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ORGANIZATIONAL-BASED SELF-ESTEEM AND WORK


ENGAGEMENT AMONG EMPLOYEES
OF UM TAGUM COLLEGE

A Thesis
Presented to
The Thesis Committee
Department of Business Administration Education
UM Tagum College, Tagum City

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
Major in Human Resource

JULIUS CESAR R. ROYO


JENNEFER C. SARMIENTO
DULAIZA U. GAPALAN
March 2019
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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Rationale

In the last few years work engagement has been one of the most

discussed constructs in academic and practitioner literature

particularly by management consultants and industrial psychologist.

Though there seems to be consensus on the benefits that accrue out

of a highly engaged work force, the antecedents of work engagement

which management can apply to promote its popular practice at the

work place is still at development stages in the academic literature.

The global economy has in the recent times integrated in a

manner that organizations are presented with both opportunities and

threats on equal measures. Only organizations that are competitive

enough would survive the market conditions. State enterprises are not

spared either; governments are no longer willing to support struggling

organizations within its ranks because they no longer make economic

and political sense doing so. Many are left to collapse or sold off,

others are merged. Kenya, for example has focused on an ambitious

program to transform State Corporations into viable entities by

gradually implementing reform initiatives that would reduce the

current 197 state corporations through mergers and transfer of

functions (Hobfall, 2015).

A study conducted in Kenexa Institute, a consultancy body

tracking global work performance trends, in their 2011 report,


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employee engagement was declining globally, a scenario which has

been worrying governments as well as corporate. USA economy loses a

whopping $300 billion annually in productivity resulting from

disengaged employees. In 2012, a Scottish government commissioned

study showed work engagement was low globally. Individual

researchers have also reported low work engagement among public

sector employees compared to their private sector counterparts

besides Quantum consultancy firm reported work engagement levels

in the private sector stood at 65% and 45% in the public sector in the

United States of America for 2013. Alarmed by low employee work

engagement levels in the public sector, Canada much earlier in 2004

developed an employee engagement model and implemented an

employee engagement survey program across the governments’

jurisdictions (Agyemang & Ofei, 2013).

In 2015, a survey conducted in the Philippines revealed that only

12 percent of Filipino employee population are ‘engaged’, 82 percent

are ‘actively disengaged and 6 per cent disengaged. The study of

employee engagement and employee satisfaction at a national level is

worthwhile given the increasing number of multi-national

organizations and use of outsourcing. It is important to consider

whether or not the same engagement techniques work for employees

in countries with different economies and cultures (De Leon, 2010).

In Tagum City, particularly in UM Tagum College, it can be

observed that few employees practiced employee engagement had been

established by various scholars in other countries, but no existing


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study had been conducted in the local setting, thus creating

knowledge gap among local researchers. It was in this context that the

researchers were encouraged to conduct the study.

Since, there are no studies where such research has been

conducted. The researchers have pointed that more research is

needed in this area. The importance of organizational-based self-

esteem and work engagement should not be taken for granted for this

makes the research important. Hence, this study is conducted.

Research Objective

This study will be conducted to determine the relationship of

organizational based self esteem and work engagement among

employees UM Tagum College.

1. To assess the level of organizational based self esteem among

among employees UM Tagum College in terms of:

11. meaningful;

1.2 purposeful; and

1.3 significant life.

2. To find out the level of work engagement among employees

UM Tagum College in terms of:

2.1 vigor;

2.2 dedication ; and

2.3 absorption.

3. Is there a significant relationship between organizational

based self esteem and work engagement among employees UM Tagum

College?
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Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the study will be tested at 0.05 level of

significance that there is no significant relationship between

organizational based self esteem and work engagement among

employees UM Tagum College.

Review of Related Literature

This chapter is composed of related literature, studies and

related readings. The researchers have gone through intensive reading

of material, both printed and downloaded through internet which has

a great significance to problem during the course of thesis writing.

Organizational-based Self esteem (OBSE)

Organizational-based self esteem (OBSE) is a positive emotion

and consciousness an employee possesses related to ones work place

situation, it is that state of mind in which an employee believes he or

she can satisfy his or her needs by participating in roles within the

organization. It is the state in which individuals perceive themselves

as important, meaningful and worthwhile in their organization

(Xanthopoulou et al., 2013).

