0 views

Uploaded by ginotrucheli

© All Rights Reserved

- equationcalendarupdate20062007[1]
- washing dishes lesson plan pdf
- math
- AP DSC School Assistant (Mathematics) 2015
- AE51-102-8-D11
- W3D1 Linear Equations From Patterns
- 2017 Scope and Sequence Highschool
- Unit # 2 Theory of Quadratic Equations
- net13
- _advance_mathematics_-_1.pdf
- REGZ9070 Outline 2015
- De PDF Theory Notes 3 (Mt)
- cmat
- Quant WS Oct 4 (Autosaved)
- Intro
- TEMA 2 - COMBINATORIA Y BINOMIO DE NEWTON (2).docx
- Rph Lesson Study
- algebra 1 course calendar
- Abd Al-Hamid Ibn Turk and Algebra-Sayili
- final 3 leps done

You are on page 1of 789

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United

States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the

condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,

teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe

Algebra 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written

permission of the publisher.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8787 Orion Place

Columbus, OH 43240-4027

Solutions Manual

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 009 07 06 05 04 03 02

Contents

Chapter 2 Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Chapter 3 Solving Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Chapter 4 Graphing Relations and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Chapter 5 Analyzing Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Chapter 6 Solving Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

Chapter 7 Solving Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities . . . . . . 305

Chapter 8 Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Chapter 9 Factoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

Chapter 10 Quadratic and Exponential Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

Chapter 11 Radical Expressions and Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

Chapter 12 Rational Expressions and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533

Chapter 13 Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578

Chapter 14 Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601

Prerequisite Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

Extra Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

Mixed Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766

iii

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 1 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

Page 5 Getting Started 1-1 Variables and Expressions

1. 8 8 64 2. 4 16 64 3. 18 9 162

57

4. 23 6 138 5. 57 3 3 19

68 72 90

Page 8 Check for Understanding

6. 68 4 4

17 7. 3

24 8. 6

15 1. Algebraic expressions include variables and

9. P 2(l w) numbers, while verbal expressions contain words.

2(5.6 2.7) 2. Sample answer: The perimeter is the sum of the

2(8.3) four sides of the rectangle. Thus, the perimeter is

16.6 the sum of two l’s and two w’s, or 2l 2w.

The perimeter is 16.6 meters. 3. Sample answer: Let a be the variable. Then, a to

10. P 2(l w) the fifth power is a5.

2(6.5 3.05) 4. The word sum implies add, so the expression can

2(9.55) be written as j 13.

19.1 5. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Less than

The perimeter is 19.1 centimeters. implies subtract in reverse order, and times

11. P 4s

1 32

implies multiply. So the expression can be written

4 18 as 3x 24.

41 8 2

6. 92 9 9

11

81

11 7. 44 4 4 4 4 4

2

256

1

52 8. the product of 4 and m to the fourth power

1

The perimeter is 5 2 feet. 9. one half of n cubed

12. P 2l 2w 10. Lorenzo will receive the difference of $20 and p

1

2 42 8 2 25 4

5

2 1 1

2 the cost of the peanuts. The word difference

implies subtract, so the expression can be written

10 2

84 8 50 4 as 20 p.

2 2

85 8 50 4

1 2

85 4 50 4 Pages 8–9 Practice and Apply

135 4

3 11. The word sum implies add, so the expression can

be written as 35 z.

3

The perimeter is 135 4 feet. 12. Sample answer: Let x be the number. The word

1 4

sum implies add, so the expression can be written

13. 1.2 14. 3.9 as x 7.

6 0.5 13. The word product implies multiply, so the

7.2 1.95 expression can be written as 16p.

1.8 7.6 14. Sample answer: Let y be the number. The word

15. 1.83.2

4 10.6

16. 1.4 4 product implies multiply, so the expression can be

1 8 9 8 written as 5y.

14 4 84

15. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Increased

1 4 4 8 4

by implies add, and twice implies multiply by 2.

0 0

So the expression can be written as 49 2x.

3 3 12 2 3 5 3

17. 4

12 4 1

18. 1 3 4 3 4 16. And implies add, and times implies multiply. So

3

3

12 5

1

3

the expression can be written as 18 3d.

4

1

34 17. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Two-thirds

1 1 2

9 5 implies multiply by 3, and square implies raise

1 4 to the second power. So the expression can be

2

9 14

1 written as 3 x 2.

1

5 9 5 12 5 2 5 3

1 18. One-half implies multiply by 2, and cube implies

19. 16

12

16

9 20. 6

3

6

2 raise to the third power. So the expression can be

1

written as 2 n3.

2

3

5 12 5

16 9

4 19. The word for implies multiply. So the amount of

4

money Kendra will have is represented by the

15 1

36 14 expression s 12d.

5

12

1 Chapter 1

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 2 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

20. The word square implies raise to the second 47. You can use the expression 4s to find the

power. So the area of the circle is represented by perimeter of a baseball diamond. Answers should

the expression r2.2 include the following.

21. 62 6 6 2 • four times the length of the sides and the sum

36 of the four sides

• ssss

22. 82 8 8

64 48. D; More than implies add, and times implies

multiply. So the expression can be written as

23. 34 3 3 3 3

6 2x or 2x 6.

81

49. B; 4 4 4 43 and c c c c c4

24. 63 6 6 6

216

25. 35 3 3 3 3 3

243

Page 9 Maintain Your Skills

3.2

26. 153 15 15 15 1 09 91 11

1.04 53. 4.8 15.3

33753

50. 14.3 51. 10.00 52. 6

1.8 3.24 4.3 14 4

27. 106 10 10 10 10 10 10 16.1 6.76 312 96

1,000,000 416 9 6

28. 1003 100 100 100 4.472 0

1,000,000 1 2 5 6 3 1 9 2

54. 3

5 15 15 55. 4

6 12 12

29. The word for implies multiply. So the cost of 11 7

buying b dozen bagels for $8.50 a dozen can be 15 12

represented by the expression 8.5b. Also the cost 1 1

3 4 3 4

of buying d dozen donuts for $3.99 a dozen can be 56. 8

989

2 3

represented by the expression 3.99d. The word

1

and implies add. So the cost of buying b dozen 6

bagels and d dozen donuts can be represented by 7 3 7 5

the expression 8.5b 3.99d. 57. 10

5 10 3

1

30. The word for implies multiply. So the amount of 7 5

miles driven for two weeks can be represented by 10 3

2

the expression 14m. The mileage on Sari’s 7 1

odometer after her trip is the sum of 23,500 and 6 or 16

14m or the expression 23,500 14m.

31. 7 times p

32. 15 times r Page 10 Reading Mathematics

33. three cubed 1. c; 9 2 n 2. b; 4 (n 6) 3. f; n 52

34. five to the fourth power 4. h; 3(8 n) 5. g; 9 (2 n) 6. d; 3(8) n

35. three times x squared plus four 7. a; (n 5)2 8. e; 4 n 6

36. 2 times n cubed plus 12 9. Sample answer: one more than five times x

37. a to the fourth power times b squared 10. Sample answer: five times the quantity x plus one

38. n cubed times p to the fifth power 11. Sample answer: three plus the product of seven

and x

39. Sample answer: one-fifth 12 times z squared

12. Sample answer: the sum of three and x multiplied

40. Sample answer: one-fourth 8 times g cubed

by seven

41. 3 times x squared minus 2 times x

13. Sample answer: the sum of six and b divided by y

42. 4 times f to the fifth power minus 9 times k cubed

14. Sample answer: six plus the quotient of b and y

43. Sum implies add, and product implies multiply.

1

So the expression can be written as x 11x.

44. Sum implies add, product implies multiply, and

twice implies multiply by 2. So the expression can

1-2 Order of Operations

be written as 2lw 2lh 2wh.

45. The word by implies multiply, so the expression Page 13 Check for Understanding

can be written as 3.5m. 1. Sample answer: First add the numbers in

46. The area of the square can be represented by the parentheses, (2 5). Next square 6. Then

expression a2 or a a . The perimeter can be multiply 7 by 3. Subtract inside the brackets.

represented as a a a a or 4a. If a 4, Multiply that by 8. Divide, then add 3.

then a a 4 4 16 and 4 a 4 4 16. 2. Sample answer: (2 4) 3

Thus, the value of a is 4. 3. Chase; Laurie raised the incorrect quantity to the

second power.

Chapter 1 2

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 3 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

70 26 21 43

6. 29 3(9 4) 29 3(5) 19. 4(11 7) 9 8 4(18) 9 8

29 15 72 9 8

14 72 72

7. [7(2) 4] [9 8(4)] [14 4] [9 8(4)] 0

10 [9 8(4)] 20. 12(9 5) 6 3 12(14) 6 3

10 [9 32] 168 6 3

10 41 168 18

51 150

(4 3) 2 5 (12) 2 5 21. 12 3 5 42 12 3 5 16

8. 9 3

9 3

144 5 4 5 16

9 3 20 16

720 4

9 3

720 22. 15 3 5 42 15 3 5 16

12 5 5 16

60 25 16

3 23 3 8 9

9.

52 (4) 52 (4) 23. 288 [3(9 3)] 288 [3(12)]

11

52 (4)

288 [36]

11

8

25 (4)

24. 390 [5(7 6)] 390 [5(13)]

100

11

390 [65]

6

10. hk gj 6 12 4 8

2 82 22 8 2 64 4 8

72 4 8 25.

2 8 2 8

72 32 128 32

40 2 8

96

11. 2k gh2 j 2 12 4 62 8 2 8

2 12 4 36 8 96

24 4 36 8 16

24 144 8 6

168 8 4 62 42 6 4 36 16 6

26. 4 6

4 6

160

144 96

4 6

2g(h g) 2 4(6 4)

12. gh j

468

48

4 6

2 4(2)

468 48

24

8(2)

468 2

16

468 27. [ (8 5) (6 2) 2 ] (4 17 2)

[ (13) (4) 2 ] (4 17 2)

[ (24 2) 3 ] [ (24 2) 3 ]

16

24 8

[ (13) (16) ] (4 17 2)

[ (24 2) 3 ]

16

16

208 (68 2)

[ (24 2) 3 ]

1 208 34

[ (24 2) 3 ]

13. 3 packages 2 additional

174

of software plus packages [ (24 2) 3 ]

1442443 123 1442443

20.00 2 9.95

174

[ 12 3 ]

or 20.00 2 9.95 174

4

14. Evaluate 20.00 2 9.95. 87 1

20.00 2 9.95 20.00 19.90 or 43 2

3 2 3 7 (2 3 5) 4 6 3 2 3 7 (6 5) 4

2

39.90 28. 6

6 3 3 14

The cost of 5 software packages is $39.90.

2 7

6 33 14

9

6 [ 3 1]

15. (12 6) 2 6 2 62

12 4

16. (16 3) 4 13 4

52

3 Chapter 1

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 4 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

1xy 2 3y z

1128 2 (12

3 8 3

2 2

38.

1 2 2 (12 8)

(x y) 2 8) 2

n(2n 3) 4(2 4 3)

3 2 3 8 3

4(8 3) 2

4(11) 9 3 8 3

(12 8) 2

44 4

24 3

The area of the rectangle is 44 cm2.2.

9

(12 8) 2

4

30. Samantha Derrick 9 21

sells 60 70 balcony sells 50 90 balcony 4

(12 8) 2

floor seats and seats and floor seats and seats.

1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443

9 21

60(7.5) 70(5) 50(7.5) 90(5) 4

42

or 60(7.5) 70(5) 50(7.5) 90(5) 9 21

16

31. Evaluate 60(7.5) 70(5) 50(7.5) 90(5). 4

36 21

60(7.5) 70(5) 50(7.5) 90(5) 450 350 16

16

375 450 15

800 375 450 16

1175 450 x z 2

2y x 12 32 2 8 12

39. 82 2

1625 y x y2 2 8 12

12 9 16 12

Samantha and Derrick have collected $1625. 8 12

64 2

32. x y2 z2 12 82 32 3 4

64 2

12 64 32 8 12

3 4

12 64 9 2

32

76 9 3

3 4

85 3 2 32

33. x3 y z3 123 8 33 9 4

2 32

1728 8 33

9 16 4

1728 8 27 2 16 32

1736 27 144 4

32

1763 32

148

34. 3xy z 3 12 8 3 32

36 8 3 37 5

or 4 8

288 3 8

35. 4x yz 4 12 8 3 20 minutes plus 20 minutes

144424443 123 144424443

48 8 3 100.2 250.2

48 24

or 100 2 250 2

24

2xy z3 2 12 8 33

Evaluate 100 2 250 2.

36. z

3 100 2 250 2 200 250 2

2 12 8 27 200 500

3 700

24 8 27

3 The total number in both dishes is 700 bacteria

192 27 cells.

3

165

41. the sum of salary, commission, and 4 bonuses

3 salary plus commission plus 1442443

42. 14243 4 bonuses

123 1442443 123

55

xy2 3z 12 82 3 3

s c 4b

37. 3

3 or his earnings e is s c 4b.

12 64 3 3

3 43. Evaluate s c 4b for s 42,000,

768 3 3 c 12 825 or 9900, and b 750.

3 s c 4b 42,000 9900 4 750

768 9

42,000 9900 3000

3

759

51,900 3000

3 54,900

253 Mr. Martinez earns $54,900 in a year.

Chapter 1 4

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 5 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

64. 0.5000 65. 5.600

1 2 3 6; 1 2 3 7; 1 2 3 5;

0.0075 1.612

3 2 1 1; (2 1) 3 3

0.4925 7.212

45. Use the order of operations to determine how

many extra hours were used and then how much 2.884 1 11

66. 5.214.9968 67. 6.42 5

the extra hours cost. Then find the total cost.

Answers should include the following. 10 4 2.3

4 59 1 9 27 5

• 6 [4.95 0.99(n)] 25.00

4 16 12 8 50

• You can use an expression to calculate a specific 436 14.7 77 5

value without calculating all possible values. 416

46. A; Evaluate a b c for a 10, b 12, and c 17. 208

a b c 10 12 17 208

22 17 0

39 1 1 33 3 3 5 3 19

47. B; (5 1)3 (11 2)2 (7 4)3 43 92 33 3 68. 4 8 1 2 8

2

69. 5

27 5 7

64 81 27 33 3 4 21 95

8

2 4

35

35

145 27 33 12 116

172 8

8

35

21 11

( .25 ⫻ .75 3 35

48. Enter: 2 ) ⫼ ( 7 ⫻ 8

5

28

.75 3 ) ENTER 0.0476190476

1 2

( 2 ⫻ 27.89 2 ) ⫼ ( 5 4 5 4

49. Enter: 27.89 70. 6

5 6 5

2 27.89 ) ENTER 2.074377092 3 1

2

2 ) ⫼

3

50. Enter: ( 12.75 3 12.75 2 8 2

71. 8 19

( 12.75 3 12.75 2

) 9

8 9

12

ENTER 1.170212766

4

8 9

1

2

1

36

Page 15 Maintain Your SkillsMaintain Your Skills 1

51. Product implies multiply, so the expression can be 36

written as a3 b4.

52. Less than implies subtract in reverse order, and

times implies multiply. So the expression can be Open Sentences

written as 3y2 6.

1-3

53. Sum implies add, increased by implies add, and

quotient implies divide. So the expression can be Page 18 Check for Understanding

b

written as a b a. 1. Sample answer: An open sentence contains an

54. Times implies multiply, sum implies add, equals sign or inequality sign.

increased by implies add, twice implies multiply 2. Sample answer: x 7

by 2, and difference implies subtract. So the 3. Sample answer: An open sentence has at least

expression can be written as 4(r s) 2(r s). one variable because it is neither true nor false

55. Triple implies multiply by 3, and difference until specific values are used for the variable.

implies subtract. So the expression can be written 4. Replace x in 3x 7 29 with each value in the

as 3(55 w3).3). replacement set.

56. 24 2 2 2 2

16 x 3x 7 29 True or False?

?

57. 121 121 10 31102 7 29 S 23 29 false

58. 82 8 8 59. 44 4 4 4 4 11 31112 7 29 S 26 29

?

false

64 256 ?

60. Five times n plus n divided by 2 12 31122 7 29 S 29 29 true ✓

?

61. 12 less than q squared 13 31132 7 29 S 32 29 false

62. the sum of x and three divided by the square of ?

14 31142 7 29 S 35 29 false

the quantity x minus two ?

63. x cubed divided by nine 15 31152 7 29 S 38 29 false

The solution of 3x 7 29 is 12.

5 Chapter 1

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 6 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

5. Replace x in 12(x 8) 84 with each value in 11. Replace x in 3(12 x) 2 28 with each value

the replacement set. in the replacement set.

x 12(x 8) 84 True or False? True or

? x 3(12 x) 2 28 False?

10 12110 82 84 S 24 84 false

?

? 1.5 3(12 1.5) 2 28 S 29.5
28 false

11 12111 82 84 S 36 84 false

?

? 2 3(12 2) 2 28 S 28 28 true ✓

12 12112 82 84 S 48 84 false ?

? 2.5 3(12 2.5) 2 28 S 26.5 28 true ✓

13 12113 82 84 S 60 84 false ?

? 3 3(12 3) 2 28 S 25 28 true ✓

14 12114 82 84 S 72 84 false

? The solution set for 3(12 x) 2 28 is {2, 2.5, 3}.

15 12115 82 84 S 84 84 true ✓

12. the number

The solution of 12(x 8) 84 is 15. The number of Calories the number divided the number

2 3 of Calories is perpound times of pounds by of days.

6. Replace x in x 5 1 20 with each value in the 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 14243 1442443

C 3500 . 4 14

replacement set. 3500 4

or C 14

2 3

x x 5 1 20 True or False? 3500 4

13. Solve C 14

.

1 1 2 ? 3 13 3

4 4

5 1 20 S 20 1 20 false C

3500 4

14

1 1 2 ? 3 9 3 14,000

1 20 S 10 1 20 false C 14

2 2 5

3 3 2 ? 3 3 3 C 1000

4 4

5 1 20 S 1 20 1 20 true ✓

The number of Calories a person would have to

1

2 ? 3

1 5 1 20 S 1 5 1 20

2 3

false burn each day is 1000 Calories.

1 1 2 ? 3 13 3

14 1 4 5 1 20 S 1 20 1 20 false

2 3 3

Pages 19–20 Practice and Apply

The solution of x 5 1 20 is 4. 14. Replace b in b 12 9 with each value in the

7. Replace x in 7.2(x 2) 25.92 with each value in replacement set.

the replacement set. b b 12 9 True or False?

True or ?

12 12 12 9 S 0 9 false

x 7.2(x 2) 25.92 False? ?

? 17 17 12 9 S 5 9 false

1.2 7.211.2 22 25.92 S 23.04 25.92 false ?

? 18 18 12 9 S 6 9 false

1.4 7.211.4 22 25.92 S 24.48 25.92 false ?

?

21 21 12 9 S 9 9 true ✓

1.6 7.211.6 22 25.92 S 25.92 25.92 true ✓ ?

?

25 25 12 9 S 13 9 false

1.8 7.211.8 22 25.92 S 27.36 25.92 false

The solution of b 12 9 is 21.

The solution of 7.2(x 2) 25.92 is 1.6. 15. Replace b in 34 b 22 with each value in the

14 8

8. 4(6) 3 x 9. w 2 replacement set.

6

24 3 x w2 b 34 b 22 True or False?

?

27 x w3 12 34 12 22 S 22 22 true ✓

The solution is 27. The solution is 3. ?

17 34 17 22 S 17 22 false

10. Replace x in 24 2x

13 with each value in the ?

replacement set. 18 34 18 22 S 16 22 false

?

x 24 2x 13 True or False? 21 34 21 22 S 13 22 false

? ?

0 24 2102

13 S 24

13 true ✓ 25 34 25 22 S 9 22 false

1

?

24 2112

13 S 22

13 true ✓ The solution of 34 b 22 is 12.

?

2 24 2122

13 S 20

13 true ✓

?

3 24 2132

13 S 18

13 true ✓

?

4 24 2142

13 S 16

13 true ✓

?

5 24 2152

13 S 14

13 true ✓

?

6 24 2162

13 S 12 13 false

The solution set for 24 2x

13 is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}.

Chapter 1 6

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 7 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

7 17

with each value in the

8

replacement set. replacement set.

a 3a 7 31 True or False? 7 17

x x4 8

True or False?

?

0 3(0) 7 31 S 7 31 false 1 1 7 ? 17 15 17

? 8 8

4 8

S 8

8

false

3 3(3) 7 31 S 16 31 false

3 3 7 ? 17 17 17

? 8 S true ✓

5 3(5) 7 31 S 22 31 false 8 8 4 8 8

? 5 5 7 ? 17 19 17

8 3(8) 7 31 S 31 31 true ✓ 8 8

4 8

S 8

8

false

?

10 3(10) 7 31 S 37 31 false 7 7

4

7 ? 17

S

21

17

false

8 8 8 8 8

The solution of 3a 7 31 is 8.

7 17 3

17. Replace a in 4a 5 17 with each value in the The solution of x 4 8

is 8.

replacement set. 7 25

21. Replace x in x 12 12 with each value in the

a 4a 5 17 True or False? replacement set.

?

0 4(0) 5 17 S 5 17 false x

7

x 12 12

25

True or false?

?

3 4(3) 5 17 S 17 17 true ✓ 1 1 7 ? 25 13 25

2 2

12

12 S 12 12 false

?

5 4(5) 5 17 S 25 17 false

7 ? 25 19 25

? 1 1 12 S 12 12 false

8 4(8) 5 17 S 37 17 false 12

? ? 25

10 4(10) 5 17 S 45 17 false 12

1 1

1 2 12

7

S 12 12

25 25

true ✓

12

The solution of 4a 5 17 is 3. 7 ? 25 31 25

2 2 12 12

S 12 12 false

40

18. Replace a in 4 0 with each value in the

a

7 25 1

replacement set. The solution of x 12 12 is 1 2.

40 2 8

a a 40 True or False? 22. Replace x in 5 (x 1) 15 with each value in the

40 ? replacement set.

0 4 0 S undefined 0 false

1x

0 2 8

x 12 15 True or False?

40 ? 1 5

3 3

40 S 93 0 false ?

1 2 1

6 5 6

false

5 13

1 2 15 S 15 15

40 ?

5 5

4 0S4 0 false

1 2 1 ? 8 8 8

? 3

true ✓

5 12

1 2 15 S 5 15

40

8 8

4 0S1 0 false

1 2 1 ? 8 3 8

? 2

false

5 13

1 2 15 S 3 15

40

10 10

4 0S0 0 true ✓

2 2 2 ? 8 2 8

3

false

40

The solution of a

4 0 is 10.

2 8 1

b

19. Replace b in 3 2 4 with each value in the The solution of 5 (x 1) 15 is 3.

replacement set. 23. Replace x in 2.7(x 5) 17.28 with each value in

b the replacement set.

b 3

24 True or False?

True or

12 ?

12 3

2 4S2 4 false x 2.7(x 5) 17.28 False?

?

17

17 ?

2 4 S 33 4

2

false 1.2 2.7(1.2 5) 17.28 S 16.74 17.28 false

3 ?

18 ? 1.3 2.7(1.3 5) 17.28 S 17.01 17.28 false

18 3

2 4S4 4 true ✓ ?

1.4 2.7(1.4 5) 17.28 S 17.28 17.28 true ✓

21 ?

21 2 4S5 4 false ?

3 1.5 2.7(1.5 5) 17.28 S 17.55 17.28 false

25 ? 1

25 3

24 S 63 4 false The solution of 2.7(x 5) 17.28 is 1.4.

b

The solution of 3

2 4 is 18.

7 Chapter 1

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 8 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

35. p 4 [7(23 ) 4(52 ) 6(2) ]

the replacement set. 1

p 4 [7(8) 4(25) 12]

True or 1

x 16(x 2) 70.4 False? p 4 [56 100 12]

? 1

2.2 16 (2.2 2) 70.4 S 67.2 70.4 false p 4 [156 12]

? 1

2.4 16 (2.4 2) 70.4 S 70.4 70.4 true ✓ p 4 [144]

2.6

?

16 (2.6 2) 70.4 S 73.6 70.4 false p 36

?

The solution is 36.

2.8 16 (2.8 2) 70.4 S 76.8 70.4 false 1

36. n 8 [6(32 ) 2(43 ) 2(7) ]

The solution of 16(x 2) 70.4 is 2.4. 1

n 8 [6(9) 2(64) 14]

25. Replace x in 21(x 5) 216.3 with each value in 1

the replacement set. n 8 [54 128 14]

1

True or n 8 [182 14]

x 21(x 5) 216.3 False? 1

n 8 [164]

?

3.1 21 (3.1 5) 216.3 S 170.1 216.3 false n 21

? The solution is 21.

4.2 21 (4.2 5) 216.3 S 193.2 216.3 false

? 37. Replace a in a 2 6 with each value in the

5.3 21 (5.3 5) 216.3 S 216.3 216.3 true ✓ replacement set.

?

6.4 21 (6.4 5) 216.3 S 239.4 216.3 false a a26 True or False?

?

The solution of 21(x 5) 216.3 is 5.3. 6 6 2 6 6S4 6 6 true ✓

26. ?

The adult the student is no

7 7 2 6 6S5 6 6 true ✓

number price number price more ?

of adults times 1442443

1442443

per ticket plus 1442443

123

of students times 1442443

123 123

per ticket 123 $30.

than 123 8 8 2 6 6S6 6 false

?

2 a 3 s $30

9 9 2 6 6S7 6 false

or 2a 3s 30 ?

10 10 2 6 6 S 8 6 false

27. Evaluate 2a 3s for a 4.50 and s 4.50.

?

2a 3s 2(4.50) 3(4.50) 11 11 2 6 6 S 9 6 false

9 13.50

The solution set for a 2 6 is {6, 7}.

22.50

The cost for the family to see a matinee is $22.50. 38. Replace a in a 7 22 with each value in the

replacement set.

28. Evaluate 2a 3s for a 7.50 and s 4.50.

2a 3s 2(7.50) 3(4.50) a a 7 22 True or False?

15 13.50 ?

13 13 7 6 22 S 20 6 22 true ✓

28.50

?

The cost for the family to see an evening show is 14 14 7 6 22 S 21 6 22 true ✓

$28.50. ?

15 15 7 6 22 S 22 22 false

29. 14.8 3.75 t 30. a 32.4 18.95

?

11.05 t a 13.45 16 16 7 6 22 S 23 22 false

The solution is 11.05. The solution is 13.45. ?

12 5 15 6

17 17 7 6 22 S 24 22 false

31. y 15 3

32. g 16 7

60 90

The solution set for a 7 22 is {13, 14}.

y 12

g 9 a

39. Replace a in 5

2 with each value in the

y5 g 10

replacement set.

The solution is 5. The solution is 10.

a

7(3) 3

33. d 4(3 1) 6 34. a

4(14 1)

7 a 5

2 True or False?

3(6) 5

21 3 4(13) 5 ?

d 4(2)

6 a 18 5

7 5

2S1 2 false

5

24 52

d 6 a 7 10 ?

8 13 10 5

2S2

2 true ✓

d36 a47

15 ?

d9 a 11 15 5

2S3

2 true ✓

The solution is 9. The solution is 11.

20 ?

20 5

2S4

2 true ✓

25 ?

25 5

2S5

2 true ✓

a

The solution set for 5

2 is {10, 15, 20, 25}.

Chapter 1 8

PQ249-6481F-01[001-009] 26/9/02 4:06 PM Page 9 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

2a

40. Replace a in 4 8 with each value in the 44. Replace b in 2b 5 with each value in the

replacement set. replacement set.

2a b 2b 5 True or False?

a 4

8 True or False?

?

1 2112 6 5 S 2 6 5 true ✓

1 2 6 5S3 6 5

21122 ?

12 4

8S6 8 true ✓ 1 ?

1 12 2 12 true ✓

21142 ?

14 4

8S7 8 true ✓ ?

2 2122 6 5 S 4 6 5 true ✓

1 2 6 5S5 5

21162 ?

16 8S8 8 true ✓ 1 ?

4 2 12 2 22 false

21182 ?

18 8S9
8 false ?

4

3 2132 6 5 S 6 5 false

5 6

21202 ?

20 4

8 S 10
8 false 1

The solution set for 2b 5 is 1, 12, 2 .

21222 ?

22 4

8 S 11
8 false 45. Total number glasses glasses glasses

of glasses is of milk plus of juice plus of soda.

2a 1442443 123 14243 123 14243 123 14243

The solution set for 4

8 is {12, 14, 16}. g 15,579 6220 18,995

41. Replace a in 4a 3

10.6 with each value in the or g 15,579 6220 18,995

replacement set. 46. Evaluate 15,579 6220 18,995.

True or 15,579 6220 18,995 21,799 18,995

a 4a 3 10.6 False? 40,794

?

The average American drinks 40,794 glasses.

3.2 4(3.2) 3

10.6 S 9.8 10.6 false 47. The cost of the number the charge is not

$102.50.

each sweater times of sweaters plus for shipping more than 14243

? 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 14243

3.4 4(3.4) 3

10.6 S 10.6

10.6 true ✓ $39 n $10.95 $102.50

3.6 413.62 3

10.6 S 11.4

10.6 true ✓

48. Explore You can spend no more than $102.50.

?

3.8 413.82 3

10.6 S 12.2

10.6 true ✓ So the situation can be represented by

the inequality 39n 10.95 102.50.

?

4 4(4) 3

10.6 S 13

10.6 true ✓ Plan Since no replacement set is given,

estimate to find reasonable values for

The solution set for 4a 3

10.6 is the replacement set.

{3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4}.

Solve Start by letting n 1 and then adjust

42. Replace a in 6a 5

23.8 with each value in the values up or down as needed.

replacement set.

39n 10.95 102.50

True or ?

a 6a 5 23.8 False? 39(1) 10.95 102.50

?

? 39 10.95 102.50

4.2 614.22 5

23.8 S 20.2 23.8 false 49.95 102.50

? The estimate is too low. Increase the value of n.

4.5 614.52 5

23.8 S 22 23.8 false

? Reason-

4.8 614.82 5

23.8 S 23.8

23.8 true ✓ n 39n 10.95 102.50 able?

? ?

5.1 615.12 5

23.8 S 25.6

23.8 true ✓ 2 39122 10.95 102.50 S88.95 102.50 too low

? ?

5.4 615.42 5

23.8 S 27.4

23.8 true ✓ 3 39132 10.95 102.50 S127.95 102.50 too high

23.8 is {4.8, 5.1, 5.4}. Examine The solution set is {0, 1, 2}. You can buy

43. Replace a in 3a 4 with each value in the 2 sweaters and stay within your budget.

replacement set. 49. The solution set includes all numbers less than or

1

equal to 3.

a 3a 4 True or False?

? 50. You can use equations to determine how much

0 3102 4 S 0 4 true ✓

113 2 4 S 1 4

money you have to spend and how you can spend

1

3

?

true ✓ your money. Answers should include the following.

313 2 4 S 2 4

3 • Sample answers: calculating gasoline required

2 2 ? for a trip: cooking time

3

true ✓

?

1 3112 4 S 3 4 true ✓

1 12

?

1 13 3 13 4 S 4 4 true ✓

5

The solution set for 3a 4 is 0, 3, 3, 1, 1 3 .

1 2 1

6

9 Chapter 1

15 n2 2 5 57. 53 3(42) 53 3(16)

51. B; Replace n in 6 28 with each value in

19 32 2 n 125 3(16)

the replacement set. 125 48

15 n2 2 5 173

n 28 True or False? 38 12 26

19 3 2 n 2 13

2

58. 2 13

15 52 2 5 ? 11 26

26

5 6 28 S 8 38 6 28 true ✓

19 32 2 5

1

15 72 2 5 ?

7 6 28 S 16 37 6 28

23

true ✓ 59. [5(2 1)]4 3 [5(3)]4 3

19 33 2 7

[15]4 3

15 92 2 5 ? 7 50,625 3

9 6 28 S 28 37 28 false

19 32 2 9 50,628

15 112 2 5

1 1

? 2 1 2 1 2 4 3 4 3

11 6 28 S 43 7 28 false 60. 6 61. 9

19 3 2 11

2 6 5 5 9 7 7

3 3

15 132 2 5

1 4

? 7 15 21

13 6 28 S 62 34 28 false

19 3 2 13

2

5 1 6

15 n2 2 5 62.

5

15

6

5 15

63.

6

12

14

6 12

The solution set for 6 28 is {5, 7}. 6 16 16 14 18 18

19 32 n

2 2 7 3

2

52. C; 27 3 (12 4) 27 3 8

25

6

32 21

98 7

2

17 7

8 2 8 2 4 4 4 4

64. 13

11

13 11

65. 7

9

7 9

16 16

Page 20 Maintain Your Skills 143

63

53. Increased by implies add, and times implies 8

3 7 3 7 2 24 2 24

multiply. So the expression can be written as 66. 11

16

11 16

67. 9

25

9 25

r 2 3s. 3

21 16

Evaluate r2 3s for r 2 and s 5. 176

75

r2 3s 22 3 5

43 5

4 15 Page 20 Practice Quiz 1

19 1. twenty less than x

54. Times implies multiply, and sum implies add. So 2. five times n plus two

the expression can be written as t(4s r).

1

3. a cubed

Evaluate t(4s r) for r 2, s 5, and t 2. 4. n to the fourth power minus one

t 14s r2 2 14 5 22

1

5. 6(9) 2(8 5) 6(9) 2(13)

54 2(13)

2 120 22

1

54 26

2 1222 28

1

11

4[2 8]

55. Sum implies add, and times implies multiply. So 4[10]

the expression can be written as (r s)t2. 40

1

Evaluate (r s)t2 for r 2, s 5, and t 2. 7. 9(3) 42 62 2 9(3) 16 62 2

1r s2t2 12 52 112 22 9(3) 16 36 2

27 16 36 2

172 112 22 27 16 18

172 1 4 2

11 18

1

29

4

7 15 22 2 132 2

8. 314 2 72

314 2 72

56. Decreased by implies subtract, so the expression 9

314 2 72

can be written as r5 t. 9

1

Evaluate r5 t for r 2 and t 2. 318 72

9

1

r5 t 25 2 3112

9

1

32 2 3

1

3

31 2

Chapter 1 10

5 42 10 2 5 16 10 2 11. From Exercises 9 and 10 we determine that four

9. 6 5

6 5 score and seven years is 87 years.

