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Solutions Manual

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United
States of America. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the
condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,
teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe
Algebra 1. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written
permission of the publisher.

Send all inquiries to:


Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027

ISBN: 0-07-827752-3 Algebra 1


Solutions Manual
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 009 07 06 05 04 03 02
Contents

Chapter 1 The Language of Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Chapter 2 Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Chapter 3 Solving Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Chapter 4 Graphing Relations and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Chapter 5 Analyzing Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Chapter 6 Solving Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Chapter 7 Solving Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities . . . . . . 305
Chapter 8 Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Chapter 9 Factoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Chapter 10 Quadratic and Exponential Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Chapter 11 Radical Expressions and Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Chapter 12 Rational Expressions and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Chapter 13 Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Chapter 14 Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Prerequisite Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Extra Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
Mixed Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766

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Chapter 1 The Language of Algebra


Page 5 Getting Started 1-1 Variables and Expressions
1. 8  8  64 2. 4  16  64 3. 18  9  162
57
4. 23  6  138 5. 57  3  3  19
68 72 90
Page 8 Check for Understanding
6. 68  4  4
 17 7. 3
 24 8. 6
 15 1. Algebraic expressions include variables and
9. P  2(l  w) numbers, while verbal expressions contain words.
 2(5.6  2.7) 2. Sample answer: The perimeter is the sum of the
 2(8.3) four sides of the rectangle. Thus, the perimeter is
 16.6 the sum of two l’s and two w’s, or 2l  2w.
The perimeter is 16.6 meters. 3. Sample answer: Let a be the variable. Then, a to
10. P  2(l  w) the fifth power is a5.
 2(6.5  3.05) 4. The word sum implies add, so the expression can
 2(9.55) be written as j  13.
 19.1 5. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Less than
The perimeter is 19.1 centimeters. implies subtract in reverse order, and times
11. P  4s
1 32
implies multiply. So the expression can be written
 4 18 as 3x  24.

 41 8 2
6. 92  9  9
11
 81

11 7. 44  4  4  4  4 4
2
 256
1
 52 8. the product of 4 and m to the fourth power
1
The perimeter is 5 2 feet. 9. one half of n cubed
12. P  2l  2w 10. Lorenzo will receive the difference of $20 and p
1
 2 42 8  2 25 4
5
2 1 1
2 the cost of the peanuts. The word difference
implies subtract, so the expression can be written
10 2
 84 8  50 4 as 20  p.
2 2
 85 8  50 4
1 2
 85 4  50 4 Pages 8–9 Practice and Apply
 135 4
3 11. The word sum implies add, so the expression can
be written as 35  z.
3
The perimeter is 135 4 feet. 12. Sample answer: Let x be the number. The word
1 4
sum implies add, so the expression can be written
13. 1.2 14. 3.9 as x  7.
6  0.5 13. The word product implies multiply, so the
7.2 1.95 expression can be written as 16p.
1.8 7.6 14. Sample answer: Let y be the number. The word
15. 1.83.2
 4  10.6
16. 1.4 4 product implies multiply, so the expression can be
1 8 9 8 written as 5y.
14 4 84
15. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Increased
1 4 4 8 4
by implies add, and twice implies multiply by 2.
0 0
So the expression can be written as 49  2x.
3 3 12 2 3 5 3
17. 4
 12  4  1
18. 1 3  4  3  4 16. And implies add, and times implies multiply. So
3
3
12 5
1
3
the expression can be written as 18  3d.
 4
 1
 34 17. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Two-thirds
1 1 2
9 5 implies multiply by 3, and square implies raise
1 4 to the second power. So the expression can be
2
9  14
1 written as 3 x 2.
1
5 9 5 12 5 2 5 3
1 18. One-half implies multiply by 2, and cube implies
19. 16
 12
 16
 9 20. 6
 3
 6
2 raise to the third power. So the expression can be
1
written as 2 n3.
2
3
5 12 5
 16  9
4 19. The word for implies multiply. So the amount of
4
money Kendra will have is represented by the
15 1
 36  14 expression s  12d.
5
 12

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20. The word square implies raise to the second 47. You can use the expression 4s to find the
power. So the area of the circle is represented by perimeter of a baseball diamond. Answers should
the expression r2.2 include the following.
21. 62  6  6 2 • four times the length of the sides and the sum
 36 of the four sides
• ssss
22. 82  8  8
 64 48. D; More than implies add, and times implies
multiply. So the expression can be written as
23. 34  3  3  3  3
6  2x or 2x  6.
 81
49. B; 4  4  4  43 and c  c  c  c  c4
24. 63  6  6  6
 216
25. 35  3  3  3  3  3
 243
Page 9 Maintain Your Skills
3.2
26. 153  15  15  15 1 09 91 11
1.04 53. 4.8 15.3
 33753
50. 14.3 51. 10.00 52.  6
 1.8 3.24  4.3 14 4
27. 106  10  10  10  10  10  10 16.1 6.76 312 96
 1,000,000 416 9 6
28. 1003  100  100  100 4.472 0
 1,000,000 1 2 5 6 3 1 9 2
54. 3
 5  15  15 55. 4
 6  12  12
29. The word for implies multiply. So the cost of 11 7
buying b dozen bagels for $8.50 a dozen can be  15  12
represented by the expression 8.5b. Also the cost 1 1
3 4 3 4
of buying d dozen donuts for $3.99 a dozen can be 56. 8
989
2 3
represented by the expression 3.99d. The word
1
and implies add. So the cost of buying b dozen 6
bagels and d dozen donuts can be represented by 7 3 7 5
the expression 8.5b  3.99d. 57. 10
 5  10  3
1
30. The word for implies multiply. So the amount of 7 5
miles driven for two weeks can be represented by  10  3
2
the expression 14m. The mileage on Sari’s 7 1
odometer after her trip is the sum of 23,500 and  6 or 16
14m or the expression 23,500  14m.
31. 7 times p
32. 15 times r Page 10 Reading Mathematics
33. three cubed 1. c; 9  2  n 2. b; 4  (n  6) 3. f; n  52
34. five to the fourth power 4. h; 3(8  n) 5. g; 9  (2  n) 6. d; 3(8)  n
35. three times x squared plus four 7. a; (n  5)2 8. e; 4  n  6
36. 2 times n cubed plus 12 9. Sample answer: one more than five times x
37. a to the fourth power times b squared 10. Sample answer: five times the quantity x plus one
38. n cubed times p to the fifth power 11. Sample answer: three plus the product of seven
and x
39. Sample answer: one-fifth 12 times z squared
12. Sample answer: the sum of three and x multiplied
40. Sample answer: one-fourth 8 times g cubed
by seven
41. 3 times x squared minus 2 times x
13. Sample answer: the sum of six and b divided by y
42. 4 times f to the fifth power minus 9 times k cubed
14. Sample answer: six plus the quotient of b and y
43. Sum implies add, and product implies multiply.
1
So the expression can be written as x  11x.
44. Sum implies add, product implies multiply, and
twice implies multiply by 2. So the expression can
1-2 Order of Operations
be written as 2lw  2lh  2wh.
45. The word by implies multiply, so the expression Page 13 Check for Understanding
can be written as 3.5m. 1. Sample answer: First add the numbers in
46. The area of the square can be represented by the parentheses, (2  5). Next square 6. Then
expression a2 or a  a . The perimeter can be multiply 7 by 3. Subtract inside the brackets.
represented as a  a  a  a or 4a. If a  4, Multiply that by 8. Divide, then add 3.
then a  a  4  4  16 and 4  a  4  4  16. 2. Sample answer: (2  4)  3
Thus, the value of a is 4. 3. Chase; Laurie raised the incorrect quantity to the
second power.

Chapter 1 2
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4. (4  6)7  (10)7 5. 50  (15  9)  50  24 17. 15  3  2  15  6 18. 22  3  7  22  21


 70  26  21  43
6. 29  3(9  4)  29  3(5) 19. 4(11  7)  9  8  4(18)  9  8
 29  15  72  9  8
 14  72  72
7. [7(2)  4]  [9  8(4)]  [14  4]  [9  8(4)] 0
 10  [9  8(4)] 20. 12(9  5)  6  3  12(14)  6  3
 10  [9  32]  168  6  3
 10  41  168  18
 51  150
(4  3) 2  5 (12) 2  5 21. 12  3  5  42  12  3  5  16
8. 9  3
 9  3
144  5  4  5  16
 9  3  20  16

720 4
9  3
720 22. 15  3  5  42  15  3  5  16
 12  5  5  16
 60  25  16
3  23 3  8 9
9. 
52 (4) 52 (4) 23. 288  [3(9  3)]  288  [3(12)]
11
 52 (4)
 288  [36]
11
8
 25 (4)
24. 390  [5(7  6)]  390  [5(13)]
 100
11
 390  [65]
6
10. hk  gj  6  12  4  8
2  82  22  8 2  64  4  8
 72  4  8 25. 
2  8 2  8
 72  32 128  32
 40  2  8
96
11. 2k  gh2  j  2  12  4  62  8  2  8
 2  12  4  36  8 96

 24  4  36  8 16
 24  144  8 6
 168  8 4  62  42  6 4  36  16  6
26. 4  6
 4  6
 160
144  96
 4  6
2g(h  g) 2  4(6  4)
12. gh  j
 468 
48
4  6
2  4(2)
468 48
 24
8(2)
468 2
16
468 27. [ (8  5) (6  2) 2 ]  (4  17  2)

[ (13) (4) 2 ]  (4  17  2)
[ (24  2)  3 ] [ (24  2)  3 ]
16
 24  8 
[ (13) (16) ]  (4  17  2)
[ (24  2)  3 ]
16
 16 
208  (68  2)
[ (24  2)  3 ]
1 208  34
 [ (24  2)  3 ]
13. 3 packages 2 additional
174
of software plus packages  [ (24  2)  3 ]
1442443 123 1442443
20.00  2  9.95 
174
[ 12  3 ]
or 20.00  2  9.95 174
 4
14. Evaluate 20.00  2  9.95. 87 1
20.00  2  9.95  20.00  19.90  or 43 2

3 2 3 7  (2  3  5) 4  6  3 2 3 7  (6  5) 4
2
 39.90 28. 6 
 6  3 3  14
The cost of 5 software packages is $39.90.
2  7

 6  33  14
9

Pages 14–15 Practice and Apply


 6  [ 3  1]
15. (12  6)  2  6  2 62
 12 4
16. (16  3)  4  13  4
 52

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29. Evaluate n(2n  3) for n  4.


1xy 2 3y  z
1128 2  (12
3  8  3
2 2
38.  
 1 2 2  (12  8)
(x  y) 2  8) 2
n(2n  3)  4(2  4  3)
3 2 3  8  3
 4(8  3) 2

 4(11) 9 3  8  3
  (12  8) 2
 44 4
24  3
The area of the rectangle is 44 cm2.2. 
9
 (12  8) 2
4
30. Samantha Derrick 9 21
sells 60 70 balcony sells 50 90 balcony  4
 (12  8) 2
floor seats and seats and floor seats and seats.
1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443
9 21
60(7.5)  70(5)  50(7.5)  90(5)  4
 42
or 60(7.5)  70(5)  50(7.5)  90(5) 9 21
  16
31. Evaluate 60(7.5)  70(5)  50(7.5)  90(5). 4
36 21
60(7.5)  70(5)  50(7.5)  90(5)  450  350  16
 16
 375  450 15
 800  375  450  16
 1175  450 x  z 2
2y  x 12  32 2  8  12
39.    82  2
 1625 y  x y2  2 8  12
12  9 16  12
Samantha and Derrick have collected $1625.  8  12
 64  2
32. x  y2  z2  12  82  32 3 4
  64  2
 12  64  32 8  12
3 4
 12  64  9  2

32
 76  9 3
3 4
 85  3  2  32
33. x3  y  z3  123  8  33 9 4
 2  32
 1728  8  33
9  16 4
 1728  8  27  2  16  32
 1736  27 144 4
  32
 1763 32
148
34. 3xy  z  3  12  8  3  32
 36  8  3 37 5
 or 4 8
 288  3 8

 285 40. 100 cells after 250 cells after


35. 4x  yz  4  12  8  3 20 minutes plus 20 minutes
144424443 123 144424443
 48  8  3 100.2  250.2
 48  24
or 100  2  250  2
 24
2xy  z3 2  12  8  33
Evaluate 100  2  250  2.
36. z
 3 100  2  250  2  200  250  2

2  12  8  27  200  500
3  700
24  8  27
 3 The total number in both dishes is 700 bacteria
192  27 cells.
 3
165
41. the sum of salary, commission, and 4 bonuses
 3 salary plus commission plus 1442443
42. 14243 4 bonuses
123 1442443 123
 55
xy2  3z 12  82  3  3
s  c  4b
37. 3
 3 or his earnings e is s  c  4b.
12  64  3  3
 3 43. Evaluate s  c  4b for s  42,000,
768  3  3 c  12  825 or 9900, and b  750.
 3 s  c  4b  42,000  9900  4  750
768  9
  42,000  9900  3000
3
759
 51,900  3000
 3  54,900
 253 Mr. Martinez earns $54,900 in a year.

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44. Sample answer: Using 1, 2, 3: 4 9 91 1


64. 0.5000 65. 5.600
1  2  3  6; 1  2  3  7; 1  2  3  5;
0.0075  1.612
3  2  1  1; (2  1)  3  3
0.4925 7.212
45. Use the order of operations to determine how
many extra hours were used and then how much 2.884 1 11
66. 5.214.9968 67. 6.42 5
the extra hours cost. Then find the total cost.  
Answers should include the following. 10 4  2.3
4 59 1 9 27 5
• 6 [4.95  0.99(n)]  25.00
4 16 12 8 50
• You can use an expression to calculate a specific 436 14.7 77 5
value without calculating all possible values. 416
46. A; Evaluate a  b  c for a  10, b  12, and c  17. 208
a  b  c  10  12  17 208
 22  17 0
 39 1 1 33 3 3 5 3 19
47. B; (5  1)3  (11  2)2  (7  4)3  43  92  33 3 68. 4 8  1 2  8
 2
69. 5
 27  5  7
 64  81  27 33 3  4 21 95
 8
 2  4
 35
 35
 145  27 33 12 116
 172  8
 8
 35
21 11
( .25 ⫻ .75   3 35
48. Enter: 2 ) ⫼ ( 7 ⫻ 8
5
 28
.75 3 ) ENTER 0.0476190476
1 2
( 2 ⫻ 27.89 2 ) ⫼ ( 5 4 5 4
49. Enter: 27.89 70. 6
5  6 5
2 27.89 ) ENTER 2.074377092 3 1
2

2 ) ⫼
3
50. Enter: ( 12.75 3 12.75 2 8 2
71. 8  19
( 12.75 3 12.75 2
) 9
8 9
 12
ENTER 1.170212766
4
8 9
 1
2
1
36
Page 15 Maintain Your SkillsMaintain Your Skills  1
51. Product implies multiply, so the expression can be  36
written as a3  b4.
52. Less than implies subtract in reverse order, and
times implies multiply. So the expression can be Open Sentences
written as 3y2  6.
1-3
53. Sum implies add, increased by implies add, and
quotient implies divide. So the expression can be Page 18 Check for Understanding
b
written as a  b  a. 1. Sample answer: An open sentence contains an
54. Times implies multiply, sum implies add, equals sign or inequality sign.
increased by implies add, twice implies multiply 2. Sample answer: x  7
by 2, and difference implies subtract. So the 3. Sample answer: An open sentence has at least
expression can be written as 4(r  s)  2(r  s). one variable because it is neither true nor false
55. Triple implies multiply by 3, and difference until specific values are used for the variable.
implies subtract. So the expression can be written 4. Replace x in 3x  7  29 with each value in the
as 3(55  w3).3). replacement set.
56. 24  2  2  2  2
 16 x 3x  7  29 True or False?
?
57. 121  121 10 31102  7  29 S 23 29 false
58. 82  8  8 59. 44  4  4  4  4 11 31112  7  29 S 26 29
?
false
 64  256 ?
60. Five times n plus n divided by 2 12 31122  7  29 S 29  29 true ✓
?
61. 12 less than q squared 13 31132  7  29 S 32 29 false
62. the sum of x and three divided by the square of ?
14 31142  7  29 S 35 29 false
the quantity x minus two ?
63. x cubed divided by nine 15 31152  7  29 S 38 29 false
The solution of 3x  7  29 is 12.

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5. Replace x in 12(x  8)  84 with each value in 11. Replace x in 3(12  x)  2 28 with each value
the replacement set. in the replacement set.
x 12(x  8)  84 True or False? True or
? x 3(12  x)  2  28 False?
10 12110  82  84 S 24 84 false
?
? 1.5 3(12  1.5)  2 28 S 29.5 28 false
11 12111  82  84 S 36 84 false
?
? 2 3(12  2)  2 28 S 28 28 true ✓
12 12112  82  84 S 48 84 false ?
? 2.5 3(12  2.5)  2 28 S 26.5 28 true ✓
13 12113  82  84 S 60 84 false ?
? 3 3(12  3)  2 28 S 25 28 true ✓
14 12114  82  84 S 72 84 false
? The solution set for 3(12  x)  2 28 is {2, 2.5, 3}.
15 12115  82  84 S 84  84 true ✓
12. the number
The solution of 12(x  8)  84 is 15. The number of Calories the number divided the number
2 3 of Calories is perpound times of pounds by of days.
6. Replace x in x  5  1 20 with each value in the 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 14243 1442443
C  3500 . 4  14
replacement set. 3500  4
or C  14
2 3
x x  5  1 20 True or False? 3500  4
13. Solve C  14
.
1 1 2 ? 3 13 3
4 4
 5  1 20 S 20 1 20 false C
3500  4
14
1 1 2 ? 3 9 3 14,000
  1 20 S 10 1 20 false C 14
2 2 5
3 3 2 ? 3 3 3 C  1000
4 4
 5  1 20 S 1 20  1 20 true ✓
The number of Calories a person would have to
1
2 ? 3
1  5  1 20 S 1 5 1 20
2 3
false burn each day is 1000 Calories.

1 1 2 ? 3 13 3
14 1 4  5  1 20 S 1 20 1 20 false
2 3 3
Pages 19–20 Practice and Apply
The solution of x  5  1 20 is 4. 14. Replace b in b  12  9 with each value in the
7. Replace x in 7.2(x  2)  25.92 with each value in replacement set.
the replacement set. b b  12  9 True or False?
True or ?
12 12  12  9 S 0 9 false
x 7.2(x  2)  25.92 False? ?
? 17 17  12  9 S 5 9 false
1.2 7.211.2  22  25.92 S 23.04 25.92 false ?
? 18 18  12  9 S 6 9 false
1.4 7.211.4  22  25.92 S 24.48 25.92 false ?
?
21 21  12  9 S 9  9 true ✓
1.6 7.211.6  22  25.92 S 25.92  25.92 true ✓ ?
?
25 25  12  9 S 13 9 false
1.8 7.211.8  22  25.92 S 27.36 25.92 false
The solution of b  12  9 is 21.
The solution of 7.2(x  2)  25.92 is 1.6. 15. Replace b in 34  b  22 with each value in the
14  8
8. 4(6)  3  x 9. w  2 replacement set.
6
24  3  x w2 b 34  b  22 True or False?
?
27  x w3 12 34  12  22 S 22  22 true ✓
The solution is 27. The solution is 3. ?
17 34  17  22 S 17 22 false
10. Replace x in 24  2x
13 with each value in the ?
replacement set. 18 34  18  22 S 16 22 false
?
x 24  2x  13 True or False? 21 34  21  22 S 13 22 false
? ?
0 24  2102
13 S 24
13 true ✓ 25 34  25  22 S 9 22 false

1
?
24  2112
13 S 22
13 true ✓ The solution of 34  b  22 is 12.
?
2 24  2122
13 S 20
13 true ✓
?
3 24  2132
13 S 18
13 true ✓
?
4 24  2142
13 S 16
13 true ✓
?
5 24  2152
13 S 14
13 true ✓
?
6 24  2162
13 S 12 13 false
The solution set for 24  2x
13 is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}.
Chapter 1 6
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16. Replace a in 3a  7  31 with each value in the 20. Replace x in x  4 


7 17
with each value in the
8
replacement set. replacement set.
a 3a  7  31 True or False? 7 17
x x4 8
True or False?
?
0 3(0)  7  31 S 7 31 false 1 1 7 ? 17 15 17
? 8 8
4 8
S 8
8
false
3 3(3)  7  31 S 16 31 false
3 3 7 ? 17 17 17
?   8 S  true ✓
5 3(5)  7  31 S 22 31 false 8 8 4 8 8
? 5 5 7 ? 17 19 17
8 3(8)  7  31 S 31  31 true ✓ 8 8
4 8
S 8
8
false
?
10 3(10)  7  31 S 37 31 false 7 7
4
7 ? 17
S
21

17
false
8 8 8 8 8
The solution of 3a  7  31 is 8.
7 17 3
17. Replace a in 4a  5  17 with each value in the The solution of x  4  8
is 8.
replacement set. 7 25
21. Replace x in x  12  12 with each value in the
a 4a  5  17 True or False? replacement set.
?
0 4(0)  5  17 S 5 17 false x
7
x  12  12
25
True or false?
?
3 4(3)  5  17 S 17  17 true ✓ 1 1 7 ? 25 13 25
2 2
 12
 12 S 12 12 false
?
5 4(5)  5  17 S 25 17 false
7 ? 25 19 25
? 1 1  12  S 12 12 false
8 4(8)  5  17 S 37 17 false 12
? ? 25
10 4(10)  5  17 S 45 17 false 12
1 1
1 2  12 
7
S 12  12
25 25
true ✓
12
The solution of 4a  5  17 is 3. 7 ? 25 31 25
2 2  12  12
S 12 12 false
40
18. Replace a in  4  0 with each value in the
a
7 25 1
replacement set. The solution of x  12  12 is 1 2.
40 2 8
a a 40 True or False? 22. Replace x in 5 (x  1)  15 with each value in the
40 ? replacement set.
0  4  0 S undefined 0 false
1x
0 2 8
x  12  15 True or False?

1  12  158 S 157 158


40 ? 1 5
3 3
40 S 93 0 false ?
1 2 1
6 5 6
false

5 13
 1 2  15 S 15  15
40 ?
5 5
 4  0S4 0 false
1 2 1 ? 8 8 8
? 3
true ✓

5 12
 1 2  15 S 5 15
40
8 8
 4  0S1 0 false
1 2 1 ? 8 3 8
? 2
false

5 13
 1 2  15 S 3 15
40
10 10
 4  0S0  0 true ✓
2 2 2 ? 8 2 8
3
false
40
The solution of a
 4  0 is 10.
2 8 1
b
19. Replace b in 3  2  4 with each value in the The solution of 5 (x  1)  15 is 3.
replacement set. 23. Replace x in 2.7(x  5)  17.28 with each value in
b the replacement set.
b 3
24 True or False?
True or
12 ?
12 3
 2  4S2 4 false x 2.7(x  5)  17.28 False?
?
17
17 ?
 2  4 S 33 4
2
false 1.2 2.7(1.2  5)  17.28 S 16.74 17.28 false
3 ?
18 ? 1.3 2.7(1.3  5)  17.28 S 17.01 17.28 false
18 3
 2  4S4  4 true ✓ ?
1.4 2.7(1.4  5)  17.28 S 17.28  17.28 true ✓
21 ?
21  2  4S5 4 false ?
3 1.5 2.7(1.5  5)  17.28 S 17.55 17.28 false
25 ? 1
25 3
24 S 63 4 false The solution of 2.7(x  5)  17.28 is 1.4.
b
The solution of 3
 2  4 is 18.