Accordingly, OBSE is defined as the value that employees

perceive to possess within their organizational set up. It reveals the

self-rated value one has in relation to the organization (.They argued

that employees who rate themselves highly in OBSE feel valuable in

an organization. Such employees perceive they matter within the

organization and are often taken seriously because they are

important. They see themselves as trusted and their superiors and


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colleagues have faith in them; arising from this, they belief they can

make a difference that would lead to organizational success (Dyne,

Vandewalle, Kostova, Latham & Cummings, 2013).

However, Individuals high in OBSE seek to maintain and

enhance a positive view of themselves by working hard, performing

well and accomplishing more. This is a deliberate move to alleviate

their perception that they are important, effectual and worthwhile

members of their organization. This assertion is grounded on the

conservation of resources theory (Hobfall, 2015).

Furthermore, it important to note that managers as well as the

entire organizational system may play the most important role in

shaping this motivation. It is important to consider whether or not the

same engagement techniques work for employees in countries with

different economies and cultures Research has shown that individuals

high in OBSE experience better life well-being. In other words they

lead a meaningful, purposeful and significant life; as a result they

experience less depression, more life satisfaction and happiness.

Corporations into viable entities by gradually implementing reform

initiatives that would reduce the current 197 state corporations

through mergers and transfer of functions (Pierce, Gardner & Crowley,

2015).

Also Organization base self-esteem offsets the effects of

organizationally determined stress. These are the demanding

conditions at the work place such as organizational changes and role

ambiguity which easily bring depression, physical strain and job


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dissatisfaction. The implication is that an employee high in OBSE

beliefs that despite the difficult moments associated with his work, his

participation and role in the organization remains important in

attaining his needs. Such employee will persevere and continue to

perform (Truss et al., 2014).

Moreover, 200 public university staff in Pakistan and

demonstrated that OBSE significantly relate with OCB among

permanent employees but not among contracted employees. This

implies that contracted employees do not perceive themselves

important, after all the organization can dismiss them any moment, as

such they cannot see the reason to exhibit extra role behaviour

studied 150 secondary school teachers in Nigeria and found a

positive significant relationship between OBSE and OCB. They also

found that there were no differences among the gender in terms of

OBSE and OCB. It meant that teachers with negative perception

about themselves in relations to their work were unlikely to exhibit

work behaviors that go beyond the call of duty (Ogunyele , Oke, Olawa

& Osagu, 2014).

Since,public service agencies are crucial entities in influencing

business processes, economic development and of course stability of

nations in most developing countries. Many essential services such as

education, health, communication and finance are within the

jurisdiction of these bodies, therefore their efficient and effective

performance is critical in the functioning of the nation state.

Moreover, in the recent times, the Kenya government has initiated


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reform initiatives aimed at improving efficiency and productivity of

State Corporations, however to realize this, public employees need to

perform and engage in favourable attitudes and behaviors including

being highly engaged in their work (Agarwal et al., 2013).

Organizations working on innovative retention strategies

confront various factors contributing to employee turnover. As a cover

up, they mainly focus on interventions such as career development,

growth-oriented appraisal, providing friendly environment, training,

and fringe benefits to build employee commitment. These practices are

significantly related to employee intention to stay. The positive actions

by management promotes employee attachment for which structural

characteristics of the workplace are important in maximizing efficiency

(Taplin & Winterton, 2012).

In addition various scholars have also echoed on the

importance of psychological bond or attachment between employee

and employer as a predictor of retention. Because the workgroup and

the organization are common foci of employee attachment, this

attachment is strongly related to potential outcome.Past research on

work-related attitudes such as job satisfaction and organizational

commitment has been widely studied at various levels and through

different independent variables explaining them (Riketta & Van Dick,

2015).

The emotional connections toward the job through employment

relation have been explored. Studies have also considered the

concerns of salary and such benefits in the preview of attachment.


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Studies and models put forth the view that motivation of employees

makes a great deal of difference in employee retention. Although

different components of organization help employee to fulfill intrinsic

and extrinsic needs, employee departures are inevitable consequences

of market providing better alternatives. Indian studies have shown the

relation between justice, ethics, trust on commitment, and intention

to stay (Purang, 2014).

