Two Dimensional Engineering Drawing Using Microstation V8 CAD

Bryan Attewell 10/08/2005

These notes introduce the computer aided drawing (CAD) program Microstation, which the University currently uses for two dimensional engineering drawing. By reading through this text and working through the examples, you should become a reasonably competent CAD draughtsperson - a skill that could assist you with your design assignments and your final year individual project. Many companies, particularly smaller firms, continue to use two dimensional drawing. Knowledge of 2D CAD could therefore help in finding a work placement and an eventual full time job. Every mechanical engineer needs to know how to read an engineering drawing. The notes do not cover the basic elements of engineering drawing. An introduction is given elsewhere in the course, but it is strongly recommended that you purchase a reference book that will be useful whenever you have to make engineering drawings. It is “Manual of Engineering Drawing To British and International Standards”. 2nd Edition. C. Simmons. D. Maguire. Edward Arnold. ISBN: 0-7506-5120-2. You can obtain a personal copy of Microstation, this is not essential for on campus students, but you might prefer to have a copy on your own computer. I will be letting you know how you can get a copy during the year. Competence in engineering drawing only comes through practice. It should form a pleasant contrast to the more analytical studies that you cover elsewhere. I hope that you will enjoy working through these materials and get as much pleasure from using the CAD system as I do.

Bryan Attewell 02/08/2005

Table of Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................... 0 CAD Lesson 1 - An Introduction to CAD and Microstation V8 ..................................... 3 Good and Bad CAD Drawing ...................................................................................... 5 Units and Resolution.................................................................................................... 7 Starting and Configuring Microstation ........................................................................ 8 Setting up a standard set of levels .............................................................................. 12 Dimension Size .......................................................................................................... 20 CAD Lesson 2 - Basic Drawing Using Accudraw......................................................... 25 Co-ordinates in Microstation ..................................................................................... 26 Absolute Co-ordinates................................................................................................ 26 Relative Co-ordinates................................................................................................. 27 Starting Accudraw...................................................................................................... 28 Erasing Lines.............................................................................................................. 36 Using Snaps................................................................................................................ 37 Using Levels .............................................................................................................. 40 Fillet Radii.................................................................................................................. 42 CAD Lesson 3 – More Accudraw................................................................................. 48 A Return to the SNAP................................................................................................ 48 Drawing with respect to a point Using Accudraw ..................................................... 48 Snappy Drawing......................................................................................................... 52 Locking Accudraw On to an Axis.............................................................................. 54 Locking distances or an angle using Accudraw......................................................... 55 Aligning The Accudraw Compass to Any Line......................................................... 57 Accudraw and Smartline ............................................................................................ 58 CAD Lesson 4 - More Tricks......................................................................................... 66 Drawing Lines Parallel to Existing Lines .................................................................. 66 Trimming and Extending Lines ................................................................................. 68 Extending Elements ................................................................................................... 70 Mirror ......................................................................................................................... 71 Using the view commands ......................................................................................... 73 Copying and Moving ................................................................................................. 75 A Standard Drawing Border....................................................................................... 77 Using the Axis Lock .................................................................................................. 85 CAD Lesson 5 - Projected Views and Ellipses.............................................................. 87 Circles on Sloping Surfaces ....................................................................................... 88 Auxiliary Projection ................................................................................................... 88 Drawing arcs and circles to touch particular points on the drawing .......................... 88 CAD Lesson 6 - Arrays, dimensions and tolerances ..................................................... 91 Using the Construct Array command......................................................................... 91 The Rectangular Array............................................................................................... 93 Dimensioning Drawings ............................................................................................ 95 Dimensioning Diameters, the letter ∅ ....................................................................... 98 Applying Tolerances To Dimensions ...................................................................... 104 Limits and Fits ......................................................................................................... 106 CAD Lesson 7 - Cells, Hatching, and Printing ............................................................ 114 Using Cells In Microstation ..................................................................................... 114 Sections and Hatching.............................................................................................. 121 Printing and Plotting ................................................................................................ 125


.............................. 129 Marking Scheme ............................................................................ 131 2 ...................................................Past Paper ...............................................................

) and set up a standard drawing using appropriate units.CAD Lesson 1 . Microstation is a very large and powerful piece of software with thousands of commands and features. Aims At the end of this lesson you should be able to :• understand the advantages of CAD over manual draughting • know what constitutes good practice in CAD • understand how Microstation uses units (e. mm. • understand how Microstation uses layers and set up a standard drawing using appropriate layers. that you can confidently 3 . and is in some ways easier to use. e. feet etc. We will not be doing any actual drawing in this first lesson. be patient. If you wish to further explore Microstation. having the ability to produce photo realistic rendered views. the program does have a substantial in-built help system to allow you to have a go independently. one of its most famous clients is the design firm led by Norman Foster. the futuristic new Sage concert hall in Gateshead. We will be merely scratching the surface of this complex program within this unit. so if you have already learned to use Auto CAD. The decision was taken to transfer to Microstation as that software was available to students for home use at a lower price than AutoCAD. and will be concentrating on two dimensional engineering drawing as it applies to mechanical engineering. Microstation provides all of the facilities of AutoCAD. It is to your advantage to be familiar with more than one CAD package.An Introduction to CAD and Microstation V8 Introduction This series of lessons introduces the recommended computer aided drawing (CAD) program Microstation.g. it is necessary to lay a solid foundation before moving on. closer to home. They do assume that you are reasonably familiar with Windows based software. You may be more familiar with Auto CAD. Microstation will be a bonus! Microstation has an international user base. The aim of the lesson is to set up a standard drawing format that can be used in all subsequent work. Study Advice This series of lessons assumes no previous knowledge of CAD.g. It is capable of sophisticated three dimensional modelling. Some of its more famous applications in the UK include the Jubilee line extension in London and. which we did use some years ago. In this particular lesson I intend to talk about CAD in general. and then will go on to discuss how to configure Microstation to best meet our requirements.

CAD has. the CAD user must be able to visualise a 3D object in two dimensions. can you name some of them? 4 .com. In the days of manual draughting it was customary for beginners to have to spend hours merely learning how to print neatly . but there remain occasions when the CAD user must be able to do this. as when the full drawing is shown on the screen. It still remains necessary to understand the conventions of BS308 and orthogonal projection however. While never a super skilled draughtsman. but I can honestly say that I get more fun out of using a CAD system. Time evaporates when you are putting together an engineering drawing. I hope that you will share my enthusiasm for this work. move chunks Drawing using a computer CAD enables even the novice draughtsperson to produce work of a professional standard. There are no real limitations on space. Only when the CAD user zooms in on a small section of the drawing is it possible to read the small print. In some ways CAD makes this process more difficult. or see the precise way in which the entities have been put together. to some extent. and work to an accuracy that would be impossible with manual draughting. but a two button device can also be used satisfactorily. and get as much pleasure from it as I do. copy bits. close and re-size windows and are familiar with pull down menus and the use of a mouse or other pointing device.while the proper manipulation of the drawing instruments required further hard won skills. while there are also Microstation newsgroups. reduced the need to carry out trigonometric calculations and use basic geometry. I enjoyed working on the drawing board. you can amplify the drawing by huge factors. Bentley Microsystems does maintain a useful World Wide Web page which includes the answers to many frequently asked questions about Microstation. The two buttons are depressed simultaneously to provide the “third” option. the details may be too small to distinguish. If you have access to the internet you should visit http://www. ITQ When used in a commercial environment CAD has many advantages over manual Microstation can usefully employ a three button mouse or tracker ball.

fillets etc. It is normally preferable. however. MRP. but you will almost certainly have had to draw a graph. finite element analysis etc. One thing that these two activities have in common is the need to choose and use a scale. CNC machines. and 30 mm higher than that first point. Similarly. and will rely to a large extent on Accudraw. While Microstation does support both absolute and relative co-ordinates. Novice users tend to use the grid extensively. Good and Bad CAD Drawing Just as when doing manual drawing.g. and then move relative to that position. essential for concurrent engineering. there are good and bad practices with CAD. For example you specify a point that is 200 mm in from the left hand edge and 100 mm up from the bottom. while the dedicated professional will zoom in until it is absolutely clear where the lines are being placed. Lines can be made to automatically SNAP onto the points on the grid. The lazy CAD user will guess the location of lines. Thus manually produced drawings would be made that were 5 . to switch the grid off when beginning to draw as otherwise lines will mysteriously snap onto positions that are not required. when many of the principal lines are in place. clever tools to draw common features e. Microstation has a unique data entry system called Accudraw that removes the need for much of this ponderous procedure. You can then specify another point. • semi automatic dimensioning reduces errors and increases productivity. You may or may not have used a drawing board. it is possible to make good use of the clever drawing aids that do not require co-ordinate data. Now most CAD programs require that you understand the difference between absolute and relative co-ordinate positions.this is the road to ruin. modern CAD programs provide slick windows based drawing aids which encourage inaccurate free hand sketching . relative to the first. libraries of standard parts are available for immediate insertion into drawings. In the later stages of drawing.g. rapid prototyping. and has an appropriate data entry mode. that is 50 mm to the right. be warned !!! The ONLY way to reliably and consistently produce good quality CAD work is to use typed dimensions entered via the keyboard.experience of teaching CAD has shown that it is not possible to over-emphasise the importance of care and precision in computer drawing. especially when a new drawing is being created. You specify a particular place on your drawing sheet using absolute co-ordinates.Some of the advantages of CAD include:• • • • • greater accuracy. possibility of sharing the latest designs using a network. chamfers. save time. we will only briefly encounter it in this course. and then use the automatic detection aids within the program to positively snap onto the required location. e. This is a theme to which I will be returning . rapid copying of drawings or sections of drawings greatly increases productivity. All CAD programs provide drawing grids to assist the user. • interfaces with other company systems.

This may be needed. depending upon the circumstances. If you are trained in manual draughting this no doubt sounds like a heresy.perhaps 1/10 th. If it is 5 m long. not measure off the drawing. draw it 5 m long! *** Remember.draw everything to size *** Even if you remember nothing else from this first lesson. 6 . do not scale your drawing . scale the drawing border to fit. please take heed of this advice. if necessary. but may be of an indeterminate scale. if required. in the production of a master for an electrical circuit board. but don’t worry about it. You can worry about the eventual drawing size when the time comes to print or plot it out. Remember all engineering drawings should carry the legend “Do Not Scale”. In CAD it is easier and altogether much preferable to draw to size. full size. Manufacturers should make parts to the stated dimensions. It is also possible to plot a drawing to a precise scale. Normally it is possible to drop a drawing border of the appropriate size onto your masterpiece at the last minute. and. and you can plot it out to a standard drawing size. for example. Your drawing will have the correct proportions. or maybe 2 x full size. The CAD program will make everything fit.

g.Units and Resolution Microstation can handle many different types of units. pipe systems. Using Levels in Microstation All serious CAD programmes provide the ability to split a drawing into several layers or levels.g. It is possible to change the settings of the program to accommodate the units that you want to work with. Levels allow us to bring into play. but the sizes involved are such that they do not present any realistic obstacles to doing our work. e.g. or remove. metres and millimetres. It is very useful to be able to “switch off” the construction lines while drawing. Microstation then allows us to define a SUB UNIT. different sets of elements at will. The actual useful resolution is very much higher than the minimum. there is one final choice open to us. the degree of resolution varies over the drawing area. situated within the central area of the plane. but if we were doing civil engineering it might have been the metre or the kilometre. That drawing plane can be measured in kilometres. Levels can be thought of as being analogous to a series of sheets of tracing paper which can be viewed separately or overlaid. which is a fraction of the master unit. In Microstation V8. as a finer resolution will result in a smaller overall drawing area. main machinery etc. In our case we might adopt the following:Master Unit Sub Unit Millimetre Micrometer Having chosen our master and sub units. rather than different types of components. For our purposes the most useful unit is probably the millimetre. supports. will be in measured in millimetres or metres. e. This practical unit is described as the MASTER UNIT. In civil engineering we might have adopted a master unit of a kilometre with a sub unit of the metre. and the resolution that we are able to set is actually the minimum value that exists at the very edges of the virtual drawing plane. etc. e. Different elements of the drawing can be placed on different levels. In the introductory work that we will be doing levels will be associated with different types of lines. So we will establish a level for each of the following types of lines:• main drawing outline • construction lines 7 . You are free to decide how best to use levels within your drawing. that is the resolution that we wish to work with. dimensions on another etc. construction lines can be placed on one level. while our drawings. Now there needs to be some compromise here. and concentrate on the main view. In complex projects it would be advisable to use different levels for different kinds of components. feet and inches.

A second window appears entitled New. or weights. by double clicking the V8 Icon on your desktop. Chose File and then New. A window should appear on the screen entitled “Microstation Manager”. Starting and Configuring Microstation Having considered some of the issues the time has come to switch on the computer and get into Microstation. It will have the following features:• • • • suitable units named levels with various line-types and colours the grid suitably configured.• hidden lines • centre lines • dimensions It is useful to use different colours for different line types. but switched off a standard size for text Get into Microstation. when producing engineering drawings. Further. In this session I hope to show you how to create a standard drawing file that can be used for all future work. while hidden and centre lines have particular styles of lines. Type des1in the empty space provided. BS308 requires that we use different line widths. Again we will set up a template to define suitable values here. ***Do NOT press the Enter key at this stage*** 8 . fig 1.

Figure 2 This will return you to the New window.Figure 1. Click onto the Select button in the SEED file window. The next task is to select a SEED file that will specify the units required. Choose OK.dgn file. when you will be returned to the original Microstation Manager window. Pick OK again. and then pick the seed2d. 9 . Pick OK a third time when you will finally start up the program.

