover

and mutation operator is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 Flowchart of combination of particle swarm optimization

Optimization problems that have more than one objective (PSO), multiple crossover and mutation operator.

function are rather common in every field or area of knowl-

edge. In such problems, the objectives to be optimized are

normally in conflict with respect to each other, which means strategy for solving multi-objective problems in an unpub-

that there is no single solution for these problems. Instead, lished manuscript. After this early attempt, great interest in

we aim to find good trade-off solutions that represent the best extending PSO arose among researchers, but interestingly, the

possible compromises among the objectives. next proposal was not published until 2002. Nevertheless,

A multi-objective optimization problem is of the form: there are currently different proposals of multi-objective PSOs

reported in the specialized literature.

! ! ! ! ! The details of the proposed multi-objective algorithm are

Minimize : f ( x ) = ½f1 ( x ), f2 ( x ), . . . , fk ( x ) ð23Þ as following. First, the swarm is initialized. Then, a set of

leaders is also initialized with respect to the non-dominated

subject to:

particles. Later, some sort of quality measure is calculated for

! all the leaders in order to select (usually) one leader for each

gi ( x ) < 0 i = 1, 2, . . . , m ð24Þ particle in the swarm. At each generation, for each particle, a

! leader is selected and the flight (Equations 19 and 20, or

hi ( x ) = 0 i = 1, 2, . . . , p ð25Þ Equations 21 and 23) is performed. Then, the particle is eval-

!

! uated, and its corresponding x pbest is updated. A new particle

where x = ½x1 , x2 , . . . , xn T is the vector of decision variables, !

usually replaces its x pbest particle when this particle is domi-

fi : Rn ! R , i = 1, . . . , k are the objective functions and

nated. After all the particles have been updated, the set of

gi , hj : Rn ! R , i = 1, . . . , m, j = 1, . . . , p are the constraint

leaders is also updated. Finally, the quality measure of the set

functions of the problem.

of leaders is recalculated. This process is repeated for a cer-

tain number of iterations.

A multi-objective algorithm based on the combination

of PSO, multiple-crossover and mutation operator Multi-objective optimization of square

Optimization problems that have more than one objective cyclone via polynomial neural network

function are rather common in every field or area of knowl- models

edge. In such problems, the objectives are of conflicting

nature, which means that there is no single solution for these In order to investigate the optimal performance of the square

problems. Instead, we aim to find good trade-off solutions cyclones in different geometrical parameters, the polynomial

that represent the best possible compromises among the objec- neural network models obtained above are now deployed in a

tives. PSO is a heuristic search technique (Eberhart and Shi, multi-objective optimization procedure using a proposed MO

1998), which simulates the movements of a flock of birds that algorithm. The two conflicting objectives in this study are Dp

aim to find food. The relative simplicity of PSO and the fact and h, which are to be simultaneously optimized with respect

that it is a population-based technique have made it a natural to the design variables (De/a), (LUp/a) and (LDown/a). The

candidate to extend for multi-objective optimization. Moore two-objective optimization problem can be formulated in the

and Chapman (1999) proposed the first extension of the PSO following form:

Mahmoodabadi et al. 297

B, C, D and E, whose corresponding design variables and

objective functions are shown in Table 6. These points clearly

demonstrate trade-offs in objective functions h and Dp from

which an appropriate design can be compromisingly chosen.

It is clear from Figure 8 that all the optimum design points in

the Pareto front are non-dominated and could be chosen by a

designer as an optimum square cyclone. Evidently, choosing

a better value for any objective function in the Pareto front

would cause a worse value for another objective. The corre-

sponding decision variables of the Pareto front shown in

Figure 8 are the best possible design points, so if any other

set of decision variables is chosen, the corresponding values

of the pair of objectives will be located at a point inferior to

this Pareto front. Such an inferior area in the space of the

two objectives is in fact the bottom/right side of Figure 8.

In Figure 8, the design points A and E stand for the best

Figure 8 Pareto result for square cyclones by using of the proposed collection efficiency and the best pressure drop. Moreover, the

multi-objective optimization (MO) algorithm. other optimum design points B and D can simply be recog-

nized from Figure 8. The design point B exhibits important

8 optimal design concepts. In fact, the optimum design point B

>

> Maximize collection efficiency (h) = f1 (De =a, LUp =a, LDown =a) obtained in this paper exhibits a decrease in h (about 6.8%) in

>

>

< Minimize Pressure Drop (Dp) = f2 (De =a, LUp =a, LDown =a) comparison with that of point A, whereas its Dp improves

Subject to : 0:2 \ x1 = De =a \ 0:6 about 45.2% in comparison with that of A; similarly optimum

>

>

>

> 0:9 \ x2 = LUp =a \ 1:6 design point D exhibits an increase in Dp (about 7.05%) in

:

0:9 \ x3 = LDown =a \ 1:6 comparison with that of point E, whereas its h improves

ð26Þ about 37.6%.