As human being, job is a necessity factor to gain source of

income. One has to work to get payment in order to sustain the cost of

living. But, although job is an important contributing factor as it

sounds; helps to determine a person standard of living and status,

satisfaction on the job performed remain as the conservation factor

towards the continuity of the job itself. It is believed that when a

person is satisfied with his or her job, the person will have the

tendency to remain in the organization that he or she is belongs

besides, said organization with more satisfied employees tend to be

more effective than organization with fewer satisfied employees

(Robbins & Judge, 2014).

Furthermore, job satisfaction is not a new way of managing

people but is a merely source of retaining good employees.

Organization has to create the source of job satisfaction and the

employees have to move positively to grab what job satisfaction has to

offer. There are many considerable factors that create and influence

job satisfaction among employees such human resource practices,


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stress, working environment and values of the employees itself

(Casper & Harris, 2014).

Work Engagement

Work engagement as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of

mind which is characterized by three factors; vigor, dedication and

absorption. The term ‘engagement’ was used specifically to describe a

worker’s involvement in assigned tasks.He posits that individuals can

be personally engaged in their work by investing positive, emotional

and cognitive energy into tasks courtesy of three psychological

conditions. From the practical perspective, observed that engagement

levels depend on the people, the job itself, procedures, quality of work

life and opportunities the organization provides. Organizations can

therefore harness its physical and human resources, align its work

procedures and set quality standards so as to boast their employees’

engagement to their work (Hewitt, 2014).

Moreover, researchers have distinguished work engagement

from job satisfaction, engagement is about passion, commitment, and

the willingness to invest oneself and expend ones’ discretionary effort

to help the employer succeed. Satisfied employees are retained if only

they are fully engaged. Organizational effectiveness depends on more

than simply maintaining a stable satisfied workforce; employees must

perform assigned duties dependably and be willing to engage in

activities that go beyond role requirements. As such, a fully satisfied

employee is not necessarily a highly engaged employee (Baron, 2013).


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Furthermore, emotional and intellectual commitment as key

characteristics that drive employees to exhibit work engagement.

Engaged employees are physically involved in their tasks, cognitively

alert, and ardently connected to others in ways that demonstrate their

thoughts, feelings and values. An employee filled with vigor exhibits

high levels of energy when doing his or her work; a dedicated one

demonstrate meaningful effort in whatever he or she is engaged in,

while an absorbed one exhibit high levels of concentration on assigned

duties. These are positive work experiences and behaviors desired of

employees at any level because studies have shown they make a

positive impact on an organization (Supriya et al., 2014).

Also, in a study in a hospital set up in UK, underscored the

importance of employee work engagement; they reported that work

engagement had many significant associations with patient

satisfaction, lower infection and mortality rates, as well as lower

absenteeism and turnover among employees. Their conclusion was

that high work engagement among employees lead to better outcomes

for patients and the organization in general. Further, empirical

evidence linking high employee work engagement with important work

performance variables such as job satisfaction, organizational

citizenship behaviors and employee commitment has been adduced

(Agymang & Ofei, 2013).

Besides, organizations need employees who are psychologically

connected to their work. Indeed, the present economic order demands

that employees must demonstrate voluntary willingness and ability to


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invest themselves fully to their assigned roles. After all, as a matter of

fact, organizations now seek and desire to retain only energetic and

dedicated employees if they have to survive the highly competitive and

versatile business environment. Satisfaction with the results of the

activity itself is not a cause but a consequence from the outside to the

event (Brevaat et al., 2015).

In addition, empirical studies have also demonstrated that

customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty significantly relate

positively with employee engagement. Besides, it enhances good

working relationship between fellow employees subsequently it

enhances employee performance (Nyongesa, Sewe & Ng’ang’a, 2012).

Such employees are more creative and often exhibit proactive

reasoning and logical thinking when handling work related issues they

often practice innovative work behaviors and they are associated with

reduced absenteeism and turnover.They exhibit more organizational

commitment and loyalty, superior customer service leading to higher

customer satisfaction and loyalty. At the individual employees’ level,

the benefits of highly engaged employee are also abound; they enjoy

much higher career and life satisfaction. higher personal safety

concerns higher commitment to specific individuals, including their

spouses, children, parents and siblings besides coworkers. Investing

in employee engagement is therefore paramount (Timms & Brough,

2013; Bakker et al., 2014).