Click on Working units. In future I will expect that you will do this automatically. in order show Microstation that you have finished making your choices and want to move on. ignoring the warning message. when the details of the units should be displayed. rather than metre! Figure 3 Now select Advanced and. First we will check that the correct units have been selected. change the resolution to 10 .Note that you will normally have to click onto OK. If you have bought the academic version of the program that screen may be overwritten by a Restricted Use message. Choose Settings followed by Design file. That message box should be dragged off the screen using the mouse. 3. or possibly Apply. Note the USA spelling of meter. Change the master units to Millimeters and the Sub units should be automatically changed to Micrometers Remember. fig. There will be a delay and then the main Microstation drawing screen will appear.

( Every 10th grid point will be shown highlighted). Click on OK (fig. Finally. 4). Click onto Grid. i. Click OK to move back to the DGN file settings window. indicating that the lock is off. Figure 4 11 .e. and make the Grid Reference =10. it is useful to deal with the grid. switch off the grid lock by clicking in the little box containing a symbol annotated Grid Lock. Now adjust the Grid Master to be 1. While we have this design file open. and now is a good time to make it so.10000 per Centimeter. While I rarely use the grid. a grid spacing of 1 mm. if necessary. The symbol within the box should disappear. we might as well have a grid that will be useful.

5. fig. Figure 5 Setting up a standard set of levels Next we will set up following levels. Choose Settings. • • • • • main drawing outline (Default) construction lines hidden lines centre lines dimensions I suggest that you adopt the following convention regarding line colours and styles:Level 1 2 3 4 5 Name Default Construction Hidden Centre Dimensions Colour White (0) Blue (1) White (0) Green (2) Magenta (5) Style Solid (0) Solid (0) Dashed (2) Chain-dotted (4) Solid (0) Width Heavy Light Light Light Light (1) (0) (0) (0) (0) Microstation allows you the freedom to choose any colour or linetype on any layer and to mix different linetypes and colours on any layer. Finally Apply these settings and close the window by clicking on the X in the top right hand corner. View attributes when the View Attributes window will appear. Click in the little box adjacent to the word Grid. if you prefer. or. in those cases you can quickly undo the previous steps. It is occasionally more convenient to have the grid on. when the x will go. to restrict the 12 .While we are at it we might as well switch the grid display off.

you quickly get used to selecting level 2 for construction lines. Once you have decided upon a convention. I feel that it is preferable to use layers to effectively select the linetype. How do you set up a standard for layers in your drawings? To set up the drawing levels in the way we require it is necessary to make some changes to the Design File. you can save it and use it with all of your drawings. This makes for an efficient use of your time. and then pick Design File.choice to a given line specification on any one layer. 13 . and weight by choosing the appropriate level (ByLevel).g. and not quite as wide as the main drawing lines. When the Design File (DGN File) Settings window appears. and you know that all construction lines will be in blue. e. line style. so I recommend that you restrict each layer to a given linetype. pick Element Attributes and set the selections as shown in the illustration below. Select the Settings drop down menu. What we are doing here is to tell Microstation that we are going to select colour.

In order to do this we need to open the Level Manager window. Select Settings. Manager as shown below. when the Level Manager window will appear as shown below 14 . and confirmed this. by clicking OK in the DGN File Settings window. we now can move on to specify the particular colours and styles that we require. Level.Having instructed Microstation to select line attributes by level.

Pick the green colour which is in the top left hand corner of the matrix.Choose Levels. Finally we will change the name of the level from New Level [0] to Centre. The Level Color window will appear. Left click onto the little square on the New Level line in the Color column. the third little square along from the left. 15 . New. You can now modify this new level to have the attributes that are required. when a New Level will be created. For example we will set up this new level to represent centre lines. The centre lines will be green in colour and will use a chain dotted line type.

New Layer and choose Rename. 16 .Now move over to the Style column and left click the small section of line shown there. select the chain dotted line type 4. When the Level Style window opens. Type in the new name which is Centre. Finally right click the name.

To select a level as the active level. Finally change the weight of the Default line style from 0 to 1. and then left click on the Set Active command. 17 .Create further new layers to represent Construction. right click on the required level. You should end up with the Level Manager looking like that shown below. Hidden and Dimension lines as shown below.

Pick the simple sloping line symbol second in from the left on the top row. 18 . This then becomes the selected drawing tool.Having selected the Centre line type. green in colour and with a chain dotted style. the next and all subsequent lines will be drawn as centre lines. Now let’s try to draw some of the lines. Hold down the mouse key on the symbol when the contents of the Linear Elements drawing toolbox will be displayed. Pick the symbol from the left side of the screen that looks like an electric light bulb.

the lines are shown on the screen.Go anywhere on the drawing screen and use the left mouse button to start and end a line. If the level is off. If you double left click on any one of the levels. while Centre and Hidden are switched on. then the lines drawn in that level are also off. it will become the selected drawing level. Default and Dimensions are switched off. with Construction as the selected drawing level. Choose each of your line types in turn and draw a single line on the screen to illustrate the use of the different levels as shown below: - Now there are easier ways to select the required levels than using the Level Manager. Close the Level Manager and use instead the level selection window located at the top of the screen. Now you can pick the required level from the list. A single key press on a level name will toggle between the level being on or off. The diagram below shows the Level Display window. you can use the command Control E (Control and E keys pressed simultaneously) to call up the Level Display window. 19 . and more powerfully. Use the right hand mouse button to stop drawing that line. while if it is on. Alternatively. One left click will select the required level.

merely that it is not displayed on the screen. and have selected level 1 as the currently active level. it does not mean that it has gone for good. I suggest that you select a text Height of 4 mm and a text Width of 3 mm. which will automatically change the proportions of the dimension settings to suite. Dimension Size Similarly we can set the size of dimension text.Having set up your different levels you can see that the Level Display window allows you to manipulate them quite easily. Choose Elements. when the Text Styles window appears. When you turn a layer off. You will need to click in the Value column to be able to make the required changes. Dimension 20 . Make sure that you do not leave until you have turned all of your layers back on. Text Size We can set a convenient text size by choosing Element. Text Styles. It can be turned back on again at any time. This is the default setting that we will normally be using when starting to draw.

Primary and Standard are all selected. 21 . Further Configuring The figure below shows the screen display that we will achieve after this section of the work. Pick the Tools drop down window and ensure that Attributes. depending upon how your software was installed. Click in the Height and Width boxes and apply the values 4 and 3. but in any event I will show you how to set it up. Close the Dimension Settings window.and then Text. Your screen may already appear like this.

choose File. Exit. We have finished for now. Choose Input. Save Settings.A couple of final points and we are finished. Many users will prefer to have the small drawing cursor replaced by a pair of cross hairs that cover the entire screen. Full View. 22 . Pointer Size. 16) opens. Preferences when the Preferences window (fig. This is achieved by choosing Workspace .

and what is the purpose of. but it does not automatically save changes to the set up. i. and how do you select a suitable scale when beginning to draw? 2) What are. You must specifically choose to save the settings if you wish keep them for future use.e. levels etc. levels in CAD? 23 . Bryan Attewell 28/07/2005 Self Assessment Questions 1) By what practical measures do you ensure that your drawings are made accurately.It is important to note that Microstation normally saves every change that you make to a drawing automatically.

it is the level on which drawing is currently taking place. oil lines. In addition you should possess a design file called DES1. main drawing.that way you will not inadvertently change it. The successful CAD draughtsperson will always zoom sufficiently into a drawing to ensure that it is clear where all features are being placed. • understand how Microstation uses layers and set up a standard drawing file using appropriate layers. It is up to the user to decide how to organise levels. the layers will hold different linestyles and types. and in complex applications they may be used to represent different features of the machinery or plant under consideration. Individual levels can be switched on or off.DGN. all parts should normally be drawn to size. i. In future sessions you can start by loading DES1. In our work we will be using a different philosophy. and then immediately save it as a different name . each one carrying particular information. coolant lines etc. dimensions etc. 2) Levels may be thought as being analogous to overlain sheets of tracing paper.g. 24 . Summary Having completed this lesson you should:• understand the advantages of CAD over manual draughting • know what constitutes good practice in CAD • understand how Microstation uses units and set up a standard drawing file using appropriate units. Free hand drawing or guessing is the road to ruin!! It is generally better not to scale when drawing with CAD.g. As you gain confidence with Microstation you will no doubt develop personal preferences in the use of the software that may be different from mine. there is nothing to stop you from modifying your design file accordingly.e. while only one level is normally active at any one time. I will return to this in the next lesson.DGN that can be used as a standard configuration for your future work.Answers to Self Assessment Questions 1) Good practice involves the use of typed co-ordinates to specify sizes and distances. e. e. construction.

it remembers past settings.dgn. circles. More than that. One major advantage is the way in which it can be used to define a new origin with respect to any key point on your drawing. This greatly reduces the need for construction lines and generally speeds up the job. Basic drawing includes the use of absolute and relative screen co-ordinates. and it is an invaluable aid in 3D. A single key press results in the Accudraw cursor aligning itself with the required 3D plane Take it from me. We will also find out how to snap onto particular points of a drawing and how to erase sections of a drawing. and will optionally recall distances and angles for your use. line types and grid settings. saving it as a different file. Accudraw significantly assists in 2D drawing. and then doing some basic drawing using typed co-ordinates. circles and arcs erase sections of the drawing understand and use snaps use the circular fillet command use levels for different linetypes Study Advice You should have completed the first CAD lesson before starting this one. That file selected the mode of operation that you will subsequently be using for all drawings in terms of units. and instead we will be concentrating on the sub set of key attributes that are the most useful in daily use. A complete book has been written on Accudraw [1]. and then presents the most convenient way of achieving your intention. Aims At the end of this lesson you should be able to:• • • • • • • understand relative and absolute co-ordinates use Accudraw to construct simple drawings draw lines. In this lesson we will be loading in that design file. Accudraw is the “bees knees”. Accudraw is a context sensitive drawing aid. It tries to determine what you intend to do next by tracking the movement of the mouse pointer. straight lines. we don’t have time to spend exploring its every asset on this course. and arcs. 25 .CAD Lesson 2 .Basic Drawing Using Accudraw Introduction In the previous lesson you constructed a basic design file called des1. Another useful feature is Accudraw’s ability to optionally provide orthogonal lines.

what would the absolute co-ordinates of the start and end points be? Answer From xy=50. from xy=100. ITQ If you wanted to draw a vertical line of length 100 mm from a point 50 mm above and 50 to the right of the origin. Conversely movement left or down is considered negative.g. don’t try to use it.a one hour session is quite enough to begin with.50 A line can be drawn by specifying the start point followed by the end point. The command is xy=100. e.100. i. Absolute Co-ordinates Absolute co-ordinates work in the same way as when you draw a graph. a horizontal line that is 50 mm long and whose start position is 100 mm above and to the right of the origin will be drawn from 100.50 to xy=50.150 26 . Note that the expression above is not a valid Microstation command. e. absolute or relative.100 to 150. don't spend too long in front of the monitor at any one time .100 to xy=150. Co-ordinates in Microstation If we confine our work to two dimensions we can imagine a flat rectangle of “paper” stretching several kilometres in each direction. it is possible to select a point that is 100 units to the right of the origin and say 50 above. All points are defined with respect to the origin. Microstation works with the normal convention in that movement to the right (the x direction) is positive while that up the paper (in the y direction) is also positive.e.g.CAD can be addictive. Microstation allows two possible ways to handle co-ordinates.100.

The rectangular relative co-ordinate instruction takes the form:dl=x_displacement. but rather to some other point on the drawing. This is possible but normally rather inconvenient.e.0 This instruction implies a move of 30 mm to the right of the current cursor position. The sign convention adopted for angles is positive anti-clockwise.y_displacement e. The polar relative co-ordinate instruction takes the form:di=line_length. In practice it is rarely worth worrying about where the origin is in CAD. in CAD you start to draw wherever you fancy. di=50.Relative Co-ordinates Absolute co-ordinates require that all positions be specified with respect to the origin. This is another major difference to manual draughting.angle e.g. It is much easier to specify lines with respect not to the origin. the virtual drawing sheet effectively removes any real restrictions on size or placement. Entities are drawn with respect to the last point that has been defined. wherever I start to draw. i. dl=30. ITQ a) How would you specify a line that ended 100 mm higher and 80 mm to the left of the current position? b) How would you specify a line of length 200 mm at 45 deg clockwise from horizontal? 27 . the symbol normally used to represent a small displacement. rectangular coordinates and polar co-ordinates.g. The drawing plane is so large that I have never found myself beginning to fall off the edge. The d in dl stands for ∆ delta. it is easier to specify a line 50 mm long than have to work out the co-ordinates of the end point with respect to the origin. Relative co-ordinates are so useful that Microstation provides two sets.45 This would move to a point at a radius of 50 mm from the current cursor position and at an angle to the horizontal of 45 deg. In both cases the effective origin is the current cursor position on the drawing.