7 Chapter 1
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24. Replace x in 16(x  2)  70.4 with each value in 1


35. p  4 [7(23 )  4(52 )  6(2) ]
the replacement set. 1
p  4 [7(8)  4(25)  12]
True or 1
x 16(x  2)  70.4 False? p  4 [56  100  12]
? 1
2.2 16 (2.2  2)  70.4 S 67.2 70.4 false p  4 [156  12]
? 1
2.4 16 (2.4  2)  70.4 S 70.4  70.4 true ✓ p  4 [144]

2.6
?
16 (2.6  2)  70.4 S 73.6 70.4 false p  36
?
The solution is 36.
2.8 16 (2.8  2)  70.4 S 76.8 70.4 false 1
36. n  8 [6(32 )  2(43 )  2(7) ]
The solution of 16(x  2)  70.4 is 2.4. 1
n  8 [6(9)  2(64)  14]
25. Replace x in 21(x  5)  216.3 with each value in 1
the replacement set. n  8 [54  128  14]
1
True or n  8 [182  14]
x 21(x  5)  216.3 False? 1
n  8 [164]
?
3.1 21 (3.1  5)  216.3 S 170.1 216.3 false n  21
? The solution is 21.
4.2 21 (4.2  5)  216.3 S 193.2 216.3 false
? 37. Replace a in a  2  6 with each value in the
5.3 21 (5.3  5)  216.3 S 216.3  216.3 true ✓ replacement set.
?
6.4 21 (6.4  5)  216.3 S 239.4 216.3 false a a26 True or False?
?
The solution of 21(x  5)  216.3 is 5.3. 6 6  2 6 6S4 6 6 true ✓
26. ?
The adult the student is no
7 7  2 6 6S5 6 6 true ✓
number price number price more ?
of adults times 1442443
1442443
per ticket plus 1442443
123
of students times 1442443
123 123
per ticket 123 $30.
than 123 8 8  2 6 6S6  6 false
   ?
2 a 3 s $30
9 9  2 6 6S7  6 false
or 2a  3s 30 ?
10 10  2 6 6 S 8  6 false
27. Evaluate 2a  3s for a  4.50 and s  4.50.
?
2a  3s  2(4.50)  3(4.50) 11 11  2 6 6 S 9  6 false
 9  13.50
The solution set for a  2  6 is {6, 7}.
 22.50
The cost for the family to see a matinee is $22.50. 38. Replace a in a  7  22 with each value in the
replacement set.
28. Evaluate 2a  3s for a  7.50 and s  4.50.
2a  3s  2(7.50)  3(4.50) a a  7  22 True or False?
 15  13.50 ?
13 13  7 6 22 S 20 6 22 true ✓
 28.50
?
The cost for the family to see an evening show is 14 14  7 6 22 S 21 6 22 true ✓
$28.50. ?
15 15  7 6 22 S 22  22 false
29. 14.8  3.75  t 30. a  32.4  18.95
?
11.05  t a  13.45 16 16  7 6 22 S 23  22 false
The solution is 11.05. The solution is 13.45. ?
12  5 15  6
17 17  7 6 22 S 24  22 false
31. y  15  3
32. g  16  7
60 90
The solution set for a  7  22 is {13, 14}.
y 12
g 9 a
39. Replace a in 5
2 with each value in the
y5 g  10
replacement set.
The solution is 5. The solution is 10.
a
7(3)  3
33. d  4(3  1)  6 34. a 
4(14  1)
7 a 5
 2 True or False?
3(6)  5
21  3 4(13) 5 ?
d 4(2)
6 a 18  5
 7 5
2S1 2 false
5
24 52
d 6 a 7 10 ?
8 13 10 5

2S2
2 true ✓
d36 a47
15 ?
d9 a  11 15 5

2S3
2 true ✓
The solution is 9. The solution is 11.
20 ?
20 5

2S4
2 true ✓
25 ?
25 5

2S5
2 true ✓
a
The solution set for 5

2 is {10, 15, 20, 25}.

Chapter 1 8
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2a
40. Replace a in 4 8 with each value in the 44. Replace b in 2b  5 with each value in the
replacement set. replacement set.
2a b 2b  5 True or False?
a 4
8 True or False?
?
1 2112 6 5 S 2 6 5 true ✓

1 2 6 5S3 6 5
21122 ?
12 4
8S6 8 true ✓ 1 ?
1 12 2 12 true ✓
21142 ?
14 4
8S7 8 true ✓ ?
2 2122 6 5 S 4 6 5 true ✓

1 2 6 5S5  5
21162 ?
16 8S8 8 true ✓ 1 ?
4 2 12 2 22 false
21182 ?
18 8S9 8 false ?
4
3 2132 6 5 S 6  5 false

5 6
21202 ?
20 4
8 S 10 8 false 1
The solution set for 2b  5 is 1, 12, 2 .
21222 ?
22 4
8 S 11 8 false 45. Total number glasses glasses glasses
of glasses is of milk plus of juice plus of soda.
2a 1442443 123 14243 123 14243 123 14243
The solution set for 4
8 is {12, 14, 16}. g  15,579  6220  18,995
41. Replace a in 4a  3
10.6 with each value in the or g  15,579  6220  18,995
replacement set. 46. Evaluate 15,579  6220  18,995.
True or 15,579  6220  18,995  21,799  18,995
a 4a  3  10.6 False?  40,794
?
The average American drinks 40,794 glasses.
3.2 4(3.2)  3
10.6 S 9.8 10.6 false 47. The cost of the number the charge is not
$102.50.
each sweater times of sweaters plus for shipping more than 14243
? 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 14243
3.4 4(3.4)  3
10.6 S 10.6
10.6 true ✓ $39  n  $10.95 $102.50

? or 39n  10.95 102.50


3.6 413.62  3
10.6 S 11.4
10.6 true ✓
48. Explore You can spend no more than $102.50.
?
3.8 413.82  3
10.6 S 12.2
10.6 true ✓ So the situation can be represented by
the inequality 39n  10.95 102.50.
?
4 4(4)  3
10.6 S 13
10.6 true ✓ Plan Since no replacement set is given,
estimate to find reasonable values for
The solution set for 4a  3
10.6 is the replacement set.
{3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4}.
Solve Start by letting n  1 and then adjust
42. Replace a in 6a  5
23.8 with each value in the values up or down as needed.
replacement set.
39n  10.95 102.50
True or ?
a 6a  5  23.8 False? 39(1)  10.95 102.50
?
? 39  10.95 102.50
4.2 614.22  5
23.8 S 20.2 23.8 false 49.95 102.50
? The estimate is too low. Increase the value of n.
4.5 614.52  5
23.8 S 22 23.8 false
? Reason-
4.8 614.82  5
23.8 S 23.8
23.8 true ✓ n 39n  10.95  102.50 able?
? ?
5.1 615.12  5
23.8 S 25.6
23.8 true ✓ 2 39122  10.95 102.50 S88.95 102.50 too low
? ?
5.4 615.42  5
23.8 S 27.4
23.8 true ✓ 3 39132  10.95 102.50 S127.95 102.50 too high

The solution set for 6a  5


23.8 is {4.8, 5.1, 5.4}. Examine The solution set is {0, 1, 2}. You can buy
43. Replace a in 3a 4 with each value in the 2 sweaters and stay within your budget.
replacement set. 49. The solution set includes all numbers less than or
1
equal to 3.
a 3a  4 True or False?
? 50. You can use equations to determine how much
0 3102 4 S 0 4 true ✓

113 2 4 S 1 4
money you have to spend and how you can spend
1
3
?
true ✓ your money. Answers should include the following.

313 2 4 S 2 4
3 • Sample answers: calculating gasoline required
2 2 ? for a trip: cooking time
3
true ✓
?
1 3112 4 S 3 4 true ✓

1 12
?
1 13 3 13 4 S 4 4 true ✓

5
The solution set for 3a 4 is 0, 3, 3, 1, 1 3 .
1 2 1
6
9 Chapter 1
15  n2 2  5 57. 53  3(42)  53  3(16)
51. B; Replace n in 6 28 with each value in
19  32 2  n  125  3(16)
the replacement set.  125  48
15  n2 2  5  173
n  28 True or False? 38  12 26
19  3 2  n  2  13
2
58. 2  13
15  52 2  5 ? 11  26
26
5 6 28 S 8 38 6 28 true ✓
19  32 2  5
1
15  72 2  5 ?
7 6 28 S 16 37 6 28
23
true ✓ 59. [5(2  1)]4  3  [5(3)]4  3
19  33 2  7
 [15]4  3
15  92 2  5 ? 7  50,625  3
9 6 28 S 28 37  28 false
19  32 2  9  50,628
15  112 2  5
1 1
? 2 1 2 1 2 4 3 4 3
11 6 28 S 43 7  28 false 60.  6 61.  9
19  3 2  11
2 6 5 5 9 7 7
3 3
15  132 2  5
1 4
? 7  15  21
13 6 28 S 62 34  28 false
19  3 2  13
2

5 1 6
15  n2 2  5 62.
5

15
6
5 15
63.
6

12
 14 
6 12
The solution set for 6 28 is {5, 7}. 6 16 16 14 18 18
19  32  n
2 2 7 3
2
52. C; 27  3  (12  4)  27  3  8 
25

6
32 21
98 7
2
 17 7
8 2 8  2 4 4 4  4
64. 13
 11
 13  11
65. 7
 9
7  9
16 16
Page 20 Maintain Your Skills  143
 63
53. Increased by implies add, and times implies 8
3 7 3  7 2 24 2 24
multiply. So the expression can be written as 66. 11
 16
 11  16
67. 9
 25
9 25
r 2  3s. 3
21 16
Evaluate r2  3s for r  2 and s  5.  176
 75
r2  3s  22  3  5
43 5
 4  15 Page 20 Practice Quiz 1
 19 1. twenty less than x
54. Times implies multiply, and sum implies add. So 2. five times n plus two
the expression can be written as t(4s  r).
1
3. a cubed
Evaluate t(4s  r) for r  2, s  5, and t  2. 4. n to the fourth power minus one
t 14s  r2  2 14  5  22
1
5. 6(9)  2(8  5)  6(9)  2(13)
 54  2(13)
 2 120  22
1
 54  26
 2 1222  28
1

6. 4[2  (18  9)3]  4[2  (2)3]


11
 4[2  8]
55. Sum implies add, and times implies multiply. So  4[10]
the expression can be written as (r  s)t2.  40
1
Evaluate (r  s)t2 for r  2, s  5, and t  2. 7. 9(3)  42  62  2  9(3)  16  62  2
1r  s2t2  12  52 112 22  9(3)  16  36  2
 27  16  36  2
 172 112 22  27  16  18

 172 1 4 2
 11  18
1
 29
4
7 15  22 2 132 2
8. 314  2  72
 314  2  72
56. Decreased by implies subtract, so the expression 9
 314  2  72
can be written as r5  t. 9
1
Evaluate r5  t for r  2 and t  2.  318  72
9
1 
r5  t  25  2 3112
9
1 
 32  2 3

1
3
 31 2

Chapter 1 10
5  42  10  2 5  16  10  2 11. From Exercises 9 and 10 we determine that four
9. 6  5
 6  5 score and seven years is 87 years.
80  10  2
 6  5
90  2
 6  5
88
Pages 23–25 Practice and Apply
 11 12. Multiplicative Identity Property;
8 n  1, since 12  1  12.
10. Replace n in 2n2  3  75 with each value in the 13. Multiplicative Identity Property;
replacement set. n  5, since 5  1  5.
14. Reflexive Property;
n 2n2  3  75 True or False?
n  5, since 8  5  8  5.
?
4 2  42  3  75 S 35  75 true ✓ 15. Reflexive Property;
2 ? n  0.25, since 0.25  1.5  0.25  1.5
5 2  5  3  75 S 53  75 true ✓
? 16. Additive Identity Property;
2
6 2  6  3  75 S 75  75 true ✓ n  0, since 8  0  8.
2 ?
7 2  7  3  75 S 101 75 false 17. Additive Identity Property;
1 1 1
? n  3, since 3  0  3.
8 2  82  3  75 S 131 75 false
? 18. Multiplicative Inverse Property;
9 2 92  3  75 S 165 75 false 1 1
n  2, since 1  2  2.
The solution set for 2n2  3  75 is {4, 5, 6}. 19. Multiplicative Inverse Property;
1
n  1, since 4  4  1.
20. Substitution Property;
1-4 Identity and Equality Properties n  5, since (9  7)(5)  2(n).
21. Substitution Property;
n  3, since 3  (2  8)  n  10.
Page 23 Check for Understanding
1 2  3 125  251 2
22. Multiplicative Identity Property;
1. No; for 1 to be an additive identity, the sum of 1
n  3, since 3 52 
any number a and 1 must be a. However, 25
3  1  4  3. 3 1
2. Sample answer: 5  3  2, and 3  2  4  1, so  3.

112  22  6  1  6.
5  4  1; 5  7  8  4, and 8  4  12, so 23. Multiplicative Identity Property;
5  7  12. n  2, since 6
3. Sample answer: You cannot divide by zero. 3
24. 4
[ 4  (7  4) ]
4. Multiplicative Property of Zero;
3
n  0, since 13  0  0.  4 [4  3] Substitution; 7  4  3
5. Additive Identity Property;
n  17, since 17  0  17.
4
3 4
3 34 Substitution; 4  3  3
4

3 4
1 Multiplicative Inverse;  1
6. Multiplicative Inverse Property; 4 3
1
n  6, since 6  6  1. 25.
2
[ 3  (2  1) ]
3
7. 6(12  48  4)  6(12  12) Substitution; 48  4  12 2
 3 [3  2] Multiplicative Identity; 2  1  2

34
 6(0) Substitution; 12  12  0
2 3 3
0 Multiplicative Property 3 2
Substitution; 3  2  2
of Zero; 6  0  0 2 3
1  1
1 2
Multiplicative Inverse; 3 2
1
8. 15  15  8  0  12 1
26. 2 (3  2  5)  33
 (1 + 8  0)  12 Multiplicative Inverse; 1
1  2(6  5)  3  3 Substitution; 3  2  6
15  15  1
 2 112  3 
1
 (1  0)  12 Multiplicative Property of Zero; 3
Substitution; 6  5  1
1
8 00  2  33 Multiplicative Identity;
 1  12 Additive Identity; 1  0  1 2 12
 12 Multiplicative Identity;
1  12  12 21 Multiplicative Inverse;
1
331
9. four score and seven
1442443 123 1
424
3
3 Substitution; 2  1  3
4(20)  7
or 4(20)  7
10. 4(20)  7  80  7 Substitution; 4  20  80
 87 Substitution; 80  7  87

11 Chapter 1
1 35.
27. 6  6  5 (12  4  3) base weight
35% of
offensive
Eight
1 salary plus below 240 lb plus plays
 6  6  5(3  3) Substitution; 12  4  3 players times
14243 123 14243 123 1442443 123 14243
8  ($400,000  $100,000  $50,000)
1
6 6
 5102 Substitution; 3  3  0
or 8(400,000  100,000  50,000)
 1  5(0) Multiplicative Inverse;
1 Three base 12 76 points
661 players times salary plus touchdowns plus scored
14243 123 14243 123 1442443 123 14243

10 Multiplicative Property of 3  ($400,000  $50,000  $50,000)

Zero; 5  0  0 or 3(400,000  50,000  50,000)


1 Additive Identity; 1  0  1 Four base 1601 4.5 yards
players times salary plus yards plus per carry
2
28. 3  5(4  2 )  1 14243 123 14243 123 14243 123 14243

 ($400,000  $1,000,000  $50,000)


 3  5(4  4)  1 Substitution; 22  4 4

 3  5(0)  1 Substitution; 4  4  0 or 4(400,000  1,000,000  50,000)


301 Multiplicative Property of So the expression can be written as 8(400,000
Zero; 5  0  0  100,000  50,000)  3(400,000  50,000
31 Additive Identity; 3  0  3  50,000)  4(400,000  1,000,000  50,000).
2 Substitution; 3  1  2 36. 8(400,000  100,000  50,000)  3(400,000 
29. 7  8(9  32) 50,000  50,000)  4(400,000  50,000  50,000)
 7  8(9  9) Substitution; 32  9  8(550,000)  3(400,000  50,000  50,000) 
 7  8(0) Substitution; 9  9  0 4(400,000  50,000  50,000) Substitution;
70 Multiplicative Property of Zero; 400,000  100,000  50,000  550,000
8 00  8(550,000)  3(500,000)  4(500,000)
7 Additive Identity; 7  0  7 Substitution; 400,000  1,000,000  50,000
30. Profit for profit for profit for  1,450,000
25 peanuts 123and 80 buttons and 40 caps  4,400,000  1,500,000  2,000,000
1442443 1442443 123 14243
Substitution; 4  1,450,000  5,800,000
25(5  3)  80(2.5  1)  40(10  6)  7,900,000 Substitution; 4,400,000  1,500,000
or 25(5  3) + 80(2.5 1) + 40(10  6)  5,800,000  11,700,000
31. 25(5  3)  80(2.5  1)  40(10  6) 37. Sometimes; Sample answer: true: x  2, y  1,
 25(2)  80(2.5  1)  40(10  6) Substitution; z  4, w  3, 2
1 and 4
3 and 2  4  8
3
532  1  3; false: x  1, y  1, z  2, w  3,
 25(2)  80(1.5)  40(10  6) Substitution; 1
1 and 2
3 however, 1(2)  2 3 
2.5  1  1.5 (1)(3).
 25(2)  80(1.5)  40(4) Substitution;
38. You can use the identity and equality properties
10  6  4
to see if data is the same. Answers should include
 50  120  160 Substitution;
the following:
40  4  160
 330 Substitution; • Reflexive: r  r, or Symmetric: a  b so b  a.
170  160 • Oklahoma, week 1  a, week 2  b, week
 330 3  c. a  b and b  c so a  c.
32. Pay for increase pay for 39. A; In words: If one quantity equals a second
grade from grade quantity, then the second quantity equals the first.
plus is
E-2 at 3 yr 123 3 yr to 12 yr 123 E-2 at 12 yr.
1442443

1442443

144424443 40. B; Substitution Property, since 10  8  2.
1169.10 y 1169.10
41. False, since 4  5  1 and 1 is not a whole
or 1169.10  y  1169.10 number.
y  0, since 1169.10  0  1169.10.
42. True, for any whole numbers a and b the product
33. Pay for increase pay for
ab is also a whole number.
grade from grade
1 1
E-4 at 6 yr times 6
1442443
yr to 10 yr
1442443
123 123
is E-4 at 10 yr.
144424443 43. False, since 1  2  2 and 2
is not a whole
1653  y  1653 number.
or 1653y  1653
y  1, since 1653  1  1653.
34. Base bonus for is the base bonus for
salary plus 12 touchdowns same as salary plus 76 points.
14243 123 144424443 14243 14243 123 14243
$350,000  $50,000  $350,000  $50,000

or 350,000  50,000  350,000  50,000

Chapter 1 12
Page 25 Maintain Your Skills 7 3
48. Replace x in 10  2x 6 10
with each value in the
44. Replace x in 10  x
6 with each value in the replacement set.
replacement set. 7 3
x 10
 2x  10 True or False?
x 10  x  6 True or False?
1 7 1 ? 3 3 3
3
?
10  3 7 6 S 7 7 6 true ✓ 2 10
 22 6 10
S 10 6 10
true ✓
? 1 7 1 ? 3 1 3
5 10  5 7 6 S 5  6 false 3 10
2 3
6 10
S 30 6 10
true ✓
? ?
6 10  6 7 6 S 4  6 false 1 7
 24 6
1 3
S5 6
1 3
true ✓
4 10 10 10
?
8 10  8 7 6 S 2  6 false 1 7 1 ? 3 3 3
5 10
2 5
6 10
S 10  10 false
The solution set for 10  x
6 is {3}. ?
1 7 1 3 11 3
45. Replace x in 4x  2 58 with each value in the 6 10
2 6
6 10
S 30  10 false

512, 13, 14 6.
replacement set. 7 3
The solution set for 10
 2x 6 10
is
x 4x  2  58 True or False?
?
49. Replace x in 2x  1  2 with each value in the
11 4  11  2 6 58 S 46 6 58 true ✓ replacement set.
?
12 4  12  2 6 58 S 50 6 58 true ✓ x 2x  1  2 True or False?
?
13 4  13  2 6 58 S 54 6 58 true ✓ 14
1 1 ?
2  14  1  2 S 12  2
1
true ✓
?
14 4  14  2 6 58 S 58  58 false ?
?
2 2  2  1  2S3 2 false
15 4  15  2 6 58 S 62  58 false ?
3 2  3  1  2S5 2 false
The solution set for 4x  2 58 is {11, 12, 13}. 1 1 ?
x 32 2  32  1  2S6 2 false
46. Replace x in 2 3 with each value in the
replacement set.
x
The solution set for 2x  1  2 is 1 4 . 5 16
x 2
3 True or False? 50. (3  6)  32  (9)  32
5.8
5.8 ?
3
9
S 2 10 3 false 99
2
1
5.9 ? 19
5.9 2
3 S 2 20 3 false 51. 6(12  7.5)  7  6(4.5)  7
 27  7
6 ?
6 2
3S3 3 true ✓  20
6.1 ? 1 52. 20  4  8  10  5  8  10
6.1 2
3 S 3 20 3 true ✓  40  10
6.2 ? 1 4
6.2 3 S 3 10 3 true ✓
16  22 2 182 2
2

6.3 ? 3
53. 16
 3192  16
 3192
6.3 2
3 S 3 20 3 true ✓ 64
 16
 3192
x
The solution set for 3 is {6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3}.
2  4  3(9)
47. Replace x in 8x  32 with each value in the  4  27
replacement set.  31
x 8x  32 True or False? 54. [62  (2  4)2] 3  [62  (6)2]3
 [36  (6)2]3
?
3 8  3  32 S 24  32 true ✓  [36  12]3
?  [24]3
3.25 8  3.25  32 S 26  32 true ✓  72
? 2 2
3.5 8  3.5  32 S 28  32 true ✓ 55. 9(3)  4  6  2  9(3)  16  36  2
?  27  16  36  2
3.75 8  3.75  32 S 30  32 true ✓
 27  16  18
?
4 8  4  32 S 32  32 true ✓  11  18
 29
The solution set for 8x  32 is {3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4}.
56. Sample answer: Let x be the number. Sum
implies add, and twice implies multiply by 2. So
the expression can be written as 2x2  7.
57. 10(6)  10(2)  60  10(2)
 60  20
 80

13 Chapter 1
58. (15  6)  8  9  8 4. 3(x  3)  3x  3
 72 The rectangle has 3 x-tiles and 9 1-tiles. The area
59. 12(4)  5(4)  48  5(4) of the rectangle is
 48  20 x111x111x111
 28 or 3x  9.
60. 3(4  2)  3(6) 61. 5(6  4)  5(2) Therefore, 3(x  3)  3x  3 is false.
 18  10 x3
62. 8(14  2)  8(16)
x 1 1 1
 128
3 x 1 1 1  3x  9
x 1 1 1

1-5 The Distributive Property


5. x(3  2)  3x  2x
The rectangle has 5 x-tiles. The area of the
ok Page 28 Algebra Activity rectangle is x  x  x  x  x or 3x  2x or 5x.
Therefore, x(3  2)  3x  2x is true.
1. 2(x  1)
The rectangle has 2 x-tiles and 2 1-tiles. The area
of the rectangle is 32
x  1  x  1 or 2x  2.
Therefore, 2(x  1)  2x  2.
x x x x x x  5x
x1

x 1
2  2x  2
x 1
6. Rachel; Sample answer: 3(x  4)  3(x)  3(4) 
3x  12
The rectangle has 3 x-tiles. The area of the
2. 5 (x  2) rectangle is 3x  12. Therefore, Rachel is correct.
The rectangle has 5 x-tiles and 10 1-tiles. The
area of the rectangle is x4
x11x11x11x11
x  1  1 or 5x  10. x 1 1 1 1
Therefore, 5(x  2)  5x  10.
3 x 1 1 1 1  3x  12
x2 x 1 1 1 1

x 1 1
x 1 1
5 x 1 1  5x  10
x 1 1 ok Pages 29–30 Check for Understanding
1. Sample answer: The numbers inside the
x 1 1 parentheses are each multiplied by the number
outside the parentheses then the products are
added.
3. 2(2x  1) 2. Sample answer: 4ab  3b  a  2ab  7ab
The rectangle has 4 x-tiles and 2 1-tiles. The area 3. Courtney; Ben forgot that w4 is really 1  w4.
of the rectangle is 4. 6(12  2)  6  12  6  2
x  x  1  x  x  1 or 4x  2.  72  12
Therefore, 2(2x  1)  4x  2.  60
5. 2(4  t)  2  4  2  t
2x  1  8  2t
6. (g  9)5  g  5  9  5
x x 1  5g  45
2  4x  2
x x 1 7. 16(102)  16(100  2)
 16(100)  16(2)
 1600  32
 1632