80 10 2

6 5

90 2

6 5

88

Pages 23–25 Practice and Apply

11 12. Multiplicative Identity Property;

8 n 1, since 12 1 12.

10. Replace n in 2n2 3 75 with each value in the 13. Multiplicative Identity Property;

replacement set. n 5, since 5 1 5.

14. Reflexive Property;

n 2n2 3 75 True or False?

n 5, since 8 5 8 5.

?

4 2 42 3 75 S 35 75 true ✓ 15. Reflexive Property;

2 ? n 0.25, since 0.25 1.5 0.25 1.5

5 2 5 3 75 S 53 75 true ✓

? 16. Additive Identity Property;

2

6 2 6 3 75 S 75 75 true ✓ n 0, since 8 0 8.

2 ?

7 2 7 3 75 S 101 75 false 17. Additive Identity Property;

1 1 1

? n 3, since 3 0 3.

8 2 82 3 75 S 131 75 false

? 18. Multiplicative Inverse Property;

9 2 92 3 75 S 165 75 false 1 1

n 2, since 1 2 2.

The solution set for 2n2 3 75 is {4, 5, 6}. 19. Multiplicative Inverse Property;

1

n 1, since 4 4 1.

20. Substitution Property;

1-4 Identity and Equality Properties n 5, since (9 7)(5) 2(n).

21. Substitution Property;

n 3, since 3 (2 8) n 10.

Page 23 Check for Understanding

1 2 3 125 251 2

22. Multiplicative Identity Property;

1. No; for 1 to be an additive identity, the sum of 1

n 3, since 3 52

any number a and 1 must be a. However, 25

3 1 4 3. 3 1

2. Sample answer: 5 3 2, and 3 2 4 1, so 3.

112 22 6 1 6.

5 4 1; 5 7 8 4, and 8 4 12, so 23. Multiplicative Identity Property;

5 7 12. n 2, since 6

3. Sample answer: You cannot divide by zero. 3

24. 4

[ 4 (7 4) ]

4. Multiplicative Property of Zero;

3

n 0, since 13 0 0. 4 [4 3] Substitution; 7 4 3

5. Additive Identity Property;

n 17, since 17 0 17.

4

3 4

3 34 Substitution; 4 3 3

4

3 4

1 Multiplicative Inverse; 1

6. Multiplicative Inverse Property; 4 3

1

n 6, since 6 6 1. 25.

2

[ 3 (2 1) ]

3

7. 6(12 48 4) 6(12 12) Substitution; 48 4 12 2

3 [3 2] Multiplicative Identity; 2 1 2

34

6(0) Substitution; 12 12 0

2 3 3

0 Multiplicative Property 3 2

Substitution; 3 2 2

of Zero; 6 0 0 2 3

1 1

1 2

Multiplicative Inverse; 3 2

1

8. 15 15 8 0 12 1

26. 2 (3 2 5) 33

(1 + 8 0) 12 Multiplicative Inverse; 1

1 2(6 5) 3 3 Substitution; 3 2 6

15 15 1

2 112 3

1

(1 0) 12 Multiplicative Property of Zero; 3

Substitution; 6 5 1

1

8 00 2 33 Multiplicative Identity;

1 12 Additive Identity; 1 0 1 2 12

12 Multiplicative Identity;

1 12 12 21 Multiplicative Inverse;

1

331

9. four score and seven

1442443 123 1

424

3

3 Substitution; 2 1 3

4(20) 7

or 4(20) 7

10. 4(20) 7 80 7 Substitution; 4 20 80

87 Substitution; 80 7 87

11 Chapter 1

1 35.

27. 6 6 5 (12 4 3) base weight

35% of

offensive

Eight

1 salary plus below 240 lb plus plays

6 6 5(3 3) Substitution; 12 4 3 players times

14243 123 14243 123 1442443 123 14243

8 ($400,000 $100,000 $50,000)

1

6 6

5102 Substitution; 3 3 0

or 8(400,000 100,000 50,000)

1 5(0) Multiplicative Inverse;

1 Three base 12 76 points

661 players times salary plus touchdowns plus scored

14243 123 14243 123 1442443 123 14243

1 Additive Identity; 1 0 1 Four base 1601 4.5 yards

players times salary plus yards plus per carry

2

28. 3 5(4 2 ) 1 14243 123 14243 123 14243 123 14243

3 5(4 4) 1 Substitution; 22 4 4

301 Multiplicative Property of So the expression can be written as 8(400,000

Zero; 5 0 0 100,000 50,000) 3(400,000 50,000

31 Additive Identity; 3 0 3 50,000) 4(400,000 1,000,000 50,000).

2 Substitution; 3 1 2 36. 8(400,000 100,000 50,000) 3(400,000

29. 7 8(9 32) 50,000 50,000) 4(400,000 50,000 50,000)

7 8(9 9) Substitution; 32 9 8(550,000) 3(400,000 50,000 50,000)

7 8(0) Substitution; 9 9 0 4(400,000 50,000 50,000) Substitution;

70 Multiplicative Property of Zero; 400,000 100,000 50,000 550,000

8 00 8(550,000) 3(500,000) 4(500,000)

7 Additive Identity; 7 0 7 Substitution; 400,000 1,000,000 50,000

30. Profit for profit for profit for 1,450,000

25 peanuts 123and 80 buttons and 40 caps 4,400,000 1,500,000 2,000,000

1442443 1442443 123 14243

Substitution; 4 1,450,000 5,800,000

25(5 3) 80(2.5 1) 40(10 6) 7,900,000 Substitution; 4,400,000 1,500,000

or 25(5 3) + 80(2.5 1) + 40(10 6) 5,800,000 11,700,000

31. 25(5 3) 80(2.5 1) 40(10 6) 37. Sometimes; Sample answer: true: x 2, y 1,

25(2) 80(2.5 1) 40(10 6) Substitution; z 4, w 3, 2

1 and 4

3 and 2 4 8

3

532 1 3; false: x 1, y 1, z 2, w 3,

25(2) 80(1.5) 40(10 6) Substitution; 1

1 and 2

3 however, 1(2) 2 3

2.5 1 1.5 (1)(3).

25(2) 80(1.5) 40(4) Substitution;

38. You can use the identity and equality properties

10 6 4

to see if data is the same. Answers should include

50 120 160 Substitution;

the following:

40 4 160

330 Substitution; • Reflexive: r r, or Symmetric: a b so b a.

170 160 • Oklahoma, week 1 a, week 2 b, week

330 3 c. a b and b c so a c.

32. Pay for increase pay for 39. A; In words: If one quantity equals a second

grade from grade quantity, then the second quantity equals the first.

plus is

E-2 at 3 yr 123 3 yr to 12 yr 123 E-2 at 12 yr.

1442443

1442443

144424443 40. B; Substitution Property, since 10 8 2.

1169.10 y 1169.10

41. False, since 4 5 1 and 1 is not a whole

or 1169.10 y 1169.10 number.

y 0, since 1169.10 0 1169.10.

42. True, for any whole numbers a and b the product

33. Pay for increase pay for

ab is also a whole number.

grade from grade

1 1

E-4 at 6 yr times 6

1442443

yr to 10 yr

1442443

123 123

is E-4 at 10 yr.

144424443 43. False, since 1 2 2 and 2

is not a whole

1653 y 1653 number.

or 1653y 1653

y 1, since 1653 1 1653.

34. Base bonus for is the base bonus for

salary plus 12 touchdowns same as salary plus 76 points.

14243 123 144424443 14243 14243 123 14243

$350,000 $50,000 $350,000 $50,000

Chapter 1 12

Page 25 Maintain Your Skills 7 3

48. Replace x in 10 2x 6 10

with each value in the

44. Replace x in 10 x

6 with each value in the replacement set.

replacement set. 7 3

x 10

2x 10 True or False?

x 10 x 6 True or False?

1 7 1 ? 3 3 3

3

?

10 3 7 6 S 7 7 6 true ✓ 2 10

22 6 10

S 10 6 10

true ✓

? 1 7 1 ? 3 1 3

5 10 5 7 6 S 5 6 false 3 10

2 3

6 10

S 30 6 10

true ✓

? ?

6 10 6 7 6 S 4 6 false 1 7

24 6

1 3

S5 6

1 3

true ✓

4 10 10 10

?

8 10 8 7 6 S 2 6 false 1 7 1 ? 3 3 3

5 10

2 5

6 10

S 10 10 false

The solution set for 10 x

6 is {3}. ?

1 7 1 3 11 3

45. Replace x in 4x 2 58 with each value in the 6 10

2 6

6 10

S 30 10 false

512, 13, 14 6.

replacement set. 7 3

The solution set for 10

2x 6 10

is

x 4x 2 58 True or False?

?

49. Replace x in 2x 1 2 with each value in the

11 4 11 2 6 58 S 46 6 58 true ✓ replacement set.

?

12 4 12 2 6 58 S 50 6 58 true ✓ x 2x 1 2 True or False?

?

13 4 13 2 6 58 S 54 6 58 true ✓ 14

1 1 ?

2 14 1 2 S 12 2

1

true ✓

?

14 4 14 2 6 58 S 58 58 false ?

?

2 2 2 1 2S3 2 false

15 4 15 2 6 58 S 62 58 false ?

3 2 3 1 2S5 2 false

The solution set for 4x 2 58 is {11, 12, 13}. 1 1 ?

x 32 2 32 1 2S6 2 false

46. Replace x in 2 3 with each value in the

replacement set.

x

The solution set for 2x 1 2 is 1 4 . 5 16

x 2

3 True or False? 50. (3 6) 32 (9) 32

5.8

5.8 ?

3

9

S 2 10
3 false 99

2

1

5.9 ? 19

5.9 2

3 S 2 20
3 false 51. 6(12 7.5) 7 6(4.5) 7

27 7

6 ?

6 2

3S3 3 true ✓ 20

6.1 ? 1 52. 20 4 8 10 5 8 10

6.1 2

3 S 3 20 3 true ✓ 40 10

6.2 ? 1 4

6.2 3 S 3 10 3 true ✓

16 22 2 182 2

2

6.3 ? 3

53. 16

3192 16

3192

6.3 2

3 S 3 20 3 true ✓ 64

16

3192

x

The solution set for 3 is {6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3}.

2 4 3(9)

47. Replace x in 8x 32 with each value in the 4 27

replacement set. 31

x 8x 32 True or False? 54. [62 (2 4)2] 3 [62 (6)2]3

[36 (6)2]3

?

3 8 3 32 S 24 32 true ✓ [36 12]3

? [24]3

3.25 8 3.25 32 S 26 32 true ✓ 72

? 2 2

3.5 8 3.5 32 S 28 32 true ✓ 55. 9(3) 4 6 2 9(3) 16 36 2

? 27 16 36 2

3.75 8 3.75 32 S 30 32 true ✓

27 16 18

?

4 8 4 32 S 32 32 true ✓ 11 18

29

The solution set for 8x 32 is {3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4}.

56. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Sum

implies add, and twice implies multiply by 2. So

the expression can be written as 2x2 7.

57. 10(6) 10(2) 60 10(2)

60 20

80

13 Chapter 1

58. (15 6) 8 9 8 4. 3(x 3) 3x 3

72 The rectangle has 3 x-tiles and 9 1-tiles. The area

59. 12(4) 5(4) 48 5(4) of the rectangle is

48 20 x111x111x111

28 or 3x 9.

60. 3(4 2) 3(6) 61. 5(6 4) 5(2) Therefore, 3(x 3) 3x 3 is false.

18 10 x3

62. 8(14 2) 8(16)

x 1 1 1

128

3 x 1 1 1 3x 9

x 1 1 1

5. x(3 2) 3x 2x

The rectangle has 5 x-tiles. The area of the

ok Page 28 Algebra Activity rectangle is x x x x x or 3x 2x or 5x.

Therefore, x(3 2) 3x 2x is true.

1. 2(x 1)

The rectangle has 2 x-tiles and 2 1-tiles. The area

of the rectangle is 32

x 1 x 1 or 2x 2.

Therefore, 2(x 1) 2x 2.

x x x x x x 5x

x1

x 1

2 2x 2

x 1

6. Rachel; Sample answer: 3(x 4) 3(x) 3(4)

3x 12

The rectangle has 3 x-tiles. The area of the

2. 5 (x 2) rectangle is 3x 12. Therefore, Rachel is correct.

The rectangle has 5 x-tiles and 10 1-tiles. The

area of the rectangle is x4

x11x11x11x11

x 1 1 or 5x 10. x 1 1 1 1

Therefore, 5(x 2) 5x 10.

3 x 1 1 1 1 3x 12

x2 x 1 1 1 1

x 1 1

x 1 1

5 x 1 1 5x 10

x 1 1 ok Pages 29–30 Check for Understanding

1. Sample answer: The numbers inside the

x 1 1 parentheses are each multiplied by the number

outside the parentheses then the products are

added.

3. 2(2x 1) 2. Sample answer: 4ab 3b a 2ab 7ab

The rectangle has 4 x-tiles and 2 1-tiles. The area 3. Courtney; Ben forgot that w4 is really 1 w4.

of the rectangle is 4. 6(12 2) 6 12 6 2

x x 1 x x 1 or 4x 2. 72 12

Therefore, 2(2x 1) 4x 2. 60

5. 2(4 t) 2 4 2 t

2x 1 8 2t

6. (g 9)5 g 5 9 5

x x 1 5g 45

2 4x 2

x x 1 7. 16(102) 16(100 2)

16(100) 16(2)

1600 32

1632

Chapter 1 14

1 12 1

8. 3 17 1172 3 17 17

1

2 28. 4(8p 4q 7r) 4(8p) 4(4q) 4(7r)

32p 16q 28r

3 1172 17 1172

1

29. number of number of

51 1 people at people at

52 number Olympic aquatics

9. 13m m (13 1)m of days times Stadium plus center

14243 123 14243 123 14243

14m

4 (110,000 17,500)

10. 3(x 2x) 3(x) 3(2x)

or 4(110,000 17,500)

3x 6x

(3 6)x 30. 4(110,000 17,500) 4(110,000) 4(17,500)

9x 440,000 70,000

510,000

11. There are no like terms. 14a2 13b2 27 is

The attendance for the 4-day period was 510,000

simplified.

people.

12. 4(3g 2) 4(3g) 4(2)

31. 5 97 5(100 3)

12g 8

5(100) 5(3)

13. number of price of average 500 15

haircuts times each haircut plus tip 485

14243 123 1442443 123 14243

12 ($19.95 $2) 32. 8 990 8(1000 10)

or 12(19.95 2) 8(1000) 8(10)

14. 12(19.95 2) 12(19.95) 12(2) 8000 80

239.40 24 7920

263.4 33. 17 6 (20 3)6

Ms. Curry earned $263.40. 20(6) 3(6)

120 18

102

ok Pages 30–31 Practice and Apply

15. 8(5 7) 8 5 8 7

34. 24 7 (20 4)7

20(7) 4(7)

40 56 140 28

96 168

16. 7(13 12) 7 13 7 12 1 12

35. 18 2 9 18 2 9 1 1

2 1 12

36. 48 3 6 48 3 6 1 1

2

12 116 2

91 84 1

175 18(2) 18 9

48132 48

17. 12(9 5) 12 9 12 5 36 2 144 8

108 60 38 152

48 37. hours hours

18. 13(10 7) 13 10 13 7 number using meeting hours on

of weeks times e-mail plus in person 123 telephone

plus 1

130 91 14243 123 14243 123 1 4424 43 4424 43

12 (5 12 18)

39

19. 3(2x 6) 3 2x 3 6 or 12(5 12 18)

6x 18 38. 12(5 12 18) 12(5) 12(12) 12(18)

20. 8(3m 4) 8 3m 8 4 60 144 216

24m 32 420

21. (4 x)2 4 2 x 2 She should plan 420 h for contacting people.

8 2x 39. monthly monthly monthly

number charge charge charge

22. (5 n)3 5 3 n 3 of months times for medical plus for dental plus for vision

1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443

15 3n

1 2 12

6 (78 20 12)

1 1

23. 28 y 7 281y2 28 7

or 6(78 20 12)

28y 4 40. 6(78 20 12) 6(78) 6(20) 6(12)

1 2 2712b2 27 1 2

1 1 468 120 72

24. 27 2b 3 3 660

54b 9 The cost to the employee is $660.

25. a(b 6) a(b) a(6)

ab 6a

26. x(z 3) x(z) x(3)

xz 3x

27. 2(a 3b 2c) 2(a) 2(3b) 2(2c)

2a 6b 4c

15 Chapter 1

41. number monthly charge monthly charge 1

of months times for medical plus for dental l w 13 2

1442443 123 144424443 123 144424443

12 (78 50 (20 15) 3 1

2

w w 13 2

or 12[(78 50) (20 15)]

3 2 1

12[(78 50) (20 15)] 12 [128 35] 2

w 13 2

12(128) 12(35) 3 2

w

27

1 2 23 1272 2

1536 420 2 2

1956 2 3 2

w

3 2

The cost to the employee is $1956.

w2 9

42. 2x 9x (2 9)x 43. 4b 5b (4 5)b

w3

11x 9b

Substitute w 3 into the area formula.

44. There are no like terms. 5n2 7n is simplified. 1

l w 13 2

45. 3a2 14a2 (3 14)a2

17a2 l 3 13 2

1

l 42

36c 48 1

47. 15(3x 5) 15(3x) 15(5) Therefore, the rectangle has a length of 4 2 units

45x 75 and a width of 3 units.

48. 6x 14x 9x 6x2 (14 9)x

2 55. You can use the Distributive Property to calculate

6x2 5x quickly by expressing any number as a sum or

difference of more convenient numbers. Answer

49. 4y 3y y (4 3)y3 y4

3 3 4

should include the following.

7y3 y4

• Both methods result in the correct answer. In

50. 6(5a 3b 2b) 6(5a) 6(3b) 6(2b)

one method you multiply then add, and in the

30a 18b 12b

other you add then multiply.

30a (18 12)b

30a 6b 56. D; 3(x y) 2(x y) 4x 3x 3y 2x 2y 4x

3x 2x 4x 3y 2y

51. 5(6m 4n 3n) 5(6m) 5(4n) 5(3n)

(3 2 4)x (3 2)y

30m 20n 15n

1x 5y

30m (20 15)n

x 5y

30m 5n

57. C; c 7(2 2.8 3 4.2)

7 x 7 1

52. x2 8 x 8 x2 8 x 8x 7(5.6 12.6)

x2 178 18 2x 7(5.6) 7(12.6)

39.2 88.2

6

x2 8 x 127.4

3

x2 4 x

53. a

a 2 5

5a 5a 5a 5a

1 2

okPage 31 Maintain Your Skills

155 15 25 2 a

5

58. Symmetric Property

59. Substitution Property

8

5a 60. Multiplicative Identity Property

1 61. Multiplicative Inverse Property

54. Area l w 13 2

62. Multiplicative Inverse Property

w 5 perimeter 5 121l w2 2

1 1

63. Reflexive Property

5 12l 2w2

1

64. total number of number of

distance is feet per second times seconds

14243 123 144424443 123 1442443

2 2

5l 5w d 1129 2

Solve w

2

l

2

w for l. or d 1129(2)

5 5

2 2 65. 1129(2) (1000 100 30 1)2

w l w

5 5 1000(2) 100(2) 30(2) 1(2)

w

2

5w

2

l 2000 200 60 2

5

3 2 2258

w l

12 12

5 5 Sound travels 2258 feet in 2 seconds.

5 3

w

5 2

l 66. 3ab c2 3 4 6 32

2 5 2 5

3

3469

2

w l 12 6 9

3

Substitute 2 w for l into the Area formula. 72 9

63

Chapter 1 16

67. 8(a c)2 3 8(4 3)2 3 6. 5 3 6 4 5 4 3 6

8(1)2 3 (5 4) (3 6)

813 20 18

83 360

11 7.

5 3

16 94 16 94

3 5

1 2

6 6

6ab 6 4 6

68. c 1a 22

314 22 3 5

16 94 6

24 6

5

314 22 156 6

144

314 22 130

144

8. 4x 5y 6x 4x 6x 5y

3162

144 (4x 6x) 5y

18 (4 6)x 5y

8 10x 5y

69. 1a c2 1a 2 b 2 14 32 14 2 6 2 9. 5a 3b 2a 7b 5a 2a 3b 7b

172 1 2 2

4 6 (5a 2a) (3b 7b)

(5 2)a (3 7)b

172 1 2 2 7a 10b

10

172 152

1 3 1 2

10. 4 q 2q 24 q 4 q 24 q 2q

35

114 q 234 q2 2q

1 4 24 2 q 2q

70. A l w

1 3

95

45

3q 2q

13 22q

Area is 45 in2.2.

71. A 2 bh

1 5q

11. 3(4x 2) 2x 3(4x) 3(2) 2x

2 1242 1142

1

12x 6 2x

12 1142 12x 2x 6

168 (12x 2x) 6

Area is 168 cm2.2. (12 2)x 6

72. A s2 14x 6

8.52 12. 7(ac 2b) 2ac 7(ac) 7(2b) 2ac

72.25 7ac 14b 2ac

Area is 72.25 m2.a i 7ac 2ac 14b

(7ac 2ac) 14b

(7 2)ac 14b

Commutative and Associative 9ac 14b

1-6 13. 3(x 2y) 4(3x y) 3(x) 3(2y) 4(3x) 4(y)

Properties

3x 6y 12x 4y

3x 12x 6y 4y

Page 34 Check for Understanding (3 12)x (6 4)y

1. Sample answer: The Associative Property says the 15x 10y

way you can group numbers together when 14. half the sum

adding or multiplying does not change the result. of p and 2q increased by three-fourths q

1442443 144424443

1442443

2. Sample answer: Division is not Commutative. For 1

(p 2q)

3

q

2 4

example, 10 2 2 10.

1p 2q2 4q 2 1 p2 2 12q2

1 3 1 1 3

q Distributive

3. Sample answer: 1 5 8 8 1 5; 2 4

(1 5)8 1(5 8) Property

1 3

4. 14 18 26 14 26 18 2 p q 4q Multiply.

(14 26) 18

1

p 1 q2 3

q Associative ()

2 p 11 4 2q

40 18 2 4

58 1 3

Distributive

5.

1

32 4

1

22

1 1

32 22 4 Property

1 2

1 3

1 1 2 p 14 q Substitution

32 22 4

64

10

17 Chapter 1

15. number of

triangles times

area of

each triangle

3 1

1 3

26. 3 7 14 14 3 7 14 14 2 1

1

48 14

4 bh

2

60

4 2bh 4 5 2

24 6 3 1 5

2 2

2 8 24 6 3

1 4 2 2 15.2 7.862

27. 28

1 2

63 6 3

2 40.872 420

81.744 cost cost cost cost

28.

The area of the large triangle is 81.744 cm2. Friday Saturday Sunday Monday

14243 14243 14243 14243

$72 $63 $63 $72

Pages 34–36 Practice and Apply 72 63 63 72 72 63 72 63

16. 17 6 13 24 17 13 6 24 (72 63) (72 63)

(17 13) (6 24) 135 135

30 30 270

60 The total cost is $270.

17. 8 14 22 9 8 22 14 9 29.

(8 22) (14 9) cost tax cost tax cost tax cost tax

30 23 for for for for for for for for

Friday

123 Friday

123 Saturday

14243 Saturday

14243 Sunday

1424 3 Sunday

1424 3 Monday

1424 3 Monday

1424 3

53

18. 4.25 3.50 8.25 4.25 8.25 3.50 $72 $5.40 $63 $5.10 $63 $5.10 $72 $5.40

(4.25 8.25) 3.50 72 5.40 63 5.10 63 5.10 72 5.40

12.50 3.50 72 63 72 63 5.40 5.10 5.40 5.10

16 (72 63) (72 63) (5.40 5.10) (5.40 5.10)

19. 6.2 4.2 4.3 5.8 6.2 4.3 4.2 5.8 135 135 10.50 10.50

(6.2 4.3) (4.2 5.8) (135 135) (10.50 10.50)

10.5 10 270 21

20.5 291

1 1

20. 6 2 3 2 2 6 2 2 3 2

1 1 The total cost including tax is $291.

1 2

30. Sample answer:

62 2 13 22

1 1

Sales from Sales from Sales from

75 Sales from 3 new 2 older 5 used

12 2 DVDs

14243

releases videos videos

14243 14243 14243

3 3 3 3

21. 2 8 4 3 8 28 3 8 4 2(3.99) 3(4.49) 2(2.99) 5(9.99)

1 3

28 3 8 4

3

2 2(3.99) 3(4.49) 2(2.99) 5(9.99)

2(3.99) 2(2.99) 3(4.49) 5(9.99)

6

58 4 2(3.99 2.99) 3(4.49) 5(9.99)

6 Two expressions to represent total sales can be

98

2(3.99) 3(4.49) 2(2.99) 5(9.99) and

3

94 2(3.99 2.99) 3(4.49) 5(9.99).

22. 5 11 4 2 5 2 11 4 31. 2(3.99 2.99) 3(4.49) 5(9.99)

(5 2) (11 4) 2(6.98) 3(4.49) 5(9.99)

10 44 13.96 13.47 49.95

440 27.43 49.95

77.38

23. 3 10 6 3 3 3 10 6

The total sales of the clerk are $77.38.

(3 3) (10 6)

9 60 32. 4a 2b a 4a a 2b

540 (4a a) 2b

(4 1)a 2b

24. 0.5 2.4 4 0.5 4 2.4

5a 2b

(0.5 4) 2.4

2 2.4 33. 2y 2x 8y 2y 8y 2x

4.8 (2y 8y) 2x

(2 8)y 2x

25. 8 1.6 2.5 8 2.5 1.6

10y 2x

(8 2.5) 1.6

2x 10y

20 1.6

32 34. x2 3x 2x 5x2 x2 5x2 3x 2x

(x2 5x2) (3x 2x)

(1 5)x2 (3 2)x

6x2 5x

Chapter 1 18

35. 4a3 6a 3a3 8a 4a3 3a3 6a 8a 44. twice the sum

(4a3 3a3) (6a 8a) of s and t decreased by

1442443 1442443 123

s

(4 3)a3 (6 8)a 2(s t) s

7a3 14a

2(s t) s 2(s) 2(t) s Distributive

36. 6x 2(2x 7) 6x 2(2x) 2(7) Property

6x 4x 14 2t 2s s Comm. ()

(6x 4x) 14 2t s(2 1) Dist.

(6 4)x 14 2t s(1) Sub.()

10x 14 2t s Mult. Id.

37. 5n 4(3n 9) 5n 4(3n) 4(9) s 2t Comm. ()

5n 12n 36 45. five times the

(5n 12n) 36 product of x and y increased by 3xy

(5 12)n 36 14444244443 1442443 123

17n 36 5(x y) 3xy

38. 3(x 2y) 4(3x y) 3(x) 3(2y) 4(3x) 4(y) 5(xy) 3xy 5(xy) 3(xy) Associative ()

3x 6y 12x 4y xy(5 3) Distributive Property

3x 12x 6y 4y xy(8) Substitution

(3x 12x) (6y 4y) 8xy Commutative ()

(3 12)x (6 4)y 46. the product of

15x 10y 6 and the the sum of

39. 3.2(x y) 2.3(x y) 4x square

1442443

of z increased by seven, z2, and 6

1442443 144424443

3.2(x) 3.2(y) 2.3(x) 2.3(y) 4x

6 z2 (7 z2 6)

3.2x 3.2y 2.3x 2.3y 4x 2 2

3.2x 2.3x 4x 3.2y 2.3y 6z (7 z 6)

(3.2x 2.3x 4x) (3.2y 2.3y) 6z2 (z2 7 6) Commutative ()

(3.2 2.3 4)x (3.2 2.3)y (6z2 z2) (7 6) Associative ()

9.5x 5.5y z2(6 1) (7 6) Distributive Property

z2(7) 13 Substitution

40. 3(4m n) 2m 3(4m) 3(n) 2m

7z2 13 Commutative ()

12m 3n 2m

12m 2m 3n 47. six times three times the

(12m 2m) 3n the sum of sum of x and half

(12 2)m 3n x144424443

and y squared decreased by 144424443

of y squared

1 2

1442443

14m 3n 6(x y2)

1

3 x 2y2

1 2

41. 6(0.4f 0.2g) 0.5f 6(0.4f ) 6(0.2g) 0.5f

6 1x y2 2

1 2

3 x y

112 y22

2.4f 1.2g 0.5f 2

2.4f 0.5f 1.2g 6 1x2 6 1 y2 2 3 1x2 3 Distributive

(2.4f 0.5f ) 1.2g Property

(2.4 0.5)f 1.2g 3

2.9f 1.2g 6x 3x 6y2 2 y2 Commutative ()

42.

3

4

3 1s 2t2 s 4 3 1s2 3 12t2 s

2 3 2 2 x(6 3) y2 6 2 1 3

2 Distributive

Property

3 2 4

4 3s 3t s 3x 42y2

1

Commutative ()

3 2 4

4 3s s 3t 48. Sometimes; Sample answer: 4 3 3 4,

123s s2 43t

3 but 4 4 4 4.

4

4 1 3 1 2 s 3t

49. You can use the Commutative and Associative

3 2 4 Properties to rearrange and group numbers for

3 5 4

easier calculations. Answers should include the

4 3s 3t following.

1

3 1

2 2

43. 2p 5 2 p 2q 3 2p 5 2 p 5 2q 3

3 1

1 2 3

1 2 2 • d (0.4 1.1) (1.5 1.5) (1.9 1.8 0.8)

50. C; 6(ac 2b) 2ac 6(ac) 6(2b) 2ac

3 6 2

2p 10 p 5q 3 6ac 12b 2ac

1 3

2 6 2

2p 10 p 5 q 3

6ac 2ac 12b

(6ac 2ac) 12b

1 2 10 2 p 5 q 3 (6 2)ac 12b

3 6 2

8ac 12b

23 6 2

10 p 5 q 3

2 23 6

3

10 p 5 q

19 Chapter 1

51. B; the Commutative Property implies that 66. 4a 3b 4 2 3 5

6 5 5 6. 835

8 15

23

Page 36 Maintain Your Skills

52. 5(2 x) 7x 5(2) 5(x) 7x

10 5x 7x Page 36 Practice Quiz 2

10 (5 7)x 1. j; Additive Identity Property, since a 0 a

10 12x 2. c; Substitution Property of Equality, since

12x 10 18 7 11

53. 3(5 2p) 3(5) 3(2p) 3. i; Commutative Property, since a b b a

15 6p

4. f; Reflexive Property of Equality, since a a

54. 3(a 2b) 3a 3(a) 3(2b) 3a

5. g; Associative Property, since (a b) c

3a 6b 3a

a (b c)

3a 3a 6b

(3a 3a) 6b 6. d; Multiplicative Identity Property, since

(3 3)a 6b 1aa

0a 6b 7. b; Multiplicative Property of 0, since a 0 0

6b 8. a; Distributive Property, since a(b c) ab ac

55. 7m 6(n m) 7m 6(n) 6(m) 9. h; Symmetric Property of Equality, since if a b,

7m 6n 6m then b a

7m 6m 6n 10. e; Multiplicative Inverse Property, since

(7m 6m) 6n a b

1

(7 6)m 6n b a

13m 6n

56. (d 5)f 2f (d)(f ) 5( f ) 2f

df 5f 2f 1-7 Logical Reasoning

df (5 2)f

df 7f

57. t2 2t2 4t (1 2)t2 4t Page 39 Check for Understanding

3t2 4t 1. Sample answer: If it rains, then you get wet.

58. 3(10 5 2) 21 7 Hypothesis: it rains

3(10 10) 21 7 Substitution; 5 2 10 Conclusion: you get wet

3(0) 21 7 Substitution; 10 10 0 2. Sample answer: Counterexamples are used to

0 21 7 Multiplicative Property disprove a statement.

of Zero; 3 0 0 3. Sample answer: You can use deductive reasoning

03 Substitution; 21 7 3 to determine whether a hypothesis and its

3 Additive Identity; conclusion are both true or whether one or both

033 are false.

59. 12(5) 6(4) 60 6(4) 4. Hypothesis: it is January

60 24 Conclusion: it might snow

36 5. Hypothesis: you play tennis

60. 7(0.2 0.5) 0.6 7(0.7) 0.6 Conclusion: you run fast

4.9 0.6 6. Hypothesis: 34 3x 16

4.3 Conclusion: x 6

61. 8[62 3(2 5)] 8 3 8[62 3(7)] 8 3 7. Hypothesis: Lance does not have homework

8[36 3(7)] 8 3 Conclusion: he watches television

8[36 21] 8 3 If Lance does not have homework, then he

8[15] 8 3 watches television.

120 8 3

8. Hypothesis: a number is divisible by 10

15 3

Conclusion: it is divisible by 5

18

If a number is divisible by 10, then it is divisible

62. 2x 7 2 4 7 63. 6x 12 6 8 12 by 5.

87 48 12

9. Hypothesis: a quadrilateral has four right angles

15 60

Conclusion: it is a rectangle

64. 5n 14 5 6 14 65. 3n 8 3 7 8 If a quadrilateral has four right angles, then it is

30 14 21 8 a rectangle.

16 13

10. The last digit of 10,452 is 2, so the hypothesis is

true. Conclusion: the number is divisible by 2.

Check: 10,452 2 5226 ✓

2 divides 10,452.