Click in the box adjacent to Primary Tools If Accudraw is already up and running you should either see two data entry boxes near to the bottom of the screen as shown below. click on the Accudraw Toggle button. You should then see the message Start Accudraw point input tool at the bottom of your screen. e. 28 .g. Auto CAD you will perhaps be familiar with these concepts. It is called Accudraw. or the Accudraw window on the screen. That is the Accudraw toggle button.100 b) di=200. Tools 2. It won’t necessarily contain the same numbers as those shown. believe me. and.Answer a) dl=-80.-45 If you have used another CAD program in the past. In fact Microstation has a much better way of drawing than having to work out coordinates. If you can’t see the symbol on your drawing screen do the following:1. If you can’t see either of the Accudraw data entry windows as above. but rather we will move straight on to enjoy the benefits of Accudraw. You should see a symbol comprising a square containing a small circle. while the Accudraw window should open on your screen as shown above. Starting Accudraw Load your standard design file des1. it is the best in the business! You can draw in Microstation using absolute and relative coordinates using keyed in data. The Toggle Accudraw button switches Accudraw on and off. but we won’t waste time with further references to this.

before starting to draw. Figure 1 If you have configured DES1. below the Edit button. without the dimensions. When starting a new drawing.DGN correctly your drawing should be set up to begin drawing on the main level. we are going to draw the object shown in fig. Now use Save As to save the file again as Accu1 to carry out the exercises that follow. Again do not be concerned if the numbers in the boxes are not the same in your example. 1 below.DGN file should be kept as an empty drawing file that can be used to start all of your subsequent work.DGN first and then save the file with a different name. to preserve this set-up of Accudraw to your des1.dgn file.It is convenient when using Accudraw to drag the window down to the bottom of the screen where it will lodge itself out of the way as shown below. Save Settings at this point. You should therefore not begin to overwrite it with extra commands. 29 . I suggest that you File. The level indicator is shown near to the top left hand corner of the screen. always load DES1. Our first task is an easy one. The original DES1. the Default level.

Holding the left mouse button down on the chosen element will cause the extra tools to slide out. It is possible to extract the slide out window and display it on your drawing screen as shown below. then click onto the indicator and change it to Default. Alight on that using the mouse. always select the simple sloping line shown above. That tool then becomes the operative one. Release the mouse button and they will slide back in again. It appears. This is achieved by dragging the window either up or down. Behind each element in the tool box resides a further set of the second row and second column of the tool box. Try this now. The various toolboxes are located to the left of the screen. look at all of the available tools. In order to draw we have to first select the line drawing too. The line drawing symbol should now become the default value in the tool box. Do NOT use the line drawing symbol with the electric light bulb symbol for drawing. I have extracted the line drawing (Linear Elements) window in this way. You can select any of the tools on the slide out bar by moving the cursor over to that tool and then releasing the button. you will find that all but two of the buttons have pull outs.B. on the slide out bar behind the symbol that looks like an electric light bulb . Finally release the button.If it shows a layer other than the Default. N. We want to pick the line drawing symbol. drawn at an angle. It can be replaced by clicking in the top right corner in the normal Windows fashion. along with other line drawing tools (linear elements). It is sometimes useful 30 . hold down the left button and then move the cursor onto the single line symbol shown in below. which is a straight line. and is the tool that is displayed in the main tool box.

You should also see some numbers to the right of the words Length and Angle. Start at the bottom left corner and work round in an anticlockwise direction by choosing to draw the horizontal 200 line first. The simplest is to use the Undo button at the top of the screen. the top right hand corner of the screen is a satisfactory location.g. line) by picking the delete button and selecting the line to be deleted. Alternatively you can delete any one drawing element (e. 31 . let’s consider how to retrieve things if you make a mistake. but you can ignore them. but most of the time they get in the way. You should now see a small box appear on the screen marked Place Line If the box is positioned in an inconvenient spot. We are going to draw the simple component shown below. Check to see that the two little boxes to the left of the words Length and Angle are both empty. Now we can start to draw. drag it out of the have a full set of tools available like this while drawing. There are at least two ways of correcting errors. figure 4 Before taking the plunge. If either or both of them are not click onto the little boxes to empty them as shown below.

32 . while the Y value is locked at 0. Move the cursor so that the line is more horizontal than vertical and press the Enter Key when Accudraw will lock to the horizontal. The Accudraw compass should appear as shown below. Microstation is now expecting you to enter the horizontal length of the line (it knows that you will not be wishing to enter the vertical height as you have constrained the line to be horizontal.) Note how the cursor is flashing in the X box.With the place line tool selected and Accudraw activated click the left mouse button (LMB) near to the bottom left corner of the screen. Your X value will probably be different to mine.0000.

you may or may not be able to see the end of the line. Press the left mouse button (LMB) to accept the line. selecting with the LMB. the length of the line. In my case the end of the line was off the screen and I could only see part of the horizontal line and another line starting from the end of the line whose length and position is controlled by my mouse cursor. Move the cursor over the screen view controls and select the one that looks like a mountain range. to fit your drawing to the view using Fit View. Let’s put that right.Without having to select the X box just type 200. Depending upon the scale at which your screen display has been set. 33 . Microstation works out what you want to do and places that value in the correct place and locks the line to that value. but we cannot see it at present. Now press the right hand mouse button (RMB) when Accudraw will resume drawing where you left off. Accudraw is therefore ready to continue drawing from the end of the previous line.

Note the sequence. Press the RMB to resume and move off to the left to draw the remainder of the figure.Move the cursor vaguely vertical and press Enter when Accudraw will lock to the vertical and Microstation will expect you to type the vertical length of the line. Move vaguely horizontal or vertical to taste. followed by a vertical line 40 long and another horizontal line 100 long. so don’t do this until you have finished! Once you have got so far through the drawing you can start to pick up on points on the geometry that have already been defined. and press Enter to lock. When you are finished drawing the RMB exits the drawing command. which is 100. Draw a horizontal line 50 long. Type in the required value and confirm using the LMB. 34 . Press the LMB to accept this and then fit to the view again (Mountain symbol).

At this stage you want to draw another vertical line that is 40 long. Use the same trick again to fix the length of the 50 long horizontal line by picking the bottom left corner of the view. Finish off by picking the bottom left hand again using the LMB. and you can pick up that length from the existing geometry to the right. 35 . Lock to the vertical using the enter key and then select (LMB) the left end of the short horizontal line that you have already drawn as shown above. and then the RMB to exit the line drawing command.

36 . That method is fine if you want to erase only one or two lines. There are a number of ways to erase lines. At this stage you can either click the left button again to accept that the line should be deleted. There is a faster way. I will show you two methods. Now click onto any one of the lines using the left button. Click onto the Zoom Out button and click at the centre of the screen. or press the right button to reset the command without deleting the line. First we will shrink our drawing a bit. In this case we will delete the line by clicking the left button. the line should become highlighted in red. First click onto the erase symbol button. before drawing it again for practice.Erasing Lines We are going to erase the drawing that you have just created. but a bit tedious if you have a lot of erasing to do.

all of the points being where you intend them to be.What I intend to do is to erect a fence around all of the elements to be erased and then to erase the contents of the fence. you will encounter it again when we learn how to move or copy sections of drawings. click the left button. Finally slide out the fence button when a single click on it will remove the fence. Click on the erase fence button. Having erased the drawing. for example the end of an existing line. Erase Fence Contents The concept of the fence is used extensively in CAD. Click onto the draw fence button and then position the cursor above and to the left of the top left hand corner of your drawing. 37 . They ensure that your drawing is produced accurately. Fence Button Now go back to the fence symbol and hold it down until the remainder of the related command buttons slide out. Continue to draw and erase until you can do so without reference to the notes. Using Snaps What is a snap? It is a position to which the cursor will snap to. You should now have drawn a fence around the drawing. Now click anywhere on the screen and the contents should disappear. Click again. Now drag the cursor down to below and to the right of the bottom right hand corner of your drawing. Resist at all costs the temptation to guess at the starting point for a line or other drawing element. It is impossible to over emphasise the importance of using snaps in CAD. try to draw it again.

but we will not be including dimensions in this exercise. ( If you want to see the range of snaps as in you should click on the Keypoint button which resides near to the bottom centre of the screen. Because Keypoint is the default there is no need to specifically select it. Now we will draw a more complex shape. when a menu of the snaps will appear. The finished drawing is shown below. Keypoint will cause Microstation to snap onto the end or midpoint of a line or arc.The default snap is keypoint. 38 . It will also snap to the centre and four quadrants of a circle. and radii. it is normally ready for use. Then choose Button Bar to obtain the contents. involving a circle. which is the third symbol in from the left in the figure above. an arc.).

A cross should appear on the intersection at the corner. while Microstation’s automatic fillet radius command will be used to draw the two radii. choose the arc button shown below. We will start by drawing a rectangle 150 long by 100 high. Remember a convenient way to do this is to draw a fence around it and then use the delete fence contents command. 39 . Move to the approximate middle point of the right vertical line and snap to the mid point of the line which is the arc centre. You are now asked to identify the centre of the arc. A construction line will be used to determine the position of the centre of the circle. Place the cursor near to the top right hand corner of the rectangle. You will be asked to identify the first arc endpoint. We will complete the drawing by including the three centre lines. To draw the arc. Accept this by pressing the left hand mouse button. Next we will draw the arc at the right hand end.First erase your previous drawing.

Finally do the same at the arc end point, at the bottom of the vertical line. Your drawing should now look like that shown below

Accept the point with the LMB and leave the Arc command with the RMB.

Using Levels We will now draw a construction line to help determine the position of the circle. If you recall we arranged in the last lesson to use level two for our construction lines. To make use of that facility we must change the active level. At the top left of the screen will be found a small inverted triangle with the name of the current level alongside it. This should indicate that we are currently using the Default level. If we click the mouse onto


the triangle and hold the button down we will see a table of the levels appear. The mouse can then be used to select the required level. We want the construction level.

The circle centre is located on the mid point of a line joining the mid points of the two horizontal sides of the drawing. Select the line drawing button and then snap to the bottom mid point, finish the line by snapping to the top mid point. If you used the colours that I advocated in the first lesson this line should be shown in blue.

Now to draw the circle. It will be necessary to first switch back to the default level, as the circle is not a construction line.

Pick the circle drawing tool as shown above. Set the diameter to 60 (or the radius to 30, don’t confuse the two!)


It will request that the centre be specified, snap onto the mid point of the construction line to achieve this.

Now erase the right hand vertical line.

If all has gone according to plan your drawing should look like that shown above. Fillet Radii Now for the radii at the two remaining corners. Microstation provides a useful automatic fillet radius tool that makes light work of this. We first have to tell the program what fillet radius we want and then indicate which parts are to be filleted!


43 . You have to select each line in turn when the fillet will be drawn. Next click onto the Truncate box and select Both. Click into the Radius box and change the value to 20. To place a fillet radius required two clicks of the left mouse button. Repeat the exercise to obtain the top left fillet. You should now have a drawing that looks like that shown below. Note that this frequently used set of commands can be replaced by the more convenient CTRL E key press (pressing the control and E keys simultaneously).Select the fillet tool from the Modify section of the main toolbox which is located at the bottom right hand of the toolbox. Our next tasks are to switch off the construction line and to draw the centre lines. A further small window should appear entitled “Construct Circular Fillet”.0000. It is possible to switch the construction line off and switch to the centre line level using the following:Select the Settings pull down menu. followed by Level. followed by the left hand vertical straight line. Click onto the bottom horizontal line. and then Display.

I have chosen an overlap of 15 mm. In order to draw neat centre lines it is a good idea to ensure that they overlap the drawing by a fixed amount on all sides. Close the level control window. to the right 75+50+15=140. therefore that to the left will be 75+15= 90 long.Switch the Construction level off (one click) and make Centre the current level (two clicks). and the vertical lines will be 50+15=65 above and below the circle centre. 44 . It is convenient to draw the centre lines starting from the circle centre (to which the cursor should snap).

It will be necessary to locate the arc centre for this purpose. Don’t forget to press the Enter key to lock to the vertical. and I will use another snap to do that. Touch the cursor on to any point on the arc. 45 . Draw the other half of the centre line to finish the job.The last centre line to be drawn is the vertical line through the centre of the arc. while the length of the centre line can be picked off the circle centre line as shown below. First select the Draw Line command and then pick the snap icon at the base of the screen and choose the Centre snap. when cursor will snap to the arc centre. LMB to accept and then draw the centreline upwards from the arc centre point.

it comes from practice. 19. The Bad News and the Good News The bad news is that there is no short route to competence in CAD . erase this drawing and do it again!! Don’t read the instructions unless you get stuck.ITQ You should know the drill by now. The good news is that it is quite an enjoyable pursuit. Figure 19 Hints:• Use snaps 46 . particularly with Bartok or the Beatles on the “phones” and a nice cup of coffee on your desk (but not on the desks in the University computer rooms please!). SAQ 1 Draw the bracket shown in fig. Include centre lines but don’t try to add dimensions.

20.• Draw a vertical construction line from the mid point of the base to the circle centre. Summary Having completed this lesson you should be able to:• • • • • • understand and use accudraw draw lines. Don’t try to draw the cross indicating the intersection of the top horizontal and right sloping lines. circles and arcs erase sections of the drawing use a snap to accurately locate features of your drawing use the circular fillet command use levels for different linetypes Bryan Attewell 02/08/2005 47 . Figure 20. • Draw a construction circle of diameter 40 using the end of the vertical construction line as a centre. Show the centre lines but not the dimensions. SAQ 2 Draw the shape shown in fig.