Chapter 1 14
1 12 1
8. 3 17 1172  3  17 17
1
2 28. 4(8p  4q  7r)  4(8p)  4(4q)  4(7r)
 32p  16q  28r
 3 1172  17 1172
1
29. number of number of
 51  1 people at people at
 52 number Olympic aquatics
9. 13m  m  (13  1)m of days times Stadium plus center
14243 123 14243 123 14243
 14m
4  (110,000  17,500)
10. 3(x  2x)  3(x)  3(2x)
or 4(110,000  17,500)
 3x  6x
 (3  6)x 30. 4(110,000  17,500)  4(110,000)  4(17,500)
 9x  440,000  70,000
 510,000
11. There are no like terms. 14a2  13b2  27 is
The attendance for the 4-day period was 510,000
simplified.
people.
12. 4(3g  2)  4(3g)  4(2)
31. 5  97  5(100  3)
 12g  8
 5(100)  5(3)
13. number of price of average  500  15
haircuts times each haircut plus tip  485
14243 123 1442443 123 14243
12  ($19.95  $2) 32. 8  990  8(1000  10)
or 12(19.95  2)  8(1000)  8(10)
14. 12(19.95  2)  12(19.95)  12(2)  8000  80
 239.40  24  7920
 263.4 33. 17  6  (20  3)6
Ms. Curry earned $263.40.  20(6)  3(6)
 120  18
 102
ok Pages 30–31 Practice and Apply
15. 8(5  7)  8  5  8  7
34. 24  7  (20  4)7
 20(7)  4(7)
 40  56  140  28
 96  168
16. 7(13  12)  7  13  7  12 1 12
35. 18 2 9  18 2  9 1 1
2 1 12
36. 48 3 6  48 3  6 1 1
2
12 116 2
 91  84 1
 175  18(2)  18 9
 48132  48
17. 12(9  5)  12  9  12  5  36  2  144  8
 108  60  38  152
 48 37. hours hours
18. 13(10  7)  13  10  13  7 number using meeting hours on
of weeks times e-mail plus in person 123 telephone
plus 1
 130  91 14243 123 14243 123 1 4424 43 4424 43
12  (5  12  18)
 39
19. 3(2x  6)  3  2x  3  6 or 12(5  12  18)
 6x  18 38. 12(5  12  18)  12(5)  12(12)  12(18)
20. 8(3m  4)  8  3m  8  4  60  144  216
 24m  32  420
21. (4  x)2  4  2  x  2 She should plan 420 h for contacting people.
 8  2x 39. monthly monthly monthly
number charge charge charge
22. (5  n)3  5  3  n  3 of months times for medical plus for dental plus for vision
1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443 123 1442443
 15  3n
1 2 12
6  (78  20  12)
1 1
23. 28 y  7  281y2  28 7
or 6(78  20  12)
 28y  4 40. 6(78  20  12)  6(78)  6(20)  6(12)

1 2  2712b2  27 1 2
1 1  468  120  72
24. 27 2b  3 3  660
 54b  9 The cost to the employee is $660.
25. a(b  6)  a(b)  a(6)
 ab  6a
26. x(z  3)  x(z)  x(3)
 xz  3x
27. 2(a  3b  2c)  2(a)  2(3b)  2(2c)
 2a  6b  4c

15 Chapter 1
41. number monthly charge monthly charge 1
of months times for medical plus for dental l  w  13 2
1442443 123 144424443 123 144424443
12  (78  50  (20  15) 3 1
2
w  w  13 2
or 12[(78  50)  (20  15)]
3 2 1
12[(78  50)  (20  15)]  12 [128  35] 2
w  13 2
 12(128)  12(35) 3 2
w 
27

1 2  23 1272 2
 1536  420 2 2

 1956 2 3 2
w
3 2
The cost to the employee is $1956.
w2  9
42. 2x  9x  (2  9)x 43. 4b  5b  (4  5)b
w3
 11x  9b
Substitute w  3 into the area formula.
44. There are no like terms. 5n2  7n is simplified. 1
l  w  13 2
45. 3a2  14a2  (3  14)a2
 17a2 l  3  13 2
1

46. 12(3c  4)  12(3c)  12(4) 1


l  42
 36c  48 1
47. 15(3x  5)  15(3x)  15(5) Therefore, the rectangle has a length of 4 2 units
 45x  75 and a width of 3 units.
48. 6x  14x  9x  6x2  (14  9)x
2 55. You can use the Distributive Property to calculate
 6x2  5x quickly by expressing any number as a sum or
difference of more convenient numbers. Answer
49. 4y  3y  y  (4  3)y3  y4
3 3 4
should include the following.
 7y3  y4
• Both methods result in the correct answer. In
50. 6(5a  3b  2b)  6(5a)  6(3b)  6(2b)
one method you multiply then add, and in the
 30a  18b  12b
other you add then multiply.
 30a  (18  12)b
 30a  6b 56. D; 3(x  y)  2(x  y)  4x  3x  3y  2x  2y  4x
 3x  2x  4x  3y  2y
51. 5(6m  4n  3n)  5(6m)  5(4n)  5(3n)
 (3  2  4)x  (3  2)y
 30m  20n  15n
 1x  5y
 30m  (20  15)n
 x  5y
 30m  5n
57. C; c  7(2  2.8  3  4.2)
7 x 7 1
52. x2  8 x  8  x2  8 x  8x  7(5.6  12.6)
 x2  178  18 2x  7(5.6)  7(12.6)
 39.2  88.2
6
 x2  8 x  127.4
3
 x2  4 x

53. a 
a 2 5
 5a  5a  5a  5a
1 2
okPage 31 Maintain Your Skills
155  15  25 2 a
5
58. Symmetric Property

59. Substitution Property
8
 5a 60. Multiplicative Identity Property
1 61. Multiplicative Inverse Property
54. Area  l  w  13 2
62. Multiplicative Inverse Property
w  5  perimeter  5  121l  w2 2
1 1
63. Reflexive Property
 5  12l  2w2
1
64. total number of number of
distance is feet per second times seconds
14243 123 144424443 123 1442443
2 2
 5l  5w d  1129  2

Solve w 
2
l
2
w for l. or d  1129(2)
5 5
2 2 65. 1129(2)  (1000  100  30  1)2
w l w
5 5  1000(2)  100(2)  30(2)  1(2)
w
2
 5w 
2
l  2000  200  60  2
5
3 2  2258
w  l

12 12
5 5 Sound travels 2258 feet in 2 seconds.
5 3
w 
5 2
l 66. 3ab  c2  3  4  6  32
2 5 2 5
3
3469
2
w l  12  6  9
3
Substitute 2 w for l into the Area formula.  72  9
 63

Chapter 1 16
67. 8(a  c)2  3  8(4  3)2  3 6. 5  3  6  4  5  4  3  6
 8(1)2  3  (5  4)  (3  6)
 813  20  18
 83  360
 11 7.
5 3
 16  94  16  94 
3 5

1 2
6 6
6ab 6  4  6
68. c 1a  22
 314  22 3 5
 16  94  6
24  6
 5
314  22  156  6
144
 314  22  130
144
 8. 4x  5y  6x  4x  6x  5y
3162
144  (4x  6x)  5y
 18  (4  6)x  5y
8  10x  5y
69. 1a  c2 1a 2 b 2  14  32 14 2 6 2 9. 5a  3b  2a  7b  5a  2a  3b  7b

 172 1 2 2
4  6  (5a  2a)  (3b  7b)
 (5  2)a  (3  7)b
 172 1 2 2  7a  10b
10

 172 152
1 3 1 2
10. 4 q  2q  24 q  4 q  24 q  2q
 35
 114 q  234 q2  2q
 1 4  24 2 q  2q
70. A  l  w
1 3
95
 45
 3q  2q
 13  22q
Area is 45 in2.2.

71. A  2 bh
1  5q
11. 3(4x  2)  2x  3(4x)  3(2)  2x
 2 1242 1142
1
 12x  6  2x
 12 1142  12x  2x  6
 168  (12x  2x)  6
Area is 168 cm2.2.  (12  2)x  6
72. A  s2  14x  6
 8.52 12. 7(ac  2b)  2ac  7(ac)  7(2b)  2ac
 72.25  7ac  14b  2ac
Area is 72.25 m2.a i  7ac  2ac  14b
 (7ac  2ac)  14b
 (7  2)ac  14b
Commutative and Associative  9ac  14b
1-6 13. 3(x  2y)  4(3x  y)  3(x)  3(2y)  4(3x)  4(y)
Properties
 3x  6y  12x  4y
 3x  12x  6y  4y
Page 34 Check for Understanding  (3  12)x  (6  4)y
1. Sample answer: The Associative Property says the  15x  10y
way you can group numbers together when 14. half the sum
adding or multiplying does not change the result. of p and 2q increased by three-fourths q
1442443 144424443
1442443
2. Sample answer: Division is not Commutative. For 1
(p  2q) 
3
q
2 4
example, 10  2  2  10.
1p  2q2  4q  2 1 p2  2 12q2 
1 3 1 1 3
q Distributive
3. Sample answer: 1  5  8  8  1  5; 2 4
(1  5)8  1(5  8) Property
1 3
4. 14  18  26  14  26  18  2 p  q  4q Multiply.
 (14  26)  18

1
p 1  q2 3
q Associative ()

 2 p  11  4 2q
 40  18 2 4

 58 1 3
Distributive
5.
1
32 4
1
22 
1 1
32  22  4 Property

1 2
1 3
1 1  2 p  14 q Substitution
 32  22  4
64
 10

17 Chapter 1
15. number of
triangles times
area of
each triangle
3 1
1 3
26. 3 7  14  14  3 7  14  14 2 1

1442443 123 1444244 43 1


1
 48  14
4  bh

11 2 112  5.2  7.862


2
 60
4 2bh  4 5 2
 24  6 3 1 5
2 2
 2 8  24  6 3
 1 4  2 2  15.2  7.862
27. 28
1 2
 63  6 3
 2  40.872  420
 81.744 cost cost cost cost
28.
The area of the large triangle is 81.744 cm2. Friday Saturday Sunday Monday
14243 14243 14243 14243
$72  $63  $63  $72
Pages 34–36 Practice and Apply 72  63  63  72  72  63  72  63
16. 17  6  13  24  17  13  6  24  (72  63)  (72  63)
 (17  13)  (6  24)  135  135
 30  30  270
 60 The total cost is $270.
17. 8  14  22  9  8  22  14  9 29.
 (8  22)  (14  9) cost tax cost tax cost tax cost tax
 30  23 for for for for for for for for
Friday
123 Friday
123 Saturday
14243 Saturday
14243 Sunday
1424 3 Sunday
1424 3 Monday
1424 3 Monday
1424 3
 53
18. 4.25  3.50  8.25  4.25  8.25  3.50 $72 $5.40 $63  $5.10  $63 $5.10 $72  $5.40
 (4.25  8.25)  3.50 72  5.40  63  5.10  63  5.10  72  5.40
 12.50  3.50  72  63  72  63  5.40  5.10  5.40  5.10
 16  (72  63)  (72  63)  (5.40  5.10)  (5.40  5.10)
19. 6.2  4.2  4.3  5.8  6.2  4.3  4.2  5.8  135  135  10.50  10.50
 (6.2  4.3)  (4.2  5.8)  (135  135)  (10.50  10.50)
 10.5  10  270  21
 20.5  291
1 1
20. 6 2  3  2  2  6 2  2  3  2
1 1 The total cost including tax is $291.

1 2
30. Sample answer:
 62  2  13  22
1 1
Sales from Sales from Sales from
75 Sales from 3 new 2 older 5 used
 12 2 DVDs
14243
releases videos videos
14243 14243 14243
3 3 3 3
21. 2 8  4  3 8  28  3 8  4 2(3.99)  3(4.49)  2(2.99)  5(9.99)

1 3
 28  3 8  4
3
2 2(3.99)  3(4.49)  2(2.99)  5(9.99)
 2(3.99)  2(2.99)  3(4.49)  5(9.99)
6
 58 4  2(3.99  2.99)  3(4.49)  5(9.99)
6 Two expressions to represent total sales can be
 98
2(3.99)  3(4.49)  2(2.99)  5(9.99) and

3
94 2(3.99  2.99)  3(4.49)  5(9.99).
22. 5  11  4  2  5  2  11  4 31. 2(3.99  2.99)  3(4.49)  5(9.99)
 (5  2)  (11  4)  2(6.98)  3(4.49)  5(9.99)
 10  44  13.96  13.47  49.95
 440  27.43  49.95
 77.38
23. 3  10  6  3  3  3  10  6
The total sales of the clerk are $77.38.
 (3  3)  (10  6)
 9  60 32. 4a  2b  a  4a  a  2b
 540  (4a  a)  2b
 (4  1)a  2b
24. 0.5  2.4  4  0.5  4  2.4
 5a  2b
 (0.5  4)  2.4
 2  2.4 33. 2y  2x  8y  2y  8y  2x
 4.8  (2y  8y)  2x
 (2  8)y  2x
25. 8  1.6  2.5  8  2.5  1.6
 10y  2x
 (8  2.5)  1.6
 2x  10y
 20  1.6
 32 34. x2  3x  2x  5x2  x2  5x2  3x  2x
 (x2  5x2)  (3x  2x)
 (1  5)x2  (3  2)x
 6x2  5x

Chapter 1 18
35. 4a3  6a  3a3  8a  4a3  3a3  6a  8a 44. twice the sum
 (4a3  3a3)  (6a  8a) of s and t decreased by
1442443 1442443 123
s
 (4  3)a3  (6  8)a 2(s  t)  s
 7a3  14a
2(s  t)  s  2(s)  2(t)  s Distributive
36. 6x  2(2x  7)  6x  2(2x)  2(7) Property
 6x  4x  14  2t  2s  s Comm. ()
 (6x  4x)  14  2t  s(2  1) Dist.
 (6  4)x  14  2t  s(1) Sub.()
 10x  14  2t  s Mult. Id.
37. 5n  4(3n  9)  5n  4(3n)  4(9)  s  2t Comm. ()
 5n  12n  36 45. five times the
 (5n  12n)  36 product of x and y increased by 3xy
 (5  12)n  36 14444244443 1442443 123
 17n  36 5(x  y)  3xy
38. 3(x  2y)  4(3x  y)  3(x)  3(2y)  4(3x)  4(y) 5(xy)  3xy  5(xy)  3(xy) Associative ()
 3x  6y  12x  4y  xy(5  3) Distributive Property
 3x  12x  6y  4y  xy(8) Substitution
 (3x  12x)  (6y  4y)  8xy Commutative ()
 (3  12)x  (6  4)y 46. the product of
 15x  10y 6 and the the sum of
39. 3.2(x  y)  2.3(x  y)  4x square
1442443
of z increased by seven, z2, and 6
1442443 144424443
 3.2(x)  3.2(y)  2.3(x)  2.3(y)  4x
6  z2  (7  z2  6)
 3.2x  3.2y  2.3x  2.3y  4x 2 2
 3.2x  2.3x  4x  3.2y  2.3y 6z  (7  z  6)
 (3.2x  2.3x  4x)  (3.2y  2.3y)  6z2  (z2  7  6) Commutative ()
 (3.2  2.3  4)x  (3.2  2.3)y  (6z2  z2)  (7  6) Associative ()
 9.5x  5.5y  z2(6  1)  (7  6) Distributive Property
 z2(7)  13 Substitution
40. 3(4m  n)  2m  3(4m)  3(n)  2m
 7z2  13 Commutative ()
 12m  3n  2m
 12m  2m  3n 47. six times three times the
 (12m  2m)  3n the sum of sum of x and half
 (12  2)m  3n x144424443
and y squared decreased by 144424443
of y squared

1 2
1442443
 14m  3n 6(x  y2) 
1
3 x  2y2

1 2
41. 6(0.4f  0.2g)  0.5f  6(0.4f )  6(0.2g)  0.5f
6 1x  y2 2
1 2
3 x y

112 y22
 2.4f  1.2g  0.5f 2
 2.4f  0.5f  1.2g  6 1x2  6 1 y2 2  3 1x2  3 Distributive
 (2.4f  0.5f )  1.2g Property
 (2.4  0.5)f  1.2g 3
 2.9f  1.2g  6x  3x  6y2  2 y2 Commutative ()

42.
3
4
 3 1s  2t2  s  4  3 1s2  3 12t2  s
2 3 2 2  x(6  3)  y2 6  2 1 3
2 Distributive
Property
3 2 4
 4  3s  3t  s  3x  42y2
1
Commutative ()
3 2 4
 4  3s  s  3t 48. Sometimes; Sample answer: 4  3  3  4,

123s  s2  43t
3 but 4  4  4  4.
4

 4  1 3  1 2 s  3t
49. You can use the Commutative and Associative
3 2 4 Properties to rearrange and group numbers for
3 5 4
easier calculations. Answers should include the
 4  3s  3t following.

1
3 1
2 2
43. 2p  5 2 p  2q  3  2p  5 2 p  5 2q  3
3 1
1 2 3
1 2 2 • d  (0.4  1.1)  (1.5  1.5)  (1.9  1.8  0.8)
50. C; 6(ac  2b)  2ac  6(ac)  6(2b)  2ac
3 6 2
 2p  10 p  5q  3  6ac  12b  2ac
1 3
2 6 2
 2p  10 p  5 q  3
 6ac  2ac  12b
 (6ac  2ac)  12b
 1 2  10 2 p  5 q  3  (6  2)ac  12b
3 6 2
 8ac  12b
23 6 2
 10 p  5 q  3
2 23 6
 3
 10 p  5 q

19 Chapter 1
51. B; the Commutative Property implies that 66. 4a  3b  4  2  3  5
6  5  5  6. 835
 8  15
 23
Page 36 Maintain Your Skills
52. 5(2  x)  7x  5(2)  5(x)  7x
 10  5x  7x Page 36 Practice Quiz 2
 10  (5  7)x 1. j; Additive Identity Property, since a  0  a
 10  12x 2. c; Substitution Property of Equality, since
 12x  10 18  7  11
53. 3(5  2p)  3(5)  3(2p) 3. i; Commutative Property, since a  b  b  a
 15  6p
4. f; Reflexive Property of Equality, since a  a
54. 3(a  2b)  3a  3(a)  3(2b)  3a
5. g; Associative Property, since (a  b)  c 
 3a  6b  3a
a  (b  c)
 3a  3a  6b
 (3a  3a)  6b 6. d; Multiplicative Identity Property, since
 (3  3)a  6b 1aa
 0a  6b 7. b; Multiplicative Property of 0, since a  0  0
 6b 8. a; Distributive Property, since a(b  c)  ab  ac
55. 7m  6(n  m)  7m  6(n)  6(m) 9. h; Symmetric Property of Equality, since if a  b,
 7m  6n  6m then b  a
 7m  6m  6n 10. e; Multiplicative Inverse Property, since
 (7m  6m)  6n a b
 1
 (7  6)m  6n b a
 13m  6n
56. (d  5)f  2f  (d)(f )  5( f )  2f
 df  5f  2f 1-7 Logical Reasoning
 df  (5  2)f
 df  7f
57. t2  2t2  4t  (1  2)t2  4t Page 39 Check for Understanding
 3t2  4t 1. Sample answer: If it rains, then you get wet.
58. 3(10  5  2)  21  7 Hypothesis: it rains
 3(10  10)  21  7 Substitution; 5  2  10 Conclusion: you get wet
 3(0)  21  7 Substitution; 10  10  0 2. Sample answer: Counterexamples are used to
 0  21  7 Multiplicative Property disprove a statement.
of Zero; 3  0  0 3. Sample answer: You can use deductive reasoning
03 Substitution; 21  7  3 to determine whether a hypothesis and its
3 Additive Identity; conclusion are both true or whether one or both
033 are false.
59. 12(5)  6(4)  60  6(4) 4. Hypothesis: it is January
 60  24 Conclusion: it might snow
 36 5. Hypothesis: you play tennis
60. 7(0.2  0.5)  0.6  7(0.7)  0.6 Conclusion: you run fast
 4.9  0.6 6. Hypothesis: 34  3x  16
 4.3 Conclusion: x  6
61. 8[62  3(2  5)]  8  3  8[62  3(7)]  8  3 7. Hypothesis: Lance does not have homework
 8[36  3(7)]  8  3 Conclusion: he watches television
 8[36  21]  8  3 If Lance does not have homework, then he
 8[15]  8  3 watches television.
 120  8  3
8. Hypothesis: a number is divisible by 10
 15  3
Conclusion: it is divisible by 5
 18
If a number is divisible by 10, then it is divisible
62. 2x  7  2  4  7 63. 6x  12  6  8  12 by 5.
87  48  12
9. Hypothesis: a quadrilateral has four right angles
 15  60
Conclusion: it is a rectangle
64. 5n  14  5  6  14 65. 3n  8  3  7  8 If a quadrilateral has four right angles, then it is
 30  14  21  8 a rectangle.
 16  13
10. The last digit of 10,452 is 2, so the hypothesis is
true. Conclusion: the number is divisible by 2.
Check: 10,452  2  5226 ✓
2 divides 10,452.

Chapter 1 20
11. The conclusion is true. If the last digit of the 33. The hypothesis is false. If the VCR cost less than
number is 2, the hypothesis is true also. However, $150, we know Ian will buy one. However, the
if the last digit is an even number other than 2, hypothesis does not say Ian won’t buy a VCR if it
the hypothesis is false. There is no way to costs $150 or more. Therefore, there is no valid
determine if the last digit is 2. Therefore, there is conclusion.
no valid conclusion. 34. The conditional statement does not mention DVD
12. The conclusion is true. 946 is divisible by 2. players. There is no way to determine if the
However, since the last digit is 6, the hypothesis hypothesis is true. Therefore, there is no valid
is false. Therefore, there is no valid conclusion. conclusion.
13. Anna could have a schedule without a science class. 35. The conclusion is true. If the cost of the VCRs is
14. a book that has more than 384 pages less than $150, the hypothesis is true, also.
? However, if the cost of the VCRs is $150 or more,
15. x  1; 12 7 1
the hypothesis is false. There is no way to
11
? determine the cost of the VCRs. Therefore, there
16. x  15; 3  15  7 52 is no valid conclusion.
52 52 ✓
36. People move to other states.
but 15  15
? 37. There is a professional team in Canada.
17. A; x  1, 12 7 1
38. Girls can wear blue clothes.
11
39. Left-handed people can have right-handed
parents.
40. x  2, y  3; Is 2  3 even? 2  3  6 and 6 is
Pages 40–42 Practice and Apply
even, but 3 is not even.
18. Hypothesis: both parents have red hair ?
Conclusion: their children have red hair 41. 8 is greater than 7. 42. n  15; 4  15  8 52
2(8)  16 52 52 ✓
19. Hypothesis: you are in Hawaii
16  16 but 15  15
Conclusion: you are in the tropics
6 1 6 1
20. Hypothesis: 2n  7
25 43. x  3, y  2; 3
 2
1
Conclusion: n
16 11
21. Hypothesis: 4(b  9)  68 6 1
but  1 and 1
Conclusion: b  8 3 2

22. Hypothesis: a  b 44. Sample answer:


Conclusion: b  a
P Q R
23. Hypothesis: a  b, and b  c
Conclusion: a  c 45. Sample answer:
24. Hypothesis: it is Monday
Conclusion: the trash is picked up R P Q
If it is Monday, then the trash is picked up.
25. Hypothesis: it is after school 46. See students’ work. There will probably be both
Conclusion: Greg will call examples and counterexamples.
If it is after school, then Greg will call. 47. Numbers that end in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 are in the
26. Hypothesis: a triangle has all sides congruent “divisible by 2” circle. Numbers whose digits have
Conclusion: it is an equilateral triangle a sum divisible by 3 are in the “divisible by 3”
If a triangle has all sides congruent, then it is an circle. Numbers that end in 0 or 5 are in the
equilateral triangle. “divisible by 5” circle.
27. Hypothesis: a number is divisible by 9 48. Sample answer: If a number is divisible by 2 and
Conclusion: the sum of its digits is a multiple of 9 3, then it must be a multiple of 6.
If a number is divisible by 9, then the sum of its 49. There are no counterexamples to the conclusions
digits is a multiple of 9. obtained in Exercises 47 and 48.
28. Hypothesis: x  8 50. No; Sample answer: Let a  1 and b  2; then
Conclusion: x 2  3x  40 1 * 2  1  2(2) or 5 and 2 * 1  2  2(1) or 4.
If x  8, then x 2  3x  40. 51. You can use if-then statements to help determine
29. Hypothesis: s
9 when food is finished cooking. Answers should
Conclusion: 4s  6
42 include the following.
If s
9, then 4s  6
42. • Hypothesis: you have small, underpopped
30. $139 is less than $150, so the hypothesis is true. kernels
Conclusion: Ian will buy a VCR. Conclusion: you have not used enough oil in
31. $99 is less than $150, so the hypothesis is true. your pan
Conclusion: Ian will buy a VCR. • If the gelatin is firm and rubbery, then it is
32. The conclusion is false. Ian did not buy a VCR, and ready to eat. If the water is boiling, lower the
he would have bought one if the cost were less than temperature.
$150. Therefore, the VCR cost $150 or more.
21 Chapter 1
52. 8, since 14  8  12  112  12 66. Multiplicative Property of Zero
 100 n  0, since 36  0  0.
43 67. 5(7)  6  x
53. C; # 4  2 35  6  x
64
 2
41  x
The solution is 41.
 32
68. 7(42)  62  m
7(16)  36  m
112  36  m
Page 42 Maintain Your Skills 76  m
54. 2x  5y  9x  2x  9x  5y The solution is 76.
 (2x  9x)  5y
22  113  52
 (2  9)x  5y 69. p  2
28  2
 11x  5y
22  8
55. a  9b  6b  a  (9b  6b)  28  4
 a  (9  6)b 14

 a  15b 7

3 2 5 3 5 2
2
56. 4g  5f  8g  4g  8g  5f

134 g  58 g2  25f
The solution is 2.
 70. The word product implies multiply, so the

 1 4  8 2 g  5f
expression can be written as 8x4.
3 5 2
71. Times implies multiply, and decreased by implies

11 2
g  5f subtract. So the expression can be written as
8
3n  10.
3 2
 1 8g  5f 72. More than implies add, and quotient implies
57. 4(5mn  6)  3mn  4(5mn)  4(6)  3mn divide. So the expression can be written as
 20mn  24  3mn 12  (a  5).
 20mn  3mn  24 73. 40%  90  0.4(90)
 (20mn  3mn)  24  36
 (20  3)mn  24 74. 23%  2500  0.23(2500)
 23mn  24  575
58. 2(3a  b)  3b  4  2(3a)  2(b)  3b  4 75. 18%  950  0.18(950)
 6a  2b  3b  4  171
 6a  (2b  3b)  4
76. 38%  345  0.38(345)
 6a  (2  3)b  4
 131.1
 6a  5b  4
77. 42.7%  528  0.427(528)
59. 6x2  5x  3(2x2)  7x  6x2  5x  6x2  7x
 225.456
 6x2  6x2  5x  7x
 225.5
 (6  6)x2  (5  7)x
 12x2  12x 78. 67.4%  388  0.674(388)
 261.512
60. gallons gallons
 261.5
used used gallons
flushing showering used number
toilet and bathing in sink times of days
123 14243
14243 1442443 14243
(100  80  8)  d 1-8 Graphs and Functions
(100  80  8)d  (100)(d)  (80)(d)  (8)(d)
 100d  80d  8d
Page 46 Check for Understanding
Two expressions to represent the amount of
1. The numbers represent different values. The first
water used in d days can be (100  80  8)d and
number represents the number on the horizontal
100d  80d  8d.
axis and the second represents the number on the
61. Multiplicative Identity Property vertical axis.
n  64, since 1(64)  64.
2. Sample answer: A dependent variable is
62. Reflexive Property determined by the independent variable for a
n  7, since 12  7  12  7. given function.
63. Substitution Property 3. See students’ work.
n  5, since (9  7)5  (2)5.
4. Sample answer: Alexi’s speed decreases as he
64. Multiplicative Inverse Property rides uphill, then increases as he rides downhill.
1
n  4, since 4  4  1.
65. Additive Identity Property
n  0, since 0  18  18.

