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Conference Paper · April 2015


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2015, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering Research(ICETER)


P.Anbumalar1, J.janani 2, Sriram 3, Uwise 3
Assistant Professor, Department of EIE, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, India
PG Student, Department of EIE, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, India
PG Student, Department of EIE, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, India

Abstract Linear PID controllers are useful enough for

Monitoring and controlling the pH controlling a normal physical process and
level is often performed in many chemical, attaining the desired operating conditions,
industrial processes. It is important to improve
but the requirements for high-performance
the productivity and at the same time the
robustness of these processes. A PID controller
control with changes in operating conditions
is often used to deal with this process; or disturbances are often beyond the
however, it can only react to changes in a capabilities of conventional PID controllers.
reference signal. On the other hand, a Amongst these approaches, nonlinear PID
nonlinear PID (NPID) approach is proactive (N-PID) control is viewed as one of the most
and make which is usually known beforehand effective and simple method for industrial
in a pH neutralization process. Furthermore a applications [1] Nonlinear PID control may
NPID approach is more sophisticated than a be any control structure of the following
PID in terms of handling input and output form:
constraints, as well as dealing with difficult
system behaviours like high nonlinearity and
long time delays. 𝑢 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑝 ∗ 𝑒 𝜏 + 𝐾𝑖 𝑒 𝜏 +
Keywords— PID, NPID, Gain-scheduling.

• Introduction The nonlinear plant is assumed to have a

The PID algorithm is the most popular continuous, parameterized family of set
feedback controller used within the process points, and the dynamics are represented by
industries and highly preferred controller for the corresponding parameterized family of
various tedious processes. It has been linearization’s. Based on this information a
successfully used for over 50 years. It is a parameterized linear controller is designed,
robust easily understood algorithm that can so that at each set point, the closed loop
provide excellent control performance linearization has the desired set point. Then a
despite the varied dynamic characteristics of nonlinear controller is computed such that if
process plant. Proportional-integral- it is linearized about any set point, the
derivative (PID) controllers have been the designed linear controller for that set point is
most popular and the most commonly used obtained, therefore the nonlinear closed loop
industrial controllers in the past years. The system should perform well when operated at
popularity and widespread use of PID any set point. The main disadvantage for the
controllers are attributed primarily to their most part of the existing procedures on PID
simplicity and performance characteristics controller design is that the desired transient
with accurate set point tracking for the given performances cannot be guaranteed in the
fixed operating conditions. The conventional presence of nonlinear plant parameter
PID controller cannot satisfy the variations and unknown external
requirements of different operating disturbances[3].
2015, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering Research(ICETER)

[2] process modeling

• Introduction to pH process
pH is a measurement of the
concentration of hydronium ions ([ ]
commonly abbreviated to [ ]) in aqueous
solution. Hence pH control is really
concentration control of a mixing process
(SHINSKEY, 1973) and consequently
exhibits the characteristics of mixing
processes, such as mixing dead time,
residence time and dynamic gain. However, Fig. pH process Continuous
pH control also has its own unique attributes, Stirred Tank For pH Titration
the most distinctive of which is characterized Control.
by a neutralization or titration curve. pH is
the negative logarithm of hydronium ion (or
hydrogen ion) concentration, and this results
in the familiar 'S' or ‘z’ shaped titration curve
which defines the steady-state characteristic • Mathematical modeling for pH process
of a pH process. Because of the logarithmic
nonlinearity, it is possible for the gain of a
pH process to change by as much as a factor
of 10 per pH unit which is given by the
equation (2).
Based on this general equation, two
𝑝𝐻 =
equations have been derived to express the
−𝑙𝑜𝑔10[𝐻 + ] (2)
pH process in the CSTR system. The
• pH process description derivation of these equations follows the
The process considered for the control general approach adopted by previous
design is a batch process. The acetic acid is researchers in this field (e.g. (McAvoy, Hsu,
added with sodium hydroxide to form & Lowenthals 1972;Mwembeshi, Kent, &
sodium acetate in a continuously stirred tank Salhi 2001;Nie, Loh, & Hang 1996)).
as shown in the figure 1. In this process
volume is constant because it is considered
to be a batch process. Either the out let from 𝑑𝑥𝑎
𝑣 = 𝐹1 𝐶1 − 𝐹1
the process tank should be at the top of the 𝑑𝑡
tank or there should be a level measurement + 𝐹2 𝑥𝑎 (3)
and control unit to check the level and use an
on/off control for the inlet flow. After the
volume needed (1000 l) is reached. The 𝑑𝑥𝑎
𝑣 = 𝐹2 𝐶2 − 𝐹1
content of the tank is mixed well using a 𝑑𝑡
stirrer. Using a pH sensor the pH value of the + 𝐹2 𝑥𝑏 (4)
solution is measured. Here, base flow rate is
kept constant and the acid flow-rate is The ph process considered is acetic acid
continuously varied in steps. Sodium (weak acid) added with sodium hydroxide
hydroxide of constant flow-rate is (strong base) to form sodium acetate. The
continuously neutralized by Acetic acid general equation for the pH process may be
which acts as a manipulated variable. The written as follows
steady-state of process occurs when the 𝑥𝑏
𝑥𝑏 + 10−𝑝𝐻 − 10−𝑝𝐻14 − =0
concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxyl 1+10 𝑝𝐾𝑎 −𝑝𝐻
ions are equivalent, for different base flow
rate steady state pH is obtained. pH of the
The titration curve or the I/O
mixture is measured continuously using pH
characteristic curve should be obtained
sensor and transmitted to the pH transmitter.
which gives the perfect dynamics of the
2015, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering Research(ICETER)