In addition. and then select OK. You can change the snap mode for the next operation by bringing up the snap menu and clicking on the required snap. I suggest that you draw a rectangle about 250 wide by about 200 high. the snap mode can be changed for the next operation only by typing a single letter at the keyboard. The sequence is as follows:Open the Settings pull down menu and select Design File. but. a single key press will change the snap mode. 48 . e. Now choose Snaps. Microstation will revert back to the default. normally Keypoint snap. A Return to the SNAP In the 2D lessons we learned that the snaps (Keypoint. It is sometimes useful to be able to change the default and Microstation allows this as well. resetting the drawing origin.which allows different settings of the divisor to be adopted. When the focus is with Accudraw. if the default Keypoint snap is chosen. This will ensure that you are not running out of screen while learning to use Accudraw. Choose the snap mode that you want as the new default... Don’t forget to set it back to Keypoint. I. Drawing with respect to a point Using Accudraw We will begin using Accudraw to draw the cottage depicted below. This lesson extends the use of Accudraw by considering more advanced use of snaps. and then fit the view (the button that looks like a mountain range) before deleting your rectangle. One method is to change the design file setting. Midpoint.. and aligning the Accudraw compass to existing lines.CAD Lesson 3 – More Accudraw Introduction The previous lesson introduced basic drawing commands using Accudraw. or N keys respectively. Intersection and Nearest snaps can be selected in this way by choosing the C. Intersection etc. Using Accudraw. Midpoint. Now let’s consider using snaps with Accudraw. before we start. Microstation responds by opening the Keypoint Snap Divisor window . Microstation defaults to a particular snap mode. We will explore the use of snaps using Accudraw in some of the examples that follow. When that operation is completed.g. The Centre.) are essential tools for accurate drawing.

Button Assignments. Tentative snap allows you to snap to a point without committing to drawing anything there. e. • Tentatively snap to a location with respect to which you want to set the new origin • When you are satisfied that the tentative snap is in the correct position press the O (Origin) key. or vice versa.g. We will snap to the bottom left hand corner of the cottage. the line drawing tool. the tentative snap has been set to the middle mouse button. Accudraw allows us to set up a new drawing origin with respect to any other point on the drawing and to start to draw from there. The computers at the University have been set up differently. • Move the cursor in the X or Y direction and key in the required offset in that direction. If you are working at home and have a three button mouse I suggest that you set the tentative snap to the middle mouse button. As they use a three button mouse. In order to do this you need to use the “Tentative Snap” command. To set a new origin using Accudraw • Choose a drawing tool. Use Workspace. and then define a new origin at the bottom left corner of the left hand window. The windows are a slightly more difficult proposition. do that now • When you are satisfied that the new origin is defined correctly press the LMB • Accudraw is now set at the new origin and is ready to continue to draw the selected feature 49 .Figure 4 Start by drawing the rectangular outline of the house 150 x 80. or tracker ball. do not press the enter key or any buttons • If you have offset X and wish to offset Y. The Accudraw compass will appear. When Microstation is shipped the tentative snap is obtained by pressing the left and right hand mouse buttons simultaneously.

That’s the theory. now let’s put it into practice : - Tentatively snap to the bottom left corner of the cottage. Now move the cursor upwards. Accudraw is now waiting for you to define the position of the new origin. and can go ahead and draw the 30 square window in a similar way to that used for the main body of the cottage . or a mouse button). your drawing should look like that shown above. Move the cursor to the right and type in 15 (do not press enter. Accudraw remembers your last move ! 50 . and type 30. Press O (for Origin). and you can start again. Use the LMB to confirm that you are at the desired origin.but read the next paragraph first! If you make a mistake the RMB will reset the move. which will be 15 units to the right and 30 up. You should have successfully defined the start point of the left hand window.

Repeat the procedure to draw the right hand window and the door. as all of the dimensions are the same at 30 units. This makes the central horizontal line at the apex of the roof 150 . This can be used to advantage in drawing the window. snap to the top left corner of the rectangular main block. Use Accudraw to move 40 units to the right and 40 up.40 = 70 units long. You will note that the angle that the sloping part of the roof makes to the horizontal is 45 deg. to cause Accudraw to align itself with the current View. This is a handy trait in many circumstances.You might have noticed that Accudraw remembers the last dimension used. Simple geometry tells us that the left sloping part of the roof must end 40 units to the right of its start point. You will notice that Accudraw has swivelled round to align itself with the sloping line.40 . Again using the Place Line command. forming a T shape at the end of the line. when the cursor is in that approximate position. but not now. You can also see that the top of the roof is 40 units above the top of the main part of the building. and locking onto that distance. Press V. The roof is slightly more difficult. 51 . LMB to confirm.

Confirm with the LMB when Accudraw snaps to the correct point vertically beneath the start of your line. Now for the chimney. 52 . This feature can save you loads of time. Snappy Drawing The Nearest and Intersection snaps can be chosen by pressing N or I when the focus is in the Accudraw window. The final vertical line is drawn as follows. and then 40 across and down. before moving to any point on the sloping roof line.You can now continue to draw the roof. locking Accudraw onto the vertical axis. Now press N. to change to the Nearest snap. 70 across. Both the ability to offset the drawing point and the Nearest Snap are very useful drawing tools. Snap to the top right corner of the rectangular section of the cottage. If you learn nothing else about Accudraw then be sure that you remember this. Draw a vertical line 40 up. Start the line as normal. Erase your house and redraw it until you can do so without reference to the notes. and a horizontal line 10 across to the left.

Press the enter key. Start another line to the left of your sloping lines and move in the direction of them. Now press N for the Nearest Snap and tentatively select one of the lines you are heading for. You will have selected the Intersection snap allowing you to snap directly to the intersection of the two lines. Don't just read this .Try this. Move away from them and start to draw a third line. Press the I key after the Accudraw compass appears. You will have drawn a horizontal line that stops precisely at one of the sloping lines. that will lock Accudraw to the horizontal. Press the left mouse button to confirm. Draw two sloping intersecting it! 53 .

but let’s do this again so there can be no mistake. 54 . the Enter key toggles the axis lock on and off. Use Accudraw and the axis lock to draw vertical and horizontal lines that end at the same vertical or horizontal positions as the ends of the sloping line. You need to press I to select the Intersection snap.Locking Accudraw On to an Axis We have already seen how Accudraw will lock to a vertical or horizontal axis when the Enter key is pressed. but chose the point of intersection as the required x or y co-ordinate position for the end of your horizontal or vertical line. Draw a sloping line near to the bottom of the screen and then start another line somewhere near the top. The figure below shows what I mean. You have also seen how you can pick up a dimension from somewhere else on the screen once the axis is locked. Now draw two intersecting sloping lines near the bottom of the screen and repeat the above exercise. If you press Enter a second time the lock will be released.

The dotted line indicates the locus of the end point of the line. Now tentatively select the bottom right point and then press X. Again. in this case the bottom right point of the V. The diagrams illustrate the way in which Accudraw can be made to lock onto a distance or angle associated with another point on the drawing. snap to the bottom left hand end of the left hand sloping line. using the place line tool. Use the place line tool to draw an inverted V similar to that shown in the figure below. the inverted V shape was drawn first. The line is constrained to end at the X co-ordinate position of the selected point. then the place line tool used to start a new line at the bottom left point of the V shape. This will select the X lock. 55 .Locking distances or an angle using Accudraw In the four examples that follow.

represented by the circular compass.Proceed as before but this time the Distance lock is selected by pressing the D key. The Y lock is selected by pressing the Y key. The line is constrained to be at the angle subtended by the chosen point. The Accudraw compass has changed from Cartesian to Polar co-ordinate setting. 56 . The line is constrained to be a radius of length the distance to the selected point. The line is constrained to end at the Y coordinate position of the selected point The angle lock is selected by pressing the A key.

but if you want to change the orientation of the Accudraw compass more permanently you need to use a slightly different approach. Draw any sloping line. This is fine if you just want to draw only one line or element. and ready to draw starting at the first point selected. The Accudraw compass will pivot about the point that you have selected. The compass is now aligned with the line. You can align the Accudraw compass to any line in order to facilitate this. The Accudraw compass is now aligned to the line and will remain so until such time as you press V (align to View). Snap to the other end of the line. 57 . Now press R (Rotate) followed by Q (Quick). Choose the Place Line command and snap to one end of your line. Pick the left hand end of the sloping line and then type RA (Rotate Accudraw coordinate system).Figure 13 Aligning The Accudraw Compass to Any Line It is often necessary to draw a line at a specified angle to an existing sloping line. Snap to the other end of the line.

and blending radii in one continuous line to provide a single profile element.Accudraw and Smartline When you start to draw 3D objects. A very useful drawing tool that enables you to do this is Smartline. Smartline allows you to combine lines. there is often a requirement to produce a profile of the part in 2D and then project or extrude the profile in the third dimension. 58 . arcs. In brief.

Sharp Rounding Radius . For the current job you should check that the Smartline tool is configured such that :Segment type . I would therefore recommend that you stick to the simple Place Line tool for 2Dwork. We will now draw the simple profile shown below using both Smartline and Accudraw. You will find. however. while not all of the normal line manipulation commands work with it. When drawing with Smartline you can undo the last point placement by pressing the Control (Ctrl) and Z keys simultaneously. displays the Place Smartline window also shown in that figure.X You can use Smartline in 2D as well of course. the line and arc tools. when selected. that it does not have the same range of snaps available that the simpler tools provide.does not matter in this case Join Elements . for example.Smartline is selected using the button shown and. where it can replace. this is normally written Ctrl Z.Lines Vertex Type . 59 .

Do not press enter. or the RMB. What follows seems a trifle longwinded. The finished profile will be one complete profile element. and I suggest that you practice until you can do the drawing without reference to the notes. Accudraw normally defaults to the Cartesian coordinate system. 60 .We are going to start at the bottom left hand corner. and then draw the features up the sloping line. and end up with the circular polar co-ordinates version selected. You will see that not only has the Accudraw compass become circular. If you make a mistake. In practice it can be done very quickly. Select Smartline and. until the job is complete. and try again. followed by the vertical line. pressing the space bar toggles between Cartesian and polar coordinates. Try this now. use Ctrl Z to undo the last point. and finally complete the drawing with the bottom horizontal line. but the co-ordinate readout now features a distance and an angle. after ensuring that Accudraw is active. rather than the X and Y of the Cartesian system. or you will come out of the Smartline tool. click the LMB to choose a convenient place to draw the figure.

Type in the angle 30 and confirm with the LMB. Now move the cursor in direction of the arc centre and key in 10. 18). Accept the locked dimension with the LMB. The next task is to draw the semi circle. This transfers the focus from the length to the angular co-ordinate in the Accudraw key in window. Accudraw has remembered the 15 dimension. accept with the LMB. accepting with the LMB. key in 15 and confirm with the LMB. which is also 10 long. Accudraw will lock to 10 when you get near it. Draw the final section of the sloping line. and then for the next section of the sloping line. Go to the Smartline window and change the Segment type from lines to arcs. Repeat the process for the third side of the square. Move a further 10. and will lock onto that dimension when you are near to it. 61 . Press the down arrow key. the position of the arc centre. and accept the end of the arc. Press the space bar to return to Cartesian co-ordinates.Key in the length 50. Now move at right angles in the direction of the next line (fig. Now draw the square cut out by moving the cursor in the direction of the first line. and that it has aligned itself with the line. Notice that Accudraw has now positioned itself at the end of the sloping line. Change back from arcs to lines. do not press return.

Accept with the LMB. Press V to change the orientation to that of the current view. Move back until Accudraw locks to the vertical position and accept with the LMB. Press Y to tell Accudraw that you have selected the required Y co-ordinate for your line. Accudraw will assist here. Clever things with Smartline Now change the Smartline Settings such that :Vertex Type .e.5 Draw the figure again and see what you get ! You will note that Smartline has automatically provided circular fillets of radius 5 at the junction of the lines. Fear not. and when you move away from the tentative point you should find that your line is now constrained to the required Y position.Rounded Rounding Radius . Figure 19 62 . i.Now we want to change the orientation of Accudraw away from that of the line we have been working along and back to that of the view. but we don’t know its length. Move the cursor to the bottom of the sloping line and select that as a tentative point. The Accudraw compass swivels round to line up with the co-ordinate system of the view. We now have to draw the vertical line. RMB to finish the job. Now erase it and draw it again ! Do this until you can draw the figure without reference to the notes. A little cross should appear alongside the Y co-ordinate in the Accudraw window. Figure 19 shows this. Finally move horizontally back to the start point and use the tentative keypoint snap to lock onto it. normal Cartesian coordinates.

I suggest that you spend a bit of time with Accudraw and the Smartline command drawing various profiles. but remember that not all of the commands that apply to the place line tool are available to Smartline. Once you are familiar with Accudraw you will not want to switch it off. for the next operation only. I. as it will become an invaluable drawing aid. For that reason I would recommend that you do not use it in 2D drawing. You may prefer to use Smartline rather than the ordinary place line command. N or K when the focus is in the Accudraw window Summary Having completed the lesson you should be able to:• Use Accudraw to assist in drawing • Use Smartline to produce complex profiles formed from a single element Bryan Attewell 02 August 2005 63 . Y. D or A keys • to change the Accudraw origin. Accudraw – Key Points A few key things to remember about Accudraw:• the space bar toggles between Cartesian and polar co-ordinates • pressing V restores the orientation of the compass to the co-ordinate system of the view • you can move between the two Accudraw text input windows using the up and down arrow keys • you can lock onto a co-ordinate position by tentatively selecting it and pressing the X. by typing C. press O and then enter the co-ordinates of the new origin relative to the known point • You can change the snap. until you feel that you have mastered the technique. tentatively snap to a known point.