Chapter 1 22
5. Just before jumping from a plane, the skydiver’s 14. The ordered pairs can be determined from the
height is constant. After she jumps, her height table. The time parked is the independent
decreases until she lands. When she lands the variable, and the cost is the dependent variable.
skydiver’s height above the ground is zero. Graph So, the ordered pairs are (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2),
B shows this situation. (3, 2), (4, 4), (5, 4), (6, 4) (7, 5), (8, 5), (9, 5),
6. Time is the independent variable, as it is (10, 5), (11, 5), (12, 30), (13, 30), (14, 30), (15, 30),
unaffected by the height of the object above the (16, 30), (17, 30), (18, 30), (19, 30), (20, 30),
ground. Height is the dependent quantity, as it is (21, 30), (22, 30), (23, 30), (24, 30), (25, 45),
affected by time. (26, 45), (27, 45), (28, 45), (29, 45), (30, 45),
7. The ordered pairs can be determined from the (31, 45), (32, 45), (33, 45), (34, 45), (35, 45), and
table. Time is the independent variable, and (36, 45).
the height above the ground is the dependent 15. 45
variable. So, the ordered pairs are (0, 500), 40
(0.2, 480), (0.4, 422), (0.6, 324), (0.8, 186), and 35
(1, 10). 30
8. 500 25

Cost
450 20
400
15
350
Height (cm)

300 10
250 5
200
150 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
100 Time
50 16. From 7:00 A.M. Monday to 7:00 A.M. Tuesday is
0 24 hours. From 7:00 A.M. Tuesday to 7:00 P.M.
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Time (s)
Tuesday is 12 hours. From 7:00 P.M. Tuesday to
9:00 P.M. Tuesday is 2 hours. Therefore, from
9. Paul releases the ball above the ground. The 7:00 A.M. Monday to 9:00 P.M. Tuesday is 24  12
height of the ball then decreases as it approaches  2  38 hours. The cost for the first 24 hours is
the height at which the catcher catches the ball. $30. The cost for the next 14 hours is $15. Thus,
the cost of parking from 7:00 A.M. Monday to
9:00 P.M. Tuesday is 30  15 or $45.
Height

17. The number of sides of the polygon is the


independent variable as it is unaffected by the
sum of the interior angles, and the sum of the
interior angles is the dependent variable as it is
Time affected by the number of sides of the polygon.
18.
900
Pages 46–48 Practice and Apply 720
Sums

10. Michelle gets a fever and takes some medicine. 540


After a while her temperature comes down, then 360
slowly begins to go up again. 180
11. Rashaad’s account is increasing as he makes
deposits and earns interest. Then he pays some 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
bills. He then makes some deposits and earns Sides
interest, and so on. 19. If we look for a pattern in the numbers 180, 360,
12. As it moves along, a radio-controlled car has a 540, 720, and 900, we see that the numbers are
constant speed. When it hits the wall, its speed all multiples of 180. In fact:
is zero. Graph C shows this situation. 180  1  180
13. A person’s income starts at a certain level, then, 360  2  180
in general, their income increases. This is 540  3  180
represented by starting at a certain height, then 720  4  180
gradually increasing. Graph B shows this 900  5  180
situation. Thus, the next three numbers would be 6  180 
1080, 7  180  1260, and 8  180  1440.
Therefore, we would predict that the sum of the
interior angles for an octagon is 1080, for a
nonagon is 1260, and for a decagon is 1440.

23 Chapter 1
20. A car’s value decreases as it gets older, but if it is 24. B; The value 4 on the horizontal axis corresponds
taken care of, the value of the car again to the highest point on the curve.
increases. 25. A; charge for cost for
profit is minus
each CD each CD
123 123 14243 123 14243
p  (2.50  0.35)
Value

number cost of
times minus
of CDs equipment
123 14243 14243 1442443
Years
 n  875
21. When the block of ice is removed from the
freezer the temperature starts to increase. The or p  2.15n  875
temperature increases until it approaches the
room temperature, at which time the
temperature gradually becomes constant. Page 48 Maintain Your Skills
26. Hypothesis: you use a computer
Temperature (˚F )

Conclusion: you can send e-mail


27. Hypothesis: a shopper has 9 or fewer items
Conclusion: the shopper can use the express lane
28. ab(a  b)  (ab)a  (ab)b Distributive Prop.
 a(ab)  (ab)b Commutative ()
Time  (a  a)b  a(b  b) Associative ()
22a. At each value of the independent variable the  a2b  ab2 Substitution
dependent variable is 23 units greater. The 29. Substitution Property
following table shows this relationship. n  3, since (12  9)(4)  (3)(4).
Lisa’s Age 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 30. Multiplicative Property of Zero
Mallory’s 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 n  0, since 7(0)  0.
Age 31. Multiplicative Identity Property
The ordered pairs for this data are (5, 28), n  1, since (1)(87)  87.
(10, 33), (15, 38), (20, 43), (25, 48), (30, 53), 32. Step 1 Draw a horizontal axis and a vertical
(35, 58), and (40, 63). Graph the ordered pairs. axis. Label the axes. Add a title.
Then draw a line through the points. Step 2 Draw a bar to represent each category. The
90 vertical scale is the number of radio
80 stations using each format. The horizontal
70 scale identifies the formats used.
Mallory’s Age

60 U.S. Commercial Radio Stations


50 by Format, 2000
40 2400
30 2200
20 2000
Number of Stations

10 1800
1600
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1400
Lisa’s Age 1200
22b. We know Mallory is 23 years older than Lisa. 1000
So, for Mallory to be twice as old as Lisa, Lisa 800
must be 23 years old. The point on the graph 600
that corresponds to this situation is (23, 46).
0
23. Real-world data can be recorded and visualized
Co

Co ry
Ad te

Ne

Ro
ld
un

ck

in a graph and by expressing an event as a


w
ul mp

ie
s/T
t or
t

function of another event. Answers should


al
k

include the following.


ar
y

• A graph gives you a visual representation of Format


the situation, which is easier to analyze and
evaluate.
• During the first 24 hours, blood flow to the
brain decreases to 50% at the moment of the
injury and gradually increases to about 60%.
• Significant improvement occurs during the
first two days.

Chapter 1 24
Page 49 Algebra Activity
1-9
Statistics: Analyzing Data by
(Follow-Up of Lesson 1-8) Using Tables and Graphs
1. Sample answer: In 1900 there were 15,503,000
students, and in 1920 there were 21,578,000
Pages 53–54 Check for Understanding
students. Therefore, we could estimate that there
15,503,000  21,578,000 1. A circle graph compares parts to the whole. A bar
were  18,540,500, or about
2 graph compares different catagories of data. A
18,540,000 students in 1910. In 1970 line graph shows changes in data over time.
there were 45,550,000 students, and in 1980 2. See students’ work.
there were 41,651,000 students. Therefore, 3. Sample answer: The percentages of the data do
we could estimate that there were not total 100.
45,550,000  41,651,000
2
 43,600,500 or 4. The bar for the number of schools participating in
about 43,600,000 students in 1975. basketball shows 321 and the bar for the number
2. Sample answer: 55,000,000. By looking at general of schools participating in golf shows 283. So,
trends of the graph, we see that it is increasing, there were 321 – 283 or 38 more schools
and the amount of students will be around participating in basketball than in golf.
55,000,000 in 2020. 5. The bar showing the least amount is for tennis.
3. Sample answer: For Exercise 1 we averaged the Therefore, of the sports listed, tennis is offered at
enrollments for 1900 and 1920 and then for 1970 the fewest schools.
and 1980. For Exercise 2 we calculated the 6. The percentage representing the number of
increase in students per year from 1900 to 1980, students from Germany is 0.06%. So, find 0.06%
then added 40 times that amount to the 1980 of 14.9 million.
enrollment. 0.06% 14,900,00 equals 8940.
of 1442443
14243 123 123
14243
4. If the U.S. population does not increase as
quickly as in the past, then the number of
0.0006  14,900,000  8940
students may be too high. 8940 of the students were from Germany.
5. The year is the independent variable since it is 7. The percentage representing the number of
unaffected by the number of students per students from Canada is 0.15%. The percentage
computer, and the number of students per representing the number of students from the
computer is the dependent variable since it is United Kingdom is 0.05%. So, find 0.15  0.05 or
affected by the year. The ordered pairs can be 0.1% of 14.9 million.
determined from the table with x representing 0.1% of 14,900,00 equals 14,900
123 123 1442443 14243
14243
the number of years since 1984. The orderd pairs
0.001  14,900,000  14,900
are (0, 125), (1, 75), (2, 50), (3, 37), (4, 32), (5, 25),
(6, 22), (7, 20), (8, 18), (9, 16), (10, 14), (11, 10.5), 14,900 more students were from Canada than
(12, 10), (13, 7.8), (14, 6.1), (15, 5.7). Graph the from the United Kingdom.
ordered pairs. 8. No; the data do not represent a whole set.
9. A bar graph would be more appropriate, since a
130
120
bar graph is used to compare similar data in the
110 same category.
Students per Computer

100
90
10. Sample answer: The vertical axis scale shows
80 only partial intervals.
70
60
11. The vertical axis needs to begin at 0.
50
40
30
20 Pages 54–55 Practice and Apply
10
12. 1
film stock plus processing plus prep for telecine plus
442443 123 1442443 123 144424443 123
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
3110.40  621.00  60.00 
Years Since 1984
telecine plus tape stock equals total cost.
14243 123 1442443 14
424
43 1442443
A prediction is 1 student per computer because it
does not seem likely that schools would have 1000.00  73.20  4864.60
more computers than students. The total cost is $4864.60.
13. original backup total cost of
tape stock plus tape stock equals digital video .
1442443 123 1442443 14 42443 144424443
10.00  10.00  20.00
The total cost of using digital video is $20.00, and
from Exercise 12 the total cost of using
35-millimeter film is $4864.60.
4864.60  20.00  243.23
The cost of 35-millimeter film is about 250 times
as great.

25 Chapter 1
14. The section of the graph representing books Page 55 Maintain Your Skills
purchased in the spring is 19%, so find 19% of 22. Pedro’s heart rate increases as he exercises, and
25 million. continues to increase until he is done sprinting.
19% His heart rate decreases during his last walk
23 of 25,000,000 equals 4,750,000
1 { 14243 123 14243
until it returns to a normal rate.
0.19  25,000,000  4,750,000
About 5 million books were purchased in the spring.

Heart rate
15. The section of the graph representing books
purchased in the summer is 15%, so find 15% of
15,000.
15%
23 of 15,000 equals 2250. Distance (mi)
1 { 14243 123 1 23
23. 4x  5  42
0.15  15,000  2250
4x  47
She should expect to sell about 2250 books. 3
x  11 4
16. The vertical axis is extended and does not begin
at 0. It gives the impression that the number of Thus, x  12 is a sample counterexample.
cable television systems is decreasing rapidly.
24. Sample answer:
17. Yes, the graph is misleading because the sum of 3 3 ?
the percentages is not 100. To fix the graph, each x  2; 2
7 1
section must be drawn accurately and another 3
2
7 1 ✓
section that represents “other” toppings should be 3 1
added. but 2
 3
18a. To show little increase, bunch the values on the 2

vertical scale closer together. 25. a rectangle with length 6 inches and width
2 inches
Color Television Ownership,
6  6  2  2  16
1980–2000
16  16 ✓
U.S. Households

100
Percentage of

However, each side is not 4 inches long.


90
26. 7a  5b  3b  3a  7a  3a  5b  3b
80
 (7a  3a)  (5b  3b)
70
 (7  3)a  (5  3)b
60
’80 ’85 ’90 ’95 ’00
 10a  8b
Year 27. 4x2  9x  2x2  x  4x2  2x2  9x  x
18b. To show rapid increase spread the values on the  (4x2  2x2)  (9x  x)
vertical scale further apart.  (4  2)x2  (9  1)x
 6x2  10x
Color Television Ownership,
1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1
1980–2000 28. 2n  3m  2m  3n  2n  3n  3m  2m

112 n  13 n2  123 m  12 m2
U.S. Households

100

Percentage of

 12  3 2n  13  2 2m
95
1 1 2 1
90
85 5 7
 6n  6m
80
5 1
’80 ’85 ’90 ’95 ’00  6n  1 6m
Year

18c. See students’ graphs and explanations.


19. Tables and graphs provide an organized and Page 56 Spreadsheet Investigation
quick way to examine data. Answers should (Follow-Up of Lesson 1-9)
include the following. 1. Enter the data in a spreadsheet. Use Column A
• Examine the existing pattern and use it to for the years and Column B for the sales. Select
continue a graph to the future. the data to be included in the graph. Then use
• Make sure the scale begins at zero and is the graph tool to create a line graph.
consistent. Circle graphs should have all Snowmobile Sales
percents total 100%. The right kind of graph 1200
should be used for the given data. 1000
Sales (millions)

20. C; From the second to the third day the 800


temperature increase was about 8F. 600
21. C; A line graph shows changes in data over time. 400
200
0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998
Year

Chapter 1 26
2. Enter the data in a spreadsheet as in Exercise 1. 21. 3  2  4  3  8
Select the data to be included in your graph.  11
Then use the graph tool to create a bar graph. 110  62 4
22. 8
Snowmobile Sales 8
1
1200 2
1000
Sales (millions)
23. 18  42  7  18  16  7
800
27
600
9
400
24. 8(2  5)  6  8(7)  6
200
 56  6
0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998  50
Year 25. 4(11  7)  9  8  4(18)  9  8
3. Yes; you can change the scales to begin at values  72  9  8
other than zero, or change the intervals on the  72  72
scale to be misleading. 0
26. 288 [3(9  3)]  288 [3(12)]
 288 36
Chapter 1 Study Guide and Review 8
27. 16 2  5  3 6  8  5  3 6
Page 57 Vocabulary and Concept Check  40  3 6
1. a; Additive Identity Property  120 6
2. e; Multiplicative Identity Property  20
3. g; Multiplicative Property of Zero 28. 6(43  22)  6(64  22)
 6(64  4)
4. f; Multiplicative Inverse Property
 6(68)
5. h; Reflexive Property  408
6. j; Symmetric Property 14  62 14  62
7. i; Substitution Property 29. 13  12 3  15  22
 33  15  22
10
8. k; Transitive Property  33  15  22
9. b; Distributive Property 10
 33  10
10. d; Associative Property
10
 27  10
 27  1
Pages 57–62 Lesson-by-Lesson Review  26
11. a number x to the fifth power 30. t2  3y  42  3  2 31. xty3  3  4  23
14444444244444443
x5  16  3  2 3 4 8
The algebraic expression is x5.  16  6  12  8
 22  96
12. five times a number x squared
123123 1444 4424 44443 ty 4  2
32. 
5  x2 x 3
8
The algebraic expression is 5x2.  3
twenty-one
13. a number x sum of 1442443 2
1442443 14243  23
x  21 33. x  t2  y2  3  42  22
The algebraic expression is x  21.  3  16  22
14. twice a number x difference of eight  3  16  4
14444244443 144 443 14243
424
 19  4
2x  8  23
The algebraic expression is 2x  8. 34. 3ty  x2  3  4  2  32
15. 33  3  3  3 16. 25  2  2  2  2  2 3 4 29
 27  32  12  2  9
17. 54  5  5  5  5  24  9
 625  15
18. the product of two and a number p squared 35. 8(x  y)2  2t  8(3  2)2  2  4
 8(1)2  2  4
19. the product of three and a number m to the fifth
8 12 4
power
82 4
20. the sum of one half and two 88
 16

27 Chapter 1
36. x  22  13 37. y  4  32 47. Replace x in 2x  5 15 with each value in the
9 49 replacement set.
The solution is 9.  13 x 2x  5  15 True or False?
The solution is 13.
?
64  4 21  3 4 2  4  5 15 S 13  15 false
38. m  17
39. x  12  3
?
68 18 5 2  5  5 15 S 15 15 true ✓
 17
 9 ?
4 2 6 2  6  5 15 S 17 15 true ✓
?
The solution is 4. The solution is 2. 7 2  7  5 15 S 19 15 true ✓
14  28 96 6 ?
40. a  4  3
41. n  8 2 8 2  8  5 15 S 21 15 true ✓
42 16
 7
 4 The solution set for 2x  5 15 is {5, 6, 7, 8}.
6 4 48. 2[3 (19  42)]
The solution is 6. The solution is 4.  2[3 (19  16)] Substitution; 42  16
714  32 6172  2132  2[3 3] Substitution; 19  16  3
42. b  18 3
43. x  2 2 1 Substitution; 3 3  1
4  6122
71122 42  6 2 Multiplicative Identity;
 6
 16  12
84 36
2 12
 6
 4 1
49.  2  2[2  3  1]
 14 9 2
1
The solution is 14. The solution is 9.  2  2  2[6  1] Substitution; 2  3  6
1
44. y  5[2(4)  13]  22  25 Substitution; 6  1  5
 5[8  1]
125 Multiplicative Inverse;
 5[7] 1
 35 2
21
The solution is 35.  1  10 Substitution; 2  5  10
45. Replace x in x  2
7 with each value in the
replacement set.  11Substitution; 1 + 10  11
50. 42  22  (4  2)
x x27 True or False?
 42  22  2 Substitution; 4  2  2
?
4 4  2 7 7S6 7 false  16  22  2 Substitution; 42  16
?  16  4  2 Substitution; 22  4
5 5  2 7 7S7 7 false  12  2 Substitution; 16  4  12
?
6 6  2 7 7S8 7 7 true ✓  10 Substitution; 12  2  10
? 51. 1.2  0.05  23
7 7  2 7 7S9 7 7 true ✓
 1.2  0.05  8 Substitution; 23  8
?
8 8  2 7 7 S 10 7 7 true ✓  1.15  8 Substitution; 1.2  0.05 
1.15
The solution set for x  2
7 is {6, 7, 8}.
 9.15 Substitution; 1.15  8  9.15
46. Replace x in 10  x 7 with each value in the
52. (7  2)(5)  52
replacement set.
 5(5)  52 Substitution; 7  2  5
x 10  x  7 True or False?  5(5)  25 Substitution; 52  25
?  25  25 Substitution; 5  5  25
4 10  4 6 7 S 6 6 7 true ✓ 0 Substitution ()
? 1
5 10  5 6 7 S 5 6 7 true ✓ 53. 3(4 4) 2  4 (8)
1
6
?
10  6 6 7 S 4 6 7 true ✓  3(1) 2  4 (8) Substitution; 4 4  1
182
1
7
?
10  7 6 7 S 3 6 7 true ✓ 31 4
Substitution; 12  1
1
? 3 (8) Multiplicative Identity;
8 10  8 6 7 S 2 6 7 true ✓ 4
313
The solution set for 10  x 7 is {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}. 1
32 Substitution; 4
82
1 Substitution; 3  2  1
54. 2(4  7)  2(4)  2(7) 55. 8(15  6)  8(15)  8(6)
 8  14  120  48
 22  72

Chapter 1 28
56. 4(x  1)  4(x)  4(1) 72. five times the
 4x  4 decreased by 2x
sum of x and y 1
144424443 44424443 123

57. 3 1 1
3 2
p 3 1 2  31 p2
1
3
5(x  y)  2x
5(x  y)  2x  5(x)  5(y)  2x Distributive
 1  3p
Property
58. 6(a  b)  6(a)  6(b)
 5x  2x  5y Commutative
 6a  6b
()
59. 8(3x  7y)  8(3x)  8(7y)  3x  5y Substitution
 24x  56y
73. twice the product the product
60. 4a  9a  (4  9)a of p and q increased by of p and q
 13a 14444244443 144424443 1442443

61. There are no like terms. 5( p  q)  pq


4np  7mp is simplified. 2pq  pq  (2  1)pq Distributive Property
62. 3w  w  4v  3v  (3w  w)  (4v  3v)  3pq Substitution
 (3  1)w  (4  3)v 74. the sum of eight
 2w  1v six times a plus times b and twice a
1442443 123 1444442444443
 2w  v 6a  (8b  2a)
63. 3m  5m  12n  4n  (3m  5m)  (12n  4n)
6a  8b  2a
 (3  5)m  (12  4)n
 6a  2a  8b Commutative ()
 8m  8n
 (6a  2a)  8b Associative ()
64. 2p(1  16r)  2p(1)  2p(16r)  (6  2)a  8b Distributive Property
 2p  32pr  8a  8b Substitution
65. 9y  3y  5x  (9y  3y)  5x 75. three times the sum of x squared
 (9  3)y  5x the square of x plus and seven times x
 12y  5x 144424443 123 1444442444443

66. 3x  4y  2x  3x  2x  4y 3  x2  (x2  7  x)
 (3x  2x)  4y 3x2  x2  7x
 (3  2)x  4y  (3x2  x2)  7x Associative ()
 5x  4y  (3  1)x2  7x Distributive Property
67. 7w  w  2w2  7w2  2w2  w
2  4x2  7x Substitution
 (7w2  2w2)  w 76. Hypothesis: it is 7:30 A.M.
 (7  2)w2  w Conclusion: school begins
 9w2  w If it is 7:30 A.M., then school begins.
1 1
1 1 1 2
68. 3 2m  2m  n  3 2m  2m  n 77. Hypothesis: a figure is a triangle

 13 2  2 2m  n
Conclusion: it has three sides
1 1 If a figure is a triangle, then it has three sides.
?
 4m  n 78. x  13, y  12; 13 7 12
69. 6a  5b  2c  8b  6a  5b  8b  2c 13 7 12 ✓
 6a  (5b  8b)  2c but 21132 31122
 6a  (5  8)b  2c ? ?
 6a  13b  2c 79. a  15, b  1, c  12; 15 7 1 and 15 7 12
70. 3(2  3x)  21x  3(2)  3(3x)  21x 15 7 1 and 15 7 12 ✓
 6  9x  21x but 1 12
 6  (9x  21x) 80. When taking off, the airplane has zero altitude.
 6  (9  21)x Then the plane gains altitude. The plane’s
 6  30x altitude remains constant as it flies around. Then
 30x  6 the altitude decreases until the plane lands.
71. 6(2n  4)  5n  6(2n)  6(4)  5n Graph C shows this situation.
 12n  24  5n
 12n  5n  24
 (12n  5n)  24
 (12  5)n  24
 17n  24

29 Chapter 1
81. The amount of helium in a balloon increases from 7 difference of a number x squared
5. {
144424443 14444424 44443
zero at a steady rate until it bursts. When the
7  x2
balloon bursts, the amount of helium in the
balloon is again zero. The algebraic expression is 7  x2.
6. 5(9  3)  3  4  5(12)  3  4
 60  3  4
Helium (cm3 )

 60  12
 48
7. 12  6 3  2 8  72 3  2 8
 24  2 8
Time  48 8
82. Construct a table with 2 rows. The first row is 6
labeled Earth Years and the second row is labeled 8. a2b  c  22  5  3
Mars Years. Since one year on Earth is about 0.54 4 53
years on Mars, pick some value for Earth Years and  20  3
multiply by 0.54 to get values for Mars Years.  23
Earth Years 5 10 15 20 25 9. (cd)3  (3  1)3 10. (a  d )c  (2  1)3
 33  (3)3
Mars Years 2.7 5.4 8.1 10.8 13.5  27 9
83. 50 11. y  (4.5  0.8)  3.2 12. 42  3(4  2)  x
y  5.3  3.2 42  3(2)  x
40 y  2.1 16  3(2)  x
The solution is 2.1. 16  6  x
Mars Years

30 10  x
The solution is 10.
20
23  13
13. 2  1
n
10
8  1
3
n
7
0 10 20 30 40 50
3
n
Earth Years 1
23 n
84. The section of the graph representing students
7 1
who chose the amusement park is 45% of the The solution is 3
or 2 3.
circle, so find 45% of 120. 14. 32  2  (2  2)
45%
23 of 120 equal 54.  9  2  (2  2) Substitution; 32  9
1 { 1 23 123 {

0.45  120  54 920 Substitution; 2  2  0


70 Substitution; 9  2  7
54 students chose the amusement park. 7 Additive Identity; 7  0  7
85. The section of the graph representing students 15. (2  2  3)  22  32
who chose the amusement park is 45% of the  (4  3)  22  32 Substitution; 2  2  4
circle. The section of the graph representing  1  22  32 Substitution; 4  3  1
students who chose the water park is 25%. So,  1  4  32 Substitution; 22  4
find 45 – 25 or 20% of 180. 149 Substitution; 32  9
20%
23 of 180 equal 36. 59 Substitution; 1  4  5
1 { 1 23 123 {
0.2%  180  36  14 Substitution; 5  9  14
There were 36 more students who chose the 16. 2m  3m  (2m  3m)
amusement park than the water park.  (2  3)m
 5m
17. 4x  2y  2x  y  4x  2x  2y  y
 (4x  2x)  (2y  y)
Chapter 1 Practice Test  (4  2)x  (2  1)y
 2x  3y
Page 63
18. 3(2a  b)  5a  4b  3(2a)  3(b)  5a  4b
1. d; Reflexive Property of Equality
 6a  3b  5a  4b
2. a; Substitution Property of Equality  6a  5a  3b  4b
3. c; Transitive Property of Equality  (6a  5a)  (3b  4b)
4. a number x sum of 13  (6  5)a  (3  4)b
1442443 14243 123
 1a  7b
x  13  a  7b
The algebraic expression is x  13.