Chapter 1 20

11. The conclusion is true. If the last digit of the 33. The hypothesis is false. If the VCR cost less than

number is 2, the hypothesis is true also. However, $150, we know Ian will buy one. However, the

if the last digit is an even number other than 2, hypothesis does not say Ian won’t buy a VCR if it

the hypothesis is false. There is no way to costs $150 or more. Therefore, there is no valid

determine if the last digit is 2. Therefore, there is conclusion.

no valid conclusion. 34. The conditional statement does not mention DVD

12. The conclusion is true. 946 is divisible by 2. players. There is no way to determine if the

However, since the last digit is 6, the hypothesis hypothesis is true. Therefore, there is no valid

is false. Therefore, there is no valid conclusion. conclusion.

13. Anna could have a schedule without a science class. 35. The conclusion is true. If the cost of the VCRs is

14. a book that has more than 384 pages less than $150, the hypothesis is true, also.

? However, if the cost of the VCRs is $150 or more,

15. x 1; 12 7 1

the hypothesis is false. There is no way to

11

? determine the cost of the VCRs. Therefore, there

16. x 15; 3 15 7 52 is no valid conclusion.

52 52 ✓

36. People move to other states.

but 15 15

? 37. There is a professional team in Canada.

17. A; x 1, 12 7 1

38. Girls can wear blue clothes.

11

39. Left-handed people can have right-handed

parents.

40. x 2, y 3; Is 2 3 even? 2 3 6 and 6 is

Pages 40–42 Practice and Apply

even, but 3 is not even.

18. Hypothesis: both parents have red hair ?

Conclusion: their children have red hair 41. 8 is greater than 7. 42. n 15; 4 15 8 52

2(8) 16 52 52 ✓

19. Hypothesis: you are in Hawaii

16 16 but 15 15

Conclusion: you are in the tropics

6 1 6 1

20. Hypothesis: 2n 7

25 43. x 3, y 2; 3

2

1

Conclusion: n

16 11

21. Hypothesis: 4(b 9) 68 6 1

but 1 and 1

Conclusion: b 8 3 2

Conclusion: b a

P Q R

23. Hypothesis: a b, and b c

Conclusion: a c 45. Sample answer:

24. Hypothesis: it is Monday

Conclusion: the trash is picked up R P Q

If it is Monday, then the trash is picked up.

25. Hypothesis: it is after school 46. See students’ work. There will probably be both

Conclusion: Greg will call examples and counterexamples.

If it is after school, then Greg will call. 47. Numbers that end in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 are in the

26. Hypothesis: a triangle has all sides congruent “divisible by 2” circle. Numbers whose digits have

Conclusion: it is an equilateral triangle a sum divisible by 3 are in the “divisible by 3”

If a triangle has all sides congruent, then it is an circle. Numbers that end in 0 or 5 are in the

equilateral triangle. “divisible by 5” circle.

27. Hypothesis: a number is divisible by 9 48. Sample answer: If a number is divisible by 2 and

Conclusion: the sum of its digits is a multiple of 9 3, then it must be a multiple of 6.

If a number is divisible by 9, then the sum of its 49. There are no counterexamples to the conclusions

digits is a multiple of 9. obtained in Exercises 47 and 48.

28. Hypothesis: x 8 50. No; Sample answer: Let a 1 and b 2; then

Conclusion: x 2 3x 40 1 * 2 1 2(2) or 5 and 2 * 1 2 2(1) or 4.

If x 8, then x 2 3x 40. 51. You can use if-then statements to help determine

29. Hypothesis: s

9 when food is finished cooking. Answers should

Conclusion: 4s 6

42 include the following.

If s

9, then 4s 6

42. • Hypothesis: you have small, underpopped

30. $139 is less than $150, so the hypothesis is true. kernels

Conclusion: Ian will buy a VCR. Conclusion: you have not used enough oil in

31. $99 is less than $150, so the hypothesis is true. your pan

Conclusion: Ian will buy a VCR. • If the gelatin is firm and rubbery, then it is

32. The conclusion is false. Ian did not buy a VCR, and ready to eat. If the water is boiling, lower the

he would have bought one if the cost were less than temperature.

$150. Therefore, the VCR cost $150 or more.

21 Chapter 1

52. 8, since 14 8 12 112 12 66. Multiplicative Property of Zero

100 n 0, since 36 0 0.

43 67. 5(7) 6 x

53. C; # 4 2 35 6 x

64

2

41 x

The solution is 41.

32

68. 7(42) 62 m

7(16) 36 m

112 36 m

Page 42 Maintain Your Skills 76 m

54. 2x 5y 9x 2x 9x 5y The solution is 76.

(2x 9x) 5y

22 113 52

(2 9)x 5y 69. p 2

28 2

11x 5y

22 8

55. a 9b 6b a (9b 6b) 28 4

a (9 6)b 14

a 15b 7

3 2 5 3 5 2

2

56. 4g 5f 8g 4g 8g 5f

134 g 58 g2 25f

The solution is 2.

70. The word product implies multiply, so the

1 4 8 2 g 5f

expression can be written as 8x4.

3 5 2

71. Times implies multiply, and decreased by implies

11 2

g 5f subtract. So the expression can be written as

8

3n 10.

3 2

1 8g 5f 72. More than implies add, and quotient implies

57. 4(5mn 6) 3mn 4(5mn) 4(6) 3mn divide. So the expression can be written as

20mn 24 3mn 12 (a 5).

20mn 3mn 24 73. 40% 90 0.4(90)

(20mn 3mn) 24 36

(20 3)mn 24 74. 23% 2500 0.23(2500)

23mn 24 575

58. 2(3a b) 3b 4 2(3a) 2(b) 3b 4 75. 18% 950 0.18(950)

6a 2b 3b 4 171

6a (2b 3b) 4

76. 38% 345 0.38(345)

6a (2 3)b 4

131.1

6a 5b 4

77. 42.7% 528 0.427(528)

59. 6x2 5x 3(2x2) 7x 6x2 5x 6x2 7x

225.456

6x2 6x2 5x 7x

225.5

(6 6)x2 (5 7)x

12x2 12x 78. 67.4% 388 0.674(388)

261.512

60. gallons gallons

261.5

used used gallons

flushing showering used number

toilet and bathing in sink times of days

123 14243

14243 1442443 14243

(100 80 8) d 1-8 Graphs and Functions

(100 80 8)d (100)(d) (80)(d) (8)(d)

100d 80d 8d

Page 46 Check for Understanding

Two expressions to represent the amount of

1. The numbers represent different values. The first

water used in d days can be (100 80 8)d and

number represents the number on the horizontal

100d 80d 8d.

axis and the second represents the number on the

61. Multiplicative Identity Property vertical axis.

n 64, since 1(64) 64.

2. Sample answer: A dependent variable is

62. Reflexive Property determined by the independent variable for a

n 7, since 12 7 12 7. given function.

63. Substitution Property 3. See students’ work.

n 5, since (9 7)5 (2)5.

4. Sample answer: Alexi’s speed decreases as he

64. Multiplicative Inverse Property rides uphill, then increases as he rides downhill.

1

n 4, since 4 4 1.

65. Additive Identity Property

n 0, since 0 18 18.

Chapter 1 22

5. Just before jumping from a plane, the skydiver’s 14. The ordered pairs can be determined from the

height is constant. After she jumps, her height table. The time parked is the independent

decreases until she lands. When she lands the variable, and the cost is the dependent variable.

skydiver’s height above the ground is zero. Graph So, the ordered pairs are (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2),

B shows this situation. (3, 2), (4, 4), (5, 4), (6, 4) (7, 5), (8, 5), (9, 5),

6. Time is the independent variable, as it is (10, 5), (11, 5), (12, 30), (13, 30), (14, 30), (15, 30),

unaffected by the height of the object above the (16, 30), (17, 30), (18, 30), (19, 30), (20, 30),

ground. Height is the dependent quantity, as it is (21, 30), (22, 30), (23, 30), (24, 30), (25, 45),

affected by time. (26, 45), (27, 45), (28, 45), (29, 45), (30, 45),

7. The ordered pairs can be determined from the (31, 45), (32, 45), (33, 45), (34, 45), (35, 45), and

table. Time is the independent variable, and (36, 45).

the height above the ground is the dependent 15. 45

variable. So, the ordered pairs are (0, 500), 40

(0.2, 480), (0.4, 422), (0.6, 324), (0.8, 186), and 35

(1, 10). 30

8. 500 25

Cost

450 20

400

15

350

Height (cm)

300 10

250 5

200

150 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36

100 Time

50 16. From 7:00 A.M. Monday to 7:00 A.M. Tuesday is

0 24 hours. From 7:00 A.M. Tuesday to 7:00 P.M.

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Time (s)

Tuesday is 12 hours. From 7:00 P.M. Tuesday to

9:00 P.M. Tuesday is 2 hours. Therefore, from

9. Paul releases the ball above the ground. The 7:00 A.M. Monday to 9:00 P.M. Tuesday is 24 12

height of the ball then decreases as it approaches 2 38 hours. The cost for the first 24 hours is

the height at which the catcher catches the ball. $30. The cost for the next 14 hours is $15. Thus,

the cost of parking from 7:00 A.M. Monday to

9:00 P.M. Tuesday is 30 15 or $45.

Height

independent variable as it is unaffected by the

sum of the interior angles, and the sum of the

interior angles is the dependent variable as it is

Time affected by the number of sides of the polygon.

18.

900

Pages 46–48 Practice and Apply 720

Sums

After a while her temperature comes down, then 360

slowly begins to go up again. 180

11. Rashaad’s account is increasing as he makes

deposits and earns interest. Then he pays some 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

bills. He then makes some deposits and earns Sides

interest, and so on. 19. If we look for a pattern in the numbers 180, 360,

12. As it moves along, a radio-controlled car has a 540, 720, and 900, we see that the numbers are

constant speed. When it hits the wall, its speed all multiples of 180. In fact:

is zero. Graph C shows this situation. 180 1 180

13. A person’s income starts at a certain level, then, 360 2 180

in general, their income increases. This is 540 3 180

represented by starting at a certain height, then 720 4 180

gradually increasing. Graph B shows this 900 5 180

situation. Thus, the next three numbers would be 6 180

1080, 7 180 1260, and 8 180 1440.

Therefore, we would predict that the sum of the

interior angles for an octagon is 1080, for a

nonagon is 1260, and for a decagon is 1440.

23 Chapter 1

20. A car’s value decreases as it gets older, but if it is 24. B; The value 4 on the horizontal axis corresponds

taken care of, the value of the car again to the highest point on the curve.

increases. 25. A; charge for cost for

profit is minus

each CD each CD

123 123 14243 123 14243

p (2.50 0.35)

Value

number cost of

times minus

of CDs equipment

123 14243 14243 1442443

Years

n 875

21. When the block of ice is removed from the

freezer the temperature starts to increase. The or p 2.15n 875

temperature increases until it approaches the

room temperature, at which time the

temperature gradually becomes constant. Page 48 Maintain Your Skills

26. Hypothesis: you use a computer

Temperature (˚F )

27. Hypothesis: a shopper has 9 or fewer items

Conclusion: the shopper can use the express lane

28. ab(a b) (ab)a (ab)b Distributive Prop.

a(ab) (ab)b Commutative ()

Time (a a)b a(b b) Associative ()

22a. At each value of the independent variable the a2b ab2 Substitution

dependent variable is 23 units greater. The 29. Substitution Property

following table shows this relationship. n 3, since (12 9)(4) (3)(4).

Lisa’s Age 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 30. Multiplicative Property of Zero

Mallory’s 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 n 0, since 7(0) 0.

Age 31. Multiplicative Identity Property

The ordered pairs for this data are (5, 28), n 1, since (1)(87) 87.

(10, 33), (15, 38), (20, 43), (25, 48), (30, 53), 32. Step 1 Draw a horizontal axis and a vertical

(35, 58), and (40, 63). Graph the ordered pairs. axis. Label the axes. Add a title.

Then draw a line through the points. Step 2 Draw a bar to represent each category. The

90 vertical scale is the number of radio

80 stations using each format. The horizontal

70 scale identifies the formats used.

Mallory’s Age

50 by Format, 2000

40 2400

30 2200

20 2000

Number of Stations

10 1800

1600

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1400

Lisa’s Age 1200

22b. We know Mallory is 23 years older than Lisa. 1000

So, for Mallory to be twice as old as Lisa, Lisa 800

must be 23 years old. The point on the graph 600

that corresponds to this situation is (23, 46).

0

23. Real-world data can be recorded and visualized

Co

Co ry

Ad te

Ne

Ro

ld

un

ck

w

ul mp

ie

s/T

t or

t

al

k

ar

y

the situation, which is easier to analyze and

evaluate.

• During the first 24 hours, blood flow to the

brain decreases to 50% at the moment of the

injury and gradually increases to about 60%.

• Significant improvement occurs during the

first two days.

Chapter 1 24

Page 49 Algebra Activity

1-9

Statistics: Analyzing Data by

(Follow-Up of Lesson 1-8) Using Tables and Graphs

1. Sample answer: In 1900 there were 15,503,000

students, and in 1920 there were 21,578,000

Pages 53–54 Check for Understanding

students. Therefore, we could estimate that there

15,503,000 21,578,000 1. A circle graph compares parts to the whole. A bar

were 18,540,500, or about

2 graph compares different catagories of data. A

18,540,000 students in 1910. In 1970 line graph shows changes in data over time.

there were 45,550,000 students, and in 1980 2. See students’ work.

there were 41,651,000 students. Therefore, 3. Sample answer: The percentages of the data do

we could estimate that there were not total 100.

45,550,000 41,651,000

2

43,600,500 or 4. The bar for the number of schools participating in

about 43,600,000 students in 1975. basketball shows 321 and the bar for the number

2. Sample answer: 55,000,000. By looking at general of schools participating in golf shows 283. So,

trends of the graph, we see that it is increasing, there were 321 – 283 or 38 more schools

and the amount of students will be around participating in basketball than in golf.

55,000,000 in 2020. 5. The bar showing the least amount is for tennis.

3. Sample answer: For Exercise 1 we averaged the Therefore, of the sports listed, tennis is offered at

enrollments for 1900 and 1920 and then for 1970 the fewest schools.

and 1980. For Exercise 2 we calculated the 6. The percentage representing the number of

increase in students per year from 1900 to 1980, students from Germany is 0.06%. So, find 0.06%

then added 40 times that amount to the 1980 of 14.9 million.

enrollment. 0.06% 14,900,00 equals 8940.

of 1442443

14243 123 123

14243

4. If the U.S. population does not increase as

quickly as in the past, then the number of

0.0006 14,900,000 8940

students may be too high. 8940 of the students were from Germany.

5. The year is the independent variable since it is 7. The percentage representing the number of

unaffected by the number of students per students from Canada is 0.15%. The percentage

computer, and the number of students per representing the number of students from the

computer is the dependent variable since it is United Kingdom is 0.05%. So, find 0.15 0.05 or

affected by the year. The ordered pairs can be 0.1% of 14.9 million.

determined from the table with x representing 0.1% of 14,900,00 equals 14,900

123 123 1442443 14243

14243

the number of years since 1984. The orderd pairs

0.001 14,900,000 14,900

are (0, 125), (1, 75), (2, 50), (3, 37), (4, 32), (5, 25),

(6, 22), (7, 20), (8, 18), (9, 16), (10, 14), (11, 10.5), 14,900 more students were from Canada than

(12, 10), (13, 7.8), (14, 6.1), (15, 5.7). Graph the from the United Kingdom.

ordered pairs. 8. No; the data do not represent a whole set.

9. A bar graph would be more appropriate, since a

130

120

bar graph is used to compare similar data in the

110 same category.

Students per Computer

100

90

10. Sample answer: The vertical axis scale shows

80 only partial intervals.

70

60

11. The vertical axis needs to begin at 0.

50

40

30

20 Pages 54–55 Practice and Apply

10

12. 1

film stock plus processing plus prep for telecine plus

442443 123 1442443 123 144424443 123

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

3110.40 621.00 60.00

Years Since 1984

telecine plus tape stock equals total cost.

14243 123 1442443 14

424

43 1442443

A prediction is 1 student per computer because it

does not seem likely that schools would have 1000.00 73.20 4864.60

more computers than students. The total cost is $4864.60.

13. original backup total cost of

tape stock plus tape stock equals digital video .

1442443 123 1442443 14 42443 144424443

10.00 10.00 20.00

The total cost of using digital video is $20.00, and

from Exercise 12 the total cost of using

35-millimeter film is $4864.60.

4864.60 20.00 243.23

The cost of 35-millimeter film is about 250 times

as great.

25 Chapter 1

14. The section of the graph representing books Page 55 Maintain Your Skills

purchased in the spring is 19%, so find 19% of 22. Pedro’s heart rate increases as he exercises, and

25 million. continues to increase until he is done sprinting.

19% His heart rate decreases during his last walk

23 of 25,000,000 equals 4,750,000

1 { 14243 123 14243

until it returns to a normal rate.

0.19 25,000,000 4,750,000

About 5 million books were purchased in the spring.

Heart rate

15. The section of the graph representing books

purchased in the summer is 15%, so find 15% of

15,000.

15%

23 of 15,000 equals 2250. Distance (mi)

1 { 14243 123 1 23

23. 4x 5 42

0.15 15,000 2250

4x 47

She should expect to sell about 2250 books. 3

x 11 4

16. The vertical axis is extended and does not begin

at 0. It gives the impression that the number of Thus, x 12 is a sample counterexample.

cable television systems is decreasing rapidly.

24. Sample answer:

17. Yes, the graph is misleading because the sum of 3 3 ?

the percentages is not 100. To fix the graph, each x 2; 2

7 1

section must be drawn accurately and another 3

2

7 1 ✓

section that represents “other” toppings should be 3 1

added. but 2

3

18a. To show little increase, bunch the values on the 2

vertical scale closer together. 25. a rectangle with length 6 inches and width

2 inches

Color Television Ownership,

6 6 2 2 16

1980–2000

16 16 ✓

U.S. Households

100

Percentage of

90

26. 7a 5b 3b 3a 7a 3a 5b 3b

80

(7a 3a) (5b 3b)

70

(7 3)a (5 3)b

60

’80 ’85 ’90 ’95 ’00

10a 8b

Year 27. 4x2 9x 2x2 x 4x2 2x2 9x x

18b. To show rapid increase spread the values on the (4x2 2x2) (9x x)

vertical scale further apart. (4 2)x2 (9 1)x

6x2 10x

Color Television Ownership,

1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1

1980–2000 28. 2n 3m 2m 3n 2n 3n 3m 2m

112 n 13 n2 123 m 12 m2

U.S. Households

100

Percentage of

12 3 2n 13 2 2m

95

1 1 2 1

90

85 5 7

6n 6m

80

5 1

’80 ’85 ’90 ’95 ’00 6n 1 6m

Year

19. Tables and graphs provide an organized and Page 56 Spreadsheet Investigation

quick way to examine data. Answers should (Follow-Up of Lesson 1-9)

include the following. 1. Enter the data in a spreadsheet. Use Column A

• Examine the existing pattern and use it to for the years and Column B for the sales. Select

continue a graph to the future. the data to be included in the graph. Then use

• Make sure the scale begins at zero and is the graph tool to create a line graph.

consistent. Circle graphs should have all Snowmobile Sales

percents total 100%. The right kind of graph 1200

should be used for the given data. 1000

Sales (millions)

temperature increase was about 8F. 600

21. C; A line graph shows changes in data over time. 400

200

0

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998

Year

Chapter 1 26

2. Enter the data in a spreadsheet as in Exercise 1. 21. 3 2 4 3 8

Select the data to be included in your graph. 11

Then use the graph tool to create a bar graph. 110 62 4

22. 8

Snowmobile Sales 8

1

1200 2

1000

Sales (millions)

23. 18 42 7 18 16 7

800

27

600

9

400

24. 8(2 5) 6 8(7) 6

200

56 6

0

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 50

Year 25. 4(11 7) 9 8 4(18) 9 8

3. Yes; you can change the scales to begin at values 72 9 8

other than zero, or change the intervals on the 72 72

scale to be misleading. 0

26. 288 [3(9 3)] 288 [3(12)]

288 36

Chapter 1 Study Guide and Review 8

27. 16 2 5 3 6 8 5 3 6

Page 57 Vocabulary and Concept Check 40 3 6

1. a; Additive Identity Property 120 6

2. e; Multiplicative Identity Property 20

3. g; Multiplicative Property of Zero 28. 6(43 22) 6(64 22)

6(64 4)

4. f; Multiplicative Inverse Property

6(68)

5. h; Reflexive Property 408

6. j; Symmetric Property 14 62 14 62

7. i; Substitution Property 29. 13 12 3 15 22

33 15 22

10

8. k; Transitive Property 33 15 22

9. b; Distributive Property 10

33 10

10. d; Associative Property

10

27 10

27 1

Pages 57–62 Lesson-by-Lesson Review 26

11. a number x to the fifth power 30. t2 3y 42 3 2 31. xty3 3 4 23

14444444244444443

x5 16 3 2 3 4 8

The algebraic expression is x5. 16 6 12 8

22 96

12. five times a number x squared

123123 1444 4424 44443 ty 4 2

32.

5 x2 x 3

8

The algebraic expression is 5x2. 3

twenty-one

13. a number x sum of 1442443 2

1442443 14243 23

x 21 33. x t2 y2 3 42 22

The algebraic expression is x 21. 3 16 22

14. twice a number x difference of eight 3 16 4

14444244443 144 443 14243

424

19 4

2x 8 23

The algebraic expression is 2x 8. 34. 3ty x2 3 4 2 32

15. 33 3 3 3 16. 25 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 29

27 32 12 2 9

17. 54 5 5 5 5 24 9

625 15

18. the product of two and a number p squared 35. 8(x y)2 2t 8(3 2)2 2 4

8(1)2 2 4

19. the product of three and a number m to the fifth

8 12 4

power

82 4

20. the sum of one half and two 88

16

27 Chapter 1

36. x 22 13 37. y 4 32 47. Replace x in 2x 5
15 with each value in the

9 49 replacement set.

The solution is 9. 13 x 2x 5 15 True or False?

The solution is 13.

?

64 4 21 3 4 2 4 5
15 S 13 15 false

38. m 17

39. x 12 3

?

68 18 5 2 5 5
15 S 15
15 true ✓

17

9 ?

4 2 6 2 6 5
15 S 17
15 true ✓

?

The solution is 4. The solution is 2. 7 2 7 5
15 S 19
15 true ✓

14 28 96 6 ?

40. a 4 3

41. n 8 2 8 2 8 5
15 S 21
15 true ✓

42 16

7

4 The solution set for 2x 5
15 is {5, 6, 7, 8}.

6 4 48. 2[3 (19 42)]

The solution is 6. The solution is 4. 2[3 (19 16)] Substitution; 42 16

714 32 6172 2132 2[3 3] Substitution; 19 16 3

42. b 18 3

43. x 2 2 1 Substitution; 3 3 1

4 6122

71122 42 6 2 Multiplicative Identity;

6

16 12

84 36

2 12

6

4 1

49. 2 2[2 3 1]

14 9 2

1

The solution is 14. The solution is 9. 2 2 2[6 1] Substitution; 2 3 6

1

44. y 5[2(4) 13] 22 25 Substitution; 6 1 5

5[8 1]

125 Multiplicative Inverse;

5[7] 1

35 2

21

The solution is 35. 1 10 Substitution; 2 5 10

45. Replace x in x 2

7 with each value in the

replacement set. 11Substitution; 1 + 10 11

50. 42 22 (4 2)

x x27 True or False?

42 22 2 Substitution; 4 2 2

?

4 4 2 7 7S6 7 false 16 22 2 Substitution; 42 16

? 16 4 2 Substitution; 22 4

5 5 2 7 7S7 7 false 12 2 Substitution; 16 4 12

?

6 6 2 7 7S8 7 7 true ✓ 10 Substitution; 12 2 10

? 51. 1.2 0.05 23

7 7 2 7 7S9 7 7 true ✓

1.2 0.05 8 Substitution; 23 8

?

8 8 2 7 7 S 10 7 7 true ✓ 1.15 8 Substitution; 1.2 0.05

1.15

The solution set for x 2

7 is {6, 7, 8}.

9.15 Substitution; 1.15 8 9.15

46. Replace x in 10 x 7 with each value in the

52. (7 2)(5) 52

replacement set.

5(5) 52 Substitution; 7 2 5

x 10 x 7 True or False? 5(5) 25 Substitution; 52 25

? 25 25 Substitution; 5 5 25

4 10 4 6 7 S 6 6 7 true ✓ 0 Substitution ()

? 1

5 10 5 6 7 S 5 6 7 true ✓ 53. 3(4 4) 2 4 (8)

1

6

?

10 6 6 7 S 4 6 7 true ✓ 3(1) 2 4 (8) Substitution; 4 4 1

182

1

7

?

10 7 6 7 S 3 6 7 true ✓ 31 4

Substitution; 12 1

1

? 3 (8) Multiplicative Identity;

8 10 8 6 7 S 2 6 7 true ✓ 4

313

The solution set for 10 x 7 is {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}. 1

32 Substitution; 4

82

1 Substitution; 3 2 1

54. 2(4 7) 2(4) 2(7) 55. 8(15 6) 8(15) 8(6)

8 14 120 48

22 72

Chapter 1 28

56. 4(x 1) 4(x) 4(1) 72. five times the

4x 4 decreased by 2x

sum of x and y 1

144424443 44424443 123

57. 3 1 1

3 2

p 3 1 2 31 p2

1

3

5(x y) 2x

5(x y) 2x 5(x) 5(y) 2x Distributive

1 3p

Property

58. 6(a b) 6(a) 6(b)

5x 2x 5y Commutative

6a 6b

()

59. 8(3x 7y) 8(3x) 8(7y) 3x 5y Substitution

24x 56y

73. twice the product the product

60. 4a 9a (4 9)a of p and q increased by of p and q

13a 14444244443 144424443 1442443

4np 7mp is simplified. 2pq pq (2 1)pq Distributive Property

62. 3w w 4v 3v (3w w) (4v 3v) 3pq Substitution

(3 1)w (4 3)v 74. the sum of eight

2w 1v six times a plus times b and twice a

1442443 123 1444442444443

2w v 6a (8b 2a)

63. 3m 5m 12n 4n (3m 5m) (12n 4n)

6a 8b 2a

(3 5)m (12 4)n

6a 2a 8b Commutative ()

8m 8n

(6a 2a) 8b Associative ()

64. 2p(1 16r) 2p(1) 2p(16r) (6 2)a 8b Distributive Property

2p 32pr 8a 8b Substitution

65. 9y 3y 5x (9y 3y) 5x 75. three times the sum of x squared

(9 3)y 5x the square of x plus and seven times x

12y 5x 144424443 123 1444442444443

66. 3x 4y 2x 3x 2x 4y 3 x2 (x2 7 x)

(3x 2x) 4y 3x2 x2 7x

(3 2)x 4y (3x2 x2) 7x Associative ()

5x 4y (3 1)x2 7x Distributive Property

67. 7w w 2w2 7w2 2w2 w

2 4x2 7x Substitution

(7w2 2w2) w 76. Hypothesis: it is 7:30 A.M.

(7 2)w2 w Conclusion: school begins

9w2 w If it is 7:30 A.M., then school begins.

1 1

1 1 1 2

68. 3 2m 2m n 3 2m 2m n 77. Hypothesis: a figure is a triangle

13 2 2 2m n

Conclusion: it has three sides

1 1 If a figure is a triangle, then it has three sides.

?

4m n 78. x 13, y 12; 13 7 12

69. 6a 5b 2c 8b 6a 5b 8b 2c 13 7 12 ✓

6a (5b 8b) 2c but 21132 31122

6a (5 8)b 2c ? ?

6a 13b 2c 79. a 15, b 1, c 12; 15 7 1 and 15 7 12

70. 3(2 3x) 21x 3(2) 3(3x) 21x 15 7 1 and 15 7 12 ✓

6 9x 21x but 1 12

6 (9x 21x) 80. When taking off, the airplane has zero altitude.

6 (9 21)x Then the plane gains altitude. The plane’s

6 30x altitude remains constant as it flies around. Then

30x 6 the altitude decreases until the plane lands.

71. 6(2n 4) 5n 6(2n) 6(4) 5n Graph C shows this situation.

12n 24 5n

12n 5n 24

(12n 5n) 24

(12 5)n 24

17n 24

29 Chapter 1

81. The amount of helium in a balloon increases from 7 difference of a number x squared

5. {

144424443 14444424 44443

zero at a steady rate until it bursts. When the

7 x2

balloon bursts, the amount of helium in the

balloon is again zero. The algebraic expression is 7 x2.

6. 5(9 3) 3 4 5(12) 3 4

60 3 4

Helium (cm3 )

60 12

48

7. 12 6 3 2 8 72 3 2 8

24 2 8

Time 48 8

82. Construct a table with 2 rows. The first row is 6

labeled Earth Years and the second row is labeled 8. a2b c 22 5 3

Mars Years. Since one year on Earth is about 0.54 4 53

years on Mars, pick some value for Earth Years and 20 3

multiply by 0.54 to get values for Mars Years. 23

Earth Years 5 10 15 20 25 9. (cd)3 (3 1)3 10. (a d )c (2 1)3

33 (3)3

Mars Years 2.7 5.4 8.1 10.8 13.5 27 9

83. 50 11. y (4.5 0.8) 3.2 12. 42 3(4 2) x

y 5.3 3.2 42 3(2) x

40 y 2.1 16 3(2) x

The solution is 2.1. 16 6 x

Mars Years

30 10 x

The solution is 10.

20

23 13

13. 2 1

n

10

8 1

3

n

7

0 10 20 30 40 50

3

n

Earth Years 1

23 n

84. The section of the graph representing students

7 1

who chose the amusement park is 45% of the The solution is 3

or 2 3.

circle, so find 45% of 120. 14. 32 2 (2 2)

45%

23 of 120 equal 54. 9 2 (2 2) Substitution; 32 9

1 { 1 23 123 {

70 Substitution; 9 2 7

54 students chose the amusement park. 7 Additive Identity; 7 0 7

85. The section of the graph representing students 15. (2 2 3) 22 32

who chose the amusement park is 45% of the (4 3) 22 32 Substitution; 2 2 4

circle. The section of the graph representing 1 22 32 Substitution; 4 3 1

students who chose the water park is 25%. So, 1 4 32 Substitution; 22 4

find 45 – 25 or 20% of 180. 149 Substitution; 32 9

20%

23 of 180 equal 36. 59 Substitution; 1 4 5

1 { 1 23 123 {

0.2% 180 36 14 Substitution; 5 9 14

There were 36 more students who chose the 16. 2m 3m (2m 3m)

amusement park than the water park. (2 3)m

5m

17. 4x 2y 2x y 4x 2x 2y y

(4x 2x) (2y y)

Chapter 1 Practice Test (4 2)x (2 1)y

2x 3y

Page 63

18. 3(2a b) 5a 4b 3(2a) 3(b) 5a 4b

1. d; Reflexive Property of Equality

6a 3b 5a 4b

2. a; Substitution Property of Equality 6a 5a 3b 4b

3. c; Transitive Property of Equality (6a 5a) (3b 4b)

4. a number x sum of 13 (6 5)a (3 4)b

1442443 14243 123

1a 7b

x 13 a 7b

The algebraic expression is x 13.

Chapter 1 30

19. Running for 15 minutes does not mean you can 2. C; 2 r 2 3.14 4

run for a few hours. 6.28 4

20. 2x 3 9 25.12

2x 12 3. B; There are about 50 weeks in a year.

x6 80 50 4000

Thus, x 6 is a counterexample. 4. A; 4

21. When a basketball is shot, its height starts above 1250

the ground. Then it increases until the basketball 48

reaches its maximum height. The height of the 2

ball decreases until it gets to the basket, at which

5. D; charge number cost of replaced

time it falls back to the ground.

per hour times of hours plus parts

14243 123 14243 123 144424443

($36 h) $85

or (36 h) 85

Height

6x 9 2x 2

6x 2x 9 2

(6x 2x) (9 2)

Time (6 2)x 11

22. The nickel’s height is at a maximum when it is 8x 11

dropped. It’s height decreases until it hits the 7. B; 3 is a positive integer, but 9 is not divisible by 2.

stack of pennies. The height of the nickel 8. B; The section of the graph representing foreign-

increases as it bounces off the pennies. born people from Asia is 25.2% of the circle.

The section of the graph representing foreign-

born people from Central America is 34.5% of

the circle. 25.2 34.5

Height

5

9. Five eighths of the students are girls, so 1 8 or

3 3

8

of the students are boys. Find 8 of 32.

3

of 32 equal 12.

{

8 { { 123 {

Time

3

8

32 12

23. The section of the graph representing students

who chose chocolate is 62% of the circle. The There are 12 boys in the class.

section of the graph representing students who 10. cost of

chose vanilla is 32% of the circle. So, find 62 – 32 $25 minus the books plus tax

123 14243 144424443 123 14444244443

or 30% of 200. 25 [ (8.99 13.99) 0.06(8.99 13.99) ]

30%

23 of 200 equal 60.

1 { 12 3 123 { 25 [(8.99 13.99) 0.06 (8.99 13.99)]

0.3 200 60 25 [(8.99 13.99) 0.06 (8.99 13.99)]

There were 60 more students who chose chocolate 25 [22.98 0.06(22.98)]

than vanilla. 25 [22.98 1.38]

25 24.36

24. The section of the graph representing students

0.64

who chose chocolate is 62% of the circle. The

She should receive $0.64 in change.

section of the graph representing students who

chose vanilla is 32% of the circle. So, 62 32 or 11. The bars with the least difference in height are

94% of the students chose either chocolate or representing 1999. Therefore, 1999 was the year

vanilla. with the least difference in home runs.

15% of 80 equals 1

12. B;123 12.

25. D; 2 is a prime number, but is not odd. 123

123 1

424

3 23

0.15 80 12

25% of 50 equals 12.5

123 123 123 14243 123

Chapter 1 Standardized Test Practice 0.25 50 12.5

Pages 64–65 12 12.5

1 3

2 1

1. B; 1 4 800 200 4 800 200

200 200

40,000

31 Chapter 1

10 1a b2c 4 3a 1c2 b 1c2 4

2 1 1

13. A; 10 3 15. C; 4

2

4 1ac bc2

3 1

3

10 2 ac bc

10 3 4

1 2

5 16. C; (26 39) (39 13) (26 39) (13 39)

10 3 (26 13) 39

12

1 39 39

53 392

11

15 17a. Sample answer: The new pump pumps many

1 more gallons per hour than the old pump. The

15 new pump pumps about twice as many gallons

15 7 15 per hour as the old pump.