Figure Q1 2) Draw the figure Q2 using Accudraw Figure Q2 Hint . 3) Figure Q3 shows the end view of an aluminium alloy extrusion that is to be used as a track for the sliding doors of a fitted wardrobe system.Draw the triangle first.Self Assessment Questions 1) Draw the figure Q1 using Accudraw Hint . You will have to start in polar oordinate mode and then transfer to rectangular coordinates. Draw the profile as a single element using Accudraw and Smartline. then align the accudraw compass with each one of the sloping lines in turn to construct each rectangle. 64 .use Accudraw to set the origin of the smaller rectangle. The thickness of the material is 3 mm. while all radii are 1 mm.

Addison. Little. User’s Guide. Bentley Systems. ISBN 0 9586831-1-5 [3] Microstation 95. Adage Books.Figure Q3 Bibliography [1] K. 1997.R. Pen and Brush.. Microstation 3D by Examples 2nd Ed. 65 . 1995. Inside Accudraw. 1997 ISBN 1-885315-33-3 [2] N.

Microstation allows you to either move your first line.CAD Lesson 4 . or copy it to the new location. The move/copy parallel to tool is selected using the button containing two parallel wavy lines as show. draw lines that are parallel to existing lines trim and extend lines use more snap commands mirror.More Tricks Introduction This lesson builds upon the previous one where you learned a few simple drawing commands. 66 . copy and move sections of your drawing add text to a drawing divide an element into a series of equal sections produce a standard drawing border use the axis lock Drawing Lines Parallel to Existing Lines It is often useful to be able to draw a line or a curve parallel to another one. Aims At the end of this lesson you should be able to:• • • • • • • • • zoom and pan into the section of your drawing that you want to see. offset by a fixed distance. Having selected the Move/Copy Parallel tool then a new window should appear. In this lesson you will be learn some more useful commands and find out how to produce a print of your work. First find the Manipulate tool bar from near to the bottom right of the main tools menu on the left of the screen.

Original drawing 67 . e. This is achieved by clicking in the Distance box and entering the required distance. Experiment with this now. while the right mouse button causes the process to cease. Press the right mouse button to terminate making copies of the selected element. Try that now. and makes a copy to one side or the other. or very close to the original element. and to achieve this it is necessary to click within the Make Copy box.The most frequently used form of this command is copy parallel. After selecting the element to copy.g. You may find that your drawing has been made to such a scale that the 20 mm offset is off the screen. Moving the mouse from one side to the other causes the copy to move accordingly. Now that the offset distance has been set to 20 you can select which side of the element to offset by moving the mouse. When you are satisfied that your copy is in the required position press the left mouse button to confirm. Microstation will invite you to select an element to move/copy. It is most useful to be able to offset elements by a known distance. in those cases change the distance to a more appropriate quantity. 20 mm. You will see that first click of the left mouse button identifies the element to be copied by highlighting it in red. each press of the left mouse button causes a copy to be drawn.

so the cutting element will be the line CD. Identify. The program now asks us to Accept. Click onto the part of AB above X.After copying parallel In the sketch above I have shown the result of offsetting the line and the circle by a fixed amount. Trim Element > Select Cutting Element. First choose the Trim Element tool as shown in fig. and trim CD to CX. Microstation asks for the information. We are next going to use Microstation’s trim and extend commands. Confirm with a further click of the left button. 68 . 10. We will then trim the line through the circle so that it remains as a chord of the circle only. Try to do the same. I intend to trim the line BA first. Trimming and Extending Lines Erase all elements of your drawing and draw that shown above – ignore the characters just draw the lines and circle. Trim Element/Reject. Repeat the exercise using BX as the cutting element. In the first instance we will trim the two lines intersecting at X so that they no longer extend above X. Select the line CD when it will be highlighted in a different colour to that of the active level.

and then hold down the Control (Ctrl) key while selecting line CC. Use the Element selection tool (looks like an arrow head) to select line BB. and cut out the central section of the line AA. Your drawing should now look like that below. 69 . Both lines should be coloured differently at this stage. It is possible to nominate more than one line as the cutting element.Finally select the circle as the cutting element and trim each end of the line FG. Consider the diagram below: - We can choose both of the lines BB and CC.

70 . The section between the lines BB and CC should be deleted.Now click on the Trim Elements tool and then pick a point on the central section of AA. It is certainly very useful to be able to extend elements in drawing. Extending Elements Perhaps the opposite of trimming is extending. I intend to demonstrate this by extending the chord of the circle until it touches one of the sloping lines above.

Pick the chord within the circle and then the circle itself. The MIRROR command will produce a mirror image of a section of a drawing. shown highlighted above. 71 . This extend element to intersection command can also be used to trim lines. Do this by clicking on the chord of the circle. Finally accept that point when the line will be drawn as shown below. You will be invited to select the element to be extended. You will note that it is symmetrical about both the x and y axes. as we can then use Microstation’s MIRROR command to complete the task. the element that you want to extend to. Next click onto the lower sloping line.First choose the button to Extend an element to intersection. As a result of this we only need to draw one quarter of the shaft. Mirror We are going to draw the shaft shown below. The line will be trimmed to the intersection of the chord and the circle.

dgn. In this case all of the drawing. We are now going to produce a mirror image of this section about the x-axis. The steps are as follows:• tell Microstation what part of the drawing we want to mirror. Don’t attempt to draw the diagonal lines representing the flats at this stage. and then use the circular fillet tool to finish the job. Choose the draw fence button and draw a fence right round the drawing.Open file des1.dgn and save as shaft. Start by drawing one quarter of the shaft as shown below. • now choose the Mirror tool and select Make Copy and Use Fence in the mirror window. Draw it using straight lines. 72 .

Using the view commands The view commands are displayed at the bottom of the drawing window but you might want to open a larger window showing these commands using Tools. It is essential when using CAD to use the view commands to ensure that you always have a large enough image to be sure that you are drawing accurately.• make sure that the parameter Line is chosen from the Mirror About selection. and Inside is chosen from the Use Fence selection • observe the instruction. Don’t forget to press the right mouse button to complete the mirror command. • pick each end of the horizontal centre line in turn. • re-select the draw fence command. Don’t worry about adding the dimensions at this stage. 73 . View Control We can use your last drawing to practice some of the viewing commands. Mirror Fence Contents About Line (Copy)>Enter First point on mirror line (or reject). which will cause the existing fence to disappear • the result should appear shown below Now draw the diagonal lines to represent the flats on the left hand end of the shaft. before using the mirror again to draw a mirror image about the right hand vertical centre line. and then press the right button to end the command.

I have selected the View Window button.they look like magnifying glasses containing a + or . 74 . You should now see an enlarged view of your choice. You can restore the view using the Update View button. This looks like a large arrow. Try them now. Restore the view using the Fit View button. You try that now when you will see the command Window Area>Define first corner point Choose to zoom in on the left hand end of the shaft by picking a point above and to the left of the required area and then a second point below and to the right of it. Pick the Undo View command button (anticlockwise pointing arrow. Try it now.The window above shows the complete set of view control commands.respectively. If you get stuck pick the Fit View button (looks like a mountain range) to restore a view of your entire drawing. Finally we can try the Pan command button. third button from the right) to return to the original view. You can see an enlarged or reduced view by choosing the Zoom In or Zoom Out buttons . When you erase sections of the drawing you may find that some of the elements that you want to remain are partially erased. Try zooming to different windows. Using this command you can drag your view in any direction. it looks like a paintbrush.

The drawing above shows a view on a cover plate held in place by four M8 studs.Copying and Moving It is possible to copy or move either individual elements or groups of elements. nuts and washers. The sequence of events is as follows:• • • • identify an element or elements (using a fence) to be copied or moved select either the Copy or Move tool from the Manipulate menu (fig. 20) identify a data point on the element or group of elements to act as the origin identify a second data point to which the move or copy will be made. The copy tool is shown selected. the move tool is that to its immediate right. We will draw this view by following the steps:• draw the cover plate 75 .

In that chapter are given the dimensions of most common fasteners. 76 . or possibly designing a spanner. should you need to consult the detailed tables of exact dimensions. a Radius of 8. We don’t need to know the height of the nut in this case. specify 6 Edges. I suggest that you draw it off the view of the cover plate. The approximate dimensions are all based upon the nominal thread size D. Finally use the Circular Fillet tool to round the corners of the plate. Draw the polygon to the side of your cover plate. Find the Polygons slide out tool box from the main tool box. Choose the Place Regular Polygon tool. Then draw the centre lines .I suggest that you use the Copy Parallel tool to help construct the centre lines. It is conventional to line the hexagon up with the vertical or horizontal axis. and the Inscribed Method. Only in the circumstances of having to fit a fastener into a very tight space.dgn.dgn and save as cplate. along with a set of approximate sizes for constructing a generic nut. Thus the hexagon has an across the corners dimension of 2D. You will find a useful chapter in your Manual of Engineering Drawing entitled Nuts. Next you can tackle the nut and washer. so the hexagon is inscribed in a circle of diameter 16. bolts. Our nut has nominal size M8 (metric 8 mm). Open the file des1.8D.• draw the centre lines of the studs • draw one nut/washer/stud assembly • copy the nut assembly onto the four positions on the cover plate. These last values are very useful as they are adequate for most purposes. screws and washers. Start by drawing the cover plate as a rectangle. given as 0.

The figure above shows the stages in drawing the nut and washer. You will only be drawing the nut once of course. After drawing the hexagon, choose the diameter button and select to fit by diameter. Pick up the key points that are the mid points of the bottom and top lines of the hexagon to draw the circle inscribed within the hexagon. Next draw the washer at a diameter of 2D or 16 mm, and a smaller circle of diameter 7 mm. Finally draw the arc representing the major diameter of the thread at 8mm.

The next task is to copy the nut assembly to each of the four locations on the cover plate. Draw a fence around the nut and then select the Copy button. Make sure that Use Fence is selected on the copy pull down menu. Pick the circle centre as the origin for the move and then select the intersection of the centre lines for the position of the copied nut assembly (use the Intersection snap). You can copy the assembly to the remaining three positions to obtain a drawing like that shown. Save your drawing.

A Standard Drawing Border All engineering detail and assembly drawings should be displayed on a standard drawing sheet that should include a projection symbol, and normally includes the number and title of the part, the material specification, the name of the draughtsperson, and the date on which it was released. A useful addition is a grid system of letters and numbers that allows a small section of the drawing to be defined, perhaps during a phone conversation. Different companies have their own house styles of drawing border, and I have no objection to your using your company standard. BS308 specifies standard sizes of drawing paper as follows:A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 210x297 297x420 420x594 594x841 841x1189

We must allow space for the plotting device to grip the paper, a 10 mm border should be sufficient.


I will talk you through the drawing of an A3 size drawing frame and it will then be up to you to draw your own for the other sizes. The finished product is shown overleaf as fig 31. 1. Open your des1.dgn file and save as a3.dgn 2. Draw a rectangle 277 by 400. 3. The title block is 80 wide and each section is 20 high. Use the Accudraw and the copy parallel commands to construct it. Divide the lower section into two. 4. Copy parallel the top horizontal and left vertical lines by 5 to begin to produce the grid reference boxes. Trim the two offset lines where they cross at the top left hand corner of the drawing.

5. Draw the projection symbol in the bottom right box of the title block. Note that the relative dimensions of the parts are given as Fig. 4.8 in the Manual of Engineering Drawing. I have drawn a first angle symbol, you may prefer to draw a third angle symbol, it does not matter provided that you are consistent. Draw the projection symbol anywhere on the screen, only when it is complete move it into the space within the title block as shown below.



6. Now enter the text within the title block. Use the text entry button fig. 25. You will have to open up the lower section of the Place Text window by clicking on the small arrow head at the bottom right of the window.

Figure 25 I set the text height and width as 3 mm, which seems to be about right for this job. Enter the text in the text editor window (fig. 26) and then place it carefully on your drawing using the mouse. If you are not satisfied with the placement, use the move command to shift the text.

Figure 26 Complete the title block in this way.


7. The final task is to complete the reference grid. Microstation provides a useful command to divide a line into an equal number of sections. It is called Construct Points Between Data Points and the appropriate button is shown in fig. 27. If we accept the default point type, which is a zero length element, then we will not be able to see the points that have been generated. One way round this is to change the level to type Construction before carrying out this command, so that the points will be drawn on a different level, and in a different colour to the remainder of the drawing. I have elected to choose ten points in total, so as to give nine equal sections along the length of the element.

Figure 27 Use this command to divide the top side of the rectangular drawing frame into nine sections. Choose each end of the lower of the two horizontal lines to indicate the element to be divided.

Now switch off the main drawing and centre levels, and use the Fit View button to zoom into the points that you have drawn at the left hand end of the line.


draw a fence around them and use the Change Element Attributes button to change the construction lines to lines on the main drawing level.Use the Place Line command to draw two 5 mm long vertical lines from each of the leftmost two construction dots. The next part of this job is to insert the letters and numbers in the centres of the boxes. I decided to draw a construction line between the midpoint of each of the two 5 mm lines 82 . Having drawn the two lines. Don’t forget to switch off the Length and Angle boxes when you have drawn the two 5 mm lines. If you set the angle and length of the line as shown it will be a simple matter to draw each line in turn.

83 . and finally copy the last A only to obtain the full nine. Once the construction line has been erased we can use the copy command to replicate the central character A and the rightmost 5 mm line along the top of the drawing enable me to fix the centre spot. Then copy the four to give eight. The letter A can then be entered using Place Text and the default keypoint snap. Copy both of these letters in the same way to obtain a total of 4 instances. You may have to change the default angle from 90 to 0 degrees to avoid having the letter lying on its side. We can now edit the characters to give a series from A through to I using the Edit Text button.