Chapter 1 30
19. Running for 15 minutes does not mean you can 2. C; 2    r  2  3.14  4
run for a few hours.  6.28  4
20. 2x  3 9  25.12
2x 12 3. B; There are about 50 weeks in a year.
x 6 80  50  4000
Thus, x  6 is a counterexample. 4. A; 4
21. When a basketball is shot, its height starts above 1250
the ground. Then it increases until the basketball 48
reaches its maximum height. The height of the 2
ball decreases until it gets to the basket, at which
5. D; charge number cost of replaced
time it falls back to the ground.
per hour times of hours plus parts
14243 123 14243 123 144424443
($36  h)  $85
or (36  h)  85
Height

6. D; 3(2x  3)  2(x  1)  3(2x)  3(3)  2(x)  2(1)


 6x  9  2x  2
 6x  2x  9  2
 (6x  2x)  (9  2)
Time  (6  2)x  11
22. The nickel’s height is at a maximum when it is  8x  11
dropped. It’s height decreases until it hits the 7. B; 3 is a positive integer, but 9 is not divisible by 2.
stack of pennies. The height of the nickel 8. B; The section of the graph representing foreign-
increases as it bounces off the pennies. born people from Asia is 25.2% of the circle.
The section of the graph representing foreign-
born people from Central America is 34.5% of
the circle. 25.2  34.5
Height

5
9. Five eighths of the students are girls, so 1  8 or
3 3
8
of the students are boys. Find 8 of 32.
3
of 32 equal 12.
{
8 { { 123 {
Time
3
8
 32  12
23. The section of the graph representing students
who chose chocolate is 62% of the circle. The There are 12 boys in the class.
section of the graph representing students who 10. cost of
chose vanilla is 32% of the circle. So, find 62 – 32 $25 minus the books plus tax
123 14243 144424443 123 14444244443
or 30% of 200. 25  [ (8.99  13.99)  0.06(8.99  13.99) ]
30%
23 of 200 equal 60.
1 { 12 3 123 { 25  [(8.99  13.99)  0.06 (8.99  13.99)]
0.3  200  60 25  [(8.99  13.99)  0.06 (8.99  13.99)]
There were 60 more students who chose chocolate  25  [22.98  0.06(22.98)]
than vanilla.  25  [22.98  1.38]
 25  24.36
24. The section of the graph representing students
 0.64
who chose chocolate is 62% of the circle. The
She should receive $0.64 in change.
section of the graph representing students who
chose vanilla is 32% of the circle. So, 62  32 or 11. The bars with the least difference in height are
94% of the students chose either chocolate or representing 1999. Therefore, 1999 was the year
vanilla. with the least difference in home runs.
15% of 80 equals 1
12. B;123 12.
25. D; 2 is a prime number, but is not odd. 123
123 1
424
3 23
0.15  80  12
25% of 50 equals 12.5
123 123 123 14243 123
Chapter 1 Standardized Test Practice 0.25  50  12.5
Pages 64–65 12 12.5

1 3
2 1
1. B; 1  4  800  200  4  800  200
 200  200
 40,000

31 Chapter 1
10 1a  b2c  4 3a 1c2  b 1c2 4
2 1 1
13. A;  10 3 15. C; 4
2
 4 1ac  bc2
3 1
3
 10  2 ac  bc
10 3  4
 
1 2
5 16. C; (26  39)  (39  13)  (26  39)  (13  39)

10  3  (26  13)  39
12
1  39  39

53  392
11
15 17a. Sample answer: The new pump pumps many
 1 more gallons per hour than the old pump. The
 15 new pump pumps about twice as many gallons
15 7 15 per hour as the old pump.
14. B; Replace x in 2x  1 2x  1 with each value 17b. The gallons pumped per hour by both pumps at
in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. the same time is the sum of the number of gallons
pumped per hour by each pump individually.
True or
x 2x  1  2x  1 False?

Gallons
?
1 2  1  1 6 2  1  1S1 6 3 true ✓
?
2 2  2  1 6 2  2  1S3 6 5 true ✓
?
3 2  3  1 6 2  3  1S5 6 7 true ✓
Hours
?
4 2  4  1 6 2  4  1S7 6 9 true ✓ 17c. This graph shows that only the old pump was
? pumping at first, and then after some hours the
5 2  5  1 6 2  5  1 S 9 6 11 true ✓
new pump started pumping also.
Notice that the expression 2x  1 is always 2
units greater than the expression 2x  1.

Chapter 1 32
Chapter 2 Real Numbers
7  19  2  7  4  9
Page 67 Getting Started 19. mean  6
1. 2.2 2. 0 12 1 3. 33 4. 18 48
1 3 .4 6.4 
0.16 4.2576 . 50 6
4.5 8.8  
8
2.36 4 25
8.9 512
34 00 There are six numbers in the set. When ordered
51 2
34 00 from least to greatest, the third number is 7 and
56.3 2 7  7
0 the fourth is 7. So, the median is 2 or 7.
1 2 3 8 1 1 3 2 7 appears two times, and the other numbers of
5. 4
 3  12  12 6. 2
366
11 1
the set appear only once. So, the mode is 7.
 12 6
20. 112  11  11 21. 0.92  0.9  0.9
1 1
 121  0.81
123 22  23  23 145 22  45  45
5 3 5 3 4 1 4 3
7. 4
 10  4  10 8. 9
 3  91
2 3 22. 23.
3 4 1
  or 13 4 16
8 3 9  25
9. 3a  2  3  2  2 10. 2x  5  2  7  5
62  14  5
4  19
2-1 Rational Numbers on the
11. 8( y  2.4)  8(0.3  2.4)
 8(2.7)
Number Line
 21.6
1 2
1 1 1 Page 70 Check for Understanding
12. 4(b  2)  4 4  2 13. a   2 

 414  4 2
2 2 1. Let a be any integer. Since a can always be
1 8 1 a
 12 written in the form 1 , a is also a rational number.

 414 2
The statement is always true.
9
2. Sample answer: Absolute value is how far from

36 zero a number is.
4
3. Sample answer: describing distances in a given
9
direction such as north versus south, or left
1
14. b  3  4
3 15. xy  7  0.3 versus right
1  2.1 4. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The
 34

1 2
1
coordinates are {2, 1, 2, 5}.
16. y(a  b)  0.3 2  4 5. The bold arrow on the left means that the graph

5 6
 0.3(8) continues indefinitely in that direction. The
11 9 7 5 3
 2.4 coordinates are . . .,  2 , 2, 2, 2, 2 .
2  4  7  9  12  15
17. mean  6 6.
49 5432 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
 6
1
7.
 86 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

There are six numbers in the set. When ordered 8.


from least to greatest, the third number is 7 and 1 1 0 1 2 1 5
7  9 2 4 5 3
the fourth is 9. So, the median is 2 or 8. Every
9.
number in the set appears only once. So, there is 9 8 76 5 4 3 2 1 0 1
no mode.
10. 2 is two units from zero in the negative
23  23  23  12  12  14
18. mean  6 direction.

107 02 0  2
6
5 11. 18 is eighteen units from zero in the positive
 176 direction.
There are six numbers in the set. When ordered 018 0  18
from least to greatest, the third number is 14 and 12. 2.5 is two and one half units from zero in the
14  23 1
the fourth is 23. So, the median is 2
or 182. positive direction.
02.5 0  2.5
The number 23 appears three times, and the
other numbers of the set appear only once. So, the
5
mode is 23. 13. 6 is five-sixths unit from zero in the negative

0 56 0  56
direction.

33 Chapter 2
14. 57  0x  34 0  57  018  34 0 34. 38 is thirty-eight units from zero in the negative
 57  052 0 direction.
 57  52 038 0  38
5 35. 10 is ten units from zero in the positive direction.
15. 19  021  y 0  19  021  4 0 010 0  10
 19  017 0
36. 97 is ninety-seven units from zero in the positive
 19  17
direction.
 36
097 0  97
16. 0z 0  0.26  00.76 0  0.26
 0.76  0.26 37. 61 is sixty-one units from zero in the negative
 0.50 direction.
17. 061 0  61
Rational Numbers 38. 3.9 is three and nine tenths units from zero in the
1
Integers
2 positive direction.
Whole 03.9 0  3.9
Numbers 1.25
39. 6.8 is six and eight tenths units from zero in the
0 40 4 2 2 1 5 negative direction.
 
06.8 0  6.8
53 3 3 5 2
13 0.33 2.98
49.98 23
40. 56 is twenty-three fifty-sixths unit from zero in
the negative direction.
0 2356 0  2356
Pages 71–72 Practice and Apply 35
41. 80
is thirty-five eightieths unit from zero in the
18. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The
positive direction.
0 3580 0  3580
coordinates are {4, 2, 0, 2, 4}.
19. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The
coordinates are {7, 6, 5, 3, 2}. 42.
20. The bold arrow on the right means that the graph 108 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
continues indefinitely in that direction. The Therefore, the percents of change from least to
coordinates are {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .}. greatest are 10.6, 2.9, 1.4, 0.2, 1.7, 4.3, 4.7,
21. The bold arrow on the left means that the graph 5.3, 8.5, and 10.0.
continues indefinitely in that direction. The 43. Philadelphia, PA; Sample answer: It had the
coordinates are {. . ., 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8}. greatest absolute value.

5 6
22. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The 44. Wayne, MI; Sample answer: It had the least
5 2
coordinates are 2, 3, 1, 3, 1 . absolute value.
45. 48  0x  5 0  48  012  5 0
5 6
23. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The
1 4 7 8  48  07 0
coordinates are 5, 5, 5, 5, 2 .
 48  7
24.  55
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
46. 25  017  x 0  25  017  12 0
25.  25  029 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
 25  29
26.  54
017  a 0  23  017  6 0  23
7 6 5 4 3 2
47.
27.  011 0  23
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
 11  23
28.  34
043  4a 0  51  043  4  6 0  51
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
48.
 043  24 0  51
29.
 019 0  51
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
30.  19  51
1  2  1 0 1 2
1 11 12 2  70
3 3 3 3 3 3

31. 49. 0z 0  13  4  05 0  13  4


4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3  5  13  4
32.  18  4
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1  14
33. 50. 28  13  0z 0  28  13  05 0
6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10  28  13  5
 15  5
 20

Chapter 2 34
51. 6.5  08.4  y 0  6.5  08.4  3.2 0 60. Sample answer: You can plot the data on a
 6.5  05.2 0 number line to visualize their relationship.
 6.5  5.2 Answers should include the following.
 1.3 • Determine the least and greatest values of the
52. 7.4  0y  2.6 0  7.4  03.2  2.6 0 data, and use those as the endpoints of the line.
 7.4  00.6 0 • Find the absolute value of each number.
 7.4  0.6 61. D; 08 0  2  8  2
8
0 0 0 23  127 0
6
1 7 1
53.  b  12  6  62. C; Zero is a whole number, but zero is not a
 6  0 12 0
6
1 1 natural number.
1 1
 6  12
4
1 Page 72 Maintain Your Skills

1 2 0 5 0 123  12 2  0 56 0
1
63. The graph shows that Mr. Michaels’s sales were
54. b  2  6  less than 10 cars for each month except
 13  2 2  6
2 1 5 December. In December Mr. Michaels sold
12 cars. Therefore, his greatest sales happened
7 5
66 in December.
1 64. The graph shows that Mr. Michaels’s change in
3

0 54  1 0  25
sales between any two consecutive months was
55. 0 c  1 0  5 
2
always less than 7 cars except between November

 040  5
1 2 and December when it was 8 cars. Therefore, the
greatest change in sales occurred between
45
1 2 November and December.
13 65. The graph shows that Mr. Michaels sold 3 cars in
 20

1 2 0 5 0 1 12
February, July, and October.
56. 0c 0  2  2  4  2  2
1
66. The volume starts high, decreases when she turns

 4  12  2 2
5 1
it down, remains constant while she is on the
phone, then increases to its starting volume when
42
5 5 she gets off the phone.
15 3
 4
or 3 4
57.  0x 0  1  0x 0 Volume

Therefore, 0x 0   0x 0 can be thought of as what


number when multiplied by 1 is equal to itself? Time
The number 0 is the only number that satisfies
that characteristic. i.e. 1  0  0. So, 0x 0  0.
67. 8x  2y  x  8x  x  2y
 (8x  x)  2y
What number is zero units from zero? x  0, or
 (8  1)x  2y
the solution is 0.
 9x  2y
58.
10 0 10 20 30 68. 7(5a  3b)  4a  7(5a)  7(3b)  4a
 35a  21b  4a
59. 11 is eleven units from zero in the negative
 35a  4a  21b
direction. For Bismarck, 011 0  11.
 (35a  4a)  21b
5 is five units from zero in the negative  (35  4)a  21b
direction. For Caribou, 05 0  5.  31a  21b
4 is four units from zero in the negative 69. 4[1  4(5x  2y)]  4[1  4(5x)  4(2y)]
direction. For Chicago, 04 0  4.  4[1  20x  8y]
9 is nine units from zero in the negative  4[1]  4[20x]  4[8y]
direction. For Fairbanks, 09 0  9.  4  80x  32y
13 is thirteen units from zero in the negative 70.
3 1
88
4
71.
7 3
 12  12
4
direction. For International Falls, 013 0  13. 8 12
1 1
7 is seven units from zero in the positive 2 3
direction. For Kansas City, 07 0  7. 72.
7 1
 5  10  10
7 2
73.
3 2 9
 3  24  24
16
10 8
34 is thirty-four units from zero in the positive 9
direction. For Sacramento, 034 0  34.
25
 10  24
1
33 is thirty-three units from zero in the positive  1 24
direction. For Shreveport, 033 0  33.

35 Chapter 2
5 1 5 3 3 1 9 4 2 3 20 27
74. 266 75.  3  12  12 14. 9  10  90  90

1 27 2
6 4
8 5 20
6  12  90  90

  1 0 90 0  0 90 0 2
4 1
 3 or 1 3 20 27

  1 90  90 2
9 1 18 15 7 7 14 7
76. 15
 2  30  30 77. 9
 18  18  18 20 27
3 7
 30  18 47
 90

1 2 1 2 1 42 2 1 55 2
1
 7 11
10 15. 10  12  60  60

 1 60 2  1 60 2
42 55

 1 60 2  60
2-2 Adding and Subtracting 42 55

  1 0 60 0  0 60 0 2
Rational Numbers 55 42

  1 60  60 2
Page 76 Check for Understanding 55 42
1 3
1. Sample answer: 5  5
13
2. Sample answer: To subtract a real number, add  60
its opposite. 16. 134  (80)  134  (80)
6 6
3. Gabriella; subtracting 9 is the same as adding 9.  134  80
4. 15  (12)  ( 015 0  012 0 )  214
 (15  12) The difference is 214.
 27
5. 24  (45)  ( 024 0  045 0 )
 (24  45) Pages 76–78 Practice and Apply
 69 17. 8  13  ( 013 0  08 0 )
6. 38.7  (52.6)  ( 052.6 0  038.7 0 )  (13  8)
 (52.6  38.7) 5
 13.9 18. 11  19  ( 019 0  011 0 )
7. 4.62  (12.81)  ( 04.62 0  012.81 0 )  (19  11)
 (4.62  12.81) 8
 17.43 19. 41  (63)  ( 063 0  041 0 )
8.
4
1 12
 2  14  14
8
1 72  (63  41)

  1 0 14 0  0 14 0 2
7
 22
20. 80  (102)  ( 0102 0  080 0 )
8 7

  1 14  14 2
8 7  (102  80)
 22
 14
1
21. 77  (46)  ( 077 0  046 0 )
5 8 25 32  (77  46)
9. 12  15  60  60

1 0 3260 0  0 2560 0 2
 123
 22. 92  (64)  ( 092 0  064 0 )

  1 60  60 2
32 25
 (92  64)
 156
 60
7 23. 1.6  (3.8)  ( 01.6 0  03.8 0 )
 (1.6  3.8)
10. 18  23  18  (23)
 5.4
 ( 023 0  018 0 )
 (23  18) 24. 32.4  (4.5)  ( 032.4 0  04.5 0 )
 5  (32.4  4.5)
 36.9
11. 12.7  (18.4)  12.7  (18.4)
 12.7  18.4 25. 38.9  24.2  ( 038.9 0  024.2 0 )
 31.1  (38.9  24.2)
 14.7
12. (3.86)  1.75  (3.86)  (1.75)
 ( 03.86 0  01.75 0 ) 26. 7.007  4.8  ( 07.007 0  04.8 0 )
 (3.86  1.75)  (7.007  4.8)
 5.61  2.207
13. 32.25  (42.5)  32.25  (42.5) 27. 43.2  (57.9)  ( 057.9 0  043.2 0 )
 32.25  42.5  (57.9  43.2)
 ( 042.5 0  032.25 0 )  14.7
 (42.5  32.25)
 10.25

Chapter 2 36
28. 38.7  (61.1)  ( 061.1 0  038.7 0 ) 37. To find the total score, find the sum of her scores.
 (61.1  38.7) 100  200  500  (300)  400  (500)
 22.4  300  500  (300)  400  (500)
29.
6 2
 3  21  21
18 14  800  (300)  400  (500)
 ( 0800 0  0300 0 )  400  (500)
7
32 11
 21 or 1 21  (800  300)  400  (500)
30.
3 6
 17  306  306
51 108  500  400  (500)
18
 900  (500)
 ( 0900 0  0500 0)
159
 306
 102
53  (900  500)
 400
4 3 20 33
31. 11  5  55  55

1 0 3355 0  0 2055 0 2
Her total score was 400 points.
 38. First find the net yards gained by finding the sum

  1 55  55 2
of 6, 8, and 3.
6  (8)  3  ( 08 0  06 0 )  3
33 20

 55
13  (8  6)  3
 2  3
 ( 03 0  02 0)
2 17 8 17
32. 5  20  20  20
 1 0 1720 0  0 208 0 2  (3  2)
1
  1 20  20 2
17 8
Over the three plays, they gained 1 yard from
9 their 20-yard line. Therefore, they were on the
 20

1 2 1 135 2
21-yard line.
4 9 64
33. 15  16  240  240 39. 19  8  19  (8)
 ( 019 0  08 0 )
  1 0 240 0  0 240 0 2
64 135
 (19  8)

  1 240  240 2
64 135  27
40. 16  (23)  16  (23)
199
 240  16  23

1 2 1 26 2
16 13 16  39
34. 40  20  40  40
41. 9  (24)  9  (24)
  1 0 40 0  0 40 0 2  9  24
16 26

  1 40  40 2
 33
16 26
42. 12  34  12  (34)
 40
42  ( 034 0  012 0 )
 (34  12)
21 1
 20 or 1 20  22
1
35. 4 8  1 2  1 1
2 33
2
 8 1 12 43. 22  41  22  (41)
 ( 041 0  022 0)
 1 0 8 0  0 8 0 2
8
33 12  (41  22)

 1 8  8 2
 19
33 12
44. 9  (33)  9  (33)
21
  9  33
8
 ( 033 0  09 0 )
5
 28  (33  9)
36. 1 50 
17
1 17
3 25  50
67
2   50 1 184
2  24

1 0 0  0 6750 0 2
45. 58  (42)  58  (42)
184
  50  58  42
 ( 058 0  042 0)
  1 50  50 2
184 67
 (58  42)
117  16
  50
17
46. 79.3  (14.1)  79.3  (14.1)
 2 50  79.3  14.1
 93.4
47. 1.34  (0.458)  1.34  (0.458)
 1.34  0.458
 1.798
48. 9.16  10.17  9.16  (10.17)
 ( 09.16 0  010.17 0 )
 (9.16  10.17)
 19.33

37 Chapter 2
49. 67.1  (38.2)  67.1  (38.2) 58. 2  (6)  (4)  (4)
 67.1  38.2  ( 02 0  06 0 )  (4)  (4)
 105.3  (2  6)  (4)  (4)
50. 72.5  (81.3)  72.5  (81.3)  8  (4)  (4)
 72.5  81.3  ( 08 0  04 0 )  (4)
 153.8  (8  4)  (4)
1 2 1 4  12  (4)
 ( 012 0  04 0 )
51. 6  3  6  6
 6  6 1 42
1  (12  4)

  1 0 6 0  0 6 0 2
 16
1 4
59. Under; yes; it is better than par 72.
 16  6 2 60. Subtract to find the change in value.
1 4

5
week 8 week 1
 6 value 123minus 123 value
123
1 4 5 8
52.  5  10  10 11,257.24  9791.09  1466.15.

1 2
2


5

8
10 The value changed by 1466.15.

1 0 0  0 105 0 2
10
8
61. From week 1 to week 2 the change was:
 10
10,126.94  9791.09  335.85.
  1 10  10 2
8 5 From week 2 to week 3 the change was:
3 10,579.85  10,126.94  452.91.
 10

1 2 1 32
From week 3 to week 4 the change was:
7 3 14
53. 8  16  16  16 10,810.05  10,579.85  230.20.
 16  1 16 2
14 3 From week 4 to week 5 the change was:
10,951.24  10,810.05  141.19.
14 3
 16  16

1 0 14 0 0 163 0 2
From week 5 to week 6 the change was:
  16  10,821.31  10,951.24

  1 16  16 2
 10,821.31  (10,951.24)
 ( 010,951.24 0  010,821.31 0 )
14 3

11  (10,951.24  10,821.31)
 16

1 32 1 92
 129.93.
1 1
54. 12  4  12  12 From week 6 to week 7 the change was:

 12  1 12 2
1 9 11,301.74  10,821.31  480.43.
From week 7 to week 8 the change was:
1 9
 12  12 11,257.24  11,301.74.
 1 0 129 0  0 121 0 2  11,257.24  (11,301.74)
 ( 011,301.74 0  011,257.24 0 )
  1 12  12 2
9 1
 (11,301.74  11,257.24)
8  44.50.
 12
Therefore, week 7 had the greatest change from
2
3 the previous week.
1
55. 2 4  6 3  4 
1 9 19 62. Week 8 had the least change from the previous week.

