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Task2 KB4

Choose only one out of three topics below to write a hortatory exposition text. Be sure to
apply the things we have just discussed in this module. List of the topics to choose

 Roles of TV for Learning

 Embedding soft skills in teaching-learning process
 Healthy food and creative thinking

send your answers to the instructor!

Embedding soft skills in the teaching-learning process

In this modern era, embedding soft skill in the teaching-learning process is one of the
most important aspects. In my point of view, it is necessity for the teachers having it. Why it
is necessary for the teacher in the teaching-learning process? One of the reason is teachers
teach the “modern students”. Students nowadays are different with old students. They grow
up in the modern social life. Their environment is identical with the use of digital. It will
influence the way they are studying, their behavior, etc. So, teachers should be able to
embedding soft skill in the teaching-learning process in order to make the process of learning
interesting for the students.

Soft skills can be interpreted person’s ability to manage him or herself and relate to
other people. How teacher manage their class, communicate with the student in teaching-
learning process. According to me, there are some soft skills for teacher in teaching-learning

First, communication skills: It is important that the teachers have good

communication skill with the students. How they interact each other in learning process. The
way teacher deliver a lesson will impact the progress of the study. Not also with students, but
it is also important that the teachers consult with previous teachers of the students to find out
the learning’ needs of individual students and how to help them make progress.
Second, critical thinking and problem-solving skills: I am sure that in the
learning process, teacher will find some problem. Each of students has different
characteristic. Teachers must be able to deal with unpredicted problems happen in the
classrooms because it can affect the learning outcome of the students.

Third, cultural intelligence: one class consists of 25- 32 students. And I am sure that
they come from different ethnic. Of course they also have different cultural. So here, I think
teacher must be able to solve this problem.

Forth, emotional intelligence: it is also very important, teacher have to able to

control their emotional. Students have different characteristic. How to manage their own
emotion in front of these kids

The last is teachers nowadays should have ability in facing the 21 st century

I feel that embedding soft skill in the teaching-learning process is very crucial to be
mastered by all teachers. Teachers is demanded to be able not only in mastering their subject
but they also have to improve their capability in mastering soft skill.

Educational Television in the world today has made great advances worldwide in forging
inventive applications. There have been many success stories of using television for
education in many countries which has outlined the concept that television is basically not
just an entertainment oriented medium and it is hostile to thoughts.

According to the researcher at the University of Texas, Studies on preschool children have
shown immense results. Performance on achievement tests over time has been better in
preschool children who spent much less time on educational programming than their peers
who watch more general entertainment shows.

Generally Television Can Help To Achieve The Following Objectives:

1. Provide mass education opportunities.

2. Stimulates learning
3. Social quality in education
4. Provide flexibility of time and space in learning.
5. Reduce dependency on verbal teaching and teachers
6. Enhance quality in education

Young students are being conditioned, just like Pavlov’s dogs, to be passive learners.
Learning requires active engagement and to generate and sustain interest and pay attention
and generate ideas and integrate knowledge into evolving learning styles.And that is where
educational television comes in providing interest and attention.

Apart from all these beneficial objectives educational television is providing. It is also fairly
attractive to students because of the audio-visual elements in it. Almost Every home in the
country has a television nowadays and not just the young but even older audience are quite
addicted to soap operas and reality shows. All this is because of the engaging content that
network provide. Just like this educational television can channel interesting elements that
can help students engage better in academics.