N. scaling the border to fit.B. We expect that you will always submit engineering drawings enclosed by a drawing frame. 84 . Always work this way.Now repeat the operations above to obtain the vertical grid of numbers to the left of the drawing. In a later lesson you will learn that it is possible to drop a drawing border onto a finished drawing.. I used eight points to give seven grid boxes. don’t start with a border and try to scale your drawing to fit. although the particular detail of the frame is up to you.

but remember this useful feature for future reference. The menu will disappear and a little message Locks= AX. 2) Draw the shaft shown in fig. If you have access to a CAD plotter able to accommodate larger sizes of paper then it might be a good idea to draw some larger borders as appropriate. You might decide to provide fewer grid positions. it is also useful if you want your nuts and bolt heads to be aligned etc. 85 . When the axis lock is selected all of the elements that you draw will line up with the horizontal or vertical axes. I would suggest that you use the same size of title block etc that were used in the A3 example in the text. Self Assessment Questions 1) Produce an A4 sized standard drawing frame. Do not try to include the dimensions. The axis lock comes into its own when you are drawing orthogonal views and want to project lines between the views. There are other locks. Click in the position of the lock symbol and switch the Axis lock off. . you should see a pop up menu which includes the Axis and Grid locks. Select the Axis lock by clicking on the word Axis. should appear. but it can always brought back into play by a mouse click in its approximate location. perhaps the most useful of them being the axis lock. Q2. Try it now. The most convenient way to access the axis lock is by the little lock symbol normally found near to the bottom of the screen.Using the Axis Lock You might remember that when we configured your drawing DES1 initially we decided to switch the grid lock off. Now there are occasions when this symbol is overwritten by Microstation.

• Use the mirror command where possible.Fig. copy and move sections of your drawing add text to a drawing divide an element into a series of equal sections produce a standard drawing border use the axis lock Bryan Attewell 02/08/2005 86 . Q2 Hints:• Use the Help command to determine how to automatically Construct Chamfers. draw lines that are parallel to existing lines trim and extend lines mirror. • Assume that the minor diameters of the 10 and 20 mm threads are 8 and 17 respectively Summary Having completed this lesson you should be able to:• • • • • • • • zoom and pan into the section of your drawing that you want to see.

You can isolate the construction line layer. without fear of erasing the main drawing lines. Note the use of a line drawn at 45 degrees to turn the lines from the plan view into the end elevation. It is possible to switch the construction line layer off when the time comes to plot the drawing.CAD Lesson 5 . 3. In the example above. 87 . Using a separate layer for construction lines has three advantages: 1.Projected Views and Ellipses Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the basic use of construction lines in producing four views. the proportions of the top left view have been obtained entirely by the use of construction lines. Note that a different layer has been used for the construction lines. which means that construction lines can be easily deleted. so you are unlikely to confuse the two sets of lines. 2. The lines can be of a different colour and thickness to the main drawing lines.

then the centre of the arc will lie on a circle whose centre is at the point and whose radius is equal to the arc’s radius If the arc is to touch a line. This is termed an auxiliary projection. Drawing arcs and circles to touch particular points on the drawing It is often necessary to draw arcs between particular points. then the following simple rules should be followed: • • • If the arc is to pass through a point. The width. In order to obtain accurate dimensions off features on sloping surfaces it is normally necessary to draw an auxiliary projection. height. If you know the radius that you want to use. and construction lines can be used to assist in this process. Rather than use construction lines for auxiliary projections you can make use of the Accudraw Rotate Axis command – demonstrated in an earlier lesson. then the centre of the arc will lie on a line drawn parallel to the original line whose perpendicular distance from the line is equal to the arc’s radius.In many cases it is quicker to avoid using construction lines. but you should be aware of the technique for those occasions when there is no alternative. if we draw the construction circles or lines as appropriate. then where the two constructions intersect. Referring to figure 1 above. A few graphical examples should make this clear: - 88 . we have an arc centre point that satisfies the requirements of both points. Auxiliary Projection Note that the only true view of the semi-circular cut occurs on the projection of the sloping surface at 90 degrees to the surface as shown in the top right view. Given that the arc must touch two points. in the plan view and end elevation the semi circular cut has to be drawn as an half ellipse. and centre of the feature are defined by construction lines while the ellipse feature of the CAD program takes care of the rest. Circles on Sloping Surfaces Circles only appear truly circular if viewed head on. A circle projected onto a sloping surface will appear distorted in the direction of the slope and has to be drawn as an ellipse.

and was tangential to the long horizontal line. and whose radius is also 20. and the other a circle whose centre is at the intersection. one a line parallel to the horizontal line and offset by 20. centre that intersection. The arc radius was chosen to be 20.Figure 2 In figure two it was necessary to draw an arc which went through the intersection of the short horizontal and vertical lines. There are two possible centres for our arc. or the arc drawn directly tangential to the longer horizontal line. only one of which is shown. at the intersection of the two construction elements. and radius 20 and then trimmed to leave the arc. Two constructions were drawn. The required arc could be drawn as a circle. 89 .

for example the FILLET command that will automatically provide a fillet radius between two elements of your drawing. Construction circles are drawn offset by 10 and the intersections give two possible locations for the centre of the third circle. mutually tangential to the first two. They are both obtained by offsetting by 10. You don’t have to use them if you can think of an alternative way of getting around the problem. Conclusion Construction lines can assist in CAD drawing. Don’t forget the CAD commands that avoid the use of construction lines. Two construction elements are drawn. It is usually better to use a separate layer for construction lines. the other a circle. but in some cases they are essential. It is necessary to draw radii blending the circle to the line. In many cases Accudraw provides a faster alternative. using a different colour to the main drawing lines. one a straight line. 90 . It is necessary to draw a third circle.In the figure above we have a line and a large circle. The drawing is then trimmed to provide the blend radii. The blend radii have centres at the intersections of the construction elements. A radius of 10 has been chosen for the blend radii. The radius has been chosen as 10. They could represent the pitch circles of gear wheels. You might also try the fillet command! Figure 4 In figure 4 we have two circles radius 10 and 20.

be careful to ensure that your fence does not include any other complete element. The spoke was completed using the Construct Circular Fillet tool.CAD Lesson 6 . I drew a construction line between the top quadrants of the inner and out circles to represent the centre line of the spoke. 2 shows the relevant command button. Aims At the end of this lesson you should be able to:• use the array command to generate multiple copies. First draw the five circles representing the hub. This lesson introduces the array command. Do that now. So far you have relied upon me to provide all of the dimensions. Microstation provides the ARRAY command to handle this. This command can handle either circular repetition. Now the spoke consists of a collection of elements. This is achieved by drawing a fence around them. and find out how to apply tolerances to dimensions. rim and flange.g. the spokes of a wheel. The time has now come to use the Construct Array command in order to copy the spoke around the wheel.Arrays. to represent a series of fastenings around a part. e. There are a few useful techniques remaining to be mastered. sleepers on railway track. two lines and four radii. or linear. dimensions and tolerances Introduction You should now be reasonably confident at two dimensional drawing using Microstation. e. Fig. Next draw the top vertical spoke. Note that the fillet at the top is of a larger radius than that at the bottom. e. It is frequently necessary to make numerous copies of a component or sections of a component. and I will be expecting you to make more independent use of the built in Help system during this lesson. In this lesson we will explore some of Microstation’s dimension commands. and the corresponding pop up window. We need to indicate that they are the components to be copied by the array command. Determine the difference between polar and rectangular arrays. 1.g. then used the Move Parallel command to copy each side of the spoke at a distance of 15 mm. • dimension components • apply tolerances to dimensions Using the Construct Array command Use the help system to look up the Construct Array command. We will use the Construct Array command to draw the railway wheel shown in fig.g. 91 .

• • • • • Array Type . but also the angular distance between them.You should also ensure that the correct parameters have been picked and entered into the Construct Array window.x Use Fence .Polar Items . i.0 Rotate Items .e.24.15 DeltaAngle . Figure 1 92 .x It is unfortunately necessary to tell Microstation not only how many items will be in the array.

and that is easily dealt with using Place Quarter Ellipse. only 14. and select the centre of the circle as the point that will be the centre of the array. 3. it does not make 15 copies. Microstation also has available a rectangular array. Draw the spindle as shown in fig. The only tricky bit is the elliptical form of the centre section.there are 14 copies of your original spoke. see fig. Figure 3 Figure 4 Having finished the drawing of the spindle you can now rotate it (fig 5) before constructing a rectangular array (fig 6). I have used a drawing of a wooden banister spindle to illustrate this. 93 . You will appreciate that this is a very powerful and useful command. You will need to draw a fence around it for both of these operations. and Voila . I would suggest that it would be useful for you to un-do that last command (anticlockwise facing arrow at the top of the screen) and try it again.Figure 2 Now pick the array button. 4. The Rectangular Array As well as providing a polar array. Being an old hand now you will realise that the component is symmetrical about the x and y axes and that you will only need to draw one quarter of it. note in particular that the number of Items chosen includes the original.

Lines have been added to the top and bottom to represent the floor and top rail. 94 .Figure 5 Figure 6 The finished drawing is shown in fig. 7.

For the work that we will be doing. This is the most generally useful setting. if the size of component is modified. One very useful feature is that of associative dimensioning. where. 8.Figure 7 Dimensioning Drawings Microstation provides a wide range of dimension commands. then the resulting dimensions will automatically change with it. as illustrated by fig. Figure 8 Note that in fig. only a sub set of the commands will be needed. 8. 8 I have set the Alignment to Drawing. as shown selected in fig. but you might experiment with the other options. Perhaps the most frequently use one is Dimension Size With Arrow. Setting Text Size 95 .

the Width should be set to three quarters of the Height. but this is not critical and perfectly acceptable text is produced if they are both set to the same value. but if we wish to scale the drawing when plotting . then we would want to amplify the drawing to allow it to be read. Consider a drawing of a lamppost that is 7 m tall.Before starting to dimension it is wise to set the text size to an appropriate value. The actual size chosen will depend both upon the size of the component drawn and the size of the eventual hard copy. Microstation recommends that. shown as fig. 11. for best results. To change the text size do the following:• pick the Element pull down menu • select Dimension • select Text in the Dimension Settings window (fig. 10) and adjust the text size accordingly. Figure 10 OK now lets try to dimension a drawing. Load in the drawing of the shaft that you made in lesson 2. the dimension text would be too small to read. then a text size of 3 mm would be satisfactory. In that instance a more sensible size might be 15 or 20 mm. chose a text height of 3 mm and then plot the drawing on A4 paper. 96 . If we could be sure that all our drawings would be plotted at a scale of 1:1. On the other hand if we were drawing the circuit detail for an in the ear speaker. the selected text size should be 1 mm or less. then different sizes will be needed.the most common situation in my experience. If we were to draw that to size.

• Move the cursor sufficiently high above the shaft to show where the 60 mm dimension will be placed. This may be made clear if we remember the compass and point accordingly:• • • • horizontal dimension line above the view . How.Figure 11 Let’s do the easy bits first. with sizes of 60. it is necessary to reset the command with the right mouse button. you do not want to do this. you may ask. • Tentatively snap and then select the top end of the vertical centre-line If all has gone according to plan you should see the 60 mm dimension correctly in place. 97 . the dimensions level. It is possible to dimension the projection of the length onto both the vertical and horizontal planes. draw a line sloping at about 45 deg. below and to each side. 42 and 18 mm. Microstation is guided as to the particular dimension required by the position that you decide to input when asked to Define the length of the extension line.move East The software will invite you to enter a string of dimensions. Confirm your selection. the simple case of a sloping line. as is usually the case. Use the Dimension Size with Arrow command with settings as shown (fig. The key horizontal lengths are all taken from the vertical centre line..move West vertical dimension line to the right of the view . Now do this:• Select level 5. for example. If. and provide four dimensions. Press the left button. above. • Use tentative snap to select the top left corner of the rectangular square at the left hand end of the shaft. 8).move South vertical dimension line to the left of the view . Try this now for yourself. does Microstation differentiate between vertical and horizontal dimensions? Consider.move North horizontal dimension line below the view .

98 . and the height of the end rectangular section (12 mm). the letter ∅ Now for something a little different.Back to the shaft in fig. 11. with internal or extended dimension lines. Dimensioning Diameters. Conventional Diameters and Radii These features are handled easily using the Dimension Radial command as shown in fig. and the British Standard requires that the dimensions of diameters are preceded with the Greek letter ∅. You can set the Mode to Radius or Diameter. 13. Microstation will automatically insert a ∅ if a full diameter is shown on the screen. We therefore have to instruct the programme to insert a ∅ when dimensioning the circular sections. and we choose a dimension diameter command. In the case of our shaft that view is not shown. 12 that the Prefix option has been set to a ∅. Figure 12 Note that in fig. and select the Tool Settings option. You can now dimension the width of the raised collar (4 mm). For this purpose we need to refer again to the Dimension Settings window. Now dimension the ∅18 and ∅26 diameters at the right hand end of the shaft. It is necessary to dimension the circular parts of the shaft. Don’t forget to switch the Prefix ∅ setting off before drawing any more dimensions.