1 2
3
27 76
63. Sometimes; the equation is false for positive values
 12  12 of x, but true for all other values of x.
 1 0 0  0 2712 0 2
76
12 64. Sample answer: If a team gains yards, move right on

  1 12  12 2
the number line. If a team loses yards, move left on the
76 27
number line. Answers should include the following.
49 1 • Move right or left, depending on whether the
 12 or 4 12
Giants gained or lost yards on each play.
3 31 53 81
56. 5 10  1 50  10  50 Where you end will tell you how many yards
265 81 the Giants lost or gained.
 50
 50
• Instead of using a number line, you can use the
92 17
 25
or 325 rules for adding and subtracting rational
57. A score of 70, or 2 under par, is written as 2. numbers.
A score of 66, or 6 under par, is written as 6. 65. C; 57  87  57  (87)
A score of 68, or 4 under par, is written as 4.  ( 057 0  087 0 )
During the four rounds, he shot 2, 6, 4, and 4.  (57  87)
 144

Chapter 2 38
66. B; 5  (8)  5  (8) 73. Replace a in 3a  5 7 with each value in the
58 replacement set A.
85
a 3a  5  7 True or False?
?
2 32  5 7 7S1
7 false
Page 78 Maintain Your Skills ?
3 33  5 7 7S4
7 false
67. 12.2  08  x 0  12.2  08  4.8 0 ?
 12.2  03.2 0 4 34  5 7 7S7
7 false
 12.2  3.2 ?
5 3  5  5 7 7 S 10 7 7 true ✓
 15.4 ?
68. 0y 0  9.4  3  07.4 0  9.4  3 6 3  6  5 7 7 S 13 7 7 true ✓
 7.4  9.4  3 The solution set for 3a  5 7 is {5, 6}.
 16.8  3 1 1
74. Replace c in c  2 6 24 with each value in the
 13.8 replacement set C.
69. 24.2  018.3  z 0  24.2  018.3  10 0
 24.2  08.3 0 C c  12  214 True or False?
 24.2  8.3 1 1 1 ? 1 3 1
 15.9 4 4
 2 6 24 S 4 6 24 true ✓
70. Sample answer: A category labeled “other” 1 1 1 ? 1 1
 2 6 24 S 1 6 24 true ✓
representing 8% would have to be added so that 2 2
the data would sum to 100%. 3 3 1 ? 1 1 1
4 4
 2 6 24 S 14 6 24 true ✓
71. Draw a circle with three sections. Make one section
67% of the circle and label it with the phrase ‘drink 1 ? 1 1 1
1 1  2 6 24 S 12 6 24 true ✓
it.’ Make another section 25% of the circle and label
it with the phrase ‘leave it.’ Make the third section 1 1 ? 1 3 1
114 14  2 6 24 S 14 6 24 true ✓
8% of the circle and label it with the word ‘other.’
Cereal Milk The solution set for c  2 6 24 is
1 1
514, 12, 34, 1, 114 6.
75. Less than implies subtract in reverse order, and
square implies raised to the second power. So the
Drink It expression can be written as q2  8.
67% 76. Less than implies subtract in reverse order, and
times implies multiply. So the expression can be
written as 2k  37.
1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 5 3 5
Leave It 77. 2
3  23 78. 4
5  45 79. 4
6  46
25% 1 2 2
1 1 5
3  10 8

Other 1 4
3 4 3 7 7
8% 80. 4  5  1  5 81. 8  58  18  58 82. 9
 12  9  12
1
1 3
72. Replace b in b  1.3  1.8 with each value in the 
12 5
5 1 
28
replacement set B. 2 3
 25 5 1
b b  1.3  1.8 True or False?  93
?
0.3 0.3  1.3  1.8 S 1.6 1.8 false
?
0.4 0.4  1.3  1.8 S 1.7 1.8 false 2-3 Multiplying Rational Numbers
?
0.5 0.5  1.3  1.8 S 1.8  1.8 true ✓
?
0.6 0.6  1.3  1.8 S 1.9  1.8 true ✓ Page 81 Check for Understanding
? 1. ab will be negative if either one factor is negative,
0.7 0.7  1.3  1.8 S 2.0  1.8 true ✓ and the other is positive. Let a  2 and b  3:
The solution set for b  1.3  1.8 is {0.5, 0.6, 0.7}. 2(3)  6. Let a  2 and b  3: 2(3)  6.
2. Sample answer: calculating a $2.00 monthly
banking fee for the entire year: 12  ($2)  $24
3. Since multiplication is repeated addition,
multiplying a negative number by another
negative number is the same as adding
repeatedly in the opposite, or positive, direction.

39 Chapter 2
3
4. (6)(3)  18 5. 5(8)  40 32. 5(5)(2)  (3)(2)
6. (4.5)(2.3)  10.35 7. (8.7)(10.4)  90.48
1 21 2  1 21 2 
6
5 2 10 4 7 28
8. 3
7 21 9. 9 15 135 33.
2
(11)(4)  (2)(4)
11
10. 5s(6t)  5(6)st 8
 30st 34. 6(2x)  14x  6(2)x 14x
11. 6x(7y)  (15xy)  6(7)xy  15xy  12x  14x
 42xy  15xy  (12  14)x
 (42  15)xy  26x
 57xy
1 22
35. 5(4n)  25n  5(4)n25n
12. 6m  6 3  20n  25n
12  (20  25)n
 3  45n
 4
1 32
36. 5(2x  x)  5(2  1)x
13. np  2 3 4
1  5(1)x

 2 1 4 2
 5x
1 15
37. 7(3d  d )  7(3  1)d
15 7  7(4)d
  8 or 18

112 22123  22
 28d
14. n2(m  2)  38. 2a(3c)  (6y)(6r)  2(3)ac  (6)(6)yr
 12 2213 2
1 4  6ac  (36)yr
 6ac  36yr
 1 4 21 3 2  6ac  36ry
1 4

4
39. 7m(3n)  3s(4t)  7(3)mn  3(4)st
 12  21mn  (12)st
3
1  21mn  12st
40. To find the change in price of 35 shares, multiply the
15. To find how much honey 675 honeybees make,
number of shares by the change in price of one share.
multiply the number of bees by the amount an
average bee makes. 35  (61.66  63.66)  35  (2)
1 675  70
675  12  12 The change in price of 35 shares was $70.
225
 4 41. To find how much money you gained or lost,

1
56 4 multiply the number of shares by how much you
gained or lost on one share.
1
675 bees make 56 4 teaspoons of honey. 50  (61.69  64.38)  50  (2.69)
 134.5
You lost $134.50 or $134.50.
Pages 81–83 Practice and Apply 42. 5c2  5(4.5)2 43. 2b2  2(3.9)2
16. 5(18)  90 17. 8(22)  176  5(20.25)  2(15.21)
18. 12(15)  180 19. 24(8)  192  101.25  30.42
20. 47(29)  1363 21. 81(48)  3888 44. 4ab  4(2.7)(3.9)
22. 145 2138 2  1240 23. 1125 2149 2  108
20  10.8 (3.9)
 42.12
3 5
 10  27 45. 5cd  5(4.5)(0.2)
24. 51 3 2156 2  1530 25. 5 1 2 2167 2  1235  22.5(0.2)
 4.5
1
 2 46. ad  8  (2.7)(0.2)  8
1 1
21
26. 35 72   5  2
1
2 1 16
21 15
2  0.54  8
 7.46
240
 10 47. ab  3  (2.7)(3.9)  3
 24  10.53  3
27. 1 4
15 21 1
22 2  195 2 152 2  13.53
48. d (b  2a)  (0.2)2 [3.9  2(2.7)]
2
45
 10  (0.2)2 [3.9  (5.4)]
2
9  (0.2)2 [3.9  5.4]
 (0.2)2 [9.3]
1
 42  (0.04)[9.3]
28. 7.2(0.2)  1.44 29. 6.5(0.13)  0.845  0.372
30. (5.8) (2.3)  13.34 31. (0.075)(6.4)  0.48

Chapter 2 40
49. b2 (d  3c)  (3.9)2 (0.2  3  4.5) 60.
4
1 32
 4  20  20
16
1 15 2
  1 0 20 0  0 20 0 2
5
 (3.9)2 (0.2  13.5) 16 15
 (3.9)2 (13.7)
  1 20  20 2
 (15.21)(13.7) 16 15
 208.377
1
2
50. To find the length of the union, multiply 5 by the fly.  20
2 12 61. 42  (14)  42  (14)
6 
5 5  42  14
2
 25  56
2
The union is 2 5 feet long. 62. 14.2  6.7  14.2  (6.7)
 ( 014.2 0  06.7 0 )
51. To find the price after 7 months, subtract the
 (14.2  6.7)
number of months times the drop in price per
 20.9
month from the starting price.
63.
1450  7(34.95)  1450  244.65 4 32 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
 1205.35
64.
The price of a computer was $1205.35. 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
52. To find the degrees difference, multiply the 65.
number of 530-foot rises in altitude by the 1 2
1  3 0 3
1 2
temperature drop in one 530-foot rise.
64,997 129,994 66. Graph c; Before Brandon fills the balloon with
530
 (2)   530 air, the balloon has no air in it. The amount of air
 245 in the balloon increases as he fills it. The amount
The amount of degrees difference was about 245F. of air decreases after Brandon lets it go until the
balloon has a minimal amount of air left in it.
53. To find how many plastic bottles are used in one
Graph c shows this situation.
day, multiply the number of hours in a day by the
number of plastic bottles used every hour. 67. Sample answer:
?
24  2,500,000  60,000,000 x  5;
25  4  6
About 60 million plastic bottles are used in one day. 66✓
but 5
5
54. To find how many plastic bottles are used in one
week, multiply the number of hours in a week by 68. Sample answer:
a  4; 04 0 7 3
?
the number of plastic bottles used every hour.
168  2,500,000  420,000,000 4 7 3✓
but 4
3
About 420 million plastic bottles are used in one week. 1
5 5 1 2 2 1
55. Positive; the product of two negative numbers is 69. 8
 2  82 70. 3
 4  32
positive and the even number of negative factors  16
5
6
1
can be divided into groups of two.
3 4 2 5
56. Sample answer: Multiplying lets consumers 71. 5  4  5  3 72. 1  5  1  2
calculate quickly the total of several similar 
20
2
5
3
items. Answers should include the following. 2 1
• Coupons are negative values because adding a  63  22
negative number is the same as subtracting a 4 2
1 3 1 8 7 5 7 6
positive number. 73. 2
8  23 74. 9
 6  95
1 3
• Multiply 13.99 and 1.50 by three, then, add 4 14
3  15
the products.
1
57. B; 2x(4y)  2(4)xy  13
 8xy 2 1
4 6 4 5 7 2 7 3
58. B; 2ab  2(4)(6) 75. 5
5 56 76. 8
 3  82
1 3
 (8)(6) 2 21
 48 3  16
5
 116

Page 83 Maintain Your Skills


59. 6.5  (5.6)  ( 06.5 0  05.6 0 )
 (6.5  5.6)
 12.1

41 Chapter 2
25  3 28 650a
Page 83 Practice Quiz 1 10.  4 11.  650a  10

1101 2
4 10
1. The dots indicate each point on the graph. The  7
coordinates are {4, 1, 1, 6}.  650a
2. 32  0x  8 0  32  015  8 0  65a
 32  023 0 12.
6b  18
 (6b  18)  (2)

1 12
2
 32  23
9  (6b  18) 2
3. 15  7  ( 015 0  07 0 )  6b 1 2 2  18 1 2 2
1 1
 (15  7)
 8  3b  (9)
 3b  9
4. 27  (12)  27  (12)
2ab 2(3)(4.5) cb (7.5)(4.5)
 27  12 13. ac
 (3)(7.5)
14. 
4a 4(3)
 39 (6) (4.5) 33.75
 
5. 6.05  (2.1)  ( 06.05 0  02.1 0 ) (22.5) 12
27  2.81
 (6.05  2.1)  22.5
 8.15
1 22 1 82
 1.2
3 15
6. 4  5  20  20 15. b 
a a 3
 (4.5)  7.5
3

 20  1 20 2
c
15 8 3 7.5
 (4.5)  3
15 8 22.5
 20  20  (13.5)

1 0 15 0 0 208 0 2
  20   (1.67)

  1 20  20 2
 1.67
15 8
16. To find the number of visitors the site had in 1999,
7 divide the number of visitors in 2000 by eight.
 20
419,000  8  52,375
7. 9(12)  108 8. (3.8)(4.1)  15.58
There were 52,375 visitors in 1999.
9. (8x)(2y)  (3y)(z)  (8)(2)xy  (3)(1)yz
 16xy  (3)yz
 16xy  3yz
Pages 86–87 Practice and Apply
10. mn  5  (2.5)(3.2)  5
17. 64  (8)  8 18. 78  (4)  19.5
 8  5
 ( 08 0  05 0 ) 19. 78  (1.3)  60 20. 108  (0.9)  120
 (8  5) 21. 42.3  (6)  7.05 22. 68.4  (12)  5.7
 3 23. 23.94  10.5  2.28
24. 60.97  13.4  4.55
25. 32.25  (2.5)  12.9
2-4 Dividing Rational Numbers 26. 98.44  (4.6)  21.4
1 1 1 3 3 1
27. 3  4  3  4 28. 4  12  4  12
1 3
Page 86 Check for Understanding  12  48
1. Sample answer: Dividing and multiplying  16
1
numbers with the same signs both result in a 3 5
positive answer while dividing or multiplying 29. 7  5  7  3
numbers with different signs results in a negative 35
  3 or 11 3
2
answer. However, when you divide rational
2 7
numbers in fractional form, you must multiply by 30. 5  7  5  2
a reciprocal. 35 1
1 1 1   2 or 17 2
2. Sample answer: 2, since 1  2 and 2 7 2. 16 24 16 60 24 31 24 63
2 31. 36
 60  36  24 32. 56  63  56  31
960 1512
3. To divide by a rational number, multiply by its  864  1736
reciprocal. 10 1 27
 or 1 9  31

1 2 1 2
4. 96  (6)  16 5. 36  4  9 9
14 12 14 25
6. 64  5  12.8 7. 64.4  2.5  25.76 33. 32
 25  32  12
2 2 1 2 4 2 5
8. 3  12  3  12 9. 3  5
 34 
350
384
2 10
 36  12 
175
192
1 5
 18  6

Chapter 2 42
34.
80
25 1 22
 3  25  2
80
1 32 45. To find the number of pillows, divide the total
amount of fabric by the amount of fabric needed
240
  50 for each pillow.
24 4 1 3 9 7
  5 or 4 5 42  14  2  4

1 52 1 32
9 4
35. 74  3  74  5  27
36

222 2
or 44 5  14

1 32 1 82
5
18

36. 156  8  156  3 7
4
1248  27
 3
She can make 2 pillows.
 416
81c 105g 46. To find the average change in revenue, divide the
37.  81c  9 38.  105g  5

12 115 2
9 5 change in revenue by the number of years.
1
 81c 9
 105g (2,764,000,000  2,800,000,000)  8
 9c  21g  36,000,000  8  4,500,000
8r  24 The average change in revenue for each of the
39.  (8r  24)  (8)

1 12
8 8 years was $4,500,000.
 (8r  24) 8 47.
mn

(8) (6.5)
48.
np

(6.5) (3.2)

 8r 1 8 2  24 1 8 2
p (3.2) m 8
1 1 52 20.8
 3.2
 8
 1r  (3)  16.25  2.6
 r  3 49. mq  np  (8) (5.4)  (6.5) (3.2)
7h  35  43.2  20.8
40.  (7h  35)  (7)

1 12
7
 2.08
 (7h  35) 7
50. pq  mn  (3.2) (5.4)  (8) (6.5)
 7h 1 7 2  35 1 7 2  17.28  (52)
1 1
 0.33
 1h  (5) n  p 6.5  3.2 m  p 8  3.2
 h  5 51. m
 8
52. q
 5.4
9.7 4.8
41.
40a  50b
 (40a  50b)  2  8
 5.4

112 2
2
 1.21  0.89
 (40a  50b)

 40a 1 2 2  50b 1 2 2
m  2n 8  2(6.5)
1 1
53. n  q
 6.5  (5.4)
8  13
 6.5  5.4
 20a  25b
21
42c  18d  11.9
42.  (42c  18d)  3

113 2
3
 1.76
 (42c  18d)

 42c 1 3 2  18d 1 3 2
p  3q 3.2  3(5.4)
54. q  m
 (5.4)  (8)
1 1
3.2  (16.2)
 (5.4)  (8)
 14c  6d
3.2  16.2
43.
8f  (16g)
 [8f  (16g)]  8  5.4  8

118 2
8
19.4

 [8f  (16g)] 13.4

 8f 1 8 2  (16g) 1 8 2
 1.45
1 1
55. To find the average loss per month, divide the
 1f  (2g) total loss by the number of months.
 f  2g 23,985  12  1998.75
5x  (10y) The average loss per month was $1998.75.
44.  [5x  (10y)]  5

115 2
5
56. To find the fraction that is pure gold, divide the
 [5x  (10y)] 

 5x 1 5 2  (10y) 1 5 2
karat value by the karat value of pure gold.
1 1 10
10  24  24
 1x  (2y)  12
5

 x  2y 5
Therefore, 10-karat gold is 12
pure gold, and
5 7
1  12 or 12 not gold.

43 Chapter 2
57. Build up the fraction so that the denominator is 70. Substitution Property; 1.2  3.8  5
24. The numerator will be the karat value of the 71. 8b  12(b  2)  8b  12(b)  12(2)
gold.  8b  12b  24
2 2.8
3
 3.8  (8  12)b  24
16  20b  24
 24
2
72. 6(5a  3b  2b)  6(5a)  6(3b)  6(2b)
Therefore, jewelry that is 3
gold is 16-karat gold.  30a  18b  12b
58. Since 4 is even, 4 is divisible by 2. Therefore, if a  30a  (18  12)b
number is divisible by 4, then it is divisible by 2.  30a  6b
Note that 3 . 4 . 6  72 and 8 . 9  72. Therefore, 73. 3(x  2y)  2y  3(x)  3(2y)  2y
if a number is divisible by 72, then it is divisible  3x  6y  2y
by 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9. Since 8 and 9 have no  3x  (6  2)y
common factor, no number smaller than their  3x  4y
product will be divisible by both 8 and 9. Now, 74. mean 
40  34  40  28  38
note that 72 . 5 . 7  2520, so 2520 is divisible by 5
180
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Since 72, 5, and 7 have  5
no common factor, no number smaller than their  36
product will be divisible by 72, 5, and 7. Thus,
There are five numbers in the set. When ordered
2520 is the least positive integer that is divisible
from least to greatest, the third number is 38.
by all whole numbers from 1 to 9.
So, the median is 38. The number 40 appears
59. Sample answer: You use division to find the mean twice, and the other numbers of the set appear
of a set of data. Answers should include the only once. So, the mode is 40.
following. 3  9  0  2  11  8  14  3
75. mean  8
• You could track the mean number of turtles
50
stranded each year and note if the value  8
increases or decreases.  6.25
• Weather or pollution could affect the turtles. There are eight numbers in the set. When ordered
60. D; 6.25  10  12  0.625  12 from least to greatest, the fourth number is 3 and
 7.5 3  8 1
the fifth is 8. So, the median is 2 or 52  5.5.
17
61. E; 6x  1  6  3
1 The number 3 appears twice, and the other numbers
of the set appear only once. So, the mode is 3.
 34  1
1.2  1.7  1.9  1.8  1.2  1.0  1.5
 35 76. mean  7
10.3
 7
 1.47
Page 87 Maintain Your Skills
There are seven numbers in the set. When
62. 4(11)  44 63. 2.5(1.2)  3
1 5
ordered from least to greatest, the fourth number
64. 4
(5)  4 65. 1.6(0.3)  0.48 is 1.5. So, the median is 1.5. The number 1.2

1
14 appears twice, and the other numbers of the set
appear only once. So, the mode is 1.2.
66. 8  (6)  8  (6) 79  84  81  84  75  73  80  78
86 77. mean  8
 14 
634
8
67. 15  21  15  (21)  79.25
 ( 021 0  015 0 )
There are eight numbers in the set. When ordered
 (21  15)
from least to greatest, the fourth number is 79 and
 6 79  80
the fifth is 80. So, the median is or 79.5. The
68. 7.5  4.8  7.5  (4.8) 2

 ( 07.5 0  04.8 0 )
number 84 appears twice, and the other numbers
of the set appear only once. So, the mode is 84.
 (7.5  4.8)
 12.3
5
1 12
69. 8  6  24  24
15
1 42
 24  1 24 2
15 4

15 4
 24  24

1 0 15 0 0 244 0 2
  24 

  1 24  24 2
15 4

11
 24

Chapter 2 44
Statistics: Displaying and 11. The greatest common place value is tens, so the
2-5 digits in the tens place are the stems.
Analyzing Data Stem Leaf
Page 91 Check for Understanding 5 4556
6 0149
1. They describe the data as a whole.
7 03578
2. Sample answer: 8 0035888
Line Plot: 9 0
 10 0 2 5

 



  11 0 5 0 4  54
12. Occurring three times, the most frequent value is 88.
1 2 3 4 5
13. The mode is not the best measure as it is higher
Line Graph:
than most of the values.

Pages 92–94 Practice and Apply


14. The lowest value is 35, and the highest value is
54, so use a scale that includes those values.
Place an  above each value for each occurrence.
  
     

34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3. A set of data with one extremely high value would 15. The lowest value is 2.0, and the highest value is
be better represented by the median, not by the 2.5, so use a scale that includes those values.
mean. Sample answer: 13, 14, 14, 28 Place an  above each value for each occurrence.

4. The lowest value is 10, and the highest value is     
     
22, so use a scale that includes those values.
Place an  above each value for each occurrence. 2 1 0 1 2 3
 16. The lowest value is 1, and the highest value is 8,
 so use a scale that includes those values. Place an
 
    above each value for each occurrence.
    

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 
 
5. The lowest value is 0, and the highest value is 14,  
so use a scale that includes those values. Place an  
 above each value for each occurrence.    
   