November 5, 2011 1 Comment
Television has been given considerable importance in many countries as a
source and a tool of teaching. The success stories of using television for
education in many countries has negated the concept that television is
basically on entertainment oriented medium and it is hostile to thoughts.
Television is adaptable and can follow different approaches when used in the
different educational situations. The medium is used for formal, non-formal
and informal education. To support formal education, television usually
function as supportive and reinforcement tool. Television can be attached
with school curriculum and time tables. When systematically organized it
takes the form of school broadcast. In non-formal education, television has a
more specific role to play. When used as a part of multi-media communication
tool, television can directly or indirectly teach the subject matter.
Importance of television to communicate information, idea, skills and attitudes
has been affirmed by researches. You should attempt to study various reports
published on educational television in different countries in different
situations. In the words of Director BBC “next to home and school I believer
television to have a more profound influence on human race then any other
medium of communication.”
If media is to work as an effective teaching tool then certainly it is helping hand
towards, achieving the aim and objectives of education. Media is an agent of
boost cultural economic and social development activity. Television, as an
important mass medium disseminates education through formal and
information methods.
Television also continues to benefit the masses by making them conscious of
the environment, rights, duties and privilege. It is a source of teaching
etiquettes, language skills, hobbies, social relations and religious believes.
Role of television is neither fixed nor easily tangible and measurable. The role
is directly related to the question of how the planners are serious and
determined to use television. The role could either be enormous or, on the
contrary very meager depending upon the specific tasks and available
resources. Generally television can help to achieve the following objectives:
a) Social quality in education
b) Enhance quality in education
c) Reduce dependency on verbal teaching and teachers
d) Provide flexibility of time and space in learning.
e) Stimulates learning
f) Provide mass education opportunities.
As far the impact of education television it should rather be studied in more
narrow and specific areas. In the world of scram; TV is more effective in
teaching mathematic, science and social studies. Where as history,
humanities, and literature has not benefited from this medium the same
The impact of television on macro level should be studied in three areas
i) Teacher’s Competencies
ii) Student’s Competencies
iii) Effects on general viewers
Opinion Article 7

Television for Learning: Our Foremost Tool in the 21st

Ed Palmer

Depending on how one looks at the status of educational television in the world today, one
sees either a glass half full or a glass half empty. Great advances have been made worldwide
in forging inventive applications. Many different program genres have been used to address
diverse audiences for a variety of formal and non-formal learning purposes, with
scientifically measured results. The record of accomplishments is impressive, yet TV is
drastically underutilized as a teaching tool in countries that have the highest prevalence of
urgent and otherwise unmet education needs. The large gap that exists between the state of
the art and the state of practice in the use of television for development has many causes,
including a major lapse of international attention to national capacity building and

Among the nations that receive the greatest amounts of international assistance in health,
education, child rights, ecology and the environment, many now contain 20 to 40 million or
more individuals who regularly see TV. This means that in some of the most economically
limited countries of the world, tens of millions of households of very meager means have
invested in the purchase of a TV set which for them is immensely expensive. Although these
sets are purchased mainly for entertainment, the result is to make one of the world's most
powerful educational tools available on a massively wide scale to many people in the world
who have limited access to education through other means. A critical mass of TV viable
countries now exists for educational purposes, to justify undertaking unprecedented levels of
international coordination in such areas as experience exchange, training, resource
development, and national and regional capacity building.

Huge numbers of non-literate or marginally literate individuals, for whom formal education
has little practical applicability, will live out their lives in print-scarce environments with few
or no reading materials in their homes, but with regular access to television. TV and radio, for
as far as we can see into the 21st century, will be their most important outside source of
lifelong and lifewide learning. Viewed in this light, the real costs in terms of human survival,
quality of life, and productivity in countries that fail to develop educational television more
fully must be reckoned with as an important policy consideration.

Television during its earliest stage of growth in a given developing country is useful mainly
as a means to reach and influence policy makers in urban settings. We know a great deal
today about the role TV often plays in "agenda setting" -- i.e., in elevating issues in the
agendas of nations, ministries, and professional groups. During its second (intermediary)
phase of availability, television also begins to function according to the classical two-step
model, whereby it reaches significant numbers of influential community opinion leaders, who
in turn relay its educational and motivational points to large numbers of individual
householders. Policy makers in countries where television reaches only a fraction of the
population need to be aware that this fraction will include a disproportionately large number
of community opinion leaders, who can be counted on to further disseminate the practical
lessons that they see presented on TV. In the third (mature) phase, TV continues to reach
policy makers and community opinion leaders and, in addition, reaches significantly large
numbers of individual householders. It is during this stage that television begins to reach the
"neediest of the needy" in significantly large numbers.

Model uses of TV for national development have emerged in widely separated times and
places, but never has a determined human effort been made in a single locale to realize
anything approaching the full scope and impact of television in its capacity to teach,
illuminate, and empower. Totally absent in developing countries at the close of the 20th
century are exemplars of carefully planned, comprehensive national policies geared to
making the best-informed and most rational uses of television to address the highest priority
education needs, based on a realistic sense of what these nations actually are going to spend.