Changing the style of dimensions If you find that the applied dimension is not to your liking. You may find that the dimension lines for the ∅18 have been drawn outside the projection lines. 14 shows the Change Dimension to Active Settings button selected. Figure 14 Fig. The technique is as follows:• make the necessary changes to the Dimension Settings window • select the Change Dimension to Active Settings button • pick the dimension to be changed. one at 2 mm and the other at 1 mm. The 99 . it is possible to change it to represent the latest settings in the Dimension Settings window.Figure 13 Now dimension the two radii on the collar. It is possible to force the program to use dimension lines on the inside of the projection lines. Use the Dimension Settings window and choose the Terminators option. and so cut through the projection lines for the ∅26 dimension.

and so avoid having to draw the nut again. Now apply Change Dimension to Active Settings and click onto the ∅18 dimension when it should change to internal dimension lines. 15. The 4 x M8 nuts and washers message was placed at the end of a leader line. Reset the Terminators option to Automatic placement.default condition calls for the Automatic placement of the terminators. Manual. if you try this. rather than the default Automatic. Figure 15 In figure 15 I have experimented with the dimension commands and set-up to obtain different styles of presentation. A lazy. 100 . You can either use the array or copy commands to place the nuts and washers into position. but with the Mode set to Diameter Extended. after positioning the text in the approximate required position without the axis lock. To apply a leader line use the Place Note button as shown in fig. The 80 mm diameter dimension has been obtained using the standard Dimension radial tool. Location. but you can change this to Inside. person might revert back to the exercise in lesson 3 and draw this cover plate alongside the rectangular one drawn then. 16. but intelligent. Circles and Leader Lines Draw the circular cover plate shown in fig. The style of the 60 mm dimension is a little more tricky to obtain. Don’t forget to reset the dimension setting to Automatic. here I used Element. I have also toggled the Axis lock to allow me to write the dimension text horizontally. Dimensions.

17). If that is the case click once in the top left hand corner of your current view window and select View Attributes.Figure 16 When this has been selected both the Text Editor and Place Note windows should appear (fig. 101 . Type the message “4 x M8 nuts and washers” into the Text Editor window. together with an unwanted number. Figure 17 You may find that an unpleasant + sign. has appeared on your drawing. 18. overwriting part of your message. and the Generate Leader box selected. and Apply. Switch Text Nodes off. Set up the Place Note window with Type set to Multi Line. and then select where you want the message to go with the mouse. Get rid of the View Attributes window. If all has gone according to plan you should see the message:Place Multi-line Note>Define start point Tentatively select a point on one of the four nuts. fig.

• 6 Holes equally spaced ∅10 • Machine taper at an included angle of 15° We have therefore to find a way to insert the frequently used symbols ∅ and °. The standard Engineering Font does not incorporate the ∅ symbol. 100 ANSI_SYMBC does contain the symbols. but does not offer lower case characters. Therefore to insert symbols it is necessary to write the message in upper case characters. If you click on the font name you will be presented with the range of possibilities. so we must change Font to carry out this exercise. e. It is often a requirement to incorporate symbols however. Font No.g. To change font select Element. Unfortunately this is not a trivial task in Microstation. Text. select 100-ANSI_SYMBC. 19 will appear.Figure 18 Leader Lines Pointing to Messages Containing Symbols The section on leader lines and messages above is fine if your message contains only standard alphabetic or numeric characters. 102 . when the window shown in fig.

100 the lower case characters have been replaced by symbols. You must therefore type all alphabetic characters in upper case. 16). so \110 produces a ∅. and to use a trick within the text editor. 20. 103 . If you type your text in the editor in lower case all will appear well until such time as you place the text on the drawing when it will appear as a string of symbols. followed by the ASCII (numeric) code of the symbol. This is because in Font No. When you want to insert a symbol it is necessary to inform the program by typing a backslash \.Figure 19 Draw the plate shown in fig. 100 is 110. The code for ∅ in font No. Figure 20 To incorporate the message “12 HOLES ∅8” it is necessary to use the place note tool (fig.

∅ and ±. Font number 106 INT_ISO_EQUAL offers both upper and lower case characters and has available the three useful symbols. 23. 21 shows how to enter the message “12 HOLES ∅8” Figure 21 Arguably the three most useful symbols are °. Applying Tolerances To Dimensions Tolerances can easily be applied to individual dimensions by selecting Element. The use of any linear dimension 104 . In that font the mapping is as follows:° ∅ ± 176 180 177 Actually the drawing standard prefers that upper case letters be used. fig. The relevant ASCII codes corresponding to the ANSI and Engineering fonts are:° ANSI Engineering 94 94 ∅ 110 ± 126 127 You may prefer to use upper case characters throughout in your engineering drawings when you might adopt font 100 as your standard. but it does not exclude the use of lower case characters. Select Tolerance then switch on Tolerance generation by clicking in the box.Fig. so that text remains readable when drawings are reduced. unfortunately it does lack some of the clarity of the two fonts previously discussed. Dimensions when the Dimension Settings window appears. Set Attributes Type to Limit and key in the Upper and Lower limits. Personally I find a combination of lower and upper case characters much more user friendly.

lesson 3). 24). and the clever trick of inserting an ASCII code described above is employed to obtain the ± character. An appropriate note should be added to the drawing as in fig. 25.command will now result in the BS preferred form of tolerance showing both the lower and upper sizes. 105 . Figure 23 Try this now by applying a toleranced dimension to the spacing between the outer and centre holes in your drawing of a plate (fig. Here the Place Text tool is used (fig. Figure 24 Of course it is good practice to apply an overall tolerance to a component. 24. to avoid having to tolerance each dimension separately.

27) I used the Place Note tool set to Right Justification (fig. I have not been able to find an automatic dimensioning tool to achieve this. the H7 fit calls for a range from size to +0. Here the drawing standard prefers us to cite the nominal size. and the permissible range. It seems that the only way is to draw the text and brackets. To produce the text below (fig. Text) to obtain a good standard of presentation. (select Element. Figure 26 106 . Limits and Fits It makes good sense to employ standard limits and fits whenever possible (Refer to Chapter 19 of the reference book [1]). 26). Be sure to press the Return key at the end of each line to ensure that the message appears on three separate lines. I had to increase the Line Spacing.025. Consider a ∅ 50 hole.Figure 25 Try this now. the grade of fit.

This is due to the dimension extension lines being associated with. 107 . Using associated dimensions means that. and want to permanently modify your design file. It may be that you consider this a worthwhile sacrifice. the dimensions do not always move as expected. followed by Locks. the dimensions will automatically update. then all is not lost. Dropping the association lock means that this facility is removed. 1) Switch off association lock before dimensioning Select the Settings pull down menu. Unfortunately. switching the association lock off does not remove the association from previously drawn dimensions. The moral of the tale is that you avoid dimensioning until you are pretty confident that the views are in the right places. Ensure that there is no tick alongside the word Association.dgn accordingly. particular points on the drawing.Figure 27 Problems in moving dimensions When a dimensioned object is copied or moved. but require to move the view. although all involve a degree of hassle. if a dimensioned element is modified. If you have had association lock on. or tied to. have made the drawing and completed the dimensioning. There are other ways around this problem. There are a number of ways around this. des1.

Association dropped. this command seems to take quite a few key presses to obtain the desired result. or if it were not an associative point in the first place. the Drop Association tool. e. This is particularly important where several dimensions share a common extension line. I would recommend selecting all of the extension lines until the message Not an associative point is consistently returned. 3) Use Drop Dimension Element 108 . it is necessary to identify the dimension extension line that is associated with an element. Normally seen if you have already dropped that associative point. is a device that will allow the association to be dropped from a group of dimensions. looking like an open lock. What is required.g. You are invited to confirm your choice with the LMB. the dimension changes colour.2) Use Drop Association Select the Tools pull down menu and the Drop toolbox. When the association is successfully dropped. To use this tool. In practice. According to the instruction manual. the following messages appear at the bottom of the screen. by using the fence. When the tool is first selected Drop Association>Identify element When picked. Accept/Reject (select next input) There are two possible outcomes Not an associative point. In use. is the one to use. but not provided.

arrow heads. makes it a nightmare to deal with if further editing is required.Also featuring in the Drop toolbox is Drop Dimension Element. isolate the dimension layer and deal with the bits that way. 4) Delete the Dimensions You might prefer to move the view and then delete and restore the faulty dimensions. that dropping the dimension into its elements.e. You can. of course. however. This might be the least painful solution ! 109 . i. This is the tool that does the business more quickly. Be warned.. text etc.

Self Assessment Questions 1) Use the array command to assist in drawing the spring in fig.1 Figure Q1.1 Figure Q1.2 110 . Q1.

Q2 that you drew in lesson 3. 2) Apply dimensions and annotation to the shaft fig. • Use rectangular array to copy the coil. and one vertical centre line to provide an intersection that will be the centre of the left hand open loop. • Draw a circle to represent the OD of the left hand end open loop. be careful to choose a sensible datum to copy from-to. Set the angle to 100° in the Place Line window and use the Tangent snap to obtain the tangential contact with the circle. • Copy this latest version of the loop onto the right end of the spring. • Draw the wire diameter at the top of the coil. then draw a line at 100° tangential to the top right quadrant of the circle to represent the start of the end loop. You will have to find out for yourself how to dimension an angle!! Figure Q2 111 . • Use Copy Parallel to generate the wire thickness and wire centre line. • Complete the first coil by extending and trimming lines and circles.Hints:• Draw the three horizontal centre lines. Finally extend the line to intersect the lower horizontal centre line. you will need to zoom in close to see what you are doing. • Draw a second smaller circle to represent the wire diameter taking the centre as the intersection of the wire centreline and the outer horizontal centre line. • Mirror the copy about the vertical construction line. • Mirror the end loop about the horizontal construction line. I used the intersection of the centreline of the end coil and the central centreline. • Draw the centreline of the slope of the first coil from the wire circle centre at 80° • Copy parallel the sides of the first coil. • Complete the end loop and then draw the construction lines as shown in the figure.

show all dimensions and tolerances.3) Draw the bearing in fig. Figure Q3 112 . Q3.

Don’t forget to reset the dimension scale to 1 when you have finished.Hints:• Load your A3 drawing border and immediately save as something else • The text relating to the h6 fit is particularly difficult to deal with as it inevitably involves both a lower case character. • If you are as careless as I am you will no doubt have to update dimension settings. and text to the currently selected values. • dimension components • apply tolerances to dimensions Bryan Attewell 01 August 2000 113 . find them! Summary Having completed this lesson you should be able to:• use the array command to generate multiple copies. • I have shown the enlarged part section hatched.5 when dimensioning this enlarged view. line types. There are exceedingly useful buttons to do these things. the ‘h’. It is necessary to use the Dimension Settings window to set dimension scale to 0. and a ∅. but hatching is covered in the next lesson. • The enlarged part section was produced by copying the section. you could try to find the button to do that yourself. and then scaling it by a factor of two (look this up in help). and you might want to wait until then to complete the job. I used font number 106 INT_ISO_EQUAL for this dimension.

g. drawing of an M20 nut can be obtained by scaling the M10 cell by a factor of 2.CAD Lesson 7 . The drawing standard stipulates that such views be shown cross hatched. If we intend to design our own cells. 114 . then we must open a library to keep them in. Hatching. electrical symbols. although not exact. This is a particularly useful technique. Cells are very useful to store standard components.g. This means that standard symbols can be readily adjusted to fit any size of drawing.Cells. between drawings and so save a good deal of time. as it allows us to copy images of standard components. e. if a drawing of a standard M10 nut is saved as a cell. and Printing Introduction This is the final lesson on using Microstation in two dimensions. A cell may also be rotated by a specified angle before being placed on the drawing. To aid matters Microstation provides a graphical representation of the contents of a cell library. then a reasonable. and Microstation acknowledges this by providing CELL LIBRARIES into which similar components can be placed. Aims At the end of this lesson you should be able to:• create and copy components between drawings • draw sections with hatched areas • print or plot your drawings Using Cells In Microstation A CELL is the term used to describe a collection of elements that can be saved as a single unit and subsequently inserted into any other drawing. welding symbols etc. fasteners. These types of components typically fall into readily identifiable families. In it we will be finding out how to copy sections of drawings or complete components between drawings. like nuts and bolts. The final part of the lesson addresses the printing problem. To use cells within Microstation it is necessary to first associate or connect a relevant cell library with the current drawing. so that it is not necessary to remember the names of the individual cells when it comes to using them. It is possible to scale the cell before placing it. Once a cell library has been associated with a drawing it is a simple matter to extract any cell within it and place it on the current drawing. we will be doing just that in this lesson. Another drawing essential is the ability to be able to represent sectional views. So far we have not determined how to obtain a print or plot using Microstation. e.