process. It can be manually plotted. Non linear pid design

Using Matlab functions, like ode solver The main algorithm of the NPID controller is
and fzero function to solve the based on a nonlinear function as inherent
differential equation and the algebraic pH part of the controller. The main goal is to
equation respectively, in a m-file with achieve a desired response in the output of
initial and operating conditions. The the plant when conventional PID could not
results are then plotted. The titration achieve it. Therefore the PID has been
curve for pH process is shown in the reconstructed using a nonlinear function as
figure 1.4. In this plot the curve is ‘z’ follows [2]:
shaped because we neutralize base with
the flow of acid. And the pH value stops 𝑢
increasing around 4 because of the
= 𝑘𝑝 𝜑 𝑒𝑝 , 𝛼𝑝 , 𝛿𝑝 + 𝐾𝑖 𝜑 𝑒𝑖 , 𝛼𝑖 , 𝛿𝑖
buffering effect that is caused by the
weak acid and its salt. + 𝐾𝑑 𝜑 𝑒𝑑 , 𝛼𝑑 , 𝛿𝑑 (6)

I. Operating Data for pH Process. Where φ(x,α,δ) is the nonlinear function[2]:

Process variables/ Nominal values

parameters of Process
acid dissociation
1.8*10-5 (7)
water dissociation
10-14 Kp, Ki , Kd are the controller gains and they
having the same meaning as the conventional
acid inflow rate(l/min)(F1) 0-200
PID gains.
base inflow rate(F2) 512
acid inflow [4] Simulation Results
The closed loop response with PI
base inflow
0.05 Control for every operating region in pH
concentration(moles/l)(C2) process is shown in the figure 1.3 where it is
volume of the tank(l3) 1000 very clear that the 3 regions in the middle of
the process where the change of output is
very high for a very small change in input is
not controlled by a PI controller that is
specifically designed for that particular
region. This shows the very difficulty of pH
control over the sensitive and nonlinear parts
of ph process which is overcome by the

Titration curve for pH


Fig.1.3 closed loop response of pH process

2015, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering Research(ICETER)

Time Delay via Singular Perturbation

[5] CONCLUSION Technique Valery D. Yurkevich
In this paper, nonlinear PID Novosibirsk State Technical University,
controller has been designed for the pH Novosibirsk, 630092, Russia.
process. The servo performance of pH with 4. Ai-Poh Loh,Dhruba Sankar De, and P.
conventional PID controller is compared R. Krishnaswamy , ―pH and Level
with performance of pH process with NPID Controller for a pH Neutralization
controller. From the simulation studies , it is Process‖, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2001, 40
inferred that closed loop response of ph (16), pp 3579–3584.
process with NPID has an ability to track the
setpoint changes. 5. Alvarez, H., Londono, C., de Sciascio,
F., & Carelli, R. 2001, "PH
neutralization process as a benchmark
[6] References for testing nonlinear
1. Design of an enhanced nonlinear PID controllers",Industrial & Engineering
controller Y.X. Su , Dong Sun , B.Y. Chemistry Research, vol. 40, no. 11, pp.
Duan, Department of Manufacturing 2467-2473.
Engineering and Engineering 6. Bar-Eli, K. & Noyes, R. M. 1986, "A
Management, City University of Hong model for imperfect mixing in a CSTR",
Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, The journal of Chemical Physics, vol.
Hong Kong b School of Electro- 85, no. 6, pp. 3251-3257.
Mechanical Engineering, Xidian 7. Bates, R. G. 1973, Determination of pH:
University, Xi’an 710071, China Theory and Practice, 2 edn,
Accepted 2 March 2005. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.
8. Christian, G. D. 2004a, "Acid-Base
2. Design of nonlinear PID controllers, W.J Equilibria," in Analytical
RUGH, department of electronics and Chemistry,Sixth edn, John Wiley &
computer engineering, johns hookins Sons, Inc., United States of America, pp.
university, Baltimore MD21218. 214-260.
3. PI and PID Controller Design for
Nonlinear Systems in the Presence of a

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