Hence, these empirical studies provides important indication

that that self-esteem formed around work and organizational


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experiences determines the employees motivation, attitudes and

behaviour including being highly engaged in work. The state at which

an employee is emotionally committed to his organizations’ goals

resulting in the use of discretionary effort characterized by vigour,

absorption and dedication in ones tasks is work engagement it is a

positive work performance culture that influence individual

employees’ and organizational performance ( Truss, Soane, Delbridge,

Alfes, Shantz, & Petrov, 2014).

Positive employee engagement is linked to factors such as

employees’ ability to participate in workplace decisions, and a sense of

achievement with the work performed. Conversely, lack of employee

engagement has been linked to increased absenteeism, presenteeism,

and lower levels of performance and productivity. There is a difference

between those who are emotionally attached to their jobs and those

who are doing their jobs just because it provides promised rewards

such as pay, and training. It is important to note that performance

management includes activities that ensure that organizational goals

are being consistently met in an effective and efficient manner.

Performance management can focus on performance of the employees,

a department, processes to build a product or service, etc. (Draft,

2012).

Therefore, in return they expect that management will take care

of their rights, they will get friendly environment to work, continuous

growth and they will have freedom to maintain a balance between

their professional and personal life. Employees also expect that firm
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will give them necessary training for their future growth highlights

that employee’s commitment is not only a matter of faith, it also

include an energetic participation of individuals to complete

organization’s objectives. Employee commitment is a vast term it is

not only confined to loyalty, rather than it is spread over employee’s

personal effort for accomplishing organizational goals (Pareek et.al.,

2012).

Well-being and employee engagement influenced employee

performance, and that well-being significantly strengthened the

relationship between employee engagement and performance. The

author commented that since 2011 well-being has taken precedence

over the previous focus on workplace stress, switching from a narrow,

responsive mind-set to one that is more holistic and preventative. That

a growing number of employers, particularly large organizations, were

adopting measures to promote and support health and well-being

among their work forces, in order to improve productivity,

commitment and attendance. Organizations often state that ‘people

are our greatest asset’ but companies do not generally define what

they mean by this, and public reporting is historically poor and lacks

material (Cooper, 2014).

Therefore, academic research supports the links between

employee engagement and well-being, absence and resilience. That

work engagement is associated with higher levels of psychological

well-being. Work engagement is negatively correlated with burnout,

whilst found that “meaningful work leads to lower levels of absence


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because people are engaged with their work” and that “the associate

on between meaningfulness and engagement is strengthened by well

being. It is the responsibility of the company managers to ensure that

the organizations strive to and thus achieve high performance levels.

This therefore implies that managers have to set the desired levels of

performance for any periods in question. This they can do by setting

goals and standards against which individual performance can be

measured (Soane et al., 2013).

In addition, employee attachment explains loyalty (Hajdin,

2005). The emotional connections toward the job through employment

relation have been explored. Studies have also considered the

concerns of salary and such benefits in the preview of attachment.

Studies and models put forth the view that motivation of employees

makes a great deal of difference in employee retention. Although

different components of organization help employee to fulfill intrinsic

and extrinsic needs, employee departures are inevitable consequences

of market providing better alternatives. Indian studies have shown the

relation between justice, ethics, trust on commitment, and intention

to stay (Purang, 2014).

When employees feel engaged and productive at work, they

assessed their overall lives more highly than not engaged or actively

disengaged employees. Worldwide in 2012, 31% of employees rated

their lives highly enough to be considered thriving, while the majority,

59%, were ‘struggling’ and 10% were ‘suffering’. Significantly, engaged


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employees were more than three times as likely to be thriving in their

overall lives as those who were actively disengaged. A research found

that 28% of employees experienced a high level of job related stress in

‘high engagement’ companies (65% engagement and over) versus 39%

of employees in low engagement companies. That those who were

absorbed in their work were almost three times as likely to have six

key positive emotions at work (enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism,

contentment, to feel calm and relaxed) as negative ones (feeling

miserable, worried, depressed, gloomy, tense or uneasy) (Hewitt,

2012).