14. B; Replace x in 2x 1 2x 1 with each value 17b. The gallons pumped per hour by both pumps at

in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. the same time is the sum of the number of gallons

pumped per hour by each pump individually.

True or

x 2x 1 2x 1 False?

Gallons

?

1 2 1 1 6 2 1 1S1 6 3 true ✓

?

2 2 2 1 6 2 2 1S3 6 5 true ✓

?

3 2 3 1 6 2 3 1S5 6 7 true ✓

Hours

?

4 2 4 1 6 2 4 1S7 6 9 true ✓ 17c. This graph shows that only the old pump was

? pumping at first, and then after some hours the

5 2 5 1 6 2 5 1 S 9 6 11 true ✓

new pump started pumping also.

Notice that the expression 2x 1 is always 2

units greater than the expression 2x 1.

Chapter 1 32

Chapter 2 Real Numbers

7 19 2 7 4 9

Page 67 Getting Started 19. mean 6

1. 2.2 2. 0 12 1 3. 33 4. 18 48

1 3 .4 6.4

0.16 4.2576 . 50 6

4.5 8.8

8

2.36 4 25

8.9 512

34 00 There are six numbers in the set. When ordered

51 2

34 00 from least to greatest, the third number is 7 and

56.3 2 7 7

0 the fourth is 7. So, the median is 2 or 7.

1 2 3 8 1 1 3 2 7 appears two times, and the other numbers of

5. 4

3 12 12 6. 2

366

11 1

the set appear only once. So, the mode is 7.

12 6

20. 112 11 11 21. 0.92 0.9 0.9

1 1

121 0.81

123 22 23 23 145 22 45 45

5 3 5 3 4 1 4 3

7. 4

10 4 10 8. 9

3 91

2 3 22. 23.

3 4 1

or 13 4 16

8 3 9 25

9. 3a 2 3 2 2 10. 2x 5 2 7 5

62 14 5

4 19

2-1 Rational Numbers on the

11. 8( y 2.4) 8(0.3 2.4)

8(2.7)

Number Line

21.6

1 2

1 1 1 Page 70 Check for Understanding

12. 4(b 2) 4 4 2 13. a 2

414 4 2

2 2 1. Let a be any integer. Since a can always be

1 8 1 a

12 written in the form 1 , a is also a rational number.

414 2

The statement is always true.

9

2. Sample answer: Absolute value is how far from

36 zero a number is.

4

3. Sample answer: describing distances in a given

9

direction such as north versus south, or left

1

14. b 3 4

3 15. xy 7 0.3 versus right

1 2.1 4. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The

34

1 2

1

coordinates are {2, 1, 2, 5}.

16. y(a b) 0.3 2 4 5. The bold arrow on the left means that the graph

5 6

0.3(8) continues indefinitely in that direction. The

11 9 7 5 3

2.4 coordinates are . . ., 2 , 2, 2, 2, 2 .

2 4 7 9 12 15

17. mean 6 6.

49 5432 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6

1

7.

86 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

from least to greatest, the third number is 7 and 1 1 0 1 2 1 5

7 9 2 4 5 3

the fourth is 9. So, the median is 2 or 8. Every

9.

number in the set appears only once. So, there is 9 8 76 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

no mode.

10. 2 is two units from zero in the negative

23 23 23 12 12 14

18. mean 6 direction.

107 02 0 2

6

5 11. 18 is eighteen units from zero in the positive

176 direction.

There are six numbers in the set. When ordered 018 0 18

from least to greatest, the third number is 14 and 12. 2.5 is two and one half units from zero in the

14 23 1

the fourth is 23. So, the median is 2

or 182. positive direction.

02.5 0 2.5

The number 23 appears three times, and the

other numbers of the set appear only once. So, the

5

mode is 23. 13. 6 is five-sixths unit from zero in the negative

0 56 0 56

direction.

33 Chapter 2

14. 57 0x 34 0 57 018 34 0 34. 38 is thirty-eight units from zero in the negative

57 052 0 direction.

57 52 038 0 38

5 35. 10 is ten units from zero in the positive direction.

15. 19 021 y 0 19 021 4 0 010 0 10

19 017 0

36. 97 is ninety-seven units from zero in the positive

19 17

direction.

36

097 0 97

16. 0z 0 0.26 00.76 0 0.26

0.76 0.26 37. 61 is sixty-one units from zero in the negative

0.50 direction.

17. 061 0 61

Rational Numbers 38. 3.9 is three and nine tenths units from zero in the

1

Integers

2 positive direction.

Whole 03.9 0 3.9

Numbers 1.25

39. 6.8 is six and eight tenths units from zero in the

0 40 4 2 2 1 5 negative direction.

06.8 0 6.8

53 3 3 5 2

13 0.33 2.98

49.98 23

40. 56 is twenty-three fifty-sixths unit from zero in

the negative direction.

0 2356 0 2356

Pages 71–72 Practice and Apply 35

41. 80

is thirty-five eightieths unit from zero in the

18. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The

positive direction.

0 3580 0 3580

coordinates are {4, 2, 0, 2, 4}.

19. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The

coordinates are {7, 6, 5, 3, 2}. 42.

20. The bold arrow on the right means that the graph 108 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

continues indefinitely in that direction. The Therefore, the percents of change from least to

coordinates are {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .}. greatest are 10.6, 2.9, 1.4, 0.2, 1.7, 4.3, 4.7,

21. The bold arrow on the left means that the graph 5.3, 8.5, and 10.0.

continues indefinitely in that direction. The 43. Philadelphia, PA; Sample answer: It had the

coordinates are {. . ., 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8}. greatest absolute value.

5 6

22. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The 44. Wayne, MI; Sample answer: It had the least

5 2

coordinates are 2, 3, 1, 3, 1 . absolute value.

45. 48 0x 5 0 48 012 5 0

5 6

23. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The

1 4 7 8 48 07 0

coordinates are 5, 5, 5, 5, 2 .

48 7

24. 55

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

46. 25 017 x 0 25 017 12 0

25. 25 029 0

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

25 29

26. 54

017 a 0 23 017 6 0 23

7 6 5 4 3 2

47.

27. 011 0 23

2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

11 23

28. 34

043 4a 0 51 043 4 6 0 51

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

48.

043 24 0 51

29.

019 0 51

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

30. 19 51

1 2 1 0 1 2

1 11 12 2 70

3 3 3 3 3 3

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 5 13 4

32. 18 4

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 14

33. 50. 28 13 0z 0 28 13 05 0

6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 28 13 5

15 5

20

Chapter 2 34

51. 6.5 08.4 y 0 6.5 08.4 3.2 0 60. Sample answer: You can plot the data on a

6.5 05.2 0 number line to visualize their relationship.

6.5 5.2 Answers should include the following.

1.3 • Determine the least and greatest values of the

52. 7.4 0y 2.6 0 7.4 03.2 2.6 0 data, and use those as the endpoints of the line.

7.4 00.6 0 • Find the absolute value of each number.

7.4 0.6 61. D; 08 0 2 8 2

8

0 0 0 23 127 0

6

1 7 1

53. b 12 6 62. C; Zero is a whole number, but zero is not a

6 0 12 0

6

1 1 natural number.

1 1

6 12

4

1 Page 72 Maintain Your Skills

1 2 0 5 0 123 12 2 0 56 0

1

63. The graph shows that Mr. Michaels’s sales were

54. b 2 6 less than 10 cars for each month except

13 2 2 6

2 1 5 December. In December Mr. Michaels sold

12 cars. Therefore, his greatest sales happened

7 5

66 in December.

1 64. The graph shows that Mr. Michaels’s change in

3

0 54 1 0 25

sales between any two consecutive months was

55. 0 c 1 0 5

2

always less than 7 cars except between November

040 5

1 2 and December when it was 8 cars. Therefore, the

greatest change in sales occurred between

45

1 2 November and December.

13 65. The graph shows that Mr. Michaels sold 3 cars in

20

1 2 0 5 0 1 12

February, July, and October.

56. 0c 0 2 2 4 2 2

1

66. The volume starts high, decreases when she turns

4 12 2 2

5 1

it down, remains constant while she is on the

phone, then increases to its starting volume when

42

5 5 she gets off the phone.

15 3

4

or 3 4

57. 0x 0 1 0x 0 Volume

number when multiplied by 1 is equal to itself? Time

The number 0 is the only number that satisfies

that characteristic. i.e. 1 0 0. So, 0x 0 0.

67. 8x 2y x 8x x 2y

(8x x) 2y

What number is zero units from zero? x 0, or

(8 1)x 2y

the solution is 0.

9x 2y

58.

10 0 10 20 30 68. 7(5a 3b) 4a 7(5a) 7(3b) 4a

35a 21b 4a

59. 11 is eleven units from zero in the negative

35a 4a 21b

direction. For Bismarck, 011 0 11.

(35a 4a) 21b

5 is five units from zero in the negative (35 4)a 21b

direction. For Caribou, 05 0 5. 31a 21b

4 is four units from zero in the negative 69. 4[1 4(5x 2y)] 4[1 4(5x) 4(2y)]

direction. For Chicago, 04 0 4. 4[1 20x 8y]

9 is nine units from zero in the negative 4[1] 4[20x] 4[8y]

direction. For Fairbanks, 09 0 9. 4 80x 32y

13 is thirteen units from zero in the negative 70.

3 1

88

4

71.

7 3

12 12

4

direction. For International Falls, 013 0 13. 8 12

1 1

7 is seven units from zero in the positive 2 3

direction. For Kansas City, 07 0 7. 72.

7 1

5 10 10

7 2

73.

3 2 9

3 24 24

16

10 8

34 is thirty-four units from zero in the positive 9

direction. For Sacramento, 034 0 34.

25

10 24

1

33 is thirty-three units from zero in the positive 1 24

direction. For Shreveport, 033 0 33.

35 Chapter 2

5 1 5 3 3 1 9 4 2 3 20 27

74. 266 75. 3 12 12 14. 9 10 90 90

1 27 2

6 4

8 5 20

6 12 90 90

1 0 90 0 0 90 0 2

4 1

3 or 1 3 20 27

1 90 90 2

9 1 18 15 7 7 14 7

76. 15

2 30 30 77. 9

18 18 18 20 27

3 7

30 18 47

90

1 2 1 2 1 42 2 1 55 2

1

7 11

10 15. 10 12 60 60

1 60 2 1 60 2

42 55

1 60 2 60

2-2 Adding and Subtracting 42 55

1 0 60 0 0 60 0 2

Rational Numbers 55 42

1 60 60 2

Page 76 Check for Understanding 55 42

1 3

1. Sample answer: 5 5

13

2. Sample answer: To subtract a real number, add 60

its opposite. 16. 134 (80) 134 (80)

6 6

3. Gabriella; subtracting 9 is the same as adding 9. 134 80

4. 15 (12) ( 015 0 012 0 ) 214

(15 12) The difference is 214.

27

5. 24 (45) ( 024 0 045 0 )

(24 45) Pages 76–78 Practice and Apply

69 17. 8 13 ( 013 0 08 0 )

6. 38.7 (52.6) ( 052.6 0 038.7 0 ) (13 8)

(52.6 38.7) 5

13.9 18. 11 19 ( 019 0 011 0 )

7. 4.62 (12.81) ( 04.62 0 012.81 0 ) (19 11)

(4.62 12.81) 8

17.43 19. 41 (63) ( 063 0 041 0 )

8.

4

1 12

2 14 14

8

1 72 (63 41)

1 0 14 0 0 14 0 2

7

22

20. 80 (102) ( 0102 0 080 0 )

8 7

1 14 14 2

8 7 (102 80)

22

14

1

21. 77 (46) ( 077 0 046 0 )

5 8 25 32 (77 46)

9. 12 15 60 60

1 0 3260 0 0 2560 0 2

123

22. 92 (64) ( 092 0 064 0 )

1 60 60 2

32 25

(92 64)

156

60

7 23. 1.6 (3.8) ( 01.6 0 03.8 0 )

(1.6 3.8)

10. 18 23 18 (23)

5.4

( 023 0 018 0 )

(23 18) 24. 32.4 (4.5) ( 032.4 0 04.5 0 )

5 (32.4 4.5)

36.9

11. 12.7 (18.4) 12.7 (18.4)

12.7 18.4 25. 38.9 24.2 ( 038.9 0 024.2 0 )

31.1 (38.9 24.2)

14.7

12. (3.86) 1.75 (3.86) (1.75)

( 03.86 0 01.75 0 ) 26. 7.007 4.8 ( 07.007 0 04.8 0 )

(3.86 1.75) (7.007 4.8)

5.61 2.207

13. 32.25 (42.5) 32.25 (42.5) 27. 43.2 (57.9) ( 057.9 0 043.2 0 )

32.25 42.5 (57.9 43.2)

( 042.5 0 032.25 0 ) 14.7

(42.5 32.25)

10.25

Chapter 2 36

28. 38.7 (61.1) ( 061.1 0 038.7 0 ) 37. To find the total score, find the sum of her scores.

(61.1 38.7) 100 200 500 (300) 400 (500)

22.4 300 500 (300) 400 (500)

29.

6 2

3 21 21

18 14 800 (300) 400 (500)

( 0800 0 0300 0 ) 400 (500)

7

32 11

21 or 1 21 (800 300) 400 (500)

30.

3 6

17 306 306

51 108 500 400 (500)

18

900 (500)

( 0900 0 0500 0)

159

306

102

53 (900 500)

400

4 3 20 33

31. 11 5 55 55

1 0 3355 0 0 2055 0 2

Her total score was 400 points.

38. First find the net yards gained by finding the sum

1 55 55 2

of 6, 8, and 3.

6 (8) 3 ( 08 0 06 0 ) 3

33 20

55

13 (8 6) 3

2 3

( 03 0 02 0)

2 17 8 17

32. 5 20 20 20

1 0 1720 0 0 208 0 2 (3 2)

1

1 20 20 2

17 8

Over the three plays, they gained 1 yard from

9 their 20-yard line. Therefore, they were on the

20

1 2 1 135 2

21-yard line.

4 9 64

33. 15 16 240 240 39. 19 8 19 (8)

( 019 0 08 0 )

1 0 240 0 0 240 0 2

64 135

(19 8)

1 240 240 2

64 135 27

40. 16 (23) 16 (23)

199

240 16 23

1 2 1 26 2

16 13 16 39

34. 40 20 40 40

41. 9 (24) 9 (24)

1 0 40 0 0 40 0 2 9 24

16 26

1 40 40 2

33

16 26

42. 12 34 12 (34)

40

42 ( 034 0 012 0 )

(34 12)

21 1

20 or 1 20 22

1

35. 4 8 1 2 1 1

2 33

2

8 1 12 43. 22 41 22 (41)

( 041 0 022 0)

1 0 8 0 0 8 0 2

8

33 12 (41 22)

1 8 8 2

19

33 12

44. 9 (33) 9 (33)

21

9 33

8

( 033 0 09 0 )

5

28 (33 9)

36. 1 50

17

1 17

3 25 50

67

2 50 1 184

2 24

1 0 0 0 6750 0 2

45. 58 (42) 58 (42)

184

50 58 42

( 058 0 042 0)

1 50 50 2

184 67

(58 42)

117 16

50

17

46. 79.3 (14.1) 79.3 (14.1)

2 50 79.3 14.1

93.4

47. 1.34 (0.458) 1.34 (0.458)

1.34 0.458

1.798

48. 9.16 10.17 9.16 (10.17)

( 09.16 0 010.17 0 )

(9.16 10.17)

19.33

37 Chapter 2

49. 67.1 (38.2) 67.1 (38.2) 58. 2 (6) (4) (4)

67.1 38.2 ( 02 0 06 0 ) (4) (4)

105.3 (2 6) (4) (4)

50. 72.5 (81.3) 72.5 (81.3) 8 (4) (4)

72.5 81.3 ( 08 0 04 0 ) (4)

153.8 (8 4) (4)

1 2 1 4 12 (4)

( 012 0 04 0 )

51. 6 3 6 6

6 6 1 42

1 (12 4)

1 0 6 0 0 6 0 2

16

1 4

59. Under; yes; it is better than par 72.

16 6 2 60. Subtract to find the change in value.

1 4

5

week 8 week 1

6 value 123minus 123 value

123

1 4 5 8

52. 5 10 10 11,257.24 9791.09 1466.15.

1 2

2

5

8

10 The value changed by 1466.15.

1 0 0 0 105 0 2

10

8

61. From week 1 to week 2 the change was:

10

10,126.94 9791.09 335.85.

1 10 10 2

8 5 From week 2 to week 3 the change was:

3 10,579.85 10,126.94 452.91.

10

1 2 1 32

From week 3 to week 4 the change was:

7 3 14

53. 8 16 16 16 10,810.05 10,579.85 230.20.

16 1 16 2

14 3 From week 4 to week 5 the change was:

10,951.24 10,810.05 141.19.

14 3

16 16

1 0 14 0 0 163 0 2

From week 5 to week 6 the change was:

16 10,821.31 10,951.24

1 16 16 2

10,821.31 (10,951.24)

( 010,951.24 0 010,821.31 0 )

14 3

11 (10,951.24 10,821.31)

16

1 32 1 92

129.93.

1 1

54. 12 4 12 12 From week 6 to week 7 the change was:

12 1 12 2

1 9 11,301.74 10,821.31 480.43.

From week 7 to week 8 the change was:

1 9

12 12 11,257.24 11,301.74.

1 0 129 0 0 121 0 2 11,257.24 (11,301.74)

( 011,301.74 0 011,257.24 0 )

1 12 12 2

9 1

(11,301.74 11,257.24)

8 44.50.

12

Therefore, week 7 had the greatest change from

2

3 the previous week.

1

55. 2 4 6 3 4

1 9 19 62. Week 8 had the least change from the previous week.

1 2

3

27 76

63. Sometimes; the equation is false for positive values

12 12 of x, but true for all other values of x.

1 0 0 0 2712 0 2

76

12 64. Sample answer: If a team gains yards, move right on

1 12 12 2

the number line. If a team loses yards, move left on the

76 27

number line. Answers should include the following.

49 1 • Move right or left, depending on whether the

12 or 4 12

Giants gained or lost yards on each play.

3 31 53 81

56. 5 10 1 50 10 50 Where you end will tell you how many yards

265 81 the Giants lost or gained.

50

50

• Instead of using a number line, you can use the

92 17

25

or 325 rules for adding and subtracting rational

57. A score of 70, or 2 under par, is written as 2. numbers.

A score of 66, or 6 under par, is written as 6. 65. C; 57 87 57 (87)

A score of 68, or 4 under par, is written as 4. ( 057 0 087 0 )

During the four rounds, he shot 2, 6, 4, and 4. (57 87)

144

Chapter 2 38

66. B; 5 (8) 5 (8) 73. Replace a in 3a 5 7 with each value in the

58 replacement set A.

85

a 3a 5 7 True or False?

?

2 32 5 7 7S1

7 false

Page 78 Maintain Your Skills ?

3 33 5 7 7S4

7 false

67. 12.2 08 x 0 12.2 08 4.8 0 ?

12.2 03.2 0 4 34 5 7 7S7

7 false

12.2 3.2 ?

5 3 5 5 7 7 S 10 7 7 true ✓

15.4 ?

68. 0y 0 9.4 3 07.4 0 9.4 3 6 3 6 5 7 7 S 13 7 7 true ✓

7.4 9.4 3 The solution set for 3a 5 7 is {5, 6}.

16.8 3 1 1

74. Replace c in c 2 6 24 with each value in the

13.8 replacement set C.

69. 24.2 018.3 z 0 24.2 018.3 10 0

24.2 08.3 0 C c 12 214 True or False?

24.2 8.3 1 1 1 ? 1 3 1

15.9 4 4

2 6 24 S 4 6 24 true ✓

70. Sample answer: A category labeled “other” 1 1 1 ? 1 1

2 6 24 S 1 6 24 true ✓

representing 8% would have to be added so that 2 2

the data would sum to 100%. 3 3 1 ? 1 1 1

4 4

2 6 24 S 14 6 24 true ✓

71. Draw a circle with three sections. Make one section

67% of the circle and label it with the phrase ‘drink 1 ? 1 1 1

1 1 2 6 24 S 12 6 24 true ✓

it.’ Make another section 25% of the circle and label

it with the phrase ‘leave it.’ Make the third section 1 1 ? 1 3 1

114 14 2 6 24 S 14 6 24 true ✓

8% of the circle and label it with the word ‘other.’

Cereal Milk The solution set for c 2 6 24 is

1 1

514, 12, 34, 1, 114 6.

75. Less than implies subtract in reverse order, and

square implies raised to the second power. So the

Drink It expression can be written as q2 8.

67% 76. Less than implies subtract in reverse order, and

times implies multiply. So the expression can be

written as 2k 37.

1 1 1

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 5 3 5

Leave It 77. 2

3 23 78. 4

5 45 79. 4

6 46

25% 1 2 2

1 1 5

3 10 8

Other 1 4

3 4 3 7 7

8% 80. 4 5 1 5 81. 8 58 18 58 82. 9

12 9 12

1

1 3

72. Replace b in b 1.3 1.8 with each value in the

12 5

5 1

28

replacement set B. 2 3

25 5 1

b b 1.3 1.8 True or False? 93

?

0.3 0.3 1.3 1.8 S 1.6 1.8 false

?

0.4 0.4 1.3 1.8 S 1.7 1.8 false 2-3 Multiplying Rational Numbers

?

0.5 0.5 1.3 1.8 S 1.8 1.8 true ✓

?

0.6 0.6 1.3 1.8 S 1.9 1.8 true ✓ Page 81 Check for Understanding

? 1. ab will be negative if either one factor is negative,

0.7 0.7 1.3 1.8 S 2.0 1.8 true ✓ and the other is positive. Let a 2 and b 3:

The solution set for b 1.3 1.8 is {0.5, 0.6, 0.7}. 2(3) 6. Let a 2 and b 3: 2(3) 6.

2. Sample answer: calculating a $2.00 monthly

banking fee for the entire year: 12 ($2) $24

3. Since multiplication is repeated addition,

multiplying a negative number by another

negative number is the same as adding

repeatedly in the opposite, or positive, direction.

39 Chapter 2

3

4. (6)(3) 18 5. 5(8) 40 32. 5(5)(2) (3)(2)

6. (4.5)(2.3) 10.35 7. (8.7)(10.4) 90.48

1 21 2 1 21 2

6

5 2 10 4 7 28

8. 3

7 21 9. 9 15 135 33.

2

(11)(4) (2)(4)

11

10. 5s(6t) 5(6)st 8

30st 34. 6(2x) 14x 6(2)x 14x

11. 6x(7y) (15xy) 6(7)xy 15xy 12x 14x

42xy 15xy (12 14)x

(42 15)xy 26x

57xy

1 22

35. 5(4n) 25n 5(4)n25n

12. 6m 6 3 20n 25n

12 (20 25)n

3 45n

4

1 32

36. 5(2x x) 5(2 1)x

13. np 2 3 4

1 5(1)x

2 1 4 2

5x

1 15

37. 7(3d d ) 7(3 1)d

15 7 7(4)d

8 or 18

112 22123 22

28d

14. n2(m 2) 38. 2a(3c) (6y)(6r) 2(3)ac (6)(6)yr

12 2213 2

1 4 6ac (36)yr

6ac 36yr

1 4 21 3 2 6ac 36ry

1 4

4

39. 7m(3n) 3s(4t) 7(3)mn 3(4)st

12 21mn (12)st

3

1 21mn 12st

40. To find the change in price of 35 shares, multiply the

15. To find how much honey 675 honeybees make,

number of shares by the change in price of one share.

multiply the number of bees by the amount an

average bee makes. 35 (61.66 63.66) 35 (2)

1 675 70

675 12 12 The change in price of 35 shares was $70.

225

4 41. To find how much money you gained or lost,

1

56 4 multiply the number of shares by how much you

gained or lost on one share.

1

675 bees make 56 4 teaspoons of honey. 50 (61.69 64.38) 50 (2.69)

134.5

You lost $134.50 or $134.50.

Pages 81–83 Practice and Apply 42. 5c2 5(4.5)2 43. 2b2 2(3.9)2

16. 5(18) 90 17. 8(22) 176 5(20.25) 2(15.21)

18. 12(15) 180 19. 24(8) 192 101.25 30.42

20. 47(29) 1363 21. 81(48) 3888 44. 4ab 4(2.7)(3.9)

22. 145 2138 2 1240 23. 1125 2149 2 108

20 10.8 (3.9)

42.12

3 5

10 27 45. 5cd 5(4.5)(0.2)

24. 51 3 2156 2 1530 25. 5 1 2 2167 2 1235 22.5(0.2)

4.5

1

2 46. ad 8 (2.7)(0.2) 8

1 1

21

26. 35 72 5 2

1

2 1 16

21 15

2 0.54 8

7.46

240

10 47. ab 3 (2.7)(3.9) 3

24 10.53 3

27. 1 4

15 21 1

22 2 195 2 152 2 13.53

48. d (b 2a) (0.2)2 [3.9 2(2.7)]

2

45

10 (0.2)2 [3.9 (5.4)]

2

9 (0.2)2 [3.9 5.4]

(0.2)2 [9.3]

1

42 (0.04)[9.3]

28. 7.2(0.2) 1.44 29. 6.5(0.13) 0.845 0.372

30. (5.8) (2.3) 13.34 31. (0.075)(6.4) 0.48

Chapter 2 40

49. b2 (d 3c) (3.9)2 (0.2 3 4.5) 60.

4

1 32

4 20 20

16

1 15 2

1 0 20 0 0 20 0 2

5

(3.9)2 (0.2 13.5) 16 15

(3.9)2 (13.7)

1 20 20 2

(15.21)(13.7) 16 15

208.377

1

2

50. To find the length of the union, multiply 5 by the fly. 20

2 12 61. 42 (14) 42 (14)

6

5 5 42 14

2

25 56

2

The union is 2 5 feet long. 62. 14.2 6.7 14.2 (6.7)

( 014.2 0 06.7 0 )

51. To find the price after 7 months, subtract the

(14.2 6.7)

number of months times the drop in price per

20.9

month from the starting price.

63.

1450 7(34.95) 1450 244.65 4 32 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1205.35

64.

The price of a computer was $1205.35. 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

52. To find the degrees difference, multiply the 65.

number of 530-foot rises in altitude by the 1 2

1 3 0 3

1 2

temperature drop in one 530-foot rise.

64,997 129,994 66. Graph c; Before Brandon fills the balloon with

530

(2) 530 air, the balloon has no air in it. The amount of air

245 in the balloon increases as he fills it. The amount

The amount of degrees difference was about 245F. of air decreases after Brandon lets it go until the

balloon has a minimal amount of air left in it.

53. To find how many plastic bottles are used in one

Graph c shows this situation.

day, multiply the number of hours in a day by the

number of plastic bottles used every hour. 67. Sample answer:

?

24 2,500,000 60,000,000 x 5;

25 4 6

About 60 million plastic bottles are used in one day. 66✓

but 5

5

54. To find how many plastic bottles are used in one

week, multiply the number of hours in a week by 68. Sample answer:

a 4; 04 0 7 3

?

the number of plastic bottles used every hour.

168 2,500,000 420,000,000 4 7 3✓

but 4

3

About 420 million plastic bottles are used in one week. 1

5 5 1 2 2 1

55. Positive; the product of two negative numbers is 69. 8

2 82 70. 3

4 32

positive and the even number of negative factors 16

5

6

1

can be divided into groups of two.

3 4 2 5

56. Sample answer: Multiplying lets consumers 71. 5 4 5 3 72. 1 5 1 2

calculate quickly the total of several similar

20

2

5

3

items. Answers should include the following. 2 1

• Coupons are negative values because adding a 63 22

negative number is the same as subtracting a 4 2

1 3 1 8 7 5 7 6

positive number. 73. 2

8 23 74. 9

6 95

1 3

• Multiply 13.99 and 1.50 by three, then, add 4 14

3 15

the products.

1

57. B; 2x(4y) 2(4)xy 13

8xy 2 1

4 6 4 5 7 2 7 3

58. B; 2ab 2(4)(6) 75. 5

5 56 76. 8

3 82

1 3

(8)(6) 2 21

48 3 16

5

116

59. 6.5 (5.6) ( 06.5 0 05.6 0 )

(6.5 5.6)

12.1

41 Chapter 2

25 3 28 650a

Page 83 Practice Quiz 1 10. 4 11. 650a 10

1101 2

4 10

1. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The 7

coordinates are {4, 1, 1, 6}. 650a

2. 32 0x 8 0 32 015 8 0 65a

32 023 0 12.

6b 18

(6b 18) (2)

1 12

2

32 23

9 (6b 18) 2

3. 15 7 ( 015 0 07 0 ) 6b 1 2 2 18 1 2 2

1 1

(15 7)

8 3b (9)

3b 9

4. 27 (12) 27 (12)

2ab 2(3)(4.5) cb (7.5)(4.5)

27 12 13. ac

(3)(7.5)

14.

4a 4(3)

39 (6) (4.5) 33.75

5. 6.05 (2.1) ( 06.05 0 02.1 0 ) (22.5) 12

27 2.81

(6.05 2.1) 22.5

8.15

1 22 1 82

1.2

3 15

6. 4 5 20 20 15. b

a a 3

(4.5) 7.5

3

20 1 20 2

c

15 8 3 7.5

(4.5) 3

15 8 22.5

20 20 (13.5)

1 0 15 0 0 208 0 2

20 (1.67)

1 20 20 2

1.67

15 8

16. To find the number of visitors the site had in 1999,

7 divide the number of visitors in 2000 by eight.

20

419,000 8 52,375

7. 9(12) 108 8. (3.8)(4.1) 15.58

There were 52,375 visitors in 1999.

9. (8x)(2y) (3y)(z) (8)(2)xy (3)(1)yz

16xy (3)yz

16xy 3yz

Pages 86–87 Practice and Apply

10. mn 5 (2.5)(3.2) 5

17. 64 (8) 8 18. 78 (4) 19.5

8 5

( 08 0 05 0 ) 19. 78 (1.3) 60 20. 108 (0.9) 120

(8 5) 21. 42.3 (6) 7.05 22. 68.4 (12) 5.7

3 23. 23.94 10.5 2.28

24. 60.97 13.4 4.55

25. 32.25 (2.5) 12.9

2-4 Dividing Rational Numbers 26. 98.44 (4.6) 21.4

1 1 1 3 3 1

27. 3 4 3 4 28. 4 12 4 12

1 3

Page 86 Check for Understanding 12 48

1. Sample answer: Dividing and multiplying 16

1

numbers with the same signs both result in a 3 5

positive answer while dividing or multiplying 29. 7 5 7 3

numbers with different signs results in a negative 35

3 or 11 3

2

answer. However, when you divide rational

2 7

numbers in fractional form, you must multiply by 30. 5 7 5 2

a reciprocal. 35 1

1 1 1 2 or 17 2

2. Sample answer: 2, since 1 2 and 2 7 2. 16 24 16 60 24 31 24 63

2 31. 36

60 36 24 32. 56 63 56 31

960 1512

3. To divide by a rational number, multiply by its 864 1736

reciprocal. 10 1 27

or 1 9 31

1 2 1 2

4. 96 (6) 16 5. 36 4 9 9

14 12 14 25

6. 64 5 12.8 7. 64.4 2.5 25.76 33. 32

25 32 12

2 2 1 2 4 2 5

8. 3 12 3 12 9. 3 5

34

350

384

2 10

36 12

175

192

1 5

18 6

Chapter 2 42

34.

80

25 1 22

3 25 2

80

1 32 45. To find the number of pillows, divide the total

amount of fabric by the amount of fabric needed

240

50 for each pillow.

24 4 1 3 9 7

5 or 4 5 42 14 2 4

1 52 1 32

9 4

35. 74 3 74 5 27

36

222 2

or 44 5 14

1 32 1 82

5

18

36. 156 8 156 3 7

4

1248 27

3

She can make 2 pillows.

416

81c 105g 46. To find the average change in revenue, divide the

37. 81c 9 38. 105g 5

12 115 2

9 5 change in revenue by the number of years.

1

81c 9

105g (2,764,000,000 2,800,000,000) 8

9c 21g 36,000,000 8 4,500,000

8r 24 The average change in revenue for each of the

39. (8r 24) (8)

1 12

8 8 years was $4,500,000.

(8r 24) 8 47.

mn

(8) (6.5)

48.

np

(6.5) (3.2)

8r 1 8 2 24 1 8 2

p (3.2) m 8

1 1 52 20.8

3.2

8

1r (3) 16.25 2.6

r 3 49. mq np (8) (5.4) (6.5) (3.2)

7h 35 43.2 20.8

40. (7h 35) (7)

1 12

7

2.08

(7h 35) 7

50. pq mn (3.2) (5.4) (8) (6.5)

7h 1 7 2 35 1 7 2 17.28 (52)

1 1

0.33

1h (5) n p 6.5 3.2 m p 8 3.2

h 5 51. m

8

52. q

5.4

9.7 4.8

41.

40a 50b

(40a 50b) 2 8

5.4

112 2

2

1.21 0.89

(40a 50b)

40a 1 2 2 50b 1 2 2

m 2n 8 2(6.5)

1 1

53. n q

6.5 (5.4)

8 13

6.5 5.4

20a 25b

21

42c 18d 11.9

42. (42c 18d) 3

113 2

3

1.76

(42c 18d)

42c 1 3 2 18d 1 3 2

p 3q 3.2 3(5.4)

54. q m

(5.4) (8)

1 1

3.2 (16.2)

(5.4) (8)

14c 6d

3.2 16.2

43.