A great deal is known -- if not widely known -- about how to use TV effectively as a
disseminator of knowledge, shaper of attitudes, and motivator of recommended actions.
Television also has been used in documented ways to bring about measured gains in the
thinking skills of viewers in such areas as scientific and mathematical reasoning and analysis
of distortions in TV news and advertising. The literature includes, still further, many articles
on how to collect and make use of audience data, such as research on pilot productions, to
guide improvements in the appeal and educational effectiveness of the completed programs.

"Best practices" are defined according to important criteria. Some are low-cost/high-yield.
Others are ones that TV organizations are likely to perpetuate on a sustaining basis. Still
others make use of popular program genres, in which education and entertainment are
blended, to be able to attract large viewing-learning audiences during peak TV viewing

The literature on educational uses of TV focuses, variously, on applications of particular TV

program genres; research and evaluation practices; evaluation results; design of effective
educational and motivational program approaches; specialized producer and researcher
training; and patterns of international co-production. The Japan Prize Contest, now a decades-
old tradition, serves as a screening center for identifying and honoring the best educational
programs from all over the world, and as a venue for professional exchange. The NHK
generously makes its library of prize-winning programs available for study at selected centers
located around the world.
Program genres that have been widely used and found to work effectively for education in
countries all around the world include communication campaigns based on minute-long
public service announcements, somewhat longer program "fillers," soap operas (popular
dramatic serials), magazine-style variety series with recurring features, hosted talk shows
with live audiences and expert panels, interview shows especially when these contain
interesting and informative inserts, animations, popular music specials, news and
documentaries, and re-enactments in the form of docu-dramas, to mention just a few. The
range of subjects is large and diverse, and includes farm shows, doctor's advice shows, shows
on food preparation and preservation, shows on ecology and on international and inter-ethnic
conflict resolution, specials on child development and child rearing, and shows about
education and schooling, automobile and appliance repair, and do-it-yourself home and
community improvements.

The following ideas for capacity building to improve educational television in developing
countries were chosen more to suggest a range of ways in which capacity can be increased
than necessarily in all cases to address top priorities.

Expand and improve technical facilities. Shortages of technical facilities for creating
educational TV programs often result from prior failures in national planning. The best
results come when planning is comprehensive and open to wide stakeholder participation,
and when stakeholders and decision makers alike are well informed on how and how
effectively television can be used to serve various national education needs. Helping them
become so informed is a crucial early step in promoting increased investments in technical

Best practices. An especially important international capacity building activity, one that
provides a foundation for other crucially important actions, is to develop an extensive data
base on best practices, make it easily available, and actively promote its fullest possible use
worldwide. A data base of this type, available on the internet, could show program excerpts
with full motion and sound, illustrating for policy makers and educational TV practitioners
alike what television has the demonstrated capacity to accomplish in education. Countries
would be saved the cost of "reinventing the wheel," and could download for each genre
technical information on content planning, audience research, presentational design, and

Planning for global policy implementation. Many countries that are signatories to the various
global policy initiatives (e.g., in education, health, child rights, ecology and the environment)
have no systematic plan for how to use TV and radio to implement these policies. A capacity
building activity is to help interested countries launch this type of planning.

Planning for increased channel capacity. When countries increase their TV channel capacity,
usually with an increase in satellite-imported programs, special steps are needed to ensure
that local educational programming receives adequate consideration, funding and air space.

Show doctoring. Countries that wish to improve under-performing educational TV series may
be interested in show doctoring, whereby experts come in for a short time to help plan and
implement sustainable improvements in such areas as content planning, use of audience
research, educational strategies, and technical and artistic production values.
Grassroots community empowerment. A TV series on grassroots empowerment might feature
emulatable forms of community action, which could range from funding a community
irrigation system or setting up cooperatives, to improving health conditions.

Train those who invest in or manage educational TV offerings. Many in positions of

educational TV funding and oversight lack related policy and technical backgrounds, and
might welcome access to training and resource materials geared especially for them.

Training of TV scriptwriters and directors. Untold levels of expenditure have been made
worldwide learning how to make TV for learning more engaging, interactive, persuasive, and
sensitive to the needs and interests of the learner. Yet this accumulated knowledge often sits
on the shelf. An effective self-teaching course for scriptwriters and directors is urgently

It is no idle forecast to say that TV will be the preeminent tool in learning for development
during at least the first half of the 21st century. It is happening already, but not with anything
like the focus and intensity that the field deserves from the international assistance