Accordingly, OBSE is defined as the value that employees

perceive to possess within their organizational set up. It reveals the

self-rated value one has in relation to the organization. They argued

that employees who rate themselves highly in OBSE feel valuable in

an organization(Dyne, Vandewalle, Kostova, Latham & Cummings

(2015).

Such employees perceive they matter within the organization

and are often taken seriously because they are important. They see

themselves as trusted and their superiors and colleagues have faith in

them; arising from this, they belief they can make a difference that

would lead to organizational success. Individuals high in OBSE seek

to maintain and enhance a positive view of themselves by working

hard, performing well and accomplishing more. This is a deliberate

move to alleviate their perception that they are important, effectual


16

and worthwhile members of their organization. This assertion is

grounded on the conservation of resources theory (Hobfall, 2014).

However, it important to note that managers as well as the entire

organizational system may play the most important role in shaping

this motivation. On the contrary, individuals low in OBSE have low

confidence on their abilities ,they often avoid activities that have the

potential of success out of fear of failure. And since their minds are

fixed in failure, they shy away from even venturing at improving their

own performance (Pierce et al., 2014)

Research has shown that individuals high in OBSE experience

better life well-being. In other words they lead a meaningful,

purposeful and significant life; as a result they experience less

depression, more life satisfaction and happiness. Furthermore, the

role of organizational based self esteem in managing job demands is

demonstrated. OBSE offsets the effects of organizationally determined

stress. These are the demanding conditions at the work place such as

organizational changes and role ambiguity which easily bring

depression, physical strain and job dissatisfaction. The implication is

that an employee high in OBSE beliefs that despite the difficult

moments associated with his work, his participation and role in the

organization remains important in attaining his needs. Such employee

will persevere and continue to perform (Pierce, Gardner & Crowley,

2015)

Organizational-based self esteem (OBSE) predicted work

engagement among permanent employees but not among contracted


17

employees. This implies that contracted employees do not perceive

themselves important, after all the organization can dismiss them any

moment, as such they cannot see the reason to exhibit extra role

behaviour. They also found that there were no differences among the

gender in terms of OBSE and OCB. It meant that teachers with

negative perception about themselves in relations to their work were

unlikely to exhibit work behaviors that go beyond the call of duty

(Ogunyele , Oke,Olawa, & Osagu, 2014).

Certain individuals are naturally predisposed to develop high

OBSE; these individuals have a positive view of themselves, others

and the world in general. Secondly, they suggest individuals exposed

to social situations that recognize personal competence and ability

tend to easily build OBSE. The unspoken signals at work often

associated with stringent work processes and micromanagement

speak volumes about the organizations trust for the employees’ ability

to make competent decisions. Managers have the responsibility to be

agents of success and more success attributable to individual

employees enhance organizational-based self esteem. This is possible

in situations where managers provide the ideal work environment

including facilitating successful undertaking of assignments through

provision of sufficient budgets, time, clear objectives and other

essential tools of trade (Rotich, 2016).

Correlation Between Measures

Researchers have explored the link between organizational-

based self esteem and work place attitudes and behaviors; there seem
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to be a popular consensus that employees high in OBSE exhibit

positive work behaviour .This study is joining the growing research

works affirming the robust relationship between the construct and the

many positive work behaviors (Bowden, 2014).

Apparently, this study demonstrated evidence that OBSE

predict specific aspect of commitment, i.e. the employees’ ability to

work with vigour, dedication and be totally absorbed while working.

Employees with this level of commitment are a clear indication of their

strong identification with their organization. This assertion was

reported a positive and significant relationship between OBSE and

organizational (i.e. work unit) identification Kark & Shanir, 2014).

Further, empirical studies have also shown a strong

relationship between work engagement and OCB. While there is a

relationship between organizational-based self esteem and a key

component of OCB. Besides, similar results in a transnational study

sample. Therefore, the empirical link between organizational-based

self esteem and work engagement is apparent (Rana ,2015).

Work engagement has been linked to enhanced performance

whereas OBSE has also been linked with high level performance. In

addition it was observe a positive and significant relationship between

OBSE and organizationally beneficial managerial behaviours. OBSE

facilitates job dedication, career commitment. All these are positive

work behaviours characteristic of highly engaged employees

(Wiesenfeld et al., 2015).