8f (16g)

[8f (16g)] 8 5.4 8

118 2

8

19.4

[8f (16g)] 13.4

8f 1 8 2 (16g) 1 8 2

1.45

1 1

55. To find the average loss per month, divide the

1f (2g) total loss by the number of months.

f 2g 23,985 12 1998.75

5x (10y) The average loss per month was $1998.75.

44. [5x (10y)] 5

115 2

5

56. To find the fraction that is pure gold, divide the

[5x (10y)]

5x 1 5 2 (10y) 1 5 2

karat value by the karat value of pure gold.

1 1 10

10 24 24

1x (2y) 12

5

x 2y 5

Therefore, 10-karat gold is 12

pure gold, and

5 7

1 12 or 12 not gold.

43 Chapter 2

57. Build up the fraction so that the denominator is 70. Substitution Property; 1.2 3.8 5

24. The numerator will be the karat value of the 71. 8b 12(b 2) 8b 12(b) 12(2)

gold. 8b 12b 24

2 2.8

3

3.8 (8 12)b 24

16 20b 24

24

2

72. 6(5a 3b 2b) 6(5a) 6(3b) 6(2b)

Therefore, jewelry that is 3

gold is 16-karat gold. 30a 18b 12b

58. Since 4 is even, 4 is divisible by 2. Therefore, if a 30a (18 12)b

number is divisible by 4, then it is divisible by 2. 30a 6b

Note that 3 . 4 . 6 72 and 8 . 9 72. Therefore, 73. 3(x 2y) 2y 3(x) 3(2y) 2y

if a number is divisible by 72, then it is divisible 3x 6y 2y

by 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9. Since 8 and 9 have no 3x (6 2)y

common factor, no number smaller than their 3x 4y

product will be divisible by both 8 and 9. Now, 74. mean

40 34 40 28 38

note that 72 . 5 . 7 2520, so 2520 is divisible by 5

180

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Since 72, 5, and 7 have 5

no common factor, no number smaller than their 36

product will be divisible by 72, 5, and 7. Thus,

There are five numbers in the set. When ordered

2520 is the least positive integer that is divisible

from least to greatest, the third number is 38.

by all whole numbers from 1 to 9.

So, the median is 38. The number 40 appears

59. Sample answer: You use division to find the mean twice, and the other numbers of the set appear

of a set of data. Answers should include the only once. So, the mode is 40.

following. 3 9 0 2 11 8 14 3

75. mean 8

• You could track the mean number of turtles

50

stranded each year and note if the value 8

increases or decreases. 6.25

• Weather or pollution could affect the turtles. There are eight numbers in the set. When ordered

60. D; 6.25 10 12 0.625 12 from least to greatest, the fourth number is 3 and

7.5 3 8 1

the fifth is 8. So, the median is 2 or 52 5.5.

17

61. E; 6x 1 6 3

1 The number 3 appears twice, and the other numbers

of the set appear only once. So, the mode is 3.

34 1

1.2 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.0 1.5

35 76. mean 7

10.3

7

1.47

Page 87 Maintain Your Skills

There are seven numbers in the set. When

62. 4(11) 44 63. 2.5(1.2) 3

1 5

ordered from least to greatest, the fourth number

64. 4

(5) 4 65. 1.6(0.3) 0.48 is 1.5. So, the median is 1.5. The number 1.2

1

14 appears twice, and the other numbers of the set

appear only once. So, the mode is 1.2.

66. 8 (6) 8 (6) 79 84 81 84 75 73 80 78

86 77. mean 8

14

634

8

67. 15 21 15 (21) 79.25

( 021 0 015 0 )

There are eight numbers in the set. When ordered

(21 15)

from least to greatest, the fourth number is 79 and

6 79 80

the fifth is 80. So, the median is or 79.5. The

68. 7.5 4.8 7.5 (4.8) 2

( 07.5 0 04.8 0 )

number 84 appears twice, and the other numbers

of the set appear only once. So, the mode is 84.

(7.5 4.8)

12.3

5

1 12

69. 8 6 24 24

15

1 42

24 1 24 2

15 4

15 4

24 24

1 0 15 0 0 244 0 2

24

1 24 24 2

15 4

11

24

Chapter 2 44

Statistics: Displaying and 11. The greatest common place value is tens, so the

2-5 digits in the tens place are the stems.

Analyzing Data Stem Leaf

Page 91 Check for Understanding 5 4556

6 0149

1. They describe the data as a whole.

7 03578

2. Sample answer: 8 0035888

Line Plot: 9 0

10 0 2 5

11 0 5 0 4 54

12. Occurring three times, the most frequent value is 88.

1 2 3 4 5

13. The mode is not the best measure as it is higher

Line Graph:

than most of the values.

14. The lowest value is 35, and the highest value is

54, so use a scale that includes those values.

Place an above each value for each occurrence.

34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3. A set of data with one extremely high value would 15. The lowest value is 2.0, and the highest value is

be better represented by the median, not by the 2.5, so use a scale that includes those values.

mean. Sample answer: 13, 14, 14, 28 Place an above each value for each occurrence.

4. The lowest value is 10, and the highest value is

22, so use a scale that includes those values.

Place an above each value for each occurrence. 2 1 0 1 2 3

16. The lowest value is 1, and the highest value is 8,

so use a scale that includes those values. Place an

above each value for each occurrence.

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

5. The lowest value is 0, and the highest value is 14,

so use a scale that includes those values. Place an

above each value for each occurrence.

1 3 5 7 9

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

17. 23 of the 44 teams were not number 1 seeds.

6. Occurring four times, the most frequent value is 0.

18. 29 of the 44 teams were seeded higher than third.

7. The mean, 6.75, and the median, 6.5, both represent

19. Sample answer: Median; most of the data are near 2.

the data accurately as they are fairly central.

20. The greatest common place value is ones, so the

8. The greatest common place value is tens, so the

digits in the ones place are the stems.

digits in the tens place are the stems.

Stem Leaf

Stem Leaf

5 89

6 46888

6 03569

5 08 5.8

7 1236

7 01123

8 01688

9 3 6 0 4 64 21. The greatest common place value is tens, so the

digits in the tens place are the stems.

9. The greatest value is 12.9, and the least value is

9.3. Therefore, the difference is 12.9 9.3 or 3.6. Stem Leaf

10. Median; most of the data clusters higher, near the 1 88

median, 11.8. 2 2366689

3 011234

4 7 1 08 18

45 Chapter 2

22. The greatest common place value is hundreds, but 38. Sample answer: 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 18

the hundreds digit in every number is a one. Thus 4 4 4 5 5 5 7 8 8 8 8 18

mean 12

we use the digits in the tens place as the stems.

84

Stem Leaf 12

10 0 0 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 7

11 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 There are twelve numbers in the set. When

67778888889 ordered from least to greatest, the sixth number

5 7

12 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 5 8 is 5 and the seventh is 7. So, the median is 2

13 4 10 00 100 or 6. The number 8 appears four times, and the

23. Occuring six times, the most frequent temperature other numbers of the set appear three times or

is 118. less. So, the mode is 8.

24. No; the mode is higher than most of the data. 39. High school: $33,184 $23,061 $10,123; some

25. See students’ work. college: $39,221 $27,757 $11,464; Bachelor’s

degree: $60,201 $41,747 $18,454; Doctoral

26. Occuring three times, the most frequent

degree: $81,687 $60,079 $21,608

magnitude was 7.5.

40. Sample answer: The highest median salaries are

27. Mean or median; both are centrally located and

earned by people whose highest level of education

the mode is too high.

is a bachelor’s degree.

28. The lowest value is 8, and the highest value is 40,

41. Sample answer: because the range in salaries is

so use a scale that includes those values. Place an

above each value for each occurrence.

often very great with extreme values on both the

high end and low end

42. Sample answer: They can be used in marketing or

sales to sell the most products to a specific group.

8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

Answers should include the following.

29. 7 of the 10 countries won fewer than 25 gold medals.

• a line plot showing the number of males with

30. When ordered from least to greatest, the fifth the names from the beginning of the lesson

value is 13 and the sixth is 14. So, the median is

13 14 • By finding out the most popular names, you can

or 13.5.

2 use the popular names on more of your items.

31. Sample answer: Yes; most of the data are near the

43. C;

median. 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.9 7.9 7.9 8.3 9.1 11

32. The greatest common place value is tens, so the mean 10

digits in the tens place are the stems. 82.1

10

Stem Leaf 8.21

1 688999 44. C; 7 of the 10 wingspans are less than 8 inches.

2 00000112334568889

9999

3 00001334467

4 37 1 06 16 Page 94 Maintain Your Skills

45. 56 (14) 4 46. 72 (12) 6

33. 22 of the 40 vehicles get more than 25 miles per

gallon. 47. 40.5 3 13.5 48. 102 6.8 15

34. Sample answer: Mean; the median is too high, 49. 2(6x) 5x 2(6)x 5x

and the modes are either too high or too low. 12x 5x

(12 5)x

35. The greatest common place value is tens, so the

17x

digits in the tens place are the stems.

50. 3x(7y) 4x(5y) 3(7)xy 4(5)xy

Stem Leaf

21xy 20xy

3 047 (21 20)xy

4 41xy

5 29

51. 5(3t 2t) 2(4t) 5(3t) 5(2t) 2(4t)

6 27

5(3)t 5(2)t 2(4)t

7 7

8 4 5 3 00 30

15t 10t 8t

(15 10 8)t

36. The interval that corresponds to the stem value 3 3t

has the most values. The interval is from 30 to 39.

52. x dollars

37. Every number in the set appears only once. So, d dollars plus per week for 12 weeks

there is no mode. 14243 123 14243 123 123

d x 12

or d 12x

53. y 3x 16 3.5 54. xz 3 5.9 3

16 15 45 3

1 15

Chapter 2 46

55. 2x x (y 4) 2 5 5 (16 4) 4. There are four 5s and 52 total cards.

2554 4

P(5) 52

10 5 4 1

54 13

9 1

The probability of selecting a 5 is 13 or about 8%.

2 2

x z 5 9 12 12 6

56. 2y

2 16

57. 18

18 6 5. There are two red 10s and 52 total cards.

25 9 2

2 16 3

2 P(red 10) 52

1

16

2 16 26

1

16

32 The probability of selecting a red 10 is 26 or

about 4%.

1

2 6. There are 16 odd numbered cards and 52 total cards.

54 54 6 21 21 3 16

58. 60

60 6 59. 30

30 3 P(odd number) 52

9 7 4

10 10 13

42 42 6 32 32 32

60. 48

48 6 61. 64

64 32 The probability of selecting an odd numbered card

4

7 1 is 13 or about 31%.

8 2

7. There is 1 way to pick the queen of hearts and

28 28 4 16 16 4

62. 52

52 4 63. 36

36 4 1 way to pick the jack of diamonds. So there are

7 4 1 1 or 2 ways to pick the queen of hearts or

13 9 jack of diamonds

84 84 6

64. 90

90 6 P(queen of hearts or jack of diamonds) 52

2

14

15 1

26

The probability of selecting the queen of hearts or

1

jack of diamonds is 26 or about 4%.

Page 95 Reading Mathematics 8. There are three numbers on the spinner that are

1. Sample answer: The data show the acreage and multiples of 3, and there are 10 – 3 or 7 numbers

number of visitors in thousands for selected state that are not multiples of 3.

parks and recreation areas in 1999. 3

odds of a multiple of 3 7

2. Sample answer: The footnote indicates that the

number of visitors includes those staying overnight. The odds of getting a multiple of 3 on the spinner

are 3:7.

3. The data is for 1999.

9. There are three even numbers less than 8 on the

4. The unit indicator is thousands.

spinner, and there are 10 3 or 7 numbers that

5. The table has the value 1016 in the row labeled are not even or not less than 8.

New York and the column labeled Acreage. 3

Therefore, New York has 1,016,000 acres. odds of an even number less than 8 7

6. The largest number in the column labeled Visitors The odds of getting an even number less than 8

is 76,736, which is in the row labeled California. on the spinner are 3:7.

Therefore, California had the greatest number of 10. There are seven numbers on the spinner that are

visitors with 76,736,000 visitors. odd or blue, and there are 10 7 or 3 numbers

that are even and not blue.

7

odds of an odd number or blue 3

2-6 Probability: Simple The odds of getting an odd number or blue on the

Probability and Odds spinner are 7:3.

11. There are six numbers on the spinner that are

Page 98 Check for Understanding red or yellow, and there are 10 6 or 4 numbers

1. Sample answers: impossible event: rolling a that are blue.

number greater than 6; certain event: rolling a odds of red or yellow 4

6

number from 1 to 6; equally likely event: rolling

an even number. The odds of getting a red or yellow number on the

3 spinner are 6:4.

2. The probability is 5 which means there are

3 favorable outcomes for every 5 3 or

2 unfavorable outcomes. Thus the odds are 3:2.

3. Doug; Mark determined the odds in favor of

picking a red card.

47 Chapter 2

12. The factors of 48 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 18. There are 70 100 80 or 250 coins with value

and 48, of which 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 48 are less than $1.00 and 300 total coins.

multiples of 4. There are 4 factors that are not a 250

P(value less than $1.00) 300

multiple of 4 and 10 total factors.

5

P(not a multiple of 4) 10

4 6

2 0.83

5

The probability of selecting a coin with value less

The probability of selecting a factor that is not a than $1.00 is 65 or about 83%.

2

multiple of 4 is 5 or 40%.

19. There are 80 50 or 130 coins with value greater

13. The factors of 48 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, than $0.10 and 300 total coins.

and 48, of which 12, 24, and 48 have both 4 and 6 130

as factors. There are 3 factors of 48 that have P(value greater than $0.10) 300

4 and 6 as two of their factors and 10 total factors 13

30

of 48.

3

0.43

P(has 4 and 6 as factors) 10 or 0.3

The probability selecting a coin with value greater

13

The probability of selecting a factor that has 4 than $0.10 is 30 or about 43%.

3

and 6 as two of its factors is 10 or 30%. 20. There are 80 50 or 130 coins with value at least

$0.25 and 300 total coins.

130

P(value at least $0.25) 300

Pages 99–101 Practice and Apply 13

14. There are 80 quarters and 300 total coins. 30

P(quarter) 300

80 0.43

4 The probability of selecting a coin with value at

15 least $0.25 is 13

30

or about 43%.

0.27 21. There are 70 100 80 50 or 300 coins with

4

The probability of selecting a quarter is 15 or value at most $1.00 and 300 total coins.

about 27%. 300

P(value at most $1.00) 300

15. There are 100 dimes and 300 total coins.

100

1

P(dime) 300

The probability of selecting a coin with value at

1

3 most $1.00 is 1 or 100%.

0.33 22. There are 15 ways for the sum of two dice to be

1 less than 7 and 36 total outcomes.

The probability of selecting a dime is 3 or about 33%. 15

P(sum less than 7) 36

16. There are 70 ways to pick a nickel and 50 ways to

5

pick a dollar. So there are 70 50 or 120 ways to 12

pick a nickel or a dollar and 300 total coins.

0.42

120

P(nickel or dollar) 300 5

The probability of the sum being less than 7 is 12

5

2 or about 42%.

23. There are 21 ways for the sum of two dice to be

0.40

less than 8 and 36 total outcomes.

The probability of selecting a nickel or a dollar is 21

2

or 40%. P(sum less than 8) 36

5

7

17. There are 80 ways to pick a quarter and 70 ways 12

to pick a nickel. So there are 80 70 or 150 ways

0.58

to pick a quarter or a nickel and 300 total coins. 7

150

The probability of the sum being less than 8 is 12

P(quarter or nickel) 300 or about 58%.

1

2 or 0.5 24. There are 0 ways for the sum of two dice to be

greater than 12 and 36 total outcomes.

The probability of selecting a quarter or a nickel

0

1

is 2 or 50%. P(sum is greater than 12) 36

0

The probability of the sum being greater than 12

is 0 or 0%.

Chapter 2 48

25. There are 36 ways for the sum of two dice to be 33. There are 3 polygons that have more than one

greater than 1 and 36 total outcomes. right angle and 6 total polygons.

36 3

P(sum is greater than 1) 36 P(more than one right angle) 6

1 1

2 or 0.5

The probability of the sum being greater than 1 is The probability of selecting a polygon that has

1 or 100%. more than one right angle is 1 or 50%.

2

26. There are 20 ways for the sum of two dice to be 34. There is one day in April that is the 29th and 30

between 5 and 10 and 36 total outcomes. total days in April. The probability that the

20 1

P(sum is between 5 and 10) 36 person’s birthday is the 29th is 30 or about 3%.

9

5 35. There are 15 days in July after the 16th and 31

total days in July. The probability that the

0.56 15

person’s birthday is after the 16th is 31 or

The probability of the sum being between 5 and about 48%.

5

10 is 9 or about 56%. 36. There are three as in the name, and there are

27. There are 25 ways for the sum of two dice to be 24 3 or 21 letters that are not an a.

between 2 and 9 and 36 total outcomes. odds of an a 21

3

25

P(sum is between 2 and 9) 1

36 7

0.69

The odds of selecting an a from the name are 1:7.

The probability of the sum being between 2 and 9

25 37. There are four ts in the name and there are

is 36 or about 69%.

24 4 or 20 letters that are not a t.

28. There are 3 triangles and 6 total polygons. 4 1

3 odds of a t 20 or

P(triangle) 6 5

1

The odds of selecting a t from the name are 1:5.

2 or 0.5 38. There are eleven vowels in the name and there

1

The probability of selecting a triangle is 2 or 50%. are 24 11 or 13 consonants.

11

29. There is 1 pentagon and 6 total polygons. odds of a vowel 13

1

P(pentagon) 6 The odds of selecting a vowel from the name are

0.17 11:13.

1

The probability of selecting a pentagon is 6 or 39. There are thirteen consonants in the name and

about 17%. there are 24 13 or 11 vowels.

13

30. There are 3 polygons that are not triangles and 6 odds of a consonant 11

total polygons. The odds of selecting a consonant from the name

3

P(not a triangle) 6 are 13:11.

1 40. There are four uppercase letters in the name and

2 or 0.5

there are 24 4 or 20 lowercase letters.

The probability of selecting a polygon that is not a 4 1

1 odds of an uppercase letter 20 or 5

triangle is 2 or 50%.

31. There are 4 polygons that are not quadrilaterals The odds of selecting an uppercase letter from the

and 6 total polygons. name are 1:5.

4 41. There are nine lowercase vowels in the name and

P(not a quadrilateral) 6

there are 24 9 or 15 letters that are not

2

3 lowercase vowels.

9 3

0.67 odds of a lowercase vowel 15 or 5

The probability of selecting a polygon that is not a The odds of selecting a lowercase vowel from the

2

quadrilateral is 3 or about 67%. name are 3:5.

32. There are 3 polygons that have more than three 42. There are five stamps from Canada and there are

sides and 6 total polygons. 32 5 or 27 stamps that are not from Canada.

3

P(more than three sides) 6 odds of being from Canada 27

5

1

2 or 0.5 The odds the stamp is from Canada are 5:27.

The probability of selecting a polygon that has 43. There are twelve stamps from Mexico and there

1

more than three sides is 2 or 50%. are 32 12 or 20 stamps that are not from Mexico.

12 3

odds of being from Mexico 20 or 5

The odds the stamp is from Mexico are 3:5.

49 Chapter 2

44. There are 32 3 or 29 stamps not from France 52. 100 40 25(100 2 25)

and there are 3 stamps from France. 100 40 25(100 50)

29 100 40 25(50)

odds of not being from France 3 4000 1250

The odds the stamp is not from France are 29:3. 5250

45. There are 3 8 1 3 or 15 stamps not from a 2 252 100 35 2 625 100 35

North American country and there are 32 – 15 or 1250 3500

17 stamps from a North American Country. 4750

odds of not being from a North American The area of the region not shaded is 5250 cm2,

15

country 17 and the area of the shaded region is 4750 cm2.

5250

The odds the stamp is not from a North American odds against shaded region 4750

country are 15:17. 21

19

46. There are 3 1 or 4 stamps from Germany or

Russia and there are 32 4 or 28 stamps not The odds against placing a piece on a shaded

from Germany or Russia. region are 21:19.

4 1

odds of being from Germany or Russia 28 or 7 53. 100 35 3500

100(40 25) 100 65

The odds the stamp is from Germany or Russia 6500

are 1:7.

The area of the green rectangle is 3500 cm2, and

47. There are 5 8 or 13 stamps from Canada or the area outside the green rectangle is 6500 cm2.

Great Britain and there are 32 13 or 19 stamps 3500

not from Canada or Great Britain. odds of green rectangle 6500

13 7

odds of being from Canada or Great Britain 19 13

The odds the stamp is from Canada or Great The odds of a piece being placed within the green

Britain are 13:19. rectangle are 7:13.

3

48. The probability that it will occur is 7, so the 54. There are 24 players who hit more than 35 home

runs and 46 total players.

probability that it will not occur is 74.

24

3 4 P(more than 35) 46

odds it occurs 7 : 7 or 3:4

12

The odds that the event will occur are 3:4. 23

2 0.52

1 The probability of selecting a player who hit more

probability that it will not occur is 3. 12

than 35 home runs is 23 or about 52%.

1 2

odds against it occuring 3 : 3 or 1:2. 55. There are forty-two players who hit less than

The odds that the event will not occur are 1:2. 45 home runs and there are 46 42 or 4 players

50. There are four cards from the coworkers in the who hit 45 or more.

42

bowl and there are 80 4 or 76 cards not from odds of less than 45 4

the coworkers. 21

4

2

odds a coworker wins 76

The odds of selecting a player who hit less than

1

19 45 home runs are 21:2.

The odds one of the coworkers will win are 1:19. 56. The number of home runs is 38 and the total

51. 2 252 100 35 2 625 100 35 number of bats is 439.

38

1250 3500 P(home run) 439

4750 0.09

100(35 40 25) 100(100)

The probability the player hits a home run the

10,000 38

next time the player bats is 439 or about 9%.

The area of the shaded region is 4750 cm2, and

57. There is one winning game card and 1,000,000

the total area is 10,000 cm2.

4750

nonwinning game cards, so there is one winning

P(shaded region) 10,000 card and a total of 1,000,001 cards.

19 1

40 or 0.475 P(grand prize) 1,000,001

The probability the piece is placed on a shaded 0.000001

19

region is 40 or 47.5%. The probability of selecting the winning game

1

card is 1,000,001 or about 0.0001%.

58. No; even with 100 game cards the odds of winning

are only 100:999,901. It would require several

hundred thousand cards to significantly increase

the odds of winning.

Chapter 2 50

59. There are 6 ways for a head to appear on at least 68. 12.2 7.8 ( 012.2 0 07.8 0 )

one of them and 7 total possible outcomes. (12.2 7.8)

4.4

1 32 1 32

6

P(at least one head) 7

1 2

0.86 69. 4 8 8 8

1 0 8 0 0 8 0 2

6

The probability of at least one head is 7 or 2 3

18 8 2

about 86%.

2 3

60. Sample answer: Probabilities are often used for

strategy like placing a certain pitcher against a 5

8

1 52 1 2

batter who has a low probability of hitting a pitch

7 7 10

from that pitcher. Answers should include the 70. 6 12 12

1 0 10 0 0 127 0 2

12

following.

• baseball: using the probability that a team can 12

1 12 12 2

get base runners out; basketball: the 10 7

probability that a player can make a basket

3

from a certain place on the court; auto racing: 12

the probability that a set of tires will hold out 1

4

for the remainder of a race

• Odds in favor of an event and odds against an 71. 4.25 is four and twenty-five hundredths units

event are frequently used. from zero in the positive direction.

13

61. B; The probability the event will not occur is 25. 04.25 0 4.25

13 12 72. 8.4 is eight and four tenths units from zero in

odds against occurring 25 : 25

the negative direction.

13:12 08.4 0 8.4

62. D; There are 12 numbers that satisfy the 2

73. 3 is two-thirds unit from zero in the negative

inequality and 15 total numbers.

0 23 0 23

12

direction.

P(satisfy inequality) 15

4

5

or 80% 1

74. 6

is one-sixth unit from zero in the positive

0 16 0 16

direction.

63. The greatest common place value is tens, so the 75. 62 6 6 76. 172 17 17

digits in the tens place are the stems. 36 289

Stem Leaf 77. (8)2 (8)(8) 78. (11.5)2 (11.5)(11.5)

64 132.25

1125 22 125 125

5 8.3

6 4.3 5.1 5.5 6.7 7.0 8.7 9.3 79. 1.62 1.6 1.6 80.

7 0.0 2.8 3.2 5.8 7.4 7.4 2.56

5 0 8.3 58.3

25

144

64. b c 5 2

2 1

65. 2a b 2 3 5 1 12 2

1 2

81. 49 2 49 49 1 21 2 82. 16

15 1 2

2 16 16

15 15 1 21 2

2 2 2 2 16 256 31

5

1 3 5 81

225

or 1225

4 2 5

5

3 2

10

6

Page 101 Practice Quiz 2

1 32 1 82

5 2

3 or 13 1. 136 (8) 17 2. 15 8 15 3

1 2

ab

3 5 3

120

66.

c 1 40

2

3a 9

3. (46.8) 4 11.7 4. (3a 9) 3

113 2

1 2 1

3 5 2 3

(3a 9)

3a 1 3 2 9 1 3 2

2 1

15 2

1 1

2 2

15 1

4 1a 3

15 a3

67. 4.3 (8.2) ( 08.2 0 04.3 0 )

(8.2 4.3)

3.9

51 Chapter 2

4x 32 2. 3 boys, 2 boys, 1 boy,

5. (4x 32) 4

114 2

4

4 boys 1 girl 2 girls 3 girls 4 girls

(4x 32) BBBB BBBG BBGG BGGG GGGG

4x 1 4 2 32 1 4 2

1 1 BBGB BGBG GBGG

BGBB BGGB GGBG

1x 8 GBBB GBBG GGGB

x8 GBGB

15n 20 GGBB

6. (15n 20) (5)

1 12

5

15n 1 5 2 20 1 5 2

4 possibilities for a two-child family, 8 possibilities

1 1

for a three-child family, and 16 possibilities for a

four-child family. Following the pattern, there

3n (4)

should be 32 possibilities for a five-child family

3n 4

and 64 possibilities for a six-child family. The

7. The lowest value is 0.4, and the highest value is pattern represents powers of 2.

5.0, so use a scale that includes those values.

4. There are 3 ways to have 2 boys and 1 girl and

Sample answer: scale from 0 to 5 Place an 8 total outcomes. Therefore, the probability of

above each value for each occurrence. having 2 boys and 1 girl in a three-child family is

3

8

or 37.5%.

5. There are 6 ways to have 2 boys and 2 girls and

0 1 2 3 4 5 16 total outcomes. Therefore, the probability of

8. There are 3 ways for the sum of two dice to be 10 having 2 boys and 2 girls in a four-child family is

6 3

and 36 total outcomes. 16

8 or 37.5%.

3 6. Sample answer: Each number in each row shows

P(sum of 10) 36

1

the number of ways to have boys and girls for a

12 given number of children.

0.08 7. The fifth row labeled Row 4 represents a four-

1 child family. The second number from the right is

The probability of the sum being 10 is 12 or

about 8%. 4 and represents how many ways to have 3 girls

9. There are 26 ways for the sum of two dice to be and 1 boy. There are 1 4 6 4 1 or 16 total

greater than or equal to 6 and 36 total outcomes. outcomes. Therefore, the probability of having

26

1 boy in a four-child family is 4 1 or 25%.

P(sum 6) 36 16 4

13

18

0.72 2-7 Square Roots and Real Numbers

The probability of the sum being greater than or

equal to 6 is 13

18

or about 72%.

10. There are 30 ways for the sum of two dice to be Page 107 Check for Understanding

less than 10 and 36 total outcomes. 1. Sometimes; the square root of a number can be

30 negative, such as 4 and 4, which are both

P(sum 10) 36 square roots of 16.

5

6 2. Rational numbers are numbers that, when

0.83 written as decimals, terminate or repeat.

5 Irrational numbers do not terminate nor do they

The probability of the sum being less than 10 is 6 repeat. Sample answer:

or about 83%.

Rational numbers: 0.5, 0.125, 0.3;

Irrational numbers: 22, 23,

Page 102 Algebra Activity 3. There is no real number that can be multiplied by

itself to result in a negative product.

(Follow-Up of Lesson 2–6)

1. There are 2 more possibilities for 2 boys, 1 girl 4. 225 represents the negative square root of 25.

and 2 more possibilities for 1 boy, 2 girls. 25 52 S 225 5

2 boys, 1 boy, 5. 21.44 represents the positive square root of 1.44.

3 boys 1 girl 2 girls 3 girls

1.44 1.22 S 21.44 1.2

BBB BBG BGG GGG

BGB GBG

GBB GGB

Chapter 2 52

16 18. Write each number as a decimal.

6. ; 3 49 represents the positive and negative square

roots of

16

. 230 5.477225575 . . . or about 5.48

49 4

16 59 5.444444444 . . . or about 5.44

49

13 13.0

16 4

;3 49

; 7

1

0.1825741858 . . . or about 0.18

230

7. 232 represents the positive square root of 32. 0.18 6 5.44 6 5.48 6 13.0

32 5.662 S 232 5.66 The numbers arranged in order from least to

1 4

8. Because 264 8, this number is an integer greatest are 30, 59, 230, 13.

2

and a rational number. 1

19. C; Replace a in 2a 6 with 2.

2a

9. Because 8 and 3 are integers and 8 3 2.66666 . . . ? 1

is a repeating decimal, this number is a rational 22 6

22

number. 1.41 6 0.71

10. Because 228 5.29150262 . . . , which is not a

repeating or terminating decimal, this number is

irrational. Pages 107–109 Practice and Apply

56

11. Because 7 8, this number is a natural number, 20. 249 represents the positive square root of 49.

a whole number, an integer, and a rational number.

49 72 S 249 7

12.

6 5 4 3 2 21. 281 represents the positive square root of 81.

The heavy arrow indicates that all numbers to the 81 92 S 281 9

left of 3.5 are included in the graph. The circle at

3.5 indicates 3.5 is not included in the graph. 22. 25.29 represents the positive square root of 5.29.

13. 5.29 2.32 S 25.29 2.3

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

23. 26.25 represents the positive square root of 6.25.

The heavy arrow indicates that all points to the

6.25 2.52 S 26.25 2.5

right of 7 are included in the graph. The dot at

7 indicates that 7 is included in the graph. 24. 278 represents the negative square root of 78.

14. You can use a calculator to find an approximation

1

78 8.832 S 278 8.83

for 3.

1

25. 294 represents the negative square root of 94.

0.333333 . . .

3

94 9.702 S 294 9.70

1

Therefore, 0.3 6 3

. 36

26. ; 3 81 represents the positive and negative square

15. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 36

2 roots of .

for 9. 81

36

2

0.222222 . . . 81

9

0.2 0.222222 . . . 36 6

; 3 81 ; 9

2

Therefore, 0.2. 2

9 ;3

16. You can use a calculator to find approximations

1

for 6 and 26. 100

27. ; 3 196 represents the positive and negative

1 100

0.166666 . . . square roots of .

6 196

26 2.449489743 . . . 100

100

196 196

1

Therefore, 6

6 26.

100 10

; 3 196 ; 14

17. Write each number as a decimal.

5

1

0.125 ;7

8

1 9 9

3 8

0.3535533906 . . . or about 0.35 28. 3 14 represents the positive square root of 14.

0.15 0.15151515 . . . or about 0.15 9 9

0.802 S 3 14 0.80

14

15 15.0

25 25

15.0 6 0.125 6 0.15 6 0.35 29. 3 42 represents the positive square root of 42.

The numbers arranged in order from least to 25 25

0.772 S 3 42 0.77

1 1 42

greatest are 15, 8, 0.15, 3 8.

53 Chapter 2

30. ; 2820 represents the positive and negative 49. Because
3.141592654 . . . , which is not a

square roots of 820. repeating or terminating decimal, this number is

820 28.642 and 820 (28.64)2 irrational.

d

; 2820 ; 28.64 50. Replace d in 3 16 with 28.

31. ; 2513 represents the positive and negative 28

square roots of 513. 3 16 1.32

The ball would take 1.32 s to reach the ground.

513 22.652 and 513 (22.65)2 3

51. Replace d in 224d with 434.

; 2513 ; 22.65

3 24 1 43 4 2 21050 32.40

3

32. Because 222 4.69041576 . . . , which is not

a repeating or terminating decimal, this number

Jerome should not get a ticket. He was traveling

is irrational.

36

at about 32.4 mph.

33. Because 6 6, this number is a natural number, 52.

a whole number, an integer, and a rational number. 14 13121110 9 8 7 6

34. Because 1 and 3 are integers and 1 3 The heavy arrow indicates that all numbers to

0.333333 . . . is a repeating decimal, this number the right of 12 are included in the graph. The

is a rational number. circle at 12 indicates that 12 is not included in

35. Because 5 and 12 are integers and (5 12) the graph.

0.416666 . . . is a repeating decimal, this 53.

number is a rational number. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

82

36. Because 3 2.024845673 . . . , which is not a

20

The heavy arrow indicates that all points to the

repeating or terminating decimal, this number is left of 8 are included in the graph. The dot at

irrational. 8 indicates that 8 is included in the graph.

37. Because 246 6.782329983 . . . , which is 54.

10 9

not a repeating or terminating decimal, this

number is irrational. The heavy arrow indicates that all points to the

38. Because 210.24 3.2, which is a terminating right of 10.2 are included in the graph. The dot

decimal, this number is a rational number. at 10.2 indicates that 10.2 is included in the

graph.

39. Because 54 and 19 are integers and 54 19

55.

2.8421052631579 is a terminating decimal, this 2 1 0

number is a rational number.

The heavy arrow indicates that all numbers to

40. Because 3 and 4 are integers and (3 4) the left of 0.25 are included in the graph. The

0.75 is a terminating decimal, this number is a circle at 0.25 indicates 0.25 is not included in

rational number. the graph.