    
         
         
  
1 3 5 7 9
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
17. 23 of the 44 teams were not number 1 seeds.
6. Occurring four times, the most frequent value is 0.
18. 29 of the 44 teams were seeded higher than third.
7. The mean, 6.75, and the median, 6.5, both represent
19. Sample answer: Median; most of the data are near 2.
the data accurately as they are fairly central.
20. The greatest common place value is ones, so the
8. The greatest common place value is tens, so the
digits in the ones place are the stems.
digits in the tens place are the stems.
Stem Leaf
Stem Leaf
5 89
6 46888
6 03569
5 08  5.8
7 1236
7 01123
8 01688
9 3 6 0 4  64 21. The greatest common place value is tens, so the
digits in the tens place are the stems.
9. The greatest value is 12.9, and the least value is
9.3. Therefore, the difference is 12.9  9.3 or 3.6. Stem Leaf
10. Median; most of the data clusters higher, near the 1 88
median, 11.8. 2 2366689
3 011234
4 7 1 08  18

45 Chapter 2
22. The greatest common place value is hundreds, but 38. Sample answer: 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 18
the hundreds digit in every number is a one. Thus 4  4  4  5  5  5  7  8  8  8  8  18
mean  12
we use the digits in the tens place as the stems.
84
Stem Leaf  12
10 0 0 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 7
11 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 There are twelve numbers in the set. When
67778888889 ordered from least to greatest, the sixth number
5  7
12 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 5 8 is 5 and the seventh is 7. So, the median is 2
13 4 10 00  100 or 6. The number 8 appears four times, and the
23. Occuring six times, the most frequent temperature other numbers of the set appear three times or
is 118. less. So, the mode is 8.
24. No; the mode is higher than most of the data. 39. High school: $33,184  $23,061  $10,123; some
25. See students’ work. college: $39,221  $27,757  $11,464; Bachelor’s
degree: $60,201  $41,747  $18,454; Doctoral
26. Occuring three times, the most frequent
degree: $81,687  $60,079  $21,608
magnitude was 7.5.
40. Sample answer: The highest median salaries are
27. Mean or median; both are centrally located and
earned by people whose highest level of education
the mode is too high.
is a bachelor’s degree.
28. The lowest value is 8, and the highest value is 40,
41. Sample answer: because the range in salaries is
so use a scale that includes those values. Place an
 above each value for each occurrence.
often very great with extreme values on both the
high end and low end

       42. Sample answer: They can be used in marketing or
sales to sell the most products to a specific group.
8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
Answers should include the following.
29. 7 of the 10 countries won fewer than 25 gold medals.
• a line plot showing the number of males with
30. When ordered from least to greatest, the fifth the names from the beginning of the lesson
value is 13 and the sixth is 14. So, the median is
13  14 • By finding out the most popular names, you can
or 13.5.
2 use the popular names on more of your items.
31. Sample answer: Yes; most of the data are near the
43. C;
median. 7.5  7.5  7.5  7.5  7.9  7.9  7.9  8.3  9.1  11
32. The greatest common place value is tens, so the mean  10
digits in the tens place are the stems. 82.1
 10
Stem Leaf  8.21
1 688999 44. C; 7 of the 10 wingspans are less than 8 inches.
2 00000112334568889
9999
3 00001334467
4 37 1 06  16 Page 94 Maintain Your Skills
45. 56  (14)  4 46. 72  (12)  6
33. 22 of the 40 vehicles get more than 25 miles per
gallon. 47. 40.5  3  13.5 48. 102  6.8  15
34. Sample answer: Mean; the median is too high, 49. 2(6x)  5x  2(6)x  5x
and the modes are either too high or too low.  12x  5x
 (12  5)x
35. The greatest common place value is tens, so the
 17x
digits in the tens place are the stems.
50. 3x(7y)  4x(5y)  3(7)xy  4(5)xy
Stem Leaf
 21xy  20xy
3 047  (21  20)xy
4  41xy
5 29
51. 5(3t  2t)  2(4t)  5(3t)  5(2t)  2(4t)
6 27
 5(3)t  5(2)t  2(4)t
7 7
8 4 5 3 00  30
 15t  10t  8t
 (15  10  8)t
36. The interval that corresponds to the stem value 3  3t
has the most values. The interval is from 30 to 39.
52. x dollars
37. Every number in the set appears only once. So, d dollars plus per week for 12 weeks
there is no mode. 14243 123 14243 123 123
d  x  12
or d  12x
53. y  3x  16  3.5 54. xz  3  5.9  3
 16  15  45  3
1  15

Chapter 2 46
55. 2x  x  (y  4)  2  5  5  (16  4) 4. There are four 5s and 52 total cards.
2554 4
P(5)  52
 10  5  4 1
54  13
9 1
The probability of selecting a 5 is 13 or about 8%.
2 2
x  z 5  9 12 12  6
56. 2y
 2  16
57. 18
 18  6 5. There are two red 10s and 52 total cards.
25  9 2
 2  16 3
2 P(red 10)  52
1
16
 2  16  26
1
16
 32 The probability of selecting a red 10 is 26 or
about 4%.
1
2 6. There are 16 odd numbered cards and 52 total cards.
54 54  6 21 21  3 16
58. 60
 60  6 59. 30
 30  3 P(odd number)  52
9 7 4
 10  10  13
42 42  6 32 32  32
60. 48
 48  6 61. 64
 64  32 The probability of selecting an odd numbered card
4
7 1 is 13 or about 31%.
8 2
7. There is 1 way to pick the queen of hearts and
28 28  4 16 16  4
62. 52
 52  4 63. 36
 36  4 1 way to pick the jack of diamonds. So there are
7 4 1  1 or 2 ways to pick the queen of hearts or
 13 9 jack of diamonds
84 84  6
64. 90
 90  6 P(queen of hearts or jack of diamonds)  52
2

14
 15 1
 26
The probability of selecting the queen of hearts or
1
jack of diamonds is 26 or about 4%.
Page 95 Reading Mathematics 8. There are three numbers on the spinner that are
1. Sample answer: The data show the acreage and multiples of 3, and there are 10 – 3 or 7 numbers
number of visitors in thousands for selected state that are not multiples of 3.
parks and recreation areas in 1999. 3
odds of a multiple of 3  7
2. Sample answer: The footnote indicates that the
number of visitors includes those staying overnight. The odds of getting a multiple of 3 on the spinner
are 3:7.
3. The data is for 1999.
9. There are three even numbers less than 8 on the
4. The unit indicator is thousands.
spinner, and there are 10  3 or 7 numbers that
5. The table has the value 1016 in the row labeled are not even or not less than 8.
New York and the column labeled Acreage. 3
Therefore, New York has 1,016,000 acres. odds of an even number less than 8  7
6. The largest number in the column labeled Visitors The odds of getting an even number less than 8
is 76,736, which is in the row labeled California. on the spinner are 3:7.
Therefore, California had the greatest number of 10. There are seven numbers on the spinner that are
visitors with 76,736,000 visitors. odd or blue, and there are 10  7 or 3 numbers
that are even and not blue.
7
odds of an odd number or blue  3
2-6 Probability: Simple The odds of getting an odd number or blue on the
Probability and Odds spinner are 7:3.
11. There are six numbers on the spinner that are
Page 98 Check for Understanding red or yellow, and there are 10  6 or 4 numbers
1. Sample answers: impossible event: rolling a that are blue.
number greater than 6; certain event: rolling a odds of red or yellow  4
6
number from 1 to 6; equally likely event: rolling
an even number. The odds of getting a red or yellow number on the
3 spinner are 6:4.
2. The probability is 5 which means there are
3 favorable outcomes for every 5  3 or
2 unfavorable outcomes. Thus the odds are 3:2.
3. Doug; Mark determined the odds in favor of
picking a red card.

47 Chapter 2
12. The factors of 48 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 18. There are 70  100  80 or 250 coins with value
and 48, of which 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 48 are less than $1.00 and 300 total coins.
multiples of 4. There are 4 factors that are not a 250
P(value less than $1.00)  300
multiple of 4 and 10 total factors.
5
P(not a multiple of 4)  10
4 6
2  0.83
5
The probability of selecting a coin with value less
The probability of selecting a factor that is not a than $1.00 is 65 or about 83%.
2
multiple of 4 is 5 or 40%.
19. There are 80  50 or 130 coins with value greater
13. The factors of 48 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, than $0.10 and 300 total coins.
and 48, of which 12, 24, and 48 have both 4 and 6 130
as factors. There are 3 factors of 48 that have P(value greater than $0.10)  300
4 and 6 as two of their factors and 10 total factors 13
 30
of 48.
3
 0.43
P(has 4 and 6 as factors)  10 or 0.3
The probability selecting a coin with value greater
13
The probability of selecting a factor that has 4 than $0.10 is 30 or about 43%.
3
and 6 as two of its factors is 10 or 30%. 20. There are 80  50 or 130 coins with value at least
$0.25 and 300 total coins.
130
P(value at least $0.25)  300
Pages 99–101 Practice and Apply 13
14. There are 80 quarters and 300 total coins.  30
P(quarter)  300
80  0.43
4 The probability of selecting a coin with value at
 15 least $0.25 is 13
30
or about 43%.
 0.27 21. There are 70  100  80  50 or 300 coins with
4
The probability of selecting a quarter is 15 or value at most $1.00 and 300 total coins.
about 27%. 300
P(value at most $1.00)  300
15. There are 100 dimes and 300 total coins.
100
1
P(dime)  300
The probability of selecting a coin with value at
1
3 most $1.00 is 1 or 100%.
 0.33 22. There are 15 ways for the sum of two dice to be
1 less than 7 and 36 total outcomes.
The probability of selecting a dime is 3 or about 33%. 15
P(sum less than 7)  36
16. There are 70 ways to pick a nickel and 50 ways to
5
pick a dollar. So there are 70  50 or 120 ways to  12
pick a nickel or a dollar and 300 total coins.
 0.42
120
P(nickel or dollar)  300 5
The probability of the sum being less than 7 is 12
5
2 or about 42%.
23. There are 21 ways for the sum of two dice to be
 0.40
less than 8 and 36 total outcomes.
The probability of selecting a nickel or a dollar is 21
2
or 40%. P(sum less than 8)  36
5
7
17. There are 80 ways to pick a quarter and 70 ways  12
to pick a nickel. So there are 80  70 or 150 ways
 0.58
to pick a quarter or a nickel and 300 total coins. 7
150
The probability of the sum being less than 8 is 12
P(quarter or nickel)  300 or about 58%.
1
 2 or 0.5 24. There are 0 ways for the sum of two dice to be
greater than 12 and 36 total outcomes.
The probability of selecting a quarter or a nickel
0
1
is 2 or 50%. P(sum is greater than 12)  36
0
The probability of the sum being greater than 12
is 0 or 0%.

Chapter 2 48
25. There are 36 ways for the sum of two dice to be 33. There are 3 polygons that have more than one
greater than 1 and 36 total outcomes. right angle and 6 total polygons.
36 3
P(sum is greater than 1)  36 P(more than one right angle)  6
1 1
 2 or 0.5
The probability of the sum being greater than 1 is The probability of selecting a polygon that has
1 or 100%. more than one right angle is 1 or 50%.
2
26. There are 20 ways for the sum of two dice to be 34. There is one day in April that is the 29th and 30
between 5 and 10 and 36 total outcomes. total days in April. The probability that the
20 1
P(sum is between 5 and 10)  36 person’s birthday is the 29th is 30 or about 3%.
9
5 35. There are 15 days in July after the 16th and 31
total days in July. The probability that the
 0.56 15
person’s birthday is after the 16th is 31 or
The probability of the sum being between 5 and about 48%.
5
10 is 9 or about 56%. 36. There are three as in the name, and there are
27. There are 25 ways for the sum of two dice to be 24  3 or 21 letters that are not an a.
between 2 and 9 and 36 total outcomes. odds of an a  21
3
25
P(sum is between 2 and 9)  1
36 7
 0.69
The odds of selecting an a from the name are 1:7.
The probability of the sum being between 2 and 9
25 37. There are four ts in the name and there are
is 36 or about 69%.
24  4 or 20 letters that are not a t.
28. There are 3 triangles and 6 total polygons. 4 1
3 odds of a t  20 or
P(triangle)  6 5

1
The odds of selecting a t from the name are 1:5.
 2 or 0.5 38. There are eleven vowels in the name and there
1
The probability of selecting a triangle is 2 or 50%. are 24  11 or 13 consonants.
11
29. There is 1 pentagon and 6 total polygons. odds of a vowel  13
1
P(pentagon)  6 The odds of selecting a vowel from the name are
 0.17 11:13.
1
The probability of selecting a pentagon is 6 or 39. There are thirteen consonants in the name and
about 17%. there are 24  13 or 11 vowels.
13
30. There are 3 polygons that are not triangles and 6 odds of a consonant  11
total polygons. The odds of selecting a consonant from the name
3
P(not a triangle)  6 are 13:11.
1 40. There are four uppercase letters in the name and
 2 or 0.5
there are 24  4 or 20 lowercase letters.
The probability of selecting a polygon that is not a 4 1
1 odds of an uppercase letter  20 or 5
triangle is 2 or 50%.
31. There are 4 polygons that are not quadrilaterals The odds of selecting an uppercase letter from the
and 6 total polygons. name are 1:5.
4 41. There are nine lowercase vowels in the name and
P(not a quadrilateral)  6
there are 24  9 or 15 letters that are not
2
3 lowercase vowels.
9 3
 0.67 odds of a lowercase vowel  15 or 5
The probability of selecting a polygon that is not a The odds of selecting a lowercase vowel from the
2
quadrilateral is 3 or about 67%. name are 3:5.
32. There are 3 polygons that have more than three 42. There are five stamps from Canada and there are
sides and 6 total polygons. 32  5 or 27 stamps that are not from Canada.
3
P(more than three sides)  6 odds of being from Canada  27
5

1
 2 or 0.5 The odds the stamp is from Canada are 5:27.
The probability of selecting a polygon that has 43. There are twelve stamps from Mexico and there
1
more than three sides is 2 or 50%. are 32  12 or 20 stamps that are not from Mexico.
12 3
odds of being from Mexico  20 or 5
The odds the stamp is from Mexico are 3:5.

49 Chapter 2
44. There are 32  3 or 29 stamps not from France 52. 100  40  25(100  2  25)
and there are 3 stamps from France.  100  40  25(100  50)
29  100  40  25(50)
odds of not being from France  3  4000  1250
The odds the stamp is not from France are 29:3.  5250
45. There are 3  8  1  3 or 15 stamps not from a 2  252  100  35  2  625  100  35
North American country and there are 32 – 15 or  1250  3500
17 stamps from a North American Country.  4750
odds of not being from a North American The area of the region not shaded is 5250 cm2,
15
country  17 and the area of the shaded region is 4750 cm2.
5250
The odds the stamp is not from a North American odds against shaded region  4750
country are 15:17. 21
 19
46. There are 3  1 or 4 stamps from Germany or
Russia and there are 32  4 or 28 stamps not The odds against placing a piece on a shaded
from Germany or Russia. region are 21:19.
4 1
odds of being from Germany or Russia  28 or 7 53. 100  35  3500
100(40  25)  100  65
The odds the stamp is from Germany or Russia  6500
are 1:7.
The area of the green rectangle is 3500 cm2, and
47. There are 5  8 or 13 stamps from Canada or the area outside the green rectangle is 6500 cm2.
Great Britain and there are 32  13 or 19 stamps 3500
not from Canada or Great Britain. odds of green rectangle  6500
13 7
odds of being from Canada or Great Britain  19  13
The odds the stamp is from Canada or Great The odds of a piece being placed within the green
Britain are 13:19. rectangle are 7:13.
3
48. The probability that it will occur is 7, so the 54. There are 24 players who hit more than 35 home
runs and 46 total players.
probability that it will not occur is 74.
24
3 4 P(more than 35)  46
odds it occurs  7 : 7 or 3:4
12
The odds that the event will occur are 3:4.  23

49. The probability that it will occur is 3, so the


2  0.52
1 The probability of selecting a player who hit more
probability that it will not occur is 3. 12
than 35 home runs is 23 or about 52%.
1 2
odds against it occuring  3 : 3 or 1:2. 55. There are forty-two players who hit less than
The odds that the event will not occur are 1:2. 45 home runs and there are 46  42 or 4 players
50. There are four cards from the coworkers in the who hit 45 or more.
42
bowl and there are 80  4 or 76 cards not from odds of less than 45  4
the coworkers. 21
4
 2
odds a coworker wins  76
The odds of selecting a player who hit less than
1
 19 45 home runs are 21:2.
The odds one of the coworkers will win are 1:19. 56. The number of home runs is 38 and the total
51. 2  252  100  35  2  625  100  35 number of bats is 439.
38
 1250  3500 P(home run)  439
 4750  0.09
100(35  40  25)  100(100)
The probability the player hits a home run the
 10,000 38
next time the player bats is 439 or about 9%.
The area of the shaded region is 4750 cm2, and
57. There is one winning game card and 1,000,000
the total area is 10,000 cm2.
4750
nonwinning game cards, so there is one winning
P(shaded region)  10,000 card and a total of 1,000,001 cards.
19 1
 40 or 0.475 P(grand prize)  1,000,001
The probability the piece is placed on a shaded  0.000001
19
region is 40 or 47.5%. The probability of selecting the winning game
1
card is 1,000,001 or about 0.0001%.
58. No; even with 100 game cards the odds of winning
are only 100:999,901. It would require several
hundred thousand cards to significantly increase
the odds of winning.

Chapter 2 50
59. There are 6 ways for a head to appear on at least 68. 12.2  7.8  ( 012.2 0  07.8 0 )
one of them and 7 total possible outcomes.  (12.2  7.8)
 4.4
1 32 1 32
6
P(at least one head)  7
1 2
 0.86 69. 4  8  8  8

  1 0 8 0  0 8 0 2
6
The probability of at least one head is 7 or 2 3

 18  8 2
about 86%.
2 3
60. Sample answer: Probabilities are often used for
strategy like placing a certain pitcher against a 5
 8

1 52 1 2
batter who has a low probability of hitting a pitch
7 7 10
from that pitcher. Answers should include the 70.  6  12  12

1 0 10 0 0 127 0 2
12
following.
• baseball: using the probability that a team can   12 

  1 12  12 2
get base runners out; basketball: the 10 7
probability that a player can make a basket
3
from a certain place on the court; auto racing:  12
the probability that a set of tires will hold out 1
 4
for the remainder of a race
• Odds in favor of an event and odds against an 71. 4.25 is four and twenty-five hundredths units
event are frequently used. from zero in the positive direction.
13
61. B; The probability the event will not occur is 25. 04.25 0  4.25
13 12 72. 8.4 is eight and four tenths units from zero in
odds against occurring  25 : 25
the negative direction.
 13:12 08.4 0  8.4
62. D; There are 12 numbers that satisfy the 2
73. 3 is two-thirds unit from zero in the negative
inequality and 15 total numbers.

0 23 0  23
12
direction.
P(satisfy inequality)  15
4
 5
or 80% 1
74. 6
is one-sixth unit from zero in the positive

0 16 0  16
direction.

Page 101 Maintain Your Skills


63. The greatest common place value is tens, so the 75. 62  6  6 76. 172  17  17
digits in the tens place are the stems.  36  289
Stem Leaf 77. (8)2  (8)(8) 78. (11.5)2  (11.5)(11.5)
 64  132.25
1125 22  125  125
5 8.3
6 4.3 5.1 5.5 6.7 7.0 8.7 9.3 79. 1.62  1.6  1.6 80.
7 0.0 2.8 3.2 5.8 7.4 7.4  2.56
5 0 8.3  58.3
25
 144
64. b  c  5  2
2 1
65. 2a  b  2 3  5 1 12 2
1 2
81. 49 2  49 49 1 21 2 82. 16
15 1 2
2  16 16
15 15 1 21 2
2 2 2 2 16 256 31
 5
1  3  5  81
 225
or 1225
4 2 5
 5
 3  2
10
 6
Page 101 Practice Quiz 2
1 32 1 82
5 2
 3 or 13 1. 136  (8)  17 2. 15  8  15  3
1 2
ab
3  5   3
120
66. 
c 1   40
2
3a  9
3. (46.8)  4  11.7 4.  (3a  9)  3
113 2
1 2 1
 3  5  2 3
 (3a  9)
 3a 1 3 2  9 1 3 2
2 1
 15  2
1 1
2 2
 15  1
4  1a  3
 15 a3
67. 4.3  (8.2)  ( 08.2 0  04.3 0 )
 (8.2  4.3)
 3.9

51 Chapter 2
4x  32 2. 3 boys, 2 boys, 1 boy,
5.  (4x  32)  4

114 2
4
4 boys 1 girl 2 girls 3 girls 4 girls
 (4x  32) BBBB BBBG BBGG BGGG GGGG
 4x 1 4 2  32 1 4 2
1 1 BBGB BGBG GBGG
BGBB BGGB GGBG
 1x  8 GBBB GBBG GGGB
x8 GBGB
15n  20 GGBB
6.  (15n  20)  (5)

1 12
5

 (15n  20) 5 3. There are 2 possibilities for a one-child family,

 15n 1 5 2  20 1 5 2
4 possibilities for a two-child family, 8 possibilities
1 1
for a three-child family, and 16 possibilities for a
four-child family. Following the pattern, there
 3n  (4)
should be 32 possibilities for a five-child family
 3n  4
and 64 possibilities for a six-child family. The
7. The lowest value is 0.4, and the highest value is pattern represents powers of 2.
5.0, so use a scale that includes those values.
4. There are 3 ways to have 2 boys and 1 girl and
Sample answer: scale from 0 to 5 Place an  8 total outcomes. Therefore, the probability of
above each value for each occurrence. having 2 boys and 1 girl in a three-child family is
 3
    
8
or 37.5%.
            
5. There are 6 ways to have 2 boys and 2 girls and
0 1 2 3 4 5 16 total outcomes. Therefore, the probability of
8. There are 3 ways for the sum of two dice to be 10 having 2 boys and 2 girls in a four-child family is
6 3
and 36 total outcomes. 16
 8 or 37.5%.
3 6. Sample answer: Each number in each row shows
P(sum of 10)  36
1
the number of ways to have boys and girls for a
 12 given number of children.
 0.08 7. The fifth row labeled Row 4 represents a four-
1 child family. The second number from the right is
The probability of the sum being 10 is 12 or
about 8%. 4 and represents how many ways to have 3 girls
9. There are 26 ways for the sum of two dice to be and 1 boy. There are 1  4  6  4  1 or 16 total
greater than or equal to 6 and 36 total outcomes. outcomes. Therefore, the probability of having
26
1 boy in a four-child family is 4  1 or 25%.
P(sum  6)  36 16 4

13
 18
 0.72 2-7 Square Roots and Real Numbers
The probability of the sum being greater than or
equal to 6 is 13
18
or about 72%.
10. There are 30 ways for the sum of two dice to be Page 107 Check for Understanding
less than 10 and 36 total outcomes. 1. Sometimes; the square root of a number can be
30 negative, such as 4 and 4, which are both
P(sum 10)  36 square roots of 16.
5
6 2. Rational numbers are numbers that, when
 0.83 written as decimals, terminate or repeat.
5 Irrational numbers do not terminate nor do they
The probability of the sum being less than 10 is 6 repeat. Sample answer:
or about 83%.
Rational numbers: 0.5, 0.125, 0.3;
Irrational numbers: 22, 23,
Page 102 Algebra Activity 3. There is no real number that can be multiplied by
itself to result in a negative product.
(Follow-Up of Lesson 2–6)
1. There are 2 more possibilities for 2 boys, 1 girl 4. 225 represents the negative square root of 25.
and 2 more possibilities for 1 boy, 2 girls. 25  52 S 225  5
2 boys, 1 boy, 5. 21.44 represents the positive square root of 1.44.
3 boys 1 girl 2 girls 3 girls
1.44  1.22 S 21.44  1.2
BBB BBG BGG GGG
BGB GBG
GBB GGB

Chapter 2 52
16 18. Write each number as a decimal.
6. ; 3 49 represents the positive and negative square
roots of
16
. 230  5.477225575 . . . or about 5.48

147 22 and 1649  147 22


49 4
16 59  5.444444444 . . . or about 5.44
49

13  13.0
16 4
;3 49
; 7
1
 0.1825741858 . . . or about 0.18
230
7. 232 represents the positive square root of 32. 0.18 6 5.44 6 5.48 6 13.0
32  5.662 S 232  5.66 The numbers arranged in order from least to
1 4
8. Because 264  8, this number is an integer greatest are 30, 59, 230, 13.
2
and a rational number. 1
19. C; Replace a in 2a 6  with 2.
2a
9. Because 8 and 3 are integers and 8  3  2.66666 . . . ? 1
is a repeating decimal, this number is a rational 22 6 
22
number. 1.41 6 0.71
10. Because 228  5.29150262 . . . , which is not a
repeating or terminating decimal, this number is
irrational. Pages 107–109 Practice and Apply
56
11. Because 7  8, this number is a natural number, 20. 249 represents the positive square root of 49.
a whole number, an integer, and a rational number.
49  72 S 249  7
12.
6 5 4 3 2 21. 281 represents the positive square root of 81.
The heavy arrow indicates that all numbers to the 81  92 S 281  9
left of 3.5 are included in the graph. The circle at
3.5 indicates 3.5 is not included in the graph. 22. 25.29 represents the positive square root of 5.29.
13. 5.29  2.32 S 25.29  2.3
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1
23. 26.25 represents the positive square root of 6.25.
The heavy arrow indicates that all points to the
6.25  2.52 S 26.25  2.5
right of 7 are included in the graph. The dot at
7 indicates that 7 is included in the graph. 24. 278 represents the negative square root of 78.
14. You can use a calculator to find an approximation
1
78  8.832 S 278  8.83
for 3.
1
25. 294 represents the negative square root of 94.
 0.333333 . . .
3
94  9.702 S 294  9.70
1
Therefore, 0.3 6 3
. 36
26. ; 3 81 represents the positive and negative square
15. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 36
2 roots of .

169 22 and 8136  169 22


for 9. 81
36
2
 0.222222 . . . 81

9
0.2  0.222222 . . . 36 6
; 3 81  ; 9
2
Therefore,  0.2. 2
9 ;3
16. You can use a calculator to find approximations
1
for 6 and 26. 100
27. ; 3 196 represents the positive and negative
1 100
 0.166666 . . . square roots of .

11014 22 and 11014 22


6 196
26  2.449489743 . . . 100

100

196 196
1
Therefore, 6
6 26.
100 10
; 3 196  ; 14
17. Write each number as a decimal.
5
1
 0.125 ;7
8
1 9 9
3 8
 0.3535533906 . . . or about 0.35 28. 3 14 represents the positive square root of 14.
0.15  0.15151515 . . . or about 0.15 9 9
 0.802 S 3 14  0.80
14
15  15.0
25 25
15.0 6 0.125 6 0.15 6 0.35 29. 3 42 represents the positive square root of 42.
The numbers arranged in order from least to 25 25
 0.772 S 3 42  0.77
1 1 42
greatest are 15, 8, 0.15, 3 8.