We now need to find a trade-off optimum design point

In this problem, the algorithm configuration of the multi- compromising both objective functions. This can be achieved

objective PSO is as follows. The inertia weight W is linearly by the method employed in this paper, namely the mapping

decreased from W1 = 0:9 to W2 = 0:4, C1 is linearly decreased method. In this method, the values of objective functions of

from C1i = 2:5 to C1f = 0:5, while C2 is linearly increased all non-dominated points are mapped into interval 0 and

from C2i = 0:5 to C2f = 2:5 over time. The related variables 1.Using the sum of these values for each non-dominated

used in multiple-crossover and mutation operator are: point, the trade-off point simply is one having the minimum

pCrossover = 0:45, pMutation = 0:05 and k = 0:4. The term ~ vi (t) is sum of those values. Consequently, optimum design point C

limited to the range ½vave9 + vave , where vave = xmax x

2

min

. If is the trade-off points, which have been obtained from the

the velocity violates this range, it will be multiplied by a ran- mapping method.

dom number in the interval ½0, 1. The related variables used There are some interesting design facts, which can be used

in the NSGA II are: the crossover probability is 0.9 and the in the design of square cyclones. The optimal variations of pres-

mutation probability is 0.1. For the multi-objective PSO, a sure drop and collection efficiency with respect to design vari-

swarm of size 100 and the maximum iteration 150 are used, ables are shown in Figures 9 and 10, respectively. It is clear

and for the NSGA II, a population of size 100 and the maxi- from these figures, from point A to C, that (De/a) is almost con-

mum generation 150 are used (both of the multi-objective stant, whereas (LUp/a) and (LDown/a) vary linearly. Similarly,

PSO and the NSGA II have same function evaluations from C to D, all of the design variables vary linearly. Finally,

15,000). It should be mentioned that our program is able to from D to E, (De/a) and (LDown/a) vary linearly, whereas (LUp/

show the final optimum objective functions and design vari- a) is constant. These useful relationships that are not feasible

ables simultaneously. between the optimum design variables of square cyclones can-

Figure 8 depicts the obtained non-dominated optimum not be discovered without the use of the multi-objective Pareto

design points as a Pareto front of those two objective optimization process presented in this paper.

Table 6 The values of objective functions and their associated design variables of the optimum points.

B 0.498 1.182 1.535 1.975 96.304

C 0.543 1.089 1.339 1.408 89.831

D 0.518 1.005 1.005 0.987 64.137

E 0.466 0.973 0.988 0.864 43.106

298 Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 35(3)

Figure 9 Variations of pressure drop with respect to design variables. Figure 11 Overlay graphs of the proposed method and Non-dominate

Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) Pareto fronts with the

computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation data.

NSGA II’s Pareto front and objective values of CFD data,

which demonstrate the effectiveness of this paper in obtaining

the Pareto front.

In a post-numerical study, the design points of the

obtained Pareto front have been re-evaluated by CFD. It

should be noted that the optimum design points of the Pareto

set are not included in the training and testing sets utilized

meta-modelling using a GMDH-type neural network, which

makes such re-evaluation sensible. The results of such CFD

analysis re-evaluations have been compared with that of the

MO hybrid of PSO in Table 7. As seen, the network data

agree well with the CFD results.

Conclusion

Figure 10 Optimal variations of collection efficiency with respect to

design variables. Two different polynomial relations for collection efficiency

and pressure drop have been found by evolved GS-GMDH-

type neural networks using some validated CFD simulations

The Pareto front obtained from the proposed MO algo- for input–output data of the square cyclones. The derived

rithm (Figure 8) has been superimposed with the Pareto front models have been used in a novel multi-objective optimization

of the NSGA II (Deb et al., 2002) and the corresponding process so that some interesting and informative optimum

CFD simulation data in Figure 11. It can be clearly seen from design aspects have been revealed for cyclones. The obtained

Figure 11 that the Pareto front obtained from the proposed Pareto fronts from the proposed MO algorithm and NSGA II

Table 7 Re-evaluation of the obtained optimal Pareto front using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

B 1.975 2.021 2.27 96.304 99.99 3.69

C 1.408 1.342 24.91 89.831 88.03 22.04

D 0.987 1.033 4.45 64.137 62.85 21.82

E 0.864 0.905 4.53 43.106 45.33 4.91

Mahmoodabadi et al. 299

method have been compared, and it has been shown that the Chau KW (2007) Application of a PSO-based neural network in anal-

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of NSGA II Pareto front and CFD data. tion 16(5): 642–646.

Coker AK (1993) Understand cyclone design. Chemical Engineering

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K Kinematic Energy (kgm/s2)

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C Empirical constant (–)

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(1999) The progress of the water cooled separator CFB boiler in

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