5. scaling. 5. if required Specify the angular rotation. Draw the component which will form the cell Draw a fence around the component Indicate where the cell origin is to be Save the cell within the cell library. Select OK. The cells will be saved in a new cell library that we will create. The cell is then ready to use. You choose the most convenient origin for the cells that you design. but more on that later. typically at the mid point of one side. A key feature of a cell is that. or possibly at the centre of the cell. Choose Element. Steps in using an existing cell 1. Before we can store a new cell we must have a cell library to store it in. it exists as a single entity. Cells. by moving. a cell is treated as a single element. Thus it can be easily manipulated. and store the three views as three separate cells. The Cell Library window will now appear. I suggest the filename TRYCELL.Each cell has a placement origin associated with it.The M10 nut We will now draw three views of an M10 nut. New. 3. to represent Metric Fasteners. fig. if required Insert the cell (or multiple copies of the cell) into the drawing Once on the drawing the cell can be treated as a single element Creating a new cell . So. Steps in creating a cell 1. It is possible to break down a cell into its component parts. We must therefore create a new cell library. 1. Either attach an existing cell library to the drawing. File. Attach the appropriate cell library to the drawing Select the required cell Specify the scaling. but we will assume that there is no such library. Save it immediately as something else. 3. Get into Microstation and open your standard drawing file DES1. 2. 4. I have chosen mfast. although it was probably defined as a set of separate elements. 6. 4. when the Create Cell Library window should appear. Type in a suitable filename. copying. rotating etc. 2. once placed on a drawing. giving it a name. If an appropriate cell library already existed we could use that. telling us that we 115 . or create a new cell library.

screws and washers (Chapter 16). The thickness of the nut is 0.e. e. The approximate construction is fine for most applications.8 x M10. i. The book supplied with the module “Manual of engineering drawing” contains a chapter on Nuts.1 and 16.2 however.8D. M16 is 1. Draw the three views of the nut using the dimensions given in fig. M8 is 0. 2. 16. My drawing of the nut. 116 . while the radius of the central top chamfer is D. Figure 1 Now for the M10 nut. I have chosen the size M10 because it is then relatively easy to scale the resulting drawing to obtain other sizes.cel library.2 of the text book. it is based upon a hexagon that has an across the corners dimension of 2D. or 10 mm. but we will be returning to it later.are attached to the mfast. only where space is very tight do we need to refer to the precise sizes. bolts. or 20 mm.e.g. 8 mm.6 x M10 etc. i. is shown in fig. We can close this window for now. We will be using the approximate construction for nuts and bolts. complete with all construction lines. In there you will find precise dimensions for most common metric fasteners. 16. Figs.

and then use the Define Cell Origin button fig.Figure 2 It is unnecessary to include the construction lines when saving the three views of the nut as cells. 117 . Get rid of the window either by dragging it out of the way. Display to obtain the View Levels window. Now to define our cells. 3 to select the centre of the nut as the cell origin fig 4. (Note that a speedy way to get to the View Levels window is to press the CTRL and E keys simultaneously). To switch the construction lines off first use Settings. first the plan view. A small O appears adjacent to the centre. or shutting it down. Level. Draw a fence around the plan view of the nut. then select construction lines and pick the Off button. Figure 3.

Using the New Cells Having created our cells it is now time to try them out. This is achieved by using Element. The first thing to do is to attach the relevant cell library to the present drawing. Repeat the process for the front and side views. I named the cells M10NF and M10NS. Cells. File. Open the file des1 and immediately save it as trycel2. Cells. Create and enter the cell name. Attach. and 118 . I used M10NP to refer to the Plan view of an M10 Nut.Figure 4 Now use Element. use the mid point of the base as the origin in these cases.

Select Utilities.cel to the drawing we can now use it.e. Having attached the cell library mfast. mfast. The size of this window automatically adjusts to accommodate the number of cells available. when the Cell Selector window will appear (fig. while the X and Y scale boxes enable you to choose the degree of magnification required. Figure 5 It is useful to leave this window open when working with cells so that any one of them can be selected easily. Try placing the three cells at different scales and rotations around your drawing.selecting the library that we previously defined. 119 . or dragged out of the way now. The Cell Library window can be shut. A Cell is selected by a single click onto the relevant miniature drawing in the cell selector window.cel. i. The other cell selection and positioning tools are shown in fig 7 below. 6. fig. 5). Cell Selector. The Place Active Cell window then appears. Figure 6 The Active Angle box allows the cell to be rotated before being positioned.

25 size. 120 . and draw them 10 mm apart. Identify cell . This explosion of the cell into its component parts is achieved using the Drop Element tool shown in fig. Figure 8 Select the cell with the drop element tool and now try to trim the elements of the cell to the line that you have drawn through it. perhaps our nut is partially obscured by another component. Draw a line through the middle of the cell. It will work this time. draw 20 nuts in four rows and five columns. The trim command will not work with a cell. It doesn’t work. Place active cell matrix (rows and columns) . but not exactly the same. 8. Try it now.identify an existing cell in the design and copy it elsewhere 4. Define cell origin .also controls scaling and rotation.use 1 above to control scaling and rotation before using this button. Witness the power of CAD !! The final thing to know about cells is that it is possible to break them down into their component elements.displays a cell’s name and level 6. This can be much faster then drawing the part from scratch. indeed every element can now be modified at will. It may be necessary to partially delete a cell.covered previously. Place active line terminator . Try to trim the cell to the line. 2. Place active cell . Replace cell . 3. The cell is very similar to the part that we require. the seven different tools are as follows:1. 5. This is necessary in at least two situations:1. and we need to erase only part of it. If we can break it down into its elements we can then edit them to give us the precise configuration required.does not concern us at this stage ! 7.Figure 7 Starting from the left. Place a cell and then zoom in around it. Scale the nuts to be drawn 0. only with individual elements. 2.with another cell of the same name from the same cell library The most impressive of these commands is Place active cell matrix. Select and place cell .

Sections and Hatching Many components. They can be depicted using hidden lines. Chapter 8 in the text book is devoted to this subject. particularly castings and injection mouldings. and showing appropriate cutting planes along with their associated arrows and text. 9. Draw the cast bearing housing shown in fig. have complex internal features that are not visible from the outside. using hatching. but it is usually far clearer to draw a section or sections through the component to show how the geometry varies internally. I will therefore assume that you understand how to use sections. Let us consider a simple example. There are two particular skills to be learned. while there are numerous examples of sections throughout that book. We have briefly covered sections in the earlier lesson on drawing. and will concentrate on those CAD specific details that you need to be aware of. 121 .

Figure 9 122 .

If you think that this has happened then a right click should bring it to its senses.There are no special tricks involved that you have not yet learned. due perhaps to idleness in not using the snaps or zooming in sufficiently. All you have to do is to select a point within the area to hatch and Microstation works out the hatch boundary. just to let you know that the program is working. and try again. need to have different hatch patterns. I have selected 5 mm at an angle of 45 deg. The drawing standard recommends a minimum hatching spacing of 3 mm. when sectioned together. and try a point in a different place. The second requirement of sectioning is that we mark the cutting plane using a chain dotted line which is locally thickened at any changes of direction and at the positions at which the 123 . in that case click the right mouse button. If you managed to draw the spring in lesson 4 you can draw anything !! The technique that we want to use is that of automatically hatching the cross-section. While it is doing so a little pointer gently rotates at the bottom of the screen. the hatch may escape all over your drawing ! Don’t panic. when the hatching will be applied. Figure 10 Having selected hatching you are presented with the Hatch Area window (fig. and you can try again at a different spot. Figure 10 shows the relevant button to press. use the undo arrow at the top of the screen. 11). Fix the fault in your drawing. Microstation highlights the boundary. If you have not provided a perfect boundary. I have hatched the bearing in fig. You will be aware by now that the drawing standard requires that different components. At that stage. 9 at minus 45 degrees. Figure 11 Sometimes Microstation is not clever enough to find the correct boundary. On other occasions the program cannot detect the boundary and continues to look indefinitely. while the housing is hatched at 45. if you agree with the selection click the left mouse button. The Method chosen is Flood. When it identifies the hatch boundary to its satisfaction.

locally thickened to the same weight and style as the main drawing line. rather than the hatch itself. as introduced in the last lesson and shown in fig. but that is only possible if the hatch was the last command to be executed. It is useful to have the Axis lock when using the place note tool for this to ensure that the lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal or vertical axis. 13.directional arrows touch it. the easiest way to do this is to use the main drawing line on level one. 12. Don’t forget to switch it off when you have finished or the line drawing commands will appear to act very strangely. you should use Settings. You may need to scale the border to get a good fit. Erasing Hatching Before we leave hatching it is appropriate to consider how we can get rid of it. or the weight and style of your centre lines. The secret is to select the hatch border. The arrow and alphabetic character indicating the particular section to be used are drawn using the Place Note tool. Level. If you are printing or plotting in monochrome. If you have the luxury of colour. Don’t forget to restore the settings when you have done. fig. The appropriate letter is entered into the Text Editor window. Symbology to change either the colour of the main drawing line. Our centre line is appropriate for the cutting plane. Figure 12 Figure 13 Finish your drawing off by inserting your A3 drawing border cell as discussed earlier in this lesson. You will find that the conventional erase command does not appear to work with hatching. There is a problem with this in that the hatch border is also a part of the drawing that you probably want to keep ! 124 . The easiest way is to use the undo arrow at the top of the screen.

125 . it cost around £200 and produces excellent plots but is limited to a maximum size of A4. I use an ink jet printer made by Epson. Press the right mouse button to reject the erase. Large plotters cost several thousand pounds to buy. The hatch border is the total extent of the lines surrounding that piece of hatching. Note that the particular printer your system is configured to use will appear along the top of the window. or more usually print on a roller which is fed either by single sheets of paper. or a roll of paper. or the left to accept. while the drawing outline will only be the particular line that you probably want to keep. You should select the orientation of the paper. There are at least four different types of output device that will give acceptable results when printing or plotting. In this case a HP Laser Jet 4050. It will highlight the bit that it intends to erase. they may be flat bed machines. Printing and Plotting First a brief note about the alternatives.Fortunately Microstation is able to distinguish between the hatch border and your drawing outline. Print/Plot when the Plot Window (fig. 14) appears. Landscape or Portrait and it may be necessary to synchronise the plot to the view. They are. in order of increasing cost:• • • • Inkjet printer Laser printer Pen plotter Ink jet plotter Virtually all professional work is done on large plotters. Select File. If you are working at home then you will have to make do with what you have available. In recent years ink jet plotters have taken over from pen plotters. If you can get access to a plotter at your place of work then you will have few problems in obtaining hard copies of your drawings.

If you want to use a plotter at work then select the named device when Microstation will plot to a file. Some word processing programmes will accept HPGL files. and a vector type of display. For use with Microsoft Word and Microstation. Vector files are better for engineering drawings because it is possible to scale them without any loss of accuracy. more readily available. Another. format is an Enhanced Meta File of EMF. 126 . In use you plot the EMF file to a disc and then insert it as a picture into your Word document. the best type of vector based file is called an Hewlett Packard Graphics Language (HPGL) file. but others will not. Bit maps are best for photographs or hand drawings where there are many colours and gradations of tone. You can then take the file to your plotter and send it along using the DOS print command.Figure 14 If you want to incorporate your drawings within a document you have the choice between a bitmap image. which is a file intended to be sent to a HP plotter.

The detail drawing of the top section of the handset is shown below. The hole that penetrates the top section is intended to hold a LED. 4. show one in each window. The centre of the large radius is a long way from the detail of the drawing.Self Assessment Question A large company involved in the telecommunications industry has decided to sub-contract the design and manufacture of a new digital telephone. Use your A3 drawing border cell to finish the job neatly. This is particularly useful when you want to accurately snap on to two widely separated points. which will be injection moulded from ABS. drawing etc) to get this one right. as the part will not withdraw from the mould without first retracting the part of the tool that forms it ! 3. reproduce it using Microstation. You might find it useful to open a second window when drawing the various views. Try the various dimension options (view. Your company has decided to bid for the design of the handset. Summary Having completed this lesson you should be able to:• create and copy components between drawings using cells and cell libraries • indicate section planes and draw sections with hatched areas • print or plot your drawings Bryan Attewell 19/09/2003 127 . 2. It will cost a lot to buy the tooling to produce this feature. Use the centre snap to locate this centre without showing it on the screen. Hints 1.

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2.Past Paper EAT100 Design. You 129 . i. 6. using orthographic projection. This is an open book TCT. which is an H7 fit. of the part. 2. be sure to work using the hard drive of the computer rather than a floppy disc. at minimum. All dimensions are in mm. Make a manufacturing drawing. Ensure that you adopt a reasonable text size. so that dimensions and other text can be read.e. and show the following views: 1. It is strongly recommended that you draw a pencil sketch of your proposed layout before starting work in order to ensure that you are drawing the correct views. using the standard method. Show all dimensions. A sectional view taken through the vertical plane passing through the axis of the gudgeon pin bore. 8. using a limited number of realistic datums. the following: 1. the more closely toleranced fit as applied to the gudgeon pin bore. 5. including computer discs. This assessment counts for 25% of the module mark. The attached images are taken from a solid model of a machined aluminium alloy casting of a diesel engine piston. A view from below. while the section is hatched where appropriate. Ensure that the cutting plane for the section is annotated in correspondence with the drawing standards. and other reference materials. books. into the TCA. The correct projection symbol The drawing title "Piston" Your name The material (Aluminium Alloy BS EN 1706: 1998 EN AC 45100) A realistic overall tolerance for the machined dimensions Specify. Adopt either 1st or 3rd angle projection. 7. A plan view. 3. A side elevation of the piston looking directly onto the gudgeon pin bore. Further. 4. 3. 4. Drawing and Practical Skills CAD TCA 2003-2004 – Diesel Engine Piston Time allowed 3 hours. Please note that the datums used on the sketches are not necessarily appropriate and that centre lines are often a good choice. you may bring notes. Enclose your finished drawing within a standard drawing border showing.

should copy your drawing border to the "work" directory of the C drive before starting to draw. 130 . **DO NOT STORE YOUR WORK ON A FLOPPY DISC** Should the software lock or start to lose functionality. close down Microstation and restart the CAD program. This cures most known bugs.

Marking Scheme Section Front view Top view 20 (Including all annotation and hatching) 15 (5 if incorrect projection) 15 (5 if incorrect projection) Bottom view 15 (5 if incorrect projection) Toleranced fit properly specified 5 Sensible overall tolerance specified 5 Full set of dimensions Material specified 10 5 Drawing contained in an appropriate border with projection symbol 10 Bryan Attewell 20/10/2003 131 .

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