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The readings of review literature of this research study indicated

that the independent and dependents variable of the study,

organizational based self esteem and organizational engagement is

tested among employees. It was found that work life balance is

strongly influenced by employee performance and that the relation

between organizational based self esteem and organizational

engagement is mediated by management support. These results

contribute to the literature on organization based self esteem and

organizational engagement. Besides, these study are of great value to

the private employee, that can be used to improve organizational

based self esteem and thus, organizational engagement. The result of

the study lead to confirm the prediction made by the researchers

regarding a significant and positive relationship between

organizational based self esteem and organizational engagement.

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored by the proposition of Rotich (2016) who

demonstrated evidence that organizational-based self-esteem highly

influence work engagement. Employees would exhibit high levels of

work engagement when they perceive themselves as valued competent

members of their organizations. Managers have a responsibility to

identify and nurture organizational-based self-esteem as a strategy

towards improving their employees’ ability to voluntarily invoke

vigour, dedication and be totally absorbed in their working.

Tanget et al., (2002) reported similar results in a transnational

study sample. Therefore, the empirical link between organizational-


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based self-esteem and work engagement is apparent. Besides, these

study are of great value to the private employee, that can be used to

improve organizational based self esteem and thus, organizational

engagement. The result of the study lead to confirm the prediction

made by the researchers regarding a significant and positive

relationship between organizational based self esteem and

organizational engagement.

According to Pierce, Gardner and Crowley (2015) who stated

that individuals high in organizational based self esteem experience

better life well-being. In other words they lead a meaningful,

purposeful and significant life; as a result they experience less

depression, more life satisfaction and happiness The implication is

that an employee high in nizational based self esteem beliefs that

despite the difficult moments associated with his work, his

participation and role in the organization remains important in

attaining his needs. Such employee will persevere and continue to

perform.

Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez & Bakker (2002) defined work

engagement as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind which

is characterized by three factors; vigor, dedication and absorption.

Employees would exhibit high levels of work engagement when they

perceive themselves as valued competent members of their

organizations.
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Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Organizational based self Work Engagement


esteem

Meaningful life
 Vigor
Purposeful life
 dedication
 significant life
 absorption

Figure 1.Conceptual Framework of the Study


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Conceptual Framework of the Study

Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study, the

independent variable organizational based self esteem and the

indicators meaningful, purposeful and significant life. In this study

meaningful refers to adding significance, meaning, or purpose to

somebody's life. purposeful refers to having a discernible meaning and

significant life refers to conveying a meaning or significance that is not

directly expressed

The dependent variable of this study is employee engagement

and the indicators vigor refers to intensity or forcefulness in the way

something is done. dedication to the quality of being devoted or

committed to something and absorption refers to a state in which the

whole attention is occupied.

Significance of the Study

This study is beneficial to the following:

UM Tagum College Administration. The result of this study will

help and served the information to be gathered will serve as their

guide to avoid or evade from circumstances or factors which may

hinder to their success as an organization. Employees. the result may

provide the awareness and information in reaching the main purposes

of the study on how far can they give implications on this discussion .

Students. This study will served as the baseline for the conduct of

further study on organizational based self-esteem and work

engagement. and Future Researchers the results of this study will

serve as a springboard to future researchers who will undertake a


23

more in-depth study along with the aspect.

Definition of Terms

For clarity and easy understanding of the study, terms are

defined both conceptually and operationally.

Organizational based self-esteem (OBSE). In this study, it

refers to the value that employees perceive to possess within their

organizational set up.

Employee Engagement. In this study, this refers to a property

of the relationship between an organization and its employees.

Employee engagement is the extent to which employees feel

passionate about their jobs, are committed to the organization, and

put discretionary effort into their work (Springett, 2013).


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Chapter 2

METHOD

This chapter presented the different parts of the research

design, research subject, research instrument, data gathering

procedure and statistical treatment that will be using in analysis of

the data.

Research Design

The researchers will employ the quantitative non-experimental

design using correlation technique. A quantitative non-experimental

using correlation technique involves descriptive and accurate

interpretation of findings. This method will employ for determining the

organizational based self esteem and work engagement among

employees in UM Tagum College.