41. Because 220.25 4.5, which is a terminating 56.

decimal, this number is a rational number. 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

18

42. Because 3 6, this number is a natural number, The heavy arrows indicate that all numbers to

a whole number, an integer, and a rational the right and left of 2 are included in the graph.

number. The circle at 2 indicates that 2 is not included

43. Because 22.4025 1.55, which is a terminating in the graph.

decimal, this number is a rational number. 57.

8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8

44. Because 68 and 35 are integers and 68 35

1.9428571428571 is a terminating decimal, this The heavy line and arrows indicate that all numbers

number is a rational number. to the right and left of 6 and 6 are included in the

45. Because 6 and 11 are integers and graph. The circles at 6 and 6 indicate that 6 and

6 11 0.54545454 . . . is a repeating decimal, 6 are not included in the graph.

this number is a rational number. 58. You can use a calculator to find an approximation

46. Because 25.5696 2.36, which is a terminating for 15.

decimal, this number is a rational number. 25 2.23606797 . . .

78

47. Because 3 42 1.36277028 . . . , which is not a 5.72 5.727272 . . .

repeating or terminating decimal, this number is Therefore, 5.72 7 25.

irrational. 59. You can use a calculator to find an approximation

48. Because 29.16 3.02654919 . . . , which is for 18.

not a repeating or terminating decimal, this 18 2.82842712 . . .

number is irrational. 2.63 2.636363 . . .

Therefore, 2.63 6 28.

Chapter 2 54

60. You can use a calculator to find approximations for 67. Write each number as a decimal.

1 1

7

and . 4.83 4.83838383 . . . or about 4.84

27

1 0.4

7

0.142857142 . . . 28

2.82842712 . . . or about 2.83

1 3

27

0.37796447 . . . 8 0.375

Therefore,

1

6

1

. 4.84 6 0.375 6 0.4 6 2.83

7 27

The numbers arranged in order from least to

61. You can use a calculator to find approximations for 3

greatest are 4.83, 8, 0.4, 18.

2 2

3

and . 23 68. Write each number as a decimal.

2

0.666666 . . .

3 165 8.06225774 . . . or about 8.06

2 2

23

1.15470053 . . . 65 6.4

Therefore,

2

6

2

. 127 5.19615242 . . . or about 5.20

3 23

8.06 6 6.4 6 5.20

62. You can use a calculator to find approximations

The numbers arranged in order from least to

and 131

1 2

for . greatest are 165, 65, 127.

231 31

1

231

0.17960530 . . . 69. Write each number as a decimal.

231 2122 11.0453610 . . . or about 11.05

0.17960530 . . . 4

31

79 7.444444 . . . or about 7.44

1 131

Therefore, .

131 31 2200 14.1421356 . . . or about 14.14

63. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 7.44 6 11.05 6 14.14

12

for 2 . The numbers arranged in order from least to

4

22 greatest are 79, 1122, 1200.

2

0.707106781 . . .

1 70. Replace h in 1.41h with 1500.

0.5

2 1.421500 1.4 38.73

Therefore,

22

7 2.

1 54.222

2

64. Write each number as a decimal. The tourists can see about 54.2 miles.

20.42 0.648074069 . . . or about 0.648 71. Replace h in 1.41h with 135.

0.63 0.63636363 . . . or about 0.636 1.4 2135 1.4 11.62

14 16.268

3

0.66666666 . . . or about 0.667

Replace h in 1.41h with 85.

0.636 6 0.648 6 0.667

1.4185 1.4 9.22

The numbers arranged in order from least to

14 12.908

greatest are 0.63, 10.42, 3 .

Marissa can see about 16.268 12.908 3.36 or

65. Write each number as a decimal. about 3.4 miles farther than Dillan.

10.06 0.244948974 . . . or about 0.245 72. Replace h in 1.41h with 120.

0.24 0.24242424 . . . or about 0.242 1.41120 1.4 10.95

19

12

0.25 15.33

0.242 6 0.245 6 0.25 The lighthouse keeper cannot see the boat. The

lighthouse keeper can only see about 15.3 miles.

The numbers arranged in order from least to

19 73. They are true if q and r are positive and q 7 r.

greatest are 0.24, 10.06, 12 .

66. Write each number as a decimal.

1.46 1.46464646 . . . or about 1.46

0.2

12

1.41421356 . . . or about 1.41

1

6 0.1666666 . . . or about 0.17

1.46 6 0.17 6 0.2 6 1.41

The numbers arranged in order from least to

1

greatest are 1.46, 6, 0.2, 12.

55 Chapter 2

74. The area of a square is given by A s2 where s is 81. There are 20 even numbers in a deck of cards,

the side length. If A s2 then 1A s. To find and there are 52 20 or 32 cards that are not

the side lengths, find the square root of the area. even numbers.

20

1 12 S 21 1 odds of an even number 32

4 22 S 24 2 8

5

16 42 S 216 4 of cards are 5:8.

25 52 S 225 5 82. There are 12 face cards in a deck of cards, and

The perimeter of a square is 4 times the side 52 12 or 40 cards that are not face cards.

length. To find the perimeter of each square, odds against a face card 12

40

multiply each of the side lengths by 4. 10

414 3

428 The odds against selecting a face card from a deck

4 3 12 of cards are 10:3.

4 4 16 83. There are four aces in a deck of cards, and 52 4

4 5 20 or 48 cards that are not aces.

Squares 48

odds against an ace 4

Area (Units2 ) Side Length Perimeter

12

1

1 1 4

The odds against selecting an ace from a deck of

4 2 8 cards are 12:1.

9 3 12 84. Sample answer: Mean; the median and mode are

16 4 16 too low.

25 5 20 85. 4(7) 3 (11) 28 33

75. The length of the side is the square root of the area. 28 (33)

( 028 0 033 0 )

76. The perimeter of a square is 4 times the side

(28 33)

length. The side length of a square is the square

61

root of the area. Therefore, the perimeter of a

square is 4 times the square root of the area. For 86. 3(4) 2(7) 12 (14)

a square whose area is a units2, the perimeter is ( 012 0 014 0 )

41a units. (12 14)

26

77. Sample answer: By using the formula Surface

height weight 87. 1.2(4x 5y) 0.2(1.5x 8y)

Area 3 3600

, you need to use square 1.2(4x) 1.2(5y) 0.2(1.5x) 0.2(8y)

roots to calculate the quantity. Answers should 1.2(4)x 1.2(5)y 0.2(1.5)x 0.2(8)y

include the following. 4.8x 6y (0.3)x 1.6y

• You must multiply height by weight first. 4.8x 6y 0.3x 1.6y

Divide that product by 3600. Then determine 4.8x 0.3x 6y 1.6y

the square root of that result. (4.8 0.3)x (6 1.6)y

• Sample answers: exposure to radiation or 5.1x 7.6y

chemicals; heat loss; scuba suits 88. 4x(y 2z) x(6z 3y)

• Sample answers: determining height, distance 4x(y) 4x(2z) x(6z) x(3y)

78. B; 27 4(1)xy 4(2)xz 1(6)xz 1(3)xy

79. B; Write each number as a decimal. 4xy (8)xz 6xz (3)xy

3

4xy 8xz 6xz 3xy

6 0.5 4xy 3xy 8xz 6xz

6

3 2 (4 3)xy (8 6)xz

7xy 14xz

0.5 7 2 ✓

Page 109 Maintain Your Skills

80. There are two red 4s in a deck of cards, and there

Page 110 Vocabulary and Concept Check

are 52 2 or 50 cards that are not a red 4.

1. true; 26 is twenty-six units from zero in the

2

odds of a red 4 50 negative direction.

1 2. true; definition of a rational number

25

3. true; 2144 represents the principal square root

The odds of selecting a red 4 from a deck of cards

of 144.

are 1:25.

144 122 S 2144 12

Chapter 2 56

4. false; Because 2576 24, this number is an 22. 2 10 2 (10)

integer and a rational number. ( 02 0 010 0 )

(2 10)

5. true; 152 225

12

6. false; sample answer: 3

23. 9 (7) 9 (7)

7. false; sample answer: 0.6 or 0.666 . . . 97

8. true; key concept of multiplication 16

24. 1.25 0.18 1.07

25. 7.7 (5.2) 7.7 (5.2)

Pages 110–114 Lesson-by-Lesson Review 7.7 5.2

9. ( 07.7 0 05.2 0 )

4 32 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (7.7 5.2)

10. 2.5

1 12 1 12

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 9

26. 2

2 2 2

11.

9 1

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 22

12. 32 0y 3 0 32 08 3 0 10

32 05 0 2

5

1 2 243 11624 2

32 5

27 27.

1

8

2

3

13. 3 0x 0 7 3 04 0 7

24 1 24 2

3 16

34 7

12 7 24 24

3 16

1 0 1624 0 0 243 0 2

5

14. 4 0z 0 4 09 0

1 24 24 2

49 16 3

13

15. 46 y 0x 0 46 8 04 0

13

24

46 8 # 4 28. (11)(9) 99 29. 12(3) 36

46 32

30. 8.2(4.5) 36.9 31. 2.4(3.6) 8.64

1 1 21 2

14

16. 4 (4) ( 04 0 04 0 )

3 7 21 9 9

32. 4

12 48 33. 3 10 30

(4 4) 7

16

3

10

0

34. 8(3x) 12x 8(3)x 12x

17. 2 (7) ( 07 0 02 0 )

24x 12x

(7 2)

(24 12)x

5

12x

18. 0.8 (1.2) ( 00.8 0 01.2 0 )

35. 5(2n) 9n 5(2)n 9n

(0.8 1.2)

10n 9n

2

(10 9)n

19. 3.9 2.5 ( 03.9 0 02.5 0 ) 1n

(3.9 2.5) n

1.4

1 12 1 12

36. 4(6a) (3)(7a) 4(6)a (3)(7)a

1 2

20. 4 8 8 8 24a 21a

1 0 8 0 0 8 0 2

2 1

(24 21)a

45a

18 8 2

54

2 1 37. 6

54 6

8

3 9

1 12 1 22

74

5 5 38. 8 (74 8)

21. 3 6 6

1 0 6 0 0 6 0 2

6

9.25

5 2

39. 21.8 (2) 10.9

16 6 2

40. 7.8 (6) 1.3

134 2 15 43

5 2

3 41. 15

6

60

1

2 3

20

57 Chapter 2

21 1 21 3 52. There is 1 S and 12 total letters.

42. 24

3 24 1

1

63 P(S) 12

24

21 5 0.08

8

or 28 1

The probability of selecting an S is 12 or about 8%.

14 28x

43. (14 28x) (7)

1 12

7 53. There are 3 Es and 12 total letters.

(14 28x) 7 3

P(E) 12

14 1 7 2 28x 1 7 2

1

1 1

4 or 0.25

1

2 (4x) The probability of selecting an E is 4

or 25%.

2 4x 54. There are 10 letters that are not N and 12 total

5 25x

44. (5 25x) 5 letters.

115 2

5

10

(5 25x) P(not N) 12

5 1 5 2 25x 1 5 2

5

1 1 6

0.83

1 5x

4x 24y

The probability of selecting a letter that is not

45. (4x 24y) 4 N is 5 or about 83%.

114 2

4

6

(4x 24y) 55. There are 2 Rs and 1 P. So there are 2

4x 1 4 2 24y 1 4 2

1 or 3 letters that are R or P and 12 total letters.

1 1

3

P(R or P) 1

1x 6y 1

4 or 0.25

x 6y

1

46. xz 2y (4)(3) 2 (2.4) The probability of selecting an R or P is 4

or 25%.

12 4.8 56. There are 50 dimes, and there are 90 75 30

16.8

12yz 2 212 324 2

or 195 coins that are not a dime.

50

47. 2 odds of a dime 195

2 1 3 2

10

4.8 39

2(1.6) The odds of selecting a dime are 10:39.

3.2 57. There are 90 pennies, and there are 75 50 30

2x z 2(4) 3 or 155 coins that are not a penny.

48. 4

3y 4

3(2.4)

8 3 90

7.2 odds of a penny 155

4

11 18

4

7.2 31

2.75 7.2 The odds of selecting a penny are 18:31.

4.45 58. There are 90 50 30 or 170 coins that are not

49. The lowest value is 12, and the highest value is a nickel, and there are 75 nickels.

30, so use a scale that includes those values. 170

odds of not a nickel

Place an above each value for each occurance. 75

34

15

The odds of selecting a coin that is not a nickel

are 34:15.

59. There are 75 50 or 125 coins that are a nickel

5 10 15 20 25 30

or a dime, and there are 90 30 or 120 coins that

The greatest common place value is tens, so the are not a nickel or a dime.

digits in the tens place are the stems. 125

odds of a nickel or a dime 120

Stem Leaf 25

1 222344555566 24

77778899999 The odds of selecting a coin that is a nickel or a

2 01112668 dime are 25:24.

3 0 1 0 2 = 12 60. 2196 represents the positive square root of 196.

50. Sample answer: Mean; the median and mode are 196 142 S 2196 14

too low. 61. ;21.21 represents the positive and negative

51. Sample answer: Median; it is closest in value to square roots of 1.21.

most of the data.

1.21 1.12 and 1.21 (1.1)2

;21.21 ;1.1

Chapter 2 58

62. 2160 represents the negative square 4. 0x 0 38 02 0 38

root of 160. 2 38

40

160 12.652 S 2160 12.65

5. 34 0x 21 0 34 07 21 0

34 014 0

4

63. ; 3 225 represents the positive and negative

4

square roots of 225. 34 14

4

225

1152 22 and 2254 1152 22 20

6. 12 0x 8 0 12 01.5 8 0

12 06.5 0

4 2

; 3 225 ; 15

64. Because 16 and 25 are integers and 16 25 0.64 12 6.5

is a terminating decimal, this number is a rational 5.5

number. 7. 19 12 ( 019 0 012 0 )

264 (19 12)

65. Because 2 4, this number is a natural

7

number, a whole number, an integer, and a

rational number. 8. 21 (34) 21 (34)

21 34

66. Because 248.5 6.96419413 . . ., which is ( 034 0 021 0 )

not a repeating or terminating decimal, this (34 21)

number is irrational. 13

67. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 9. 16.4 (23.7) ( 023.7 0 016.4 0 )

for

1

. (23.7 16.4)

249

1 7.3

0.125

8 10. 6.32 (7.41) 6.32 (7.41)

1

0.142857142 . . . 6.32 7.41

249

1 1 13.73

Therefore, 8

6 .

249 7 3 7 6

11. 16 8 16 16

1 0 7 0 0 166 0 2

68. You can use a calculator to find approximations

2 4

for 3 3 and 9. 16

1 16 16 2

2 7 6

3 3 0.816496580 . . .

4 1

0.4444444 . . . 16

1 52 1 20 2

9

7 21

2 4 12. 12 9 36 36

Therefore, 33 7 9.

36 1 36 2

21 20

69. You can use a calculator to find approximations

3 1

for 3 4 and 3 3. 21 20

36 36

1 0 21 0 0 2036 0 2

3

3 0.866025403 p 36

1 36 36 2

4

1 21 20

3 3 0.577350269 p

1

3 1 36

Therefore, 34 7 3 3.

d3 13. 5(19) 95 14. 56 (7) 8

70. Replace d in 3 216 with 9. 15. 96 (0.8) 120 16. (7.8)(5.6) 43.68

3 216

93

729

3 216

1

17. 8 (5) 8 5

1

1 12 15 3 15

18. 32 4 32 3

4

1 60

27 40 96

38 5

1.84 8

The worst part of the hurricane will last about 19. 5(3x) 12x 5(3)x 12x

1.8 hours. 15x 12x

(15 12)x

27x

Chapter 2 Practice Test 20. 7(6h h) 7(6h) 7(h)

7(6)h 7h

Page 115 42h 7h

1. absolute value (42 7)h

2. rational 35h

3. sample space 21. 4m(7n) (3d)(4c) 4(7)mn 3(4)dc

28mn (12)dc

28mn 12cd

59 Chapter 2

22.

36k

36k 4 31. The lowest value is 58, and the highest value is

4

1

74, so use a scale that includes these values.

36k 4 Place an above each value for each occurance.

36 114 2k

9k

9a 27

23. (9a 27) (3)

1 12

3

58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74

(9a 27) 3

9a 1 3 2 27 1 3 2

32. Sample answer: The median and mode can be

1 1 used to best represent the data. The mean is too

high.

3a (9)

3a 9 33. B; There are 7 hard-rock songs and 8 7 5 or

70x 30y 20 total songs.

24. (70x 30y) (5)

1 2

5 7

P(hard-rock) 20 or 0.35

1

(70x 30y) 5

70x 1 2 30y 1 5 2

The probability a hard-rock song will be playing

11 7

5 is 20 or 35%.

14x (6y)

14x (6y)

14x 6y Chapter 2 Standardized Test Practice

25. 264 represents the negative square root of 64.

Pages 116–117

64 82 S 264 8 1. B; 518.4 (9 8) 518.4 72

26. 23.61 represents the positive square root of 3.61. 7.2

3.61 1.92 S 23.61 1.9 2. C; 20 in 10 minutes, 40 in 20 minutes, 60 in

16 30 minutes, 80 in 40 minutes. Extending the

27. ; 3 81 represents the positive and negative square

16

pattern would give 100 in 50 minutes and 120 in

roots of 81.

60 minutes.

16

3. C; The points on the number line show 1, 0, 1,

81

2, and 3.

4. D; 0 4 0 4

16 4

; 3 81 ; 9

04 0 4

28. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 07 0 7

09 0 9

1

for .

23

1 4 6 7 6 9

0.577350269 p

23

1

5. A; 3.8 4.7 ( 04.7 0 03.8 0 )

3

0.33333333 p (4.7 3.8)

Therefore,

1 1 0.9

23

7 3.

6. D; 3(2m) 7m 3(2)m 7m

29. You can use a calculator to find an approximation

6m 7m

1

for 3 2. (6 7)m

1

13m

3 2 0.7071067812 p

7. D; The least value is 3|1 31.

8

11

0.727272727 p 8. A; 1 box has a prize and 4 1 or 3 boxes do not

1 8

have a prize.

Therefore, 32 6 11

.

odds of choosing a prize 3

1

30. You can use a calculator to find approximations

23 The odds of choosing a prize are 1:3.

for 20.56 and 2 .

9. B; 210 3.16

20.56 0.748331477 p

10. The length of the label will be the circumference

23

2

0.866025403 p of the jar.

23 2 r 2(3.14)(4)

Therefore, 20.56 6 2

. 6.28(4)

25.12

The length of the label is 25.12 cm.

Chapter 2 60

5 1 4

11. 4 12 3 2

4 12 3 2

18. D; 49 72 and 49 (7)2 a could be 7 or 7.

4 19a. cost per number monthly

4 4 2 Total cost 1is minute 123

times 14243

of minutes 123

plus 14243

fee.

4 14243 23 14243

4 8 C m y x

4

12 or C my x

1 19b. For plan A, evaluate my x with m 0.3,

3

y 150, and x 5.95.

12. Replace m in 4m 3 9 with each value in the

my x 0.3 150 5.95

replacement set.

45 5.95

m 4m 3 9 True or False? 50.95

0 4 0 3 9 S 3 9 false For plan B, evaluate my x with m 0.1,

2 42 3 9S5 9 false y 150, and x 12.95.

3 43 3 9S9 9 true ✓ my x 0.1 150 12.95

5 4 5 3 9 S 17 9 false 15 12.95

27.95

The solution of 4m 3 9 is 3.

For plan C, evaluate my x with m 0.08,

13. three times the

y 150, and x 19.99.

2p plus difference

123 123 1444424443

of m and n

my x 0.08 150 19.99

2p 3 (m n) 12 19.99

or 2p 3(m n) 31.99

14. Hypothesis; 3x 3 7 24 Plan B is the least expensive.

15. C; x is x units from zero, and x is x units away 20a. Without a key, you cannot determine what the

from zero. values are.

0x 0 0x 0 20b. If the key is 3 02 3.2, then the data are ten

16. B; y 6 x times as great as they would be if the key is

1 1

y 6 x xy 3 02 0.32.

xy

1 1

x 6 y

1

17. A; n 7 1

1

nn 7 1n

1 7 n

61 Chapter 2

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 62 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

Page 119 Getting Started 16. The base is 300, and the part is 21. Let p

1. Greater than implies add, and half of implies represent the percent.

1 a p

multiply by 2. So, the expression can be written as b

100

1

2

t 5. 21

100

p

300

2. Product implies multiply, and divided by implies 21(100) 300p

divide. So, the expression can be written as 2100 300p

7s 8y. 2100 300p

3. Sum implies add, times implies multiply, and 300 300

square implies raise to the second power. So, the 7p

expression can be written as 3a b2. Twenty-one is 7% of 300.

4. Decreased by implies subtract, so the expression 17. The base is 5, and the part is 15. Let p represent

can be written as w5 37. the percent.

5. Times implies multiply, and subtracted from a

100

p

b

implies subtract. So, the expression can be 15 p

written as 95 9y. 5

100

6. Sum implies add, and divided by implies divide. 15(100) 5p

So, the expression can be written as (r 6) 12. 1500 5p

12 12 1500 5p

7. 3 6 4

18 4 5

5

18 3 300 p

15 Fifteen is 300% of 5.

8. 5(13 7) 22 5(6) 22 18. The base is 60, and the part is 12. Let p represent

30 22 the percent.

8 a p

100

9. 5(7 2) 32 5(5) 32 b

12 p

5(5) 9 60

100

25 9 12(100) 60p

16 1200 60p

2 6 4 12 4

10. 2

2

1200

60p

60 60

8

2 20 p

4 Twelve is 20% of 60.

11. (25 4) (22 1) 21 (4 1) 19. The base is 10, and the part is 16. Let p represent

21 3 the percent.

7 a

100

p

b

12. 36 4 2 3 9 2 3 16 p

73 10

100

10 16(100) 10p

13.

19 5

3

14

3 1600 10p

7 7

1600 10p

23 10

10

5 160 p

1 1

14. 4 (24) 2 (12) 6 6 Sixteen is 160% of 10.

0 20. The base is 50, and the part is 37.5. Let p

represent the percent.

15. The base is 20, and the part is 5. Let p represent

a p

the percent. b

100

a p 37.5 p

b

100 50

100

5

100

p 37.5(100) 50p

20

3750 50p

5(100) 20p 3750 50p

500 20p 50

50

500

20p 75 p

20 20

25 p Thirty-seven and one half is 75% of 50.

Five is 25% of 20.

Chapter 3 62

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 63 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

3-1 Writing Equations Five times m and n same as seven times n.

123 123 14243 1 424 3 123 123 {

5 (m n) 7 n

Page 122 Algebra Activity The equation is 5(m n) 7n.

1. The area of the front is the product of the length 6. Words: Area equals one half times the base

and the height or lh. times the height.

2. The area of the back is the product of the length Variables: Let A area, b base, and h height.

and the height or lh. one the the

Area

23 equals half

23 times base

23 times height.

3. The area of one side is the product of the width 1 123 1 123 1 123 123

1

and the height or wh. Formula: A 2

b h

4. The area of the other side is the product of the The formula for the area of a triangle is A 2 bh.

1

width and the height or wh.

7. Words: Circumference equals the product of

5. The area of the top is the product of the length

two, pi, and the radius.

and the width or lw.

Variables: Let C circumference and r radius.

6. The area of the bottom is the product of the

the product of two,

length and the width or lw. Circumference equals pi, and the radius.

1442443 123 144424443

7. The

1

surface area is

4444244

the sum of the areas of the faces.

443 { 1444444442444444443 Formula: C 2r

S lh lh wh wh lw lw

The formula for the circumference of a circle is

or S 2lh 2wh 2lw C 2r.

8. If s represents the length of the side of a cube, 8. 14 d 6d

then the surface area is given by S 2lh 2wh { { { { {

1 3

S 2lh 2wh 2lw 9. 3

b 4

2a

{ { { { {

2s s 2s s 2s s One-third of b minus three-fourths equals two times a.

2s2 2s2 2s2

10. Sample answer: The original cost of a suit is c.

6s2

After a $25 discount, the suit costs $150. What is

The surface area is given by S 6s2. the original cost of the suit?

11. Darius’ number of pounds

current weight plus he wants to gain equals 160.

14442444 3 123 144 442444 43 14243 123

Page 123 Check for Understanding 155 g 160

1. Explore the problem, plan the solution, solve the The equation is 155 g 160.

problem, and examine the solution. 12. 155 g 160

2a. Misae has $1900 in her account at the Find g mentally by asking, “What number added

beginning. to 155 equals 160?”

2b. money number g5

per week times of weeks

14243 123 14 243 Darius needs to gain 5 pounds to reach his goal.

30 10

30 . 10 300

money number Pages 124–126 Practice and Apply

per week times of weeks 13.

14243 123 14 243 Two

1444hundred

24443 minus

123 three

123 times

123 x

{

is equal to

14 424 43

nine.

123

30 20 200 3 x 9

30 . 20 600 The equation is 200 3x 9.

She will add $300 in 10 weeks and $600 in 14. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

20 weeks. Twice

1424 3r 12

plus three

3 1 23 1times

23 {s 1

is44244

identical to

3 thirteen.

1424 3

2c. money number 2r 3 s 13

per week times of weeks The equation is 2r 3s 13.

14243 123 14 243

30 w 15. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

or 30w One-third q 1 plus

1

4424 43 23 25 {

is44244

1 as much as3 twice

1

424 q.

3

2d. No; 1900 52(30) 3460, which is less than 1

3500. 3

q 25 2q

1

3. Sample answer: After sixteen people joined the The equation is 3

q 25 2q.

drama club, there were 30 members. How many 16. 14

The44244

square of m 123

minus the cube 43

of n is sixteen.

43 14 424 { 1 4243

members did the club have before the new 2 3

members? m n 16

4. 1Two The equation is m2 n3 16.

23 times

123 { t decreased

14 4244by 3 eight

123 equals

123 seventy.

14243

2 t 8 70

The equation is 2t 8 70.

63 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 64 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

17. the sum of is equal 26. Words: Volume equals the product of , the

Two times v and w 1 to43 1two

23 times z. square of the radius of the base, and

123 123 14243 42 123 {

2 (v w) 2 z the height.

The equation is 2(v w) 2z. Variables: Let V volume, r radius of base,

and h height.

18. the sum of is the

the square of the the

Half of nine and p same as p minus three.

123 { 14243 1424 3 { 123 123 Volume

1

424 123

3 equals times radius of the base times height.

{ 123 14 4424443 123 123

1

2

(9 p) p 3 Formula: V r h 2

1 The formula for the volume of a cylinder is

The equation is 2(9 p) p 3.

V r2h.

19. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

The divided the is the twice the

27. Words: The square of the measure of the

number g 1 by 3 number h same as sum of g and h plus seven. hypotenuse is the square of the

14243 424 14243 1424 3 1442443 123 123

g h 2(g h) 7 measure of one leg plus the square of

the measure of the other leg.

The equation is g h 2(g h) 7.

Variables: Let c measure of hypotenuse,

20. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

a measure of one leg, and

the square of the the square the square

Five-ninths times sum of a, b, and c equals of a plus of c. b measure of other leg.

14243 123 144424443 123 14243 123 14243

5

(a b c)2 a2 c2

Formula:

9

The square of the the square of the the square of the

5

The equation is 9(a b c)2 a2 c2. measure

144 of the hypotenuse

44424444 43 is measure

{1444244 of one43

leg 1

plus

23 measure of the other leg.

14444244443

21. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate. c2 a2 b2

144 42444 3 is

{ 1

46%

23 of Earth.

{ 123

P 0.46 E 28. Words: Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

is nine-fifths of the degrees Celsius

The equation is P 0.46E.

plus thirty-two.

22. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

Variables: Let F degrees Fahrenheit and

The cost number C degrees Celsius.

per yard times of yards plus 3.50 equals 73.50.

14243 123 1 424 31 23 1 23 123 123 Temperature in the degrees

degrees Fahrenheit is nine-fifths of Celsius plus thirty-two.

1.75 f 3.50 73.50 144424443 { 14243 { 14243 123 14243

9

The equation is 1.75f 3.50 73.50. Formula: F 5

C 32.

23. Words: Area is the base times the height. The formula for temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

9

Variables: Let A area, b base, and h is F 5C 32.

height.

29. {

d

{

14

{

{

5

{

Area

123 is{ 1

the

424base

3 1times the height.

23 14243 d minus fourteen equals five.

Formula: A b h

30. 2f

{

{ {

6

{

19

{

The formula for the area of a parallelogram is

A bh. Two times f plus six equals nineteen.

31. k2 17 53 j

24. Words: Volume is one-third times the { { { { { { {

product of the area of the base and k squared plus seventeen equals fifty-three minus j.

its height. 32. 2a

{

{

7a

{

{ {

b

Variables: Let V volume, B area of base, Two times a equals seven times a minus b.

and h height. 3 1

33. 4

p 2

p

the product of the area { { { { {

Volume is one-third

14243 times

123 of the44424444

base and its height. Three-fourths of p plus one-half equals p.

123 { 144 43

1

Formula: V 3

(B h) 34. 2

w 1

w 3

5{ { 2{ { {

The formula for the volume of a pyramid is

1

Two-fifths times w equals one-half times w plus three.

V 3Bh.

35. 7(m

1424 n)

3

{ 110n

23

{

17

{

25. Words: Perimeter is twice the sum of the Seven times equals ten plus seventeen.

lengths of the two adjacent sides. the sum of m and n times n

Variables: Let P perimeter, a one side, and 36. 4(t s) 5s 12

b an adjacent side. 123 { { { {

Four times the equals five times s plus twelve.

Perimeter is two times of the two adjacent sides. quantity t minus s

14243 { 123 123 144 44424444 43

Formula: P 2 (a b)

The formula for the perimeter of a parallelogram

is P 2(a b).

Chapter 3 64

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 65 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

37. A 2h (a b)

a sphere.

The area A of a trapezoid equals one-half times the radius

the product of the height h and the sum of the of the

The four- sphere

bases, a and b. Volume is thirds times times cubed.

1

424 3 { 123 123 { 123 14243

38. rt d

4

r3

{ { { V 3

Rate times time equals distance. 4

Solve: V 3

r3

39. Sample answer: Lindsey is 7 inches taller than 4

Yolanda. If 2 times Yolanda’s height plus 3

(4)3

Lindsey’s height equals 193 inches, find Yolanda’s

4

(64)

3

height.

4

40. Sample answer: The price of a new backpack is p 3

(64)

dollars and the tax on the backpack is 0.055p. If 256

3

the total cost of the backpack and the tax is

268.1

$31.65, what is the price of the backpack?

Examine: The volume of a sphere with r 4

41. Words: Volume equals one-third times the

is about 268 in3.

product of , the square of the

radius of the base, and the height. 45. Rewrite the phrase so it is easier to translate.

Variables: Let V volume, r radius of base, the number of years

and h height. The year Tarzan before the town was

was first published plus named Tarzana

Formula: 144424443 123 144424443

the square of the the 1912 y

Volume equals one-third times times radius of the base times height. The expression is 1912 y.

1424 3 123 14243 123 { 123 14444244443 123 123

1

V 3

r2 h 46. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

1

The formula for the volume of a cone is V 3 r2h. The year Tarzan the number of years before the year the

was published plus the town was renamed equals town was renamed.

14442444 3 123 1444442444443 123 144424443

42. Explore: You know the formula for the volume 1912 y 1928

of a cone. You need to evaluate the

The equation is 1912 y 1928.

formula with r 10 and h 30.

47. 1912 y 1928

Plan: Write the formula for the volume of a

Ask yourself, “What number added to 1912 equals

cone.

1928?”

the product of

y 16

, the square

The volume equals 1

one-third times 14of 424

r, and43

h. There were 16 years between the first Tarzan

144244 3 123 4243 123 story and the naming of the town.

1

V 3

(r2h) 48. Rewrite the phrase so it is easier to translate.

1

Solve: V 3r2h the advertising

1 Four

123 times

1 portion

23 1442443 plus

123 15

3 (10)2(30) {

4 a 15

1

3 (100)(30) The expression is 4a 15.

1

3 (100)(30) 49. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.

11003 2(30) The advertising

portion plus

15 more than 4 times

14444244443 is {

60.

a (4a 15) 60

3141.6

The equation is a (4a 15) 60.

Examine: The volume of a cone with r 10 and

h 30 is about 3142 cm3. 50. Find the solution for a (4a 15) 60. Start by

letting a 10 and then adjust values up or down

43. Words: Volume is four-thirds times times

as needed.

the radius of the sphere cubed.

Variables: Let V volume and r radius of a a (4a 15) 60 Reasonable?

?

sphere. 10 10 (4 10 15) 60 S 65 60 too high

the radius ?

of the 5 5 (4 5 15) 60 S 40 60 too low

four- sphere ?

Volume is thirds times times cubed. 7 7 (4 7 15) 60 S 50 60 too low

1

424 3 { 123 123 { 123 14243 ?

Formula: V 3

4

r3 8 8 (4 8 15) 60 S 55 60 almost

?

4 9 9 (4 9 15) 60 S 60 60 true ✓

The formula for the volume of a sphere is V 3r3.

The solution of a (4a 15) 60 is 9. Therefore,

44. Explore: You know the formula for the volume

9 minutes were spent on advertising.

of a sphere. You need to evaluate the

formula with r 4. 51. See students’ work.

65 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 66 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

52. Words: Surface area is the sum of the area 63. 12d 3 4d 12d 4d 3

of the faces. (12d 4d) 3

Variables: Let S surface area, a length of (12 4)d 3

the sides of an equilateral triangle, 8d 3

and h height of a prism. The 64. 7t t 8t 7t2 (t 8t)

2

height of the equilateral triangle is 7t2 (1 8)t

a 23 7t2 9t

given by 2 .