Herson (2005), who said that descriptive method of research

describes and interprets what are the revealed conditions and

relationships that exists, practice that are prevailing, and the effects

are being felt on those trends that are developing.

Research Locale

The respondents of the study will be employees UM Tagum

College. This study will be conducted for the S.Y 2018. Random

sampling will be use in this study.

Accordingly, even though there could be common features, the

findings may not have general applicability to other systems.

Presented in figure 2 is the map of the Philippines consisting of 17


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Figure 2. Map of the Philippines Highlighting Tagum City


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regions in which the city of Tagum, province of Davao Del Norte is

located in Region XI.

Tagum, officially the City of Tagum, (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa

Tagum; Filipino: Lungsod ng Tagum), or simply referred to as Tagum

City, is a 1st class city and capital of the Davao del Norte, Philippines.

According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 259,444 people.

It is the most populous component city in Mindanao. It is one of the

top most livable cities in the Philippines, and was one of the finalists

in Most Child Friendly City in the Philippines – Component Category

along with Laoag, and Talisay, Cebu.

Tagum has a total land area of 19,580 hectares (48,400 acres),

which is predominantly agricultural, and produces various kinds of

crops like coconut, rice, Cavendish banana, and fruit trees like

durian, lanzones and other agricultural crops for non-commercial use.

The city is strategically located at the northern portion of

Southern Mindanao and lies in the intersection of three major road

network systems namely: the Phil-Japan Friendship Highway, the

Davao-Mati-Agusan road and the soon to be completed Davao-

Bukidnon road that connects the city to other major destinations in

the region and in the rest of Mindanao. With this, the city serves as a

vital economic crossroad not only for the province, but for the entire

Davao Region as well, linking Davao City to the northern city of

Butuan (in Agusan del Norte), to Mati (in Davao Oriental) and the

Surigao provinces.
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Research Instrument

The researchers will use questionnaire and collect study related

use for the convenience of both researchers and respondents of the

data from the respondents. The first set of the questionnaire will be

the indicators of the independent variables of the study. The

organizational based self esteem work engagement. The dependent

variable of the study work engagement work engagement.

To determine the level of organizational based self esteem the

following parameter limits to be used are:

Range of Mean Level Description

4.30 - 5.00 Very High This means that organizational


based self esteem among
employees UM Tagum College is
very much felt.

3.50 – 4.49 High This means that the organizational


based self esteem among
employees UM Tagum College is
much felt.

2.70 - 3.49 Moderate This means that the organizational


based self esteem among
employees UM Tagum College is
moderately felt.

1.90 - 2.69 Low This means that the organizational


based self esteem among
employees UM Tagum College is
less felt.

1.00- 1.89 Very Low This means that the organizational


based self esteem among
employees UM Tagum College is
not felt.
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To determine the level of work engagement the following

parameter limits to be used are:

Range of Mean Level Description

4.30 - 5.00 Very High This means that the work


engagement among employees in
UM Tagum College is very much
evident.

3.50 – 4.49 High This means that the work


engagement among employees in
UM Tagum College. is much
evident.

2.70 - 3.49 Moderate This means that work


engagement among employees in
UM Tagum College is evident.

1.90 - 2.69 Low This means that work


engagement among employees in
UM Tagum College is less
evident.

1.0 - 1.89 Very Low This means that work


engagement among employees in
UM Tagum College not evident.

Data Collection

The researchers undergo the following steps: First, is to seek

permission from the UM Tagum administration to facilitate the

research process. After which, the researchers secured a letter to

conduct study from the respondents to allow them to carry out

research in the area. Primary data were used for the study. Structured

questionnaire will be used as a tool of data collection the

questionnaire will be prepared and distributed to the employees UM

Tagum College by the researchers. Respondents may write their name


29

or not in the questionnaire for the purpose of confidentially and will

be given a week to fill in the questionnaire and finally the data were

analyzed and interpreted based on the research objectives.

Statistical Tools

The results will be analyze and interpreted in the light and

purposes of the study. The following statistical tools will be used are

the following.

Mean. This test will be use to determine the organizational

based self esteem and work engagement among employees UM Tagum

College.

Pearson-r. This will be use to determine the significant

relationships between organizational based self esteem and work

engagement among employees UM Tagum College.