Surface area of area of 65. 3(a 2b) 5a 3(a) 3(2b) 5a

area is three times a side plus two times a base. 3a 6b 5a

14243 { 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 3a 5a 6b

Formula: (3a 5a) 6b

1 a 23

S 3 ah 2 2a 2 (3 5)a 6b

The formula for the surface area of this 8a 6b

a2 23 66. 5(8 3) 7 2 5(5) 7 2

triangular prism is S 3ah 2 .

53. Equations can be used to describe the 25 14

relationships of the heights of various parts of a 39

structure. Answers should include the following. 67. 6(43 22) 6(64 4)

• The equation representing the Sears Tower is 6(68)

1454 a 1707. 408

54. B; a the

68. 7(0.2 0.5) 0.6 7(0.7) 0.6

One-fourth of number plus five equals number minus 123

seven. 4.9 0.6

14243 { 1424 3 1 23 1 231424 31424 3 123

1 4.3

4 n 5 n 7

1

69. 1 70. 1

The equation is 4

n 5 n 7. 5.67 0.57

55. D;{

7 (x y) 35 3.70 2.80

{ 123 { {

9.37 3.37

Seven times the sum of x and y equals 35.

71. 4 72. 8 9

5.128 9.010

3. 4 0 7.3 5

Page 126 Maintain Your Skills 1. 8 8 1.6 5

56. 28100 represents the positive square root of 2 1 10 3 1 2 1 4

73. 5 15 15 74. 366

8100. 3 6

13 5

8100 902 S 28100 90 15 6

25 25 7 2 7 6 3 1 9 2

57. 3 36 represents the negative square root of . 75. 399 76. 6 12 12

36 9 4

1 7

25

9 12

36

90 9.492 S 290 9.49 Page 127 Algebra Activity

59. 255 represents the negative square root of 55. (Preview of Lesson 3–2)

55 7.422 S 155 7.42 1. Step 1 Model the equation.

60. There is 1 six and 6 total outcomes.

1

x

P(6) 6

1 1

0.17 1 1 1 1 1 1

The probability of rolling a 6 is

1

or about 17%. 1 1

6 1 1 1 1 1

61. There are 3 even numbers and 6 total outcomes.

1 1

3 1 1 1

P(an even number) 6

1 1 1

2

or 0.5

The probability of rolling an even number is 2 or

1 x57

50%. x 5 (5) 7 (5)

62. There are 4 numbers greater than two and 6 total Place 1 x tile and 5 positive 1 tiles on one side of

outcomes. the mat. Place 7 positive 1 tiles on the other side

4 of the mat. Then add 5 negative 1 tiles to each

P(a number greater than 2) 6 side.

2

3

The probability of rolling a number greater than

2

2 is 3.

Chapter 3 66

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 67 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

Step 2 Isolate the x term. Place 1 x tile and 4 positive 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 27 positive 1 tiles on the other

x 1 1 side of the mat. Then add 4 negative 1 tiles to

each side.

1 1 1 1

Step 2 Isolate the x term.

1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

–1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

–1 1 1 1 –1 1

x2 1 1 –1 1

–1 1

Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove 1 1 –1 1

all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x 2. –1 1 1 1 –1 1

2. Step 1 Model the equation.

x 23

x 1 1 1 1 Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove

1 1 1 1 all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x 23.

1 1 4. Step 1 Model the equation.

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

x

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

x (2) 28

x (2) 2 28 2 1 1

Place 1 x tile and 2 negative 1 tiles on one side of 1 1

the mat. Place 28 positive 1 tiles on the other side

of the mat. Then add 2 positive 1 tiles to each side. x (3) 4

Step 2 Isolate the x term. x (3) 3 4 3

Place 1 x tile and 3 negative 1 tiles on one side of

x 1 1 1 1 the mat. Place 4 positive 1 tiles on the other side

1 1 1 1 of the mat. Then add 3 positive 1 tiles to each side.

1 1 1 1 Step 2 Isolate the x term.

1 1

1 1 1 1 \

1 1 1 1

x

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

–1 1 1 1

x 30

–1 1 1

Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove

all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x 30. –1 1

3. Step 1 Model the equation.

x7

x Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove

1 1 1 1

all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x 7.

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1

1 1

x 4 27

x 4 (4) 27 (4)

67 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 68 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

5. Step 1 Model the equation. Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove all

the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x 5.

x 7. You can model the equation a b by putting an a

tile on one side of the mat, and putting a b tile on

1 1 1 1 1 the other side of the mat. You can add a c tile to

each side of the mat. The resulting equation

1 1

would be a c b c.

8. You can model the equation a b by putting an a

1 1

tile on one side of the mat, and putting a b tile on

1 1 the other side of the mat. You can add a negative

1 1 c tile to each side of the mat. The resulting

equation would be a (c) b (c)

x 3 4 or a c b c.

x 3 (3) 4 (3)

Place 1 x tile and 3 positive 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 4 negative 1 tiles on the other side

3-2 Solving Equations by Using

of the mat. Then add 3 negative 1 tiles to each side. Addition and Subtraction

Step 2 Isolate the x term.

Page 131 Check for Understanding

x 1. Sample answers: n 13, n 16 29, n 12 25

1 1 2. The Addition Property of Equality and the

Subtraction Property of Equality can both be

1 1 used to solve equations. The Addition Property

of Equality says you can add the same number

1 1 1 1

to each side of an equation. The Subtraction

1 1 1 Property of Equality says you can subtract the

same number from each side of an equation.

1 1 Since subtracting a number is the same as

adding its inverse, either property can be used

x –7 to solve any addition equation or subtraction

Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove all equation.

the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x 7. 3. (1) Add 94 to each side.

6. Step 1 Model the equation. g 94 (94) 75 (94)

g 19

x

1 1 (2) Subtract 94 from each side.

1 1 1 1 1 g 94 94 75 94

g 19

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 4. t 4 7

1 1 t 4 4 7 4

1 t 3

1 1

Check: t 4 7

1 1 ?

3 4 7

1 1 7 7 ✓

The solution is 3.

x72

x 7 (7) 2 (7) 5. p 19 6

Place 1 x tile and 7 positive 1 tiles on one side of p 19 19 6 19

the mat. Place 2 positive 1 tiles on the other side of p 13

the mat. Then add 7 negative 1 tiles to each side. Check: p 19 6

?

Step 2 Isolate the x term. 13 19 6

66✓

x The solution is 13.

1 1 1 1 6. 15 r 71

1 1 15 r 15 71 15

1 1 r 56

1 1

1 Check: 15 r 71

1 1 ?

15 56 71

1 1

1 1 71 71 ✓

1 1

1 1

The solution is 56.

1 1

x –5

Chapter 3 68

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 69 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

104 67 y 67 67 time in Europe

1442443 minus

123 14424time in Japan

43

171 y 35.5 16.8

Check: 104 y 67 35.5 16.8 18.7

?

104 171 67 The difference is 18.7 hours.

104 104 ✓

The solution is 171.

8. h 0.78 2.65 Pages 132–134 Practice and Apply

h 0.78 0.78 2.65 0.78 15. 9 14

h 3.43 9 9 14 9

Check: h 0.78 2.65 23

?

3.43 0.78 2.65 Check: 9 14

2.65 2.65 ✓ 23 9 14

?

2 1

9. 3

w 12 The solution is 23.

2 2

w 3 12 3

1 2 16. s 19 34

3

s 19 19 34 19

5

w6 s 15

Check:

2

w

1

12 Check: s 19 34

3 ?

2 5 ? 1 15 19 34

3

6 12 34 34 ✓

1 1

12 12 ✓ The solution is 15.

5 17. g 5 33

The solution is 6.

g 5 5 33 5

10. 1

A4number minus twenty-one is 8. g 28

42443 1424 3 1 442443 123 123

n 21 8 Check: g 5 33

?

n 21 8 28 5 33

n 21 21 8 21 33 33 ✓

n 13 The solution is 28.

Check: n 21 8 18. 18 z 44

?

13 21 8 18 z 18 44 18

8 8 ✓ z 26

The solution is 13. Check: 18 z 44

?

11. 1

A4number increased by 37 is 91. 18 26 44

42443 1 4442444 3 123 { 123

n 37 91 44 44 ✓

n (37) 91 The solution is 26.

n (37) 37 91 37 19. a 55 17

n 54 a 55 55 17 55

Check: n (37) 91 a 38

?

54 (37) 91 Check: a 55 17

?

91 91 ✓ 38 55 17

The solution is 54. 17 17 ✓

12. Words: The average time in Japan plus 8.1 The solution is 38.

equals the average time in the United 20. t 72 44

States. t 72 72 44 72

Variable: Let / the average time in Japan. t 28

The average the average Check: t 72 44

?

time in Japan plus 8.1 equals time in the U.S. 28 72 44

1442443 123123 123 1442443

44 44 ✓

Equation:

/ 8.1 24.9 The solution is 28.

13. / 8.1 24.9 21. 18 61 d

/ 8.1 8.1 24.9 8.1 18 61 61 d 61

/ 16.8 43 d

The average time is 16.8 hours. Check: 18 61 d

?

18 61 43

18 18 ✓

The solution is 43.

69 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 70 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

25 150 150 q 150 6 3.42 m (3.42) 3.42

125 q 2.58 m

Check: 25 150 q Check: 6 m (3.42)

? ?

25 150 125 6 2.58 (3.42)

25 25 ✓ 6 6 ✓

The solution is 125. The solution is 2.58.

23. r (19) 77 30. 6.2 4.83 y

r 19 77 6.2 4.83 4.83 y 4.83

r 19 19 77 19 11.03 y

r 96 Check: 6.2 4.83 y

?

Check: r (19) 77 6.2 4.83 11.03

?

96 (19) 77 6.2 6.2 ✓

77 77 ✓ The solution is 11.03.

The solution is 96. 31. t 8.5 7.15

24. b (65) 15 t 8.5 8.5 7.15 8.5

b 65 15 t 15.65

b 65 65 15 65 Check: t 8.5 7.15

b 50 ?

15.65 8.5 7.15

Check: b (65) 15 7.15 7.15 ✓

?

50 (65) 15 The solution is 15.65.

15 15 ✓ 32. q 2.78 4.2

The solution is 50. q 2.78 2.78 4.2 2.78

25. 18 (f ) 91 q 6.98

18 f 91 Check: q 2.78 4.2

18 f 18 91 18 ?

6.98 2.78 4.2

f 73 4.2 4.2 ✓

Check: 18 (f ) 91 The solution is 6.98.

?

18 (73) 91 3 5

33. x46

91 91 ✓

3 3 5 3

The solution is 73. x4464

26. 125 (u) 88 x 112

7

125 u 88 3 5

125 u 125 88 125 Check: x46

u 37 7 3 ? 5

112 4 6

Check: 125 (u) 88 5 5

? ✓

125 [(37) ] 88 6 6

7

88 88 ✓ The solution is 112.

The solution is 37. 3 7

34. a 5 10

27. 2.56 c 0.89 3 3 7 3

2.56 c 2.56 0.89 2.56 a 5 5 10 5

c 3.45 a 10

1

? Check: a 5 10

2.56 3.45 0.89

1 3 ? 7

0.89 0.89 ✓ 10 5 10

The solution is 3.45. 7 7

10 10 ✓

28. k 0.6 3.84 1

k 0.6 0.6 3.84 0.6 The solution is 10.

k 4.44 35.

1

2 p 8

5

? 2 p 2 8 2

4.44 0.6 3.84

1

3.84 3.84 ✓ p 18

The solution is 4.44. 1 5

Check: 2 p 8

1 1 ? 5

2 18 8

5 5

8

8✓

1

The solution is 18.

Chapter 3 70

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 71 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

36. r 9 eighteen equals 31.

3 1424 1231 424 3 123 {

2 2 4 2 Equation: n 18 31

3

r 3 9 3

1

n 18 31

r 19 n 18 18 31 18

Check:

2

r 9

4 n 49

1 2

3

2 1 ? 4

Check: n 18 31

19 9 ?

3 49 18 31

4

9 9 ✓

4

31 31 ✓

1 The solution is 49.

The solution is 19.

2 4 2 3

44. What

14442 number

4443 decreased

14 44244 4by

3 77 equals

{ 1424 3118?

23

37. v5 38. w4

3 5 Equation: n 77 18

2 4 4 4 2 3 3 3

3

5 v55 5

4 w44 n 77 18

2

15 v

7

20 w n 77 77 18 77

n 59

2 4 2 3

Check: 3

v5 Check: 5

w4 Check: n 77 18

2 ? 2 ? ?

2

15 5

4 7

20 4

3

59 77 18

3 5

2 2 2 2 18 18 ✓

3

3✓ 5

5✓

The solution is 59.

2 7

The solution is 15. The solution is 20. 45. A number increased by 16 21.

1424 3 14 4244 31 23 is

{ 1 23

39. First, solve x 7 14. Equation: n (16) 21

x 7 14 n (16) 21

x 7 7 14 7 n (16) 16 21 16

x 21 n 5

Now, replace x in x 2 with 21. Check: n (16) 21

?

x 2 21 2 5 (16) 21

19 21 21 ✓

The value is 19. The solution is 5.

40. First, solve t 8 12. 46. A number plus 43 is 1

102.

14 243 1 23 1 23 { 23

t 8 12

Equation: n (43) 102

t 8 8 12 8

t 20 n (43) 102

n (43) 43 102 43

Now, replace t in t 1 with 20.

n 145

t 1 20 1

Check: n (43) 102

19 ?

145 (43) 102

The value is 19.

102 102 ✓

41. The length of the rectangle

1444 4424444 43 is 78. { { The solution is 145.

Equation: x 55 78 47. What one- is equal negative

x 55 78 number minus half to 3 three-fourth?

1

424 3 123 123 1424 1 442443

x 55 55 78 55 Equation: n

1

4

3

2

x 23 1 3

n 2 4

Check: x 55 78

? 1 1 3 1

23 55 78 n 2 2 4 2

78 78 ✓ 1

n 4

The solution is 23. 1 3

42. The width of the rectangle Check: n 2 4

144444244444 3 is 24. { {

1 1 ? 3

Equation: y 17 24 4 2 4

y 17 24 3

4 4 ✓

3

y 17 17 24 17 1

y 41 The solution is 4.

Check: y 17 24

?

41 17 24

24 24 ✓

The solution is 41.

71 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 72 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

19 plus 42 plus a number to 87. University plus the difference equals

{ 1 23 { 123 14 4244 3 14 4244 3 {

Equation:19 42 n 87 the number of volumes at the Library

of Congress.

19 42 n 87

61 n 87 Variable: Let x the difference in volumes

61 n 61 87 61 between the two libraries.

The number of volumes the the number of volumes at

n 26

at Harvard University plus difference equals the Library of Congress.

14444244443 123 14243 123 1444442444443

Check: 19 42 n 87

? Equation: 13.6 x 24.0

19 42 26 87

13.6 x 24.0

87 87 ✓

13.6 x 13.6 24.0 13.6

The solution is 26. x 10.4

49. Sometimes; if x 0, x x x is true. The Library of Congress has 10.4 million volumes

50. Always; any number plus 0 is always the number. more.

51. Words: The miles per gallon of a luxury car 59. Words: The number of volumes at New York

plus 10 equals the miles per gallon of Public plus the difference equals the

a midsize car. number of volumes at Harvard

Variable: Let the miles per gallon of a University.

luxury car. Variable: Let x the difference in volumes

The miles per gallon the miles per gallon between the two libraries.

of a luxury car plus

23 10 equals of a midsize car.

144424443 1 { 123 144424443 The number the number

Equation: 10 34 of volumes at the of volumes at

New York Public 1

plus difference equals Harvard University.

The equation is 10 34. 144424443 23 14243 123 144424443

Equation: 11.4 x 13.6

52. / 10 34

/ 10 10 34 10 11.4 x 13.6

/ 24 11.4 x 11.4 13.6 11.4

x 2.2

A luxury car travels 24 miles on a gallon of gasoline.

Harvard University has 2.2 million volumes more.

53. The miles per gallon the miles per gallon

of a subcompact car

144424443 is

{ of a luxury car

144424443 plus

123 13.

{

60. Words: The number of volumes at New York

x 24 13 Public plus the difference equals the

x 24 13 number of volumes at the Library of

x 37 Congress.

A subcompact car travels 37 miles on a gallon of Variable: Let x the difference in volumes

gasoline. between the two libraries.

The number the number

54. The miles per gallon the miles per gallon of volumes at the of volumes at the

of a subcompact car minus of a midsize car

144424443 123 144424443 New York Public 1

144424443 plus difference

23 14243 equals Library

123 of Congress.

144424443

37 34 Equation: 11.4 x 24.0

37 34 3 11.4 x 24.0

A subcompact car travels 3 miles more. 11.4 x 11.4 24.0 11.4

55. Sample answer: 29 miles; 29 is the average of 24 x 12.6

(for the 8-cylinder engine) and 34 (for the 4-cylinder The Library of Congress has 12.6 million volumes

engine). more.

56. Words: The height of the Great Pyramid plus 61. Words: The total number of volumes is equal

the amount of decrease equals the to the sum of the volumes at the

original height. Library of Congress, Harvard

Variable: Let d the amount of decrease. University, and New York Public.

The height of the the amount the original Variable: Let x the total number of volumes.

Great Pyramid plus of4decrease equals height. The total volumes at volumes at volumes at

144424443 123 1 42443 123 1442443

number is Lib. of C. plus Harvard plus NY Public.

Equation: 450 d 481 14243 { 14243 123 14243 123 14243

The equation is 450 d 481 Equation: x 24.0 13.6 11.4

57. 450 d 481 x 24.0 13.6 11.4

450 d 450 481 450 x 49

d 31 The total number of volumes at the three largest

The decrease in height is 31 ft. U.S. libraries is 49 million.

Chapter 3 72

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 73 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

62. Words: The number of one-year olds plus the 68. A; x 167 52

difference equals the number of x 167 167 52 167

newborns. x 115

Variable: Let x the difference between the

number of one-year olds and

newborns. Page 134 Maintain Your Skills

The number of the the number of 69. Words: Area is times the radius squared.

one-year olds 1

plus

23 difference

14243 equals newborns.

1442443 123 1442443 Variables: Let A area and r radius.

Equation: (679 634) x (1379 1286) Area is times the radius squared.

123 { { 123 144424443

679 634 x 1379 1286

Formula: A r2

1313 x 2665

1313 x 1313 2665 1313 The formula for the area of a circle is A r2.

x 1352 70. Replace r in r2 with 16.

There are 1352 more newborns. r2 (16)2

63. Words: The number of males plus the (256)

difference equals the number of ≈ 804.2

females. The area is about 804 in2.

Variable: Let x the difference between the 71. You can use a calculator to find an approximation

number of males and females. for 22.

1

The number the the number

2

0.5

of4males plus difference equals 1of4females.

14 2443 1 23 1 442443 123 42443

22 1.41421356 p

Equation: (1379 679 x (1286

1

1707) 634 3714) Therefore, 2

6 22.

1379 679 1707 x 1286 634 3714 72. You can use a calculator to find an approximation

2

3765 x 5634 for 3.

3765 x 3765 5634 3765 3

x 1869 4

0.75

2

There are 1869 more females. 3

0.66666666 p

64. Words: The total population is equal to the Therefore,

3 2

7 3.

4

sum of the number of newborns,

3

one-year olds, and adults. 73. You can use a calculator to find the value of 8.

Variable: Let t the total population. 3

0.375

8

The total the number of the number of the number

3

population is newborns

14243 { 14424431

plus one-year olds plus of adults.

23 1442443 123 14243 Therefore, 0.375 8.

Equation: 74. The greatest common place value is tens, so the

t (1379 1286) (679 634) (1707 3714) digits in the tens place are the stems.

t 1379 1286 679 634 1707 3714 Stem Leaf

t 9399 3 12456

The total deer population is 9399. 4 0123

65. If a b x, then a b x. If a x b x, then 5 246

by the transitive property a a x. If a a x,

3 01 31

then x 0. If x 0, then a x b x implies

a b. Therefore, if a b x, then a b and 75. The greatest common place value is ones, so the

x 0 would make a x b x true. digits in the ones place are the stems.

66. Equations can be used to describe the Stem Leaf

relationships of growth and decline in job 0 58

opportunities. Answer should include the 1 1247

following. 2 3689

• To solve the equation, add 66 to each side. The 3

0 05 0.5

solution is m 71.

4 15

• An example such as “The percent increase in

76. Hypothesis: y 2

growth for paralegals is 16 more than the

Conclusion: 4y 6 2

percent increase in growth for detectives. If

the growth rate for paralegals is 86%, what is 77. Hypothesis: it is Friday

the growth rate for detectives? d 16 86; Conclusion: there will be a science quiz

70%” 78. 4(16 42) 4(16 16) Substitution; 42 16

67. C; b 15 32 4(1) Substitution; 16 16 1

b 15 2 32 2 4 Multiplicative

b 13 34 Identity; 4 1

4

73 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 74 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

79. (25 52) (42 24) (32 25) (16 16) 4. 2g 84

2g 84

Substitution

2

2

7 0 Substitution

g 42

7 Additive Identity

Check: 2g 84

80. Replace x in 3x 2

2 with each value in the ?

replacement set. 2(42) 84

84 84 ✓

x 3x 2 2 True or False?

?

The solution is 42.

0 30 2 7 2S2 2 false t

5. 5

17t 2 7(5)

? 7

1 31 2 7 2S5 7 2 true ✓

7

?

2 32 2 7 2S8 7 2 true ✓ t 35

The solution set for 3x 2

2 is {1, 2}. Check:

t

5

7

81. Replace y in 2y2 1

0 with each value in the 35 ?

replacement set. 7

5

5 5 ✓

y 2y2 1 0 True or False?

The solution is 35.

?

1 2(1)2 1 7 0 S 1 7 0 true ✓ 6.

a

9

4

1 2 36149 2

36

? a

3 2(3)2 1 7 0 S 17 7 0 true ✓ 36 36

5

?

2(5)2 1 7 0 S 49 7 0 true ✓ a 16

a 4

Check: 9

The solution set for 2y2 1

0 is {1, 3, 5}. 36

16 ? 4

82. 14 83. 1 36

9

6 .5 7 0.3 4 4

2 .8 0.1 5 9

9 ✓

52 0 35 1 5 The solution is 16.

13 0 70 3 4 8

7. k 9

12 12

18.2 0 10.5 4 5 5

5 4 5 8

84. 7.12 85. 0.22 4 5

k 4

9

2.5

17.8

00 1.50.3 30 40 10

k 36 or 9

17 5 30

1

30 30 k 19

25 30 4 8

Check: k9

1 2

50 0 5

50 4 1 ? 8

1 9

5 9

0

8 8

1 1 1 9

9✓

2 5 2 5 5 3 5 3

86. 3

8 38 87. 9

10 9 10 1

The solution is 19.

4 3 2

12

5

6

1 8. 3.15 1.5y

3.15

1 2 1 5 8 4 8 15 1.5y

88. 2

5

2

2 89. 9

15

9 4

1.5 1.5

5 120 2.1 y

4 36 Check: 3.15 1.5y

1 10 ?

14 3 3.15 1.5(2.1)

1

33 3.15 3.15 ✓

1314 2p 212

The solution is 2.1.

9.

1134 2p 52

3-3 Solving Equations by Using

13 1 4 2

p 13 1 2 2

Multiplication and Division 4 13 4 5

p 26 or 13

10

1314 2p 212

1. Sample answer: 4x 12

2. Dividing each side of an equation by a number is Check:

the same as multiplying each side of the equation

1314 211013 2 212

?

1 1

3. Juanita; to find an equivalent equation with 22 22 ✓

1n on one side of the equation, you must divide The solution is

10

.

1 13

each side by 8 or multiply each side by 8.

Chapter 3 74

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 75 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

10. 123 120. 16. 1634 86s

123 14243 { 23

1634 86s

5 n 120 86

86

5n 120 19 s

5n 120

5

5 Check: 1634 86s

?

n 24 1634 86(19)

The solution is 24. 1634 1634 ✓

equals 24.

11. Two fifths of a number 1 The solution is 19.

1442443 { 14243 4243 123 b

24 17. 11

1 2 7(11)

2 n 7

5

2 b

n 24 7

12

5 7

5 2

n

5

2 (24) b 77

2 5 b

n 60 Check: 7

11

77 ?

The solution is 60. 7

11

12. Words: The discharge of a river is the width 11 11 ✓

times the depth times the speed. The solution is 77.

Variable: Let d the depth of the river. v

18. 5 45

1 v2

The discharge the the the

of a river is width times depth times speed.

144424443 { 123 123 123 123 123 5 5 5(45)

Equation: 3198 533 d 0.6

v 225

3198 533 d (0.6) v

3198 533(0.6)d Check: 5 45

3198 319.8 d

225 ?

45

3198 319.8d 5

319.8

319.8 45 45 ✓

10 d The solution is 225.

The Mississippi River is 10 m deep at this 19.

2

n 14

12

3

location.

3 2 3

2 3

n 2 (14)

n 21

Pages 138–140 Practice and Apply Check:

2

n 14

1212 14

3

13. 5r 55

2 ?

5r 55

5

5 3

r 11 14 14 ✓

Check: 5r 55 The solution is 21.

? 2

5(11) 55 20. g 14

12 1 2

5

55 55 ✓ 5 2

g

5

2 14

2 5

The solution is 11.

g 35

14. 8d 48 2

Check: g 14

1352 14

8d 48

8

8

5

2 ?

d6 5

Check: 8d 48 14 14 ✓

?

8(6) 48 The solution is 35.

48 48 ✓ 21.

g

12

5

1 2 241125 2

24

The solution is 6. g

24

15. 910 26a 24

910 26a g 10

26

26 g 5

Check: 12

35 a 24

10 ? 5

Check: 910 26a 24

12

?

910 26(35) 5 5

12 ✓

12

910 910 ✓

The solution is 10.

The solution is 35.

75 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 76 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

22.

z

5

2

28. 1323 2x 512

1 2 45125 2 1113 2x 112

45

z

45 45

11 1 3 2

x 11 1 2 2

z 18 3 11 3 11

z 2

Check: 5

45 33 3

18 ? 2 x 22 or 2

45

5

1

x 12

1323 2x 512

2 2

5

5 ✓

The solution is 18. Check:

23. 1.9f 11.78

1323 21112 2 512

?

1.9f 11.78

1 1

1.9 1.9

52 52 ✓

f 6.2 1

Check: 1.9f 11.78 The solution is 12.

? 2

1.9(6.2) 11.78 29. 5h 33

11.78 11.78 ✓ 33

2

5h

The solution is 6.2.

1 2

5 5

24. 0.49k 6.272 11 1

0.49k 6.272

h 3 5

0.49

0.49 11

h

k 12.8 15

2

Check: 0.49k 6.272 Check: 5h 33

11115 2 323

?

0.49(12.8) 6.272 5

?

6.272 6.272 ✓ 2 2

The solution is 12.8. 33 33 ✓

11

25. 2.8m 9.8 The solution is 15

.

2.8m 9.8

2.8

2.8 30. 3p 45

1

m 3.5 45

1

3p

Check: 2.8m 9.8 3

? 3

2.8(3.5) 9.8 p

21 1

9.8 9.8 ✓ 5 3

21 7

The solution is 3.5. p 15

or 5

26. 5.73q 97.41 p

2

15

5.73q 97.41

5.73

5.73 Check: 3p 45

1

1 22

q 17 ? 1

3 15 45

Check: 5.73q 97.41

? 1 1

5.73(17) 97.41 45 45 ✓

97.41 97.41 ✓ The solution is 15.

2

1235 2t 22

31. First, solve 4m 10.

27. 4m 10

1135 2t 22 4m

10

13 1 5 2 t 13(22)

4 4

5

5 13 5 m 2

1

t

110

13 m 22

1

6

813 Now, replace m in 12m with 22.

1 12

t

Check: 1

25

3

2t 22 12m 12 22

12 1 2 2

1235 218136 2 22

5

?

30

22 22 ✓

6 The value is 30.

The solution is 813.

Chapter 3 76

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 77 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

32. First, solve 15b 55. 38. One and one third times a number is 4.82.

14444244443 123 1 44244 3 { 14243

15b 55 1 n 4.82

1 2

13

15b 55

15

15

1

13 n 4.82

11

b 4

n 4.82

12

3 3

2

b 33 3 4

n

3

4(4.82)

4 3

2

Now, replace b in 3b with 33. n 3.615

3b 3 1 2 2

33

The solution is 3.615.

31 3 2

39. The number of people in

11 left-handed people is one seventh of the world.

14444244443 { 1442443 { 14 42443

/ 1 p

11 7

1

The value is 11. The equation is / 7p.

Seven

33. 1

424 3 123 1

equals 84.

times a number 1 1

40. Replace p in 7p with 350 and solve.

442443 4243 123

7 n 84 1 1

p 7(350)

7n 84 7

7n 84 50

7

7 There are 50 left-handed people.

n 12 1

41. Replace in / 7p with 65 and solve.

The solution is 12.

1

Negative nine times a number is 117.

34. 1 / 7p

44424443 123 1 442443 { 123

1

9 n 117 65 7p

9n 117

9n 117

7(65) 7 117 2p

9 9 455 p

n 13 There are 455 people in the group.

The solution is 13. 42. Replace C in C d with 50 and solve.

35. One fifth of a number is 12. C d

14243 { 1 44244 3 { 123

1 n 12 50 d

5

50 d

1

n 12

12

5

5 1 5 15.9 d

1 5

n 1(12)

The diameter was about 16 feet.

n 60 43. Replace r with 126 and d with 60.5 in rt d and

The solution is 60. solve.

36. Negative three eighths times a number equals 12.

1444442444443 123 1 44244 3 14243 123 rt d

8

3 n 12 126t 60.5

126t 60.5

3

8n 12

1 32

126 126

8

3 8 n 3(12)

8 t 0.48

It takes about 0.48 second.

n 32

44. Replace r with 132 and d with 60.5 in rt d and

The solution is 32.

solve.

37. Two and one half times a number equals one and one fifth.

14444244443 123 1

44244

3 14243 14444244443 rt d

1 n 1

132t 60.5

1212 2n 115

22 15

132t 60.5

132

132

5

n 5

6 t 0.46

12 12

2

2 5 2 6 It takes about 0.46 second.

5 2

n 5 5

45. time for a time for a

12

n 25 two-seam fastball minus four-seam fastball

14444244443 1 424 3 14444244443

The solution is

12

. 0.48 0.46

25

0.48 0.46 0.02

The difference is about 0.02 second.

77 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 78 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

eight

123

times

123

grams of hydrogen

14444244443 Area is side length squared.

123 { 144424443

8 x A 42

The expression for oxygen is 8x. 2

A4

47. Number of grams number of grams number of grams A 16

of hydrogen plus of oxygen equals of water.

14444244443 123 14444244443

14243 14444244443 The area of the square is 16 in2.

x 8x 477

53. A; 4t 20

The equation is x 8x 477.

4t 20

48. Solve x 8x 477 2

2

x 8x 477 2t 10

(1 8)x 477

9x 477

9x

477 Page 140 Maintain Your Skills

9 9

54. m 14 81

x 53

m 14 14 81 14

There are 53 grams of hydrogen. m 67

49. Replace x in 8x with 53. Check: m 14 81

8x 8(53) ?

67 14 81

424 81 81 ✓

There are 424 grams of oxygen. The solution is 67.

50. First, solve 6y 7 4. 55. d 27 14

6y 7 4 d 27 27 14 27

6y 7 7 4 7 d 13

6y 11 Check: d 27 14

6y 11 ?

6

6 13 27 14

5 14 14 ✓

y 16

5

The solution is 13.

Now, replace y in 18y 21 with 16.

1 52

56. 17 (w) 55

18y 21 18 16 21 17 w 55

18 1 6 2 21

17 w 17 55 17

11

w 72

33 21 Check: 17 1w2 55

17 31722 4 55

?

12

The value is 12. 55 55 ✓

51. You can use the distance formula and the speed of The solution is 72.

light to find the time it takes light from the stars 57. is equal the sum of

to reach Earth. Answers should include the Ten

123 times

123 a4

1 number

42443 a to43 {

142 5 times

1 23 14b2

and c.

443

following. 10 a 5 (b c)

• Solve the equation by dividing each side of the The equation is 10a 5(b c).

equation by 5,870,000,000,000. 58. (5)(12) 60

The answer is 53 years. 59. (2.93)(0.003) 0.00879

• The equation 5,870,000,000,000t 60. (4)(0)(2)(3) (0)(2)(3)

821,800,000,000,000 describes the situation (0)(3)

for the star in the Big Dipper farthest from (0)

Earth. 61.

52. C; 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

2 times 2 times 62.

Perimeter is length plus width. 654321 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1442443 { 14243 123 14243

48 2(5x) 2x 63.

48 2(5x) 2x 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

48 10x 2x 64.

48 (10 2)x 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

48 12x 65. Commutative Property of Addition

48 12x

12

12

66. Associative Property of Multiplication

4x 67. 2 8 9 16 9

25

68. 24 3 8 8 8

0

Chapter 3 78

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 79 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

3 3 2

69. (17 7) 8 (24) 7. p 18

12

8 3

72 3 2 3

8 2 3

p 2 (18)

9 p 27

15 9 6 2

70. 26 12

26 12 Check: 3

p 18

6 ?

38

2

18 (27)

3

3 18 18 ✓

19

The solution is 27.

8. 17y 391

Page 140 Practice Quiz 1 17y

17

391

1. Surface the square of 17

area

14243 equals

123 four

123 times

123

{

times

123 1the radius.

4424 43 y 23

S 4 r2 Check: 17y 391

?

The formula for the surface area of a sphere is 17(23) 391

S 4r2. 391 391 ✓

2. Replace r in 4r 2 with 7. The solution is 23.

4r2 4 (7)2 9. 5x 45

4 (49) 5x 45

4(49) 5 5

196 x 9

615.8 Check: 5x 45

The surface area is about 615.8 cm2. 5 (9) 45

?

d 18 18 27 18 The solution is 9.

d 45 2

10. 5 d 10

1 22

Check: d 18 27

? 5 5

45 18 27 2 5 d 2 (10)

27 27 ✓ d 25

The solution is 45. Check:

2

5 d 10

4. m 77 61 2 ?

m 77 77 61 77 5 (25) 10

m 16 10 10 ✓

Check: m 77 61 The solution is 25.

?

16 77 61

61 61 ✓

The solution is 16. Page 141 Algebra Activity

5. 12 a 36 1. Step 1 Model the equation.

12 a 12 36 12

a 24 x

Check: 12 a 36

1 1 1

12 1242 36

? x

36 36 ✓ 1 1 1

The solution is 24.

1 1 1

6. t (16) 9 1 1 1

t 16 9

t 16 16 9 16

t 7

Check: t (16) 9

? 2x 3 –9

7 (16) 9

99✓ Place 2 x tiles and 3 negative 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 9 negative 1 tiles on the other side

The solution is 7.

of the mat.

79 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 80 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

Step 2 Isolate the x term. Place 3 x tiles and 5 positive 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 14 positive 1 tiles on the other side

x of the mat.

1 1 1 Step 2 Isolate the x term.

x

1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1

2x 3 3 –9 3 1 1 1 1 1 1

Since there are 3 negative 1 tiles with the x tiles, 1 1 1 1

add 3 positive 1 tiles to each side to form zero pairs.

Step 3 Remove zero pairs. 3x 5 5 14 5

Since there are 5 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles,

x add 5 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero

1 1 1 pairs.

x Step 3 Remove zero pairs.

1 1 1

1 1

1 1

x 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

x 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2x –6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the 1 1 1 1

zero pairs.

Step 4 Group the tiles.

3x 9

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the

zero pairs.

x 1 1 1 Step 4 Group the tiles.

x 1 1 1

x 1 1 1

x 1 1 1

2x

2

–6

2 x 1 1 1

Separate the tiles into 2 equal groups to match

the 2 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 3 negative

1 tiles. Thus, x 3. 3x 9

3

3

2. Step 1 Model the equation.

Separate the tiles into 3 equal groups to match

x the 3 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 3 positive

1 1 1 1 tiles. Thus, x 3.

x

1 1 1

x

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

3x 5 14

Chapter 3 80

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 81 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

3. Step 1 Model the equation. Separate the tiles into 3 equal groups to match

the 3 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 4 positive

x 1 tiles. Thus, x 4.

1 1 1 4. Step 1 Model the equation.

x

1 1 1

x x

1 1 1

x

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

3x 2 10

Place 3 x tiles and 2 negative 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 10 positive 1 tiles on the other side

of the mat. 8 2x 4

Step 2 Isolate the x term. Place 2 x tiles and 4 positive 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 8 negative 1 tiles on the other side

x of the mat.

1 1 1

x Step 2 Isolate the x term.

1 1 1

x x

1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1

x

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

3x 2 2 10 2

1 1 1 1

Since there are 2 negative 1 tiles with the x tiles,

add 2 positive 1 tiles to each side to form zero pairs.

Step 3 Remove zero pairs. 8 4 2x 4 4

Since there are 4 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles,

x add 4 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero

1 1 1 pairs.

x

1 1 1 Step 3 Remove zero pairs.

x

1 1

1 1 1 x

1 1 1

1 x

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

3x 12

1 1 1 1

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the

zero pairs. 1 1 1 1

Step 4 Group the tiles.

12 2x

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the

zero pairs.

x 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1

3x

3

12

3

81 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:29 PM Page 82 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

x 1 1 1

1 1 1 x

x 1 1 1

1 1 1 x

x 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

–12

22x 4x 8

2

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the

Separate the tiles into 2 equal groups to match zero pairs.

the 2 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 6 negative

Step 4 Group the tiles.

1 tiles. Thus, x 6.

5. Step 1 Model the equation.

x 1 1

x 1 1 1

x

1 1 1

x 1 1

x

x 1 1 1 x 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

x 1 1

4x 8

4

4

Place 4 x tiles and 3 positive 1 tiles on one side of the 4 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 2 positive

the mat. Place 11 positive 1 tiles on the other side 1 tiles. Thus, x 2.

of the mat. 6. Step 1 Model the equation.

Step 2 Isolate the x term.

x

x 1 1 1 x

x

1 1 1 1 1 1

x 1

x 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

2x 7 1

3 4x 3 11 3 Place 2 x tiles and 7 positive 1 tiles on one side of

Since there are 3 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles, the mat. Place 1 positive 1 tile on the other side of

add 3 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero the mat.

pairs. Step 2 Isolate the x term.

x

x

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

2x 7 7 1 7

Chapter 3 82

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 83 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

Since there are 7 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles, Step 2 Isolate the x term.

add 7 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero

pairs. 1 1 1 x

Step 3 Remove zero pairs. 1 1 1 x

1 1 1

x

x 1 1 1 x

x 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

9 7 4x 7 7

1 1 1 1

Since there are 7 negative 1 tiles with the x tiles,

add 7 positive 1 tiles to each side to form zero pairs.

2x 6

Step 3 Remove zero pairs.

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the

zero pairs. 1 1 1 x x

Step 4 Group the tiles. 1 1 1 x x

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1

16 4x

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the

zero pairs.

2x

2

–6

2 Step 4 Group the tiles.

Separate the tiles into 2 equal groups to match

the 2 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 3 negative

1 1 1 1 x

1 tiles. Thus, x 3.

7. Step 1 Model the equation.

1 1 1 1 x

x

x 1 1 1 1 x

1 1 1 x

1 1 1 1 x

x

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 16

4

44x

1 1 1

Separate the tiles into 4 equal groups to match

1 the 4 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 4 positive

1 tiles. Thus, x 4.

9 4x 7 8. Step 1 Model the equation.

Place 4 x tiles and 7 negative 1 tiles on one side of

the mat. Place 9 positive 1 tiles on the other side x

of the mat.

x

x 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

7 3x 8

83 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 84 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

the mat. Place 8 negative 1 tiles on the other side 3-4 Solving Multi-Step Equations

of the mat.

Step 2 Isolate the x term.

Page 145 Check for Understanding

x 1. Sample answers: 2x 3 1, 3x 1 7

x 2. (1) Add 4 to each side. (2) Multiply each side by 5.

1 1 1

(3) Subtract 3 from each side.

x

1 1 1 3. Odd integers are two units apart. If we want to

1 1 1 1

1 1 signify the odd integer before odd integer n, we

1 1 1 need to subtract 2 units. Therefore, the

expression can be written as n 2.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4a. Subtract 3 from each side.

1 1 1 1 1 1 4b. Simplify.

4c. Multiply each side by 5.

7 3x 7 8 7 4d. Simplify.

Since there are 7 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles, 4e. Subtract 4 from each side.

add 7 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero

4f. Simplify.

pairs.

4g. Divide each side by 2.

Step 3 Remove zero pairs.

4h. Simplify.

x 5.Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.

1 1 1

x Undo the

1 1 1

x Statement Statement

1 1 The result is 55. 55

1 1 1 1

The product is added to 13. 55 13 42

1 1 1 1 A number is multiplied

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 by seven. 42 7 6

1 1 1 1 1 The number is 6.

6. Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.

3x 15

Statement Undo the Statement

Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the There are 2,187,000

zero pairs. bacteria on the seventh 2,187,000

Step 4 Group the tiles. day.

A bacteria population

1 1 1 triples in number 2,187,000 36 3000

x

1 1 each day.

x 7. 4g 2 6

1 1 4g 2 2 6 2

1 1 1 4g 4

x 4g 4

1 1 4 4

g 1

3x Check: 4g 2 6

3

–15

3 ?

4(1) 2 6

?

Separate the tiles into 3 equal groups to match 4 2 6

the 3 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 5 negative 6 6 ✓

1 tiles. Thus, x 5.

The solution is 1.

9. First add 12 to each side, and then divide each

8. 18 5p 3

side by 7.

18 3 5p 3 3

15 5p

15 5p

5

5

3p

Chapter 3 84

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 85 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

123 decreased

144244by 3 twice a number equals

? 1442443 123 1 23

18 5(3) 3 12 2n 34

?

18 15 3 12 2n 34

?

18 18 ✓ 12 2n 12 34 12

The solution is 3. 2n 46

2n 46

9.

3

a 8 11 2

2

2

3

a 8 8 11 8 n 23

2

3

The solution is 23.

a 19

12

2 14. Let n the least integer.

2 3 2

3 2

a 3(19) Then n 1 the next greater integer, and

38 n 2 the greatest of the three integers.

a 3

The sum of three consecutive integers is 42.

2 1444444442444444443 { {

a 123

n (n 1) (n 2) 42

3

Check: a 8 11 n (n 1) (n 2) 42

1 2 8 11

2

3 2 ? 3n 3 42

123

2 3n 3 3 42 3

?

19 8 11 3n 39

11 11 ✓ 3n

39

2 3 3

The solution is 123. n 13

b 4

10. 17 n 1 13 1 or 14 n 2 13 2 or 15

1 2 2(17)

2

b 4 The consecutive integers are 13, 14, and 15.

2 2

15. Let n the number of letters in the Hawaiian

b 4 34

alphabet.

b 4 4 34 4

The English alphabet 123

equals 2 more than twice the Hawaiian alphabet.

b 30 14444244443 { 14243 1444442444443

b 4 26 2 + 2n

Check: 17

2 26 2 2n

30 4 ?

2

17 26 2 2 2n 2

34 ? 24 2n

2

17 24 2n

17 17 ✓ 2 2

11. 0.2n 3 8.6 The Hawaiian alphabet has 12 letters.

0.2n 3 3 8.6 3

0.2n 5.6

Pages 145–148 Practice and Apply

0.2n 5.6

0.2

0.2 16. Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.

n 28 Statement Undo the Statement

Check: 0.2n 3 8.6 The result is 25. 25

?

0.2(28) 3 8.6 The quotient is added

?

5.6 3 8.6 to 17. 25 17 8

8.6 8.6 ✓ A number is divided

The solution is 28. by 4. 8 4 32

12. 3.1y 1.5 5.32

The number is 32.

3.1y 1.5 1.5 5.32 1.5

3.1y 6.82 17. Start at the end of the problem and undo each

3.1y 6.82

step.

3.1

3.1

Statement Undo the Statement

y 2.2

The result is 75. 75

Check: 3.1y 1.5 5.32

? The difference is

3.1(2.2) 1.5 5.32 multiplied by 5. 75 5 15

?

6.82 1.5 5.32 Nine is subtracted

5.32 5.32 ✓ from a number. 15 9 24

The solution is 2.2.

The number is 24.

85 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 86 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

18. Start at the end of the problem and undo each 21. Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.

step.

Statement Undo the Statement

Statement Undo the Statement He had $13.45 left. $13.45

The fourth question is He bought lunch for

worth $6000. $6000 $6.55. $13.45 $6.55 $20

The fourth question is He spent half for a

worth twice as much $6000 2 $3000 haircut. $20 2 $40

as the third question. He spent one third for 3

The third question is $40 2 $60

gasoline.

worth twice as much $3000 2 $1500

as the second question. He withdrew $60.

The second question is Exercises 22–39 For checks, see students’ work.

worth twice as much $1500 2 $750 22. 5n 6 4 23. 7 3c 11

as the first question. 5n 6 6 4 6 7 3c 7 11 7

5n 10 3c 18

The first question is worth $750. 5n 10 3c 18

19. Start at the end of the problem and undo each 5 5 3 3

step. n 2 c 6

Statement Undo the Statement 24. 15 4a 5

15 5 4a 5 5

After 8 hours, it

5 5 20 4a

weighs 16 of a pound. 20 4a

16

4

4

1 5 5

The sculpture lost its

2 16

2 8 5a

weight the 8th hour. 25. 63 7g 14

1

The sculpture lost 2 its

5

24

5 63 14 7g 14 14

8

weight the 7th hour. 49 7g

49 7g

1 5 5

The sculpture lost 2 its 4

22 7 7

c y

1

The sculpture lost 2 its

5

25 26. 3

57 27. 5

96

2

c y

weight the 5th hour.

3

5575 5

9969

1

The sculpture lost its 5 2 10 c

2

y

3

1 2 3(2) 1 2 5(3)

2 3 5

weight the 4th hour. c y

3 3

5 5

1

The sculpture lost 2 its 10 2 20

c 6 y 15

weight the 3rd hour. a p

1

28. 3 7

2 29. 9 4

5

The sculpture lost its

2

20 2 40 a p

3 3 2 3 9 959

weight the 2nd hour. 7 4

a p

1 7 5 4 14

1 2 7(5) 1 p2

The sculpture lost 2 its 40 2 80

a

weight the 1st hour. 7 7 4 4 4(14)

The sculpture weighed 80 lb. a 35 p 56

t m

20. Start at the end of the problem and undo each 30. 8

6 12 31. 5

6 31

step. Count the rungs from the top. t m

8

6 6 12 6 5

6 6 31 6

Statement Undo the Statement t m

6 25

1 2 8(6) 1 2 5(25)

She went into the 8 5

t m

building. 0 8 8

5 5

She climbed the t 48 m 125

remaining 4 rungs. 044 17 s

32. 10

1 2 4(10)

She went up 7 rungs. 4 7 11 4

17 s

She backed down 4 4

5 rungs. 11 5 6 17 s 40

She moved up 3 rungs. 639 17 s 17 40 17

She stood on the s 57

middle rung. 2(9) 1 19 s 57

1

1

The ladder has 19 rungs. s 57

Chapter 3 86

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 87 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

33.

3j (4)

12 Now, replace a in 5a 2 with 5.

3 4 6 (12)

6

3j (4) 5a 2 5(5) 2

6 6 25 2

3j (4) 72 27

3j (4) (4) 72 (4) The value is 27.

3j 76 41. First, solve 2x 1 5.

3j 76

3

3 2x 1 5

j

76 2x 1 1 5 1

3

2x 4

1

j 253 2x 4

2

2

34. 3d 1.2 0.9

x2

3d 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2

3d 2.1 Now, replace x in 3x 4 with 2.

3d 2.1 3x 4 3(2) 4

3 3 64

d 0.7 2

35. 2.5r 32.7 74.1 The value is 2.

2.5r 32.7 32.7 74.1 32.7 42. Two-thirds

14243 of a number minus six is negative ten.

{ 14243 123 { { 1442443

2.5r 106.8

2

2.5r 106.8 n 6 10

2.5

2.5

3

2

r 42.72 3

n 6 10

2

36. 0.6 (4a) 1.4 3

n 6 6 10 6

0.6 (4a) 0.6 1.4 0.6 2

n 4

1 2 32(4)

4a 0.8 3

4a 0.8 3 2

2 3

n

4 4

a 0.2 n 6

p The solution is 6.

37. 7

0.5 1.3

43. Twenty-nine is thirteen added to four times a number.

p

0.5 0.5 1.3 0.5 1442443 { 14243 14243 123 123 14243

7 29 13 4 n

p

1.8 29 13 4n

1 2 7(1.8)

7

7

p 29 13 13 4n 13

7 16 4n

p 12.6 16 4n

38. 3.5x 5 1.5x 8 4 4

2x 5 8 The solution is 4.

2x 5 5 8 5 44. Let n the least odd integer.

2x 3 Then n 2 the next greater odd integer, and

2x

2

3 n 4 the greatest of the three odd integers.

2

The sum of three consecutive odd integers {is 51.

x 12 or 1.5

1 144444444424444444443 {

n (n 2) (n 4) 51

9z 4

39. 5

8 5.4 n (n 2) (n 4) 51

9z 4 3n 6 51

5

88 5.4 8

9z 4

3n 6 6 51 6

13.4 3n 45

1 2 5(13.4)

5

9z 4 3n 45

5 5 3

3

9z 4 67 n 15

9z 4 4 67 4 n 2 15 2 or 17 n 4 15 4 or 19

9z 63

The consecutive odd integers are 15, 17, and 19.

9z 63

9

9

z7

40. First, solve 3a 9 6.

3a 9 6

3a 9 9 6 9

3a 15

3a 15

3

3

a5

87 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 88 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

45. Let n the least even integer. 49. Let x the length of the shortest side.

Then n 2 the next greater even integer, and Then x 2 the length of the next longer side,

n 4 the greatest of the three even integers. and x 4 the length of the longest side.

The sum of three consecutive even integers is 30. The sum of the three sides is 54.

1444444442444444443 { 123 1444442444443 { {

n (n 2) (n 4) 30 x (x 2) (x 4) 54

n (n 2) (n 4) 30 x (x 2) (x 4) 54

3n 6 30 3x 6 54

3n 6 6 30 6 3x 6 6 54 6

3n 36 3x 48

3n 36 3x 48

3

3 3

3

n 12 x 16

n 2 12 2 or 10 n 4 12 4 or 8 x 2 16 2 or 18 x 4 16 4 or 20

The consecutive even integers are 12, 10, The lengths of the sides are 16 cm, 18 cm, and

and 8. 20 cm.

46. Let n the least integer. a 7000

50. 9 2000

2

Then n 1 the next greater integer, a 7000

92 2 2

n 2 the next greater integer, and 2000

a 7000

n 3 the greatest of the four integers. 7

1 2

2000

The sum of four consecutive integers is 94. a 7000

1444444442444444443 { { 2000(7) 2000 2000

n (n 1) (n 2) (n 3) 94

14,000 a 7000

n (n 1) (n 2) (n 3) 94 14,000 7000 a 7000 7000

4n 6 94 21,000 a

4n 6 6 94 6

They can climb to about 21,000 ft.

4n 88

4n 88 51. 8 2/ 12

4

4 8 12 2/ 12 12

n 22 20 2/

n 1 22 1 or 23 n 2 22 2 or 24 20

2/

2 2

n 3 22 3 or 25

10 /

The consecutive integers are 22, 23, 24, and 25.

The person’s foot is about 10 in. long.

47. Let n the least odd integer.

52. See students’ work.

Then n 2 the next greater odd integer,

53. Let x the amount of sales.

n 4 the next greater odd integer, and

n 6 the greatest of the four odd integers. The monthly the amount

salary

1442443 plus

123 2% of of sales

{ { 1442443 { 123

is $2000.

The sum of four consecutive odd integers is 8.

1444444442444444443 { {

500 0.02 x 2000

n (n 2) (n 4) (n 6) 8

500 0.02x 2000

n (n 2) (n 4) (n 6) 8

500 0.02x 500 2000 500

4n 12 8

0.02x 1500

4n 12 12 8 12

0.02x 1500

4n 4 0.02

0.02

4n 4

x 75,000

4 4

n 1 Mr. Goetz must have $75,000 in sales.

n 2 1 2 or 1 n 4 1 4 or 3 54. Let the length of the rectangle.

n 6 1 6 or 5 The area the area of the area of

4

The consecutive odd integers are 1, 1, 3, and 5. of the square minus the rectangle is of the square.

1442443 123 1442443 { 5

{ { 1442443

48. Let x the number of miles driven in one day. 10 10 4/

4

5

(10 10)

Price of car cost per number cost for 4

per day plus mile times of4miles is one day.

10 10 4/ 5 (10 10)

14243 123 14 243 123 1 243 { 14243

4

14.95 0.10 x 60 100 4/ 5(100)

14.95 0.1x 60 100 4/ 80

14.95 0.1x 14.95 60 14.95 100 4/ 100 80 100

0.1x 45.05 4/ 20

0.1x 45.05

0.1

0.1

4/

20

4 4

x 450.5 /5

Ms. Jones can drive 450.5 mi. The length of the rectangle is 5 in.

Chapter 3 88

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 89 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

p (5)

6

2

m, m 2 be the odd numbers.

p (5)

The sum of two the sum of two 2

6 66

consecutive consecutive p (5)

2

6 0

even numbers equals odd numbers.

1442443 123 1442443

n (n 2) m (m 2) Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.

n (n 2) m (m 2) Step 3 Enter ( ALPHA P ( ( ) 5

2n 2 2m 2 ) ) ⫼ ( ) 2 6.

2n 2 2 2m 2 2

2n 2m Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the

2n

2m

solution. P 17.

2 2

r 0.8

nm 63. Step 1 0.7 6

r 0.8

Thus, n must equal m, so n is not even or m is not 0.7 0.7 6

0.7

odd. r 0.8

56. By using the length at birth, the amount of 0 6

0.7

growth each year, and the current length, you can Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.

write and solve an equation to find the age of the

Step 3 Enter ( ALPHA R 0.8 ) ⫼

animal. Answers should include the following.

• To solve the equation, subtract 8 from each 0.7. 6

side and then divide each side by 12. Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the

• The alligator is about 93 or 10 years old.

2

solution. R 5.

57. B; 1

Fifteen minus three times a number equals negative twenty-two. 64. Step 1 4.91 7.2t 38.75

4243 123 123 123 14243 123 14444244443

15 3 n 22 4.91 7.2t 38.75 38.75 38.75

or 15 3n 22 7.2t 33.84 0

3

58. D; 5

a 19 16 Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.

3

5

a 19 19 16 19 Step 3 Enter 7.2 ALPHA T 33.84.

3 ALPHA

a 3 Step 4 Press [SOLVE] to reveal the

1 2 53 (3)

5

5 3 solution. T 4.7.

3 5

a

a 5

59. Step 1 0 11y 33 Page 148 Maintain Your Skills

65. 7t 91

Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve. 7t 91

7

7

Step 3Enter 11 ALPHA Y 33.

t 13

Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the Check: 7t 91

solution. Y 3. ?

w 2

40 7(13) 91

60. Step 1 5 91 91 ✓

Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve. The solution is 13.

r

Step 3 Enter ( ALPHA W 2 ) ⫼ 66. 8

1 2 15(8)

15

r

5

4. 15 15

r

solution. W 18. Check: 15

8

h 120 ?

61. Step 1 6 12 7 8

15

6 6 12

h

6 8 8 ✓

7

h The solution is 120.

0 18 7

Step 3 Enter ( ) 18 ALPHA H ⫼ ( )

7.

Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the

solution. H 126.

89 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 90 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

2 1 3a 16

67. 3b 1 2 75. (3a 16) 4

114 2

4

2 3

3b 2 (3a 16)

3 2

2 3 b 1 2 3

2 2

3

1 2 3a 1 4 2 16 1 4 2

1 1

9

b4 3

4a 4

1

b 24 76.

15t 25

(15t 25) (5)

1 12

5

2 1

Check: 3b 1 2 (15t 25) 5

2 1 ?

3 2 4 1 2

1

1 2 15t 1 5 2 25 1 5 2

1 1

1 1

1 2 1 2 ✓ 3t (5)

1

The solution is 2 4. 3t 5

77. 17 9 17(10 1)

68. Words: The number of models in 1990 plus 18

17(10) 17(1)

equals the number of models in 2000.

170 17

Variable: Let m the number of models in 1990. 153

The number of the number of

models in 1990 1

plus

78. 13(101) 13(100 1)

23 18 equals models in 2000.

1442443 { 123 1442443

13(100) 13(1)

Equation: m 18 47 1300 13

The equation is m 18 47. 1313

69. Solve m 18 47.

1 12

79. 16 1 4 16 1 4 1 1

2

114 2

m 18 47

m 18 18 47 18 16(1) 16

m 29

16 4

There were 29 models in 1990. 20

70. There are two numbers divisible by 3, and there

1 12

80. 18 2 9 18 2 9 1 1

2

119 2

are 8 2 or 6 numbers not divisible by 3.

odds of divisible by 3 6

2 18(2) 18

3

1 36 2

38

The odds of spinning a number divisible by 3

81. the product

14444244443 of 5 and m, 1

plus

23 half

142of

43n

are 1:3.

1

71. There are four numbers equal to or greater than 5m 2

n

5, and there are 8 4 or 4 numbers less than 5. n

Thus, the algebraic expression is 5m 2 .

4

odds of equal to or greater than 5 4 82. the quantity 3 plus b 14243

14444244443 divided by {y

1

1 (3 b) y

The odds of spinning a number equal to or greater Thus, the algebraic expression is (3 b) y.

than 5 are 1:1. 83. {

3 times a 1

plus

123 { 23 the

144 square

4244of 43b

72. There are six numbers less than 7, and there are

3 a b2

8 6 or 2 numbers not less than 7.

6 Thus, the algebraic expression is 3a b2.

odds of less than 7 2

84. 5d 2d (5 2)d 85. 11m 5m (11 5)m

3

1 3d 6m

The odds of spinning a number less than 7 86. 8t 6t (8 6)t 87. 7g 15g (7 15)g

are 3:1. 14t 8g

6 6 1 88. 9f 6f (9 6)f

73. 7 3 7 3

3f

6

21 89. 3m (7m) [3 (7)]m

2

7 10m

2

3 2

74. 38

8

2 1

38

2

24

1

12

Chapter 3 90

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 91 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

3 1 1 3

Solving Equations with the Check: 4t 2t 4

1 12 11 12 2 34

8

3-5 ? 1

Variable on Each Side 3

8

1

4 12 2

3 3 ? 3 3

8

8 4 4

Pages 151–152 Check for Understanding

1a. Incorrect; the 2 must be distributed over both g 00✓

1

and 5. The solution is 1 2.

2(g 5) 22 7. 3(a 5) 6

2g 10 22 3a 15 6

2g 10 10 22 10 3a 15 15 6 15

2g 12 3a 9

2g 12

2

2

3a

3

9

3

g6 a3

The solution is 6. Check: 3(a 5) 6

?

1b. correct 3(3 5) 6

?

1c. Incorrect; to eliminate 6z on the left side of the 3(2) 6

equals sign, 6z must be added to each side of the 6 6 ✓

equation. The solution is 3.

6z 13 7z 8. 7 3r r 4(2 r)

6z 13 6z 7z 6z 7 3r r 8 4r

13 13z 7 3r 8 3r

13 13z

13

13

7 3r 3r 8 3r 3r

1z 7 8

The solution is 1. Since 7 8 is a false statement, this equation

has no solution.

2. If both sides of the equation are always equal, the

equation is an identity. 9. 6 3 5(d 2)

6 3 5d 10

3. Sample answer: 2x 5 2x 5

6 5d 7

4a. Subtract 6n from each side. 6 7 5d 7 7

4b. Simplify. 13 5d

4c. Add 13 to each side. 13

5d

5 5

4d. Simplify.

2.6 d

4e. Divide each side by 2.

Check: 6 3 5(d 2)

4f. Simplify. ?

6 3 5(2.6 2)

5. 20c 5 5c 65 ?

6 3 5(0.6)

20c 5 5c 5c 65 5c ?

15c 5 65 633

15c 5 5 65 5 66✓

15c 60 The solution is 2.6.

c 1 c

15c

15

60 10. 4

1 2 814c 2

15 8

c 1

c4 8 8

Check: 20c 5 5c 65 c 1 2c

?

20(4) 5 5(4) 65 c 1 c 2c c

?

80 5 20 65 1c

85 85 ✓ c 1 c

Check: 8

4

The solution is 4. 1 1 ? 1

3 1 1 3 8

4

6. 8

4t 2t 4 2 ? 1

3 1 1 1 3 1 8

4

8

4t 2t 2t 4 2t 1 1

3 3 3 4

4 ✓

8

4t 4

The solution is 1.

3 3 3 3 3

8

4t 8 4 8 11. 5h 7 5(h 2) 3

3

4t 8

9 5h 7 5h 10 3

1 2 43 198 2

5h 7 5h 7

4 3

3 4 t Since the expressions on each side of the equation

t2

3 are the same, this equation is an identity. The

1

statement 5h 7 5(h 2) 3 is true for all

t 12 values of h.

91 Chapter 3

PQ249-6481F-03[062-092] 26/9/02 4:30 PM Page 92 Sahuja Ahuja_QXP_06:Desktop Folder:Chandra:Algebra_FNL_Delivery:

12. 5.4w 8.2 9.8w 2.8 Exercises 16–39 For checks, see students’ work.

5.4w 8.2 9.8w 9.8w 2.8 9.8w 16. 3 4q 10q 10

8.2 4.4w 2.8 3 4q 10q 10q 10 10q

8.2 4.4w 8.2 2.8 8.2 3 14q 10

4.4w 11 3 14q 3 10 3

4.4w 11 14q 7

4.4

4.4

14q 7

w 2.5 14

14

Check: 5.4w 8.2 9.8w 2.8 1

q 2 or 0.5

?

5.4(2.5) 8.2 9.8(2.5) 2.8 17. 3k 5 7k 21

?

13.5 8.2 24.5 2.8 3k 5 7k 7k 21 7k

21.7 21.7 ✓ 4k 5 21

The solution is 2.5. 4k 5 5 21 5

13. D; Solve by substitution. 4k 16

4k 16

A 75 9t 5(4 2t) 4

4

?

75 9(5) 5[4 2(5)] k4

?

75 (45) 5[4 (10)] 18. 5t 9 3t 7

?

75 45 5[14] 5t 9 3t 3t 7 3t

120 70 8t 9 7

B 75 9t 5(4 2t) 8t 9 9 7 9

?

75 9(4) 5[4 2(4)] 8t 16

? 8t 16

75 (36) 5[4 (8)] 8

8

?

75 36 5[12] t2

111 60 19. 8s 9 7s 6

C 75 9t 5(4 2t) 8s 9 7s 7s 6 7s

?

75 9(4) 5[4 2(4)] s96

?

75 36 5[4 8] s9969

? s 3

39 5[4] 3 1

39 20 20. 4

n 16 2 8n

D 75 9t 5(4 2t) 3

n

1

16 8n 2 8n 8n

1 1

? 4

75 9(5) 5[4 2(5)] 7

? n 16 2

75 45 5[4 10] 8

7

?

30 5[6] 8

n 16 16 2 16

30 30 ✓ 7

n 14

1 2 87 1142

8

The answer is D. 8 7

7 8

n

n 16

1 2 3 1

Pages 152–154 Practice and Apply 21. 4

3y 4 3y

14a. Multiply each side by 10. 1 2 1 3 1 1

4

3y 3y 4 3y 3y

14b. Simplify.

1 1 3

14c. Distributive Property 4

3y 4

1 1 1 3 1

14d. Add 4 to each side.

4

3y 4 44

14e. Simplify. 1 1

3y 2

1 2 3112 2

14f. Divide each side by 6.

1

14g. Simplify. 3 3y

3

15a. Subtract v from each side. y 2

15b. Simplify. y 1 2

1

22. 8 4(3c 5)

15d. Simplify. 8 12c 20

15e. Divide each side by 6. 8 20 12c 20 20

15f. Simplify. 12 12c

12 12c

12

12

1 c

Chapter 3 92

23. 7(m 3) 7 30.

3

y y 4 2y

1

2

7m 21 7 1 1

7m 21 21 7 21 2

y 4 2y

7m 28 1

y

1

y

1

4 2y 2y

1

7m 28 2 2

7

7 04

m4 Since 0 4 is a false statement, this equation has

24. 6(r 2) 4 10 no solution.

6r 12 4 10 31.

2

3 5b 11 5b

2

6r 8 10

2 2 2 2

6r 8 8 10 8 3 5b 5b 11 5b 5b

6r 18 4

3 5b 11

6r 18

4

6 6 3 5b 3 11 3

r 3 4

b 8

1 2 54(8)

1

25. 5 2 (x 6) 4 5

5 4

1 b

5 2x 3 4 4 5

1

b 10

2x 8 4 1 g

32. 4

(7 3g) 8

1

2x 8848 7 3 g

4

4g 8

1

2x 4

1 2 2(4)

7 3 g g g

4

4g 8 8 8

1

2 2x 7 7

4

8g 0

x8 7 7 7 7

26. 4(2a 1) 10(a 5) 4

8g 4 04

8a 4 10a 50 7

g 4

7

1 2 87 174 2

8

8a 4 10a 10a 50 10a 8 7

18a 4 50 7 8

g

18a 4 4 50 4 g 2

18a 54 1 1

33. 6

(a 4) 3(2a 4)

18a 54

18

18 1 2 2 4

6

a3 3a 3

a3

1 2 2 2 4 2

27. 4(f 2) 4f 6

a 3 3a 3a 3 3a

4f 8 4f 1

2a 3

2

3

4

4f 8 4f 4f 4f 1 2 2 4 2

8 0 2a 3 3 33

Since 8 0 is a false statement, this equation 1

2a 2

1 2 2(2)

has no solution. 1

2 2a

28. 3(1 d) 5 3d 2

3 3d 5 3d 2 a 4

3d 2 3d 2 34. 28 2.2x 11.6x 262.6

Since the expressions on each side of the equation 28 2.2x 11.6x 11.6x 262.6 11.6x

are the same, this equation is an identity. The 28 13.8x 262.6

statement 3(1 d) 5 3d 2 is true for all 28 13.8x 28 262.6 28

values of d. 13.8x 234.6

13.8x 234.6

29. 2(w 3) 5 3(w 1) 13.8

13.8

2w 6 5 3w 3

x 17

2w 1 3w 3

2w 1 3w 3w 3 3w 35. 1.03p 4 2.15p 8.72

w 1 3 1.03p 4 2.15p 2.15p 8.72 2.15p

w 1 1 3 1 3.18p 4 8.72

w 2 3.18p 4 4 8.72 4

w 2

3.18p 12.72

1

1 3.18p 12.72

3.18

3.18

w2

p4

93 Chapter 3

36. 18 3.8t 7.36 1.9t 2(n 2) 3n 13

18 3.8t 1.9t 7.36 1.9t 1.9t 2n 4 3n 13

18 1.9t 7.36 2n 4 3n 3n 13 3n

18 1.9t 18 7.36 18 n 4 13

1.9t 10.64 n 4 4 13 4

1.9t

10.64 n 17

1.9 1.9 n 17

t 5.6 1

1

13.7v 6.5 2.3v 2.3v 8.3 2.3v n 2 17 2 or 19

16v 6.5 8.3 The consecutive odd integers are 17 and 19.

16v 6.5 6.5 8.3 6.5 43. Let n the least even integer.

16v 14.8 Then n 2 the next greater even integer, and

16v 14.8

16

16

n 4 the greatest of the three even integers.

v 0.925 Three

123 times

123 the

14 greatest

4244 equals twice

3 123