53 Chapter 2
30. ; 2820 represents the positive and negative 49. Because  3.141592654 . . . , which is not a
square roots of 820. repeating or terminating decimal, this number is
820  28.642 and 820  (28.64)2 irrational.
d
; 2820  ; 28.64 50. Replace d in 3 16 with 28.
31. ; 2513 represents the positive and negative 28
square roots of 513. 3 16  1.32
The ball would take 1.32 s to reach the ground.
513  22.652 and 513  (22.65)2 3
51. Replace d in 224d with 434.
; 2513  ; 22.65
3 24 1 43 4 2  21050  32.40
3
32. Because 222  4.69041576 . . . , which is not
a repeating or terminating decimal, this number
Jerome should not get a ticket. He was traveling
is irrational.
36
at about 32.4 mph.
33. Because 6  6, this number is a natural number, 52.
a whole number, an integer, and a rational number. 14 13121110 9 8 7 6
34. Because 1 and 3 are integers and 1  3  The heavy arrow indicates that all numbers to
0.333333 . . . is a repeating decimal, this number the right of 12 are included in the graph. The
is a rational number. circle at 12 indicates that 12 is not included in
35. Because 5 and 12 are integers and (5  12)  the graph.
0.416666 . . . is a repeating decimal, this 53.
number is a rational number. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
82
36. Because 3  2.024845673 . . . , which is not a
20
The heavy arrow indicates that all points to the
repeating or terminating decimal, this number is left of 8 are included in the graph. The dot at
irrational. 8 indicates that 8 is included in the graph.
37. Because 246  6.782329983 . . . , which is 54.
10 9
not a repeating or terminating decimal, this
number is irrational. The heavy arrow indicates that all points to the
38. Because 210.24  3.2, which is a terminating right of 10.2 are included in the graph. The dot
decimal, this number is a rational number. at 10.2 indicates that 10.2 is included in the
graph.
39. Because 54 and 19 are integers and 54  19 
55.
2.8421052631579 is a terminating decimal, this 2 1 0
number is a rational number.
The heavy arrow indicates that all numbers to
40. Because 3 and 4 are integers and (3  4)  the left of 0.25 are included in the graph. The
0.75 is a terminating decimal, this number is a circle at 0.25 indicates 0.25 is not included in
rational number. the graph.
41. Because 220.25  4.5, which is a terminating 56.
decimal, this number is a rational number. 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
18
42. Because 3  6, this number is a natural number, The heavy arrows indicate that all numbers to
a whole number, an integer, and a rational the right and left of 2 are included in the graph.
number. The circle at 2 indicates that 2 is not included
43. Because 22.4025  1.55, which is a terminating in the graph.
decimal, this number is a rational number. 57.
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
44. Because 68 and 35 are integers and 68  35 
1.9428571428571 is a terminating decimal, this The heavy line and arrows indicate that all numbers
number is a rational number. to the right and left of 6 and 6 are included in the
45. Because 6 and 11 are integers and graph. The circles at 6 and 6 indicate that 6 and
6  11  0.54545454 . . . is a repeating decimal, 6 are not included in the graph.
this number is a rational number. 58. You can use a calculator to find an approximation
46. Because 25.5696  2.36, which is a terminating for 15.
decimal, this number is a rational number. 25  2.23606797 . . .
78
47. Because 3 42  1.36277028 . . . , which is not a 5.72  5.727272 . . .
repeating or terminating decimal, this number is Therefore, 5.72 7 25.
irrational. 59. You can use a calculator to find an approximation
48. Because 29.16  3.02654919 . . . , which is for 18.
not a repeating or terminating decimal, this 18  2.82842712 . . .
number is irrational. 2.63  2.636363 . . .
Therefore, 2.63 6 28.

Chapter 2 54
60. You can use a calculator to find approximations for 67. Write each number as a decimal.
1 1
7
and . 4.83  4.83838383 . . . or about 4.84
27
1 0.4
7
 0.142857142 . . . 28
 2.82842712 . . . or about 2.83
1 3
27
 0.37796447 . . . 8  0.375
Therefore,
1
6
1
. 4.84 6 0.375 6 0.4 6 2.83
7 27
The numbers arranged in order from least to
61. You can use a calculator to find approximations for 3
greatest are 4.83, 8, 0.4, 18.
2 2
3
and . 23 68. Write each number as a decimal.
2
 0.666666 . . .
3 165  8.06225774 . . . or about 8.06
2 2
23
 1.15470053 . . . 65  6.4
Therefore,
2
6
2
. 127  5.19615242 . . . or about 5.20
3 23
8.06 6 6.4 6 5.20
62. You can use a calculator to find approximations
The numbers arranged in order from least to
and 131
1 2
for . greatest are 165, 65, 127.
231 31
1
231
 0.17960530 . . . 69. Write each number as a decimal.
231 2122  11.0453610 . . . or about 11.05
 0.17960530 . . . 4
31
79  7.444444 . . . or about 7.44
1 131
Therefore,  .
131 31 2200  14.1421356 . . . or about 14.14
63. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 7.44 6 11.05 6 14.14
12
for 2 . The numbers arranged in order from least to
4
22 greatest are 79, 1122, 1200.
2
 0.707106781 . . .
1 70. Replace h in 1.41h with 1500.
 0.5
2 1.421500  1.4  38.73
Therefore,
22
7 2.
1  54.222
2
64. Write each number as a decimal. The tourists can see about 54.2 miles.
20.42  0.648074069 . . . or about 0.648 71. Replace h in 1.41h with 135.
0.63  0.63636363 . . . or about 0.636 1.4 2135  1.4  11.62
14  16.268
3
 0.66666666 . . . or about 0.667
Replace h in 1.41h with 85.
0.636 6 0.648 6 0.667
1.4185  1.4  9.22
The numbers arranged in order from least to
14  12.908
greatest are 0.63, 10.42, 3 .
Marissa can see about 16.268  12.908  3.36 or
65. Write each number as a decimal. about 3.4 miles farther than Dillan.
10.06  0.244948974 . . . or about 0.245 72. Replace h in 1.41h with 120.
0.24  0.24242424 . . . or about 0.242 1.41120  1.4  10.95
19
12
 0.25  15.33
0.242 6 0.245 6 0.25 The lighthouse keeper cannot see the boat. The
lighthouse keeper can only see about 15.3 miles.
The numbers arranged in order from least to
19 73. They are true if q and r are positive and q 7 r.
greatest are 0.24, 10.06, 12 .
66. Write each number as a decimal.
1.46  1.46464646 . . . or about 1.46
0.2
12
 1.41421356 . . . or about 1.41
1
6  0.1666666 . . . or about 0.17
1.46 6 0.17 6 0.2 6 1.41
The numbers arranged in order from least to
1
greatest are 1.46, 6, 0.2, 12.

55 Chapter 2
74. The area of a square is given by A  s2 where s is 81. There are 20 even numbers in a deck of cards,
the side length. If A  s2 then 1A  s. To find and there are 52  20 or 32 cards that are not
the side lengths, find the square root of the area. even numbers.
20
1  12 S 21  1 odds of an even number  32
4  22 S 24  2 8
5

9  32 S 29  3 The odds of selecting an even number from a deck


16  42 S 216  4 of cards are 5:8.
25  52 S 225  5 82. There are 12 face cards in a deck of cards, and
The perimeter of a square is 4 times the side 52  12 or 40 cards that are not face cards.
length. To find the perimeter of each square, odds against a face card  12
40
multiply each of the side lengths by 4. 10
414  3
428 The odds against selecting a face card from a deck
4  3  12 of cards are 10:3.
4  4  16 83. There are four aces in a deck of cards, and 52  4
4  5  20 or 48 cards that are not aces.
Squares 48
odds against an ace  4
Area (Units2 ) Side Length Perimeter 
12
1
1 1 4
The odds against selecting an ace from a deck of
4 2 8 cards are 12:1.
9 3 12 84. Sample answer: Mean; the median and mode are
16 4 16 too low.
25 5 20 85. 4(7)  3 (11)  28  33
75. The length of the side is the square root of the area.  28  (33)
 ( 028 0  033 0 )
76. The perimeter of a square is 4 times the side
 (28  33)
length. The side length of a square is the square
 61
root of the area. Therefore, the perimeter of a
square is 4 times the square root of the area. For 86. 3(4)  2(7)  12  (14)
a square whose area is a units2, the perimeter is  ( 012 0  014 0 )
41a units.  (12  14)
 26
77. Sample answer: By using the formula Surface
height  weight 87. 1.2(4x  5y)  0.2(1.5x  8y)
Area  3 3600
, you need to use square  1.2(4x)  1.2(5y)  0.2(1.5x)  0.2(8y)
roots to calculate the quantity. Answers should  1.2(4)x  1.2(5)y  0.2(1.5)x  0.2(8)y
include the following.  4.8x  6y  (0.3)x  1.6y
• You must multiply height by weight first.  4.8x  6y  0.3x  1.6y
Divide that product by 3600. Then determine  4.8x  0.3x  6y  1.6y
the square root of that result.  (4.8  0.3)x  (6  1.6)y
• Sample answers: exposure to radiation or  5.1x  7.6y
chemicals; heat loss; scuba suits 88. 4x(y  2z)  x(6z  3y)
• Sample answers: determining height, distance  4x(y)  4x(2z)  x(6z)  x(3y)
78. B; 27  4(1)xy  4(2)xz  1(6)xz  1(3)xy
79. B; Write each number as a decimal.  4xy  (8)xz  6xz  (3)xy
3
 4xy  8xz  6xz  3xy
6  0.5  4xy  3xy  8xz  6xz
6
3  2  (4  3)xy  (8  6)xz
 7xy  14xz
0.5 7 2 ✓

Chapter 2 Study Guide and Review


Page 109 Maintain Your Skills
80. There are two red 4s in a deck of cards, and there
Page 110 Vocabulary and Concept Check
are 52  2 or 50 cards that are not a red 4.
1. true; 26 is twenty-six units from zero in the
2
odds of a red 4  50 negative direction.
1 2. true; definition of a rational number
 25
3. true; 2144 represents the principal square root
The odds of selecting a red 4 from a deck of cards
of 144.
are 1:25.
144  122 S 2144  12

Chapter 2 56
4. false; Because 2576  24, this number is an 22. 2  10  2  (10)
integer and a rational number.  ( 02 0  010 0 )
 (2  10)
5. true; 152  225
 12
6. false; sample answer: 3
23. 9  (7)  9  (7)
7. false; sample answer: 0.6 or 0.666 . . . 97
8. true; key concept of multiplication  16
24. 1.25  0.18  1.07
25. 7.7  (5.2)  7.7  (5.2)
Pages 110–114 Lesson-by-Lesson Review   7.7  5.2
9.  ( 07.7 0  05.2 0 )
4 32 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6  (7.7  5.2)
10.   2.5
1 12 1 12
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 9
26. 2
 2  2  2
11.
9 1
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 22
12. 32  0y  3 0  32  08  3 0 10

 32  05 0 2
5
1 2  243  11624 2
 32  5
 27 27.
1
8 
2
3
13. 3 0x 0  7  3 04 0  7
 24  1 24 2
3 16
 34  7
 12  7  24  24
3 16

1 0 1624 0  0 243 0 2
5
14. 4  0z 0  4  09 0 

  1 24  24 2
49 16 3
 13
15. 46  y 0x 0  46  8 04 0
13
 24
 46  8 # 4 28. (11)(9)  99 29. 12(3)  36
 46  32
30. 8.2(4.5)  36.9 31. 2.4(3.6)  8.64
1 1 21 2
 14
16. 4  (4)  ( 04 0  04 0 )
3 7 21 9 9
32. 4
 12  48 33. 3 10  30
 (4  4) 7
 16
3
 10
0
34. 8(3x)  12x  8(3)x  12x
17. 2  (7)  ( 07 0  02 0 )
 24x  12x
 (7  2)
 (24  12)x
 5
 12x
18. 0.8  (1.2)  ( 00.8 0  01.2 0 )
35. 5(2n)  9n  5(2)n  9n
 (0.8  1.2)
 10n  9n
 2
 (10  9)n
19. 3.9  2.5  ( 03.9 0  02.5 0 )  1n
 (3.9  2.5) n
 1.4
1 12 1 12
36. 4(6a)  (3)(7a)  4(6)a  (3)(7)a
1 2
20. 4  8  8  8  24a  21a

  1 0 8 0  0 8 0 2
2 1
 (24  21)a
 45a
 18  8 2
54
2 1 37. 6
 54  6

 8
3  9

1 12 1 22
74
5 5 38. 8  (74  8)
21.  3  6  6

  1 0 6 0  0 6 0 2
6
 9.25
5 2
39. 21.8  (2)  10.9
  16  6 2
40. 7.8  (6)  1.3
134 2  15  43
5 2

3 41. 15 
6
60
1 
2 3
 20

57 Chapter 2
21 1 21 3 52. There is 1 S and 12 total letters.
42. 24
 3  24  1
1
63 P(S)  12
 24
21 5  0.08
 8
or 28 1
The probability of selecting an S is 12 or about 8%.
14  28x
43.  (14  28x)  (7)

1 12
7 53. There are 3 Es and 12 total letters.
 (14  28x) 7 3
P(E)  12

 14 1 7 2  28x 1 7 2
1
1 1
 4 or 0.25
1
 2  (4x) The probability of selecting an E is 4
or 25%.
 2  4x 54. There are 10 letters that are not N and 12 total
5  25x
44.  (5  25x)  5 letters.

115 2
5
10
 (5  25x) P(not N)  12

 5 1 5 2  25x 1 5 2
5
1 1 6
 0.83
 1  5x
4x  24y
The probability of selecting a letter that is not
45.  (4x  24y)  4 N is 5 or about 83%.
114 2
4
6
 (4x  24y) 55. There are 2 Rs and 1 P. So there are 2

 4x 1 4 2  24y 1 4 2
1 or 3 letters that are R or P and 12 total letters.
1 1
3
P(R or P)  1
 1x  6y 1
 4 or 0.25
 x  6y
1
46. xz  2y  (4)(3)  2 (2.4) The probability of selecting an R or P is 4
or 25%.
 12  4.8 56. There are 50 dimes, and there are 90  75  30
 16.8
12yz 2  212 324 2
or 195 coins that are not a dime.
50
47. 2 odds of a dime  195

 2 1 3 2
10
4.8  39
 2(1.6) The odds of selecting a dime are 10:39.
 3.2 57. There are 90 pennies, and there are 75  50  30
2x  z 2(4)  3 or 155 coins that are not a penny.
48. 4
 3y  4
 3(2.4)
8  3 90
  7.2 odds of a penny  155
4
11 18
 4
 7.2  31
 2.75  7.2 The odds of selecting a penny are 18:31.
 4.45 58. There are 90  50  30 or 170 coins that are not
49. The lowest value is 12, and the highest value is a nickel, and there are 75 nickels.
30, so use a scale that includes those values. 170
odds of not a nickel 
Place an  above each value for each occurance. 75
34
  15
  
     The odds of selecting a coin that is not a nickel
   
    are 34:15.
59. There are 75  50 or 125 coins that are a nickel
5 10 15 20 25 30
or a dime, and there are 90  30 or 120 coins that
The greatest common place value is tens, so the are not a nickel or a dime.
digits in the tens place are the stems. 125
odds of a nickel or a dime  120
Stem Leaf 25
1 222344555566  24
77778899999 The odds of selecting a coin that is a nickel or a
2 01112668 dime are 25:24.
3 0 1 0 2 = 12 60. 2196 represents the positive square root of 196.
50. Sample answer: Mean; the median and mode are 196  142 S 2196  14
too low. 61. ;21.21 represents the positive and negative
51. Sample answer: Median; it is closest in value to square roots of 1.21.
most of the data.
1.21  1.12 and 1.21  (1.1)2
;21.21  ;1.1

Chapter 2 58
62. 2160 represents the negative square 4.  0x 0  38   02 0  38
root of 160.  2  38
 40
160  12.652 S 2160  12.65
5. 34  0x  21 0  34  07  21 0
 34  014 0
4
63. ; 3 225 represents the positive and negative
4
square roots of 225.  34  14
4
225
 1152 22 and 2254  1152 22  20
6. 12  0x  8 0  12  01.5  8 0
 12  06.5 0
4 2
; 3 225  ; 15
64. Because 16 and 25 are integers and 16  25  0.64  12  6.5
is a terminating decimal, this number is a rational  5.5
number. 7. 19  12  ( 019 0  012 0 )
264  (19  12)
65. Because 2  4, this number is a natural
 7
number, a whole number, an integer, and a
rational number. 8. 21  (34)  21  (34)
 21  34
66. Because 248.5  6.96419413 . . ., which is  ( 034 0  021 0 )
not a repeating or terminating decimal, this  (34  21)
number is irrational.  13
67. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 9. 16.4  (23.7)  ( 023.7 0  016.4 0 )
for
1
.  (23.7  16.4)
249
1  7.3
 0.125
8 10. 6.32  (7.41)  6.32  (7.41)
1
 0.142857142 . . .  6.32  7.41
249
1 1  13.73
Therefore, 8
6 .
249 7 3 7 6
11. 16  8  16  16

1 0 7 0 0 166 0 2
68. You can use a calculator to find approximations
2 4
for 3 3 and 9.   16 

  1 16  16 2
2 7 6
3 3  0.816496580 . . .
4 1
 0.4444444 . . .  16

1 52 1 20 2
9
7 21
2 4 12. 12  9  36  36
Therefore, 33 7 9.
 36  1 36 2
21 20
69. You can use a calculator to find approximations
3 1
for 3 4 and 3 3. 21 20
 36  36

1 0 21 0 0 2036 0 2
3
3  0.866025403 p   36 

  1 36  36 2
4
1 21 20
3 3  0.577350269 p
1
3 1  36
Therefore, 34 7 3 3.
d3 13. 5(19)  95 14. 56  (7)  8
70. Replace d in 3 216 with 9. 15. 96  (0.8)  120 16. (7.8)(5.6)  43.68

3 216
93

729
3 216
1
17. 8  (5)  8  5
1
1 12 15 3 15
18. 32  4  32  3
4

1 60

27  40  96
38 5
 1.84  8
The worst part of the hurricane will last about 19. 5(3x)  12x  5(3)x  12x
1.8 hours.  15x  12x
 (15  12)x
 27x
Chapter 2 Practice Test 20. 7(6h  h)  7(6h)  7(h)
 7(6)h  7h
Page 115  42h  7h
1. absolute value  (42  7)h
2. rational  35h
3. sample space 21. 4m(7n)  (3d)(4c)  4(7)mn  3(4)dc
 28mn  (12)dc
 28mn  12cd

59 Chapter 2
22.
36k
 36k  4 31. The lowest value is 58, and the highest value is
4
1
74, so use a scale that includes these values.
 36k  4 Place an  above each value for each occurance.
 36 114 2k 
 
 
 9k     
9a  27  
23.  (9a  27)  (3)

1 12
3
58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74
 (9a  27) 3

 9a 1 3 2  27 1 3 2
32. Sample answer: The median and mode can be
1 1 used to best represent the data. The mean is too
high.
 3a  (9)
 3a  9 33. B; There are 7 hard-rock songs and 8  7  5 or
70x  30y 20 total songs.
24.  (70x  30y)  (5)

1 2
5 7
P(hard-rock)  20 or 0.35
1
 (70x  30y) 5
 70x 1 2  30y 1 5 2
The probability a hard-rock song will be playing
11 7
5 is 20 or 35%.
 14x  (6y)
 14x  (6y)
 14x  6y Chapter 2 Standardized Test Practice
25. 264 represents the negative square root of 64.
Pages 116–117
64  82 S 264  8 1. B; 518.4  (9  8)  518.4  72
26. 23.61 represents the positive square root of 3.61.  7.2
3.61  1.92 S 23.61  1.9 2. C; 20 in 10 minutes, 40 in 20 minutes, 60 in
16 30 minutes, 80 in 40 minutes. Extending the
27. ; 3 81 represents the positive and negative square
16
pattern would give 100 in 50 minutes and 120 in
roots of 81.

149 22 and 8116  149 22


60 minutes.
16
 3. C; The points on the number line show 1, 0, 1,
81
2, and 3.
4. D; 0 4 0  4
16 4
; 3 81  ; 9
04 0  4
28. You can use a calculator to find an approximation 07 0  7
09 0  9
1
for .
23
1 4 6 7 6 9
 0.577350269 p
23
1
5. A; 3.8  4.7  ( 04.7 0  03.8 0 )
3
 0.33333333 p  (4.7  3.8)
Therefore,
1 1  0.9
23
7 3.
6. D; 3(2m)  7m  3(2)m  7m
29. You can use a calculator to find an approximation
 6m  7m
1
for 3 2.  (6  7)m
1
 13m
3 2  0.7071067812 p
7. D; The least value is 3|1  31.
8
11
 0.727272727 p 8. A; 1 box has a prize and 4  1 or 3 boxes do not
1 8
have a prize.
Therefore, 32 6 11
.
odds of choosing a prize  3
1
30. You can use a calculator to find approximations
23 The odds of choosing a prize are 1:3.
for 20.56 and 2 .
9. B; 210  3.16
20.56  0.748331477 p
10. The length of the label will be the circumference
23
2
 0.866025403 p of the jar.
23 2 r  2(3.14)(4)
Therefore, 20.56 6 2
.  6.28(4)
 25.12
The length of the label is 25.12 cm.

Chapter 2 60
5  1 4
11. 4  12  3  2
4  12  3  2
18. D; 49  72 and 49  (7)2 a could be 7 or 7.

4 19a. cost per number monthly
4  4  2 Total cost 1is minute 123
times 14243
of minutes 123
plus 14243
fee.
4 14243 23 14243
 4  8 C  m  y  x
4
 12 or C  my  x

1 19b. For plan A, evaluate my  x with m  0.3,
3
y  150, and x  5.95.
12. Replace m in 4m  3  9 with each value in the
my  x  0.3  150  5.95
replacement set.
 45  5.95
m 4m  3  9 True or False?  50.95
0 4  0  3  9 S 3  9 false For plan B, evaluate my  x with m  0.1,
2 42  3 9S5  9 false y  150, and x  12.95.
3 43  3 9S9  9 true ✓ my  x  0.1  150  12.95
5 4  5  3  9 S 17  9 false  15  12.95
 27.95
The solution of 4m  3  9 is 3.
For plan C, evaluate my  x with m  0.08,
13. three times the
y  150, and x  19.99.
2p plus difference
123 123 1444424443
of m and n
my  x  0.08  150  19.99
2p  3  (m  n)  12  19.99
or 2p  3(m  n)  31.99
14. Hypothesis; 3x  3 7 24 Plan B is the least expensive.
15. C; x is x units from zero, and x is x units away 20a. Without a key, you cannot determine what the
from zero. values are.
0x 0  0x 0 20b. If the key is 3 02  3.2, then the data are ten
16. B; y 6 x times as great as they would be if the key is
1 1
 y 6 x  xy 3 02  0.32.
xy
1 1
x 6 y
1
17. A; n 7 1
1
nn 7 1n
1 7 n

61 Chapter 2
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Chapter 3 Solving Linear Equations


Page 119 Getting Started 16. The base is 300, and the part is 21. Let p
1. Greater than implies add, and half of implies represent the percent.
1 a p
multiply by 2. So, the expression can be written as b
 100
1
2
t  5. 21
 100
p
300
2. Product implies multiply, and divided by implies 21(100)  300p
divide. So, the expression can be written as 2100  300p
7s  8y. 2100 300p

3. Sum implies add, times implies multiply, and 300 300
square implies raise to the second power. So, the 7p
expression can be written as 3a  b2. Twenty-one is 7% of 300.
4. Decreased by implies subtract, so the expression 17. The base is 5, and the part is 15. Let p represent
can be written as w5  37. the percent.
5. Times implies multiply, and subtracted from a
 100
p
b
implies subtract. So, the expression can be 15 p
written as 95  9y. 5
 100
6. Sum implies add, and divided by implies divide. 15(100)  5p
So, the expression can be written as (r  6)  12. 1500  5p
12 12 1500 5p
7. 3  6  4
 18  4 5
 5
 18  3 300  p
 15 Fifteen is 300% of 5.
8. 5(13  7)  22  5(6)  22 18. The base is 60, and the part is 12. Let p represent
 30  22 the percent.
8 a p
 100
9. 5(7  2)  32  5(5)  32 b
12 p
 5(5)  9 60
 100
 25  9 12(100)  60p
 16 1200  60p
2  6  4 12  4
10. 2
 2
1200

60p
60 60
8
 2 20  p
4 Twelve is 20% of 60.
11. (25  4)  (22  1)  21  (4  1) 19. The base is 10, and the part is 16. Let p represent
 21  3 the percent.
7 a
 100
p
b
12. 36  4  2  3  9  2  3 16 p
73 10
 100
 10 16(100)  10p
13.
19  5
3
14
3 1600  10p
7 7
1600 10p
23 10
 10
5 160  p
1 1
14. 4 (24)  2 (12)  6  6 Sixteen is 160% of 10.
0 20. The base is 50, and the part is 37.5. Let p
represent the percent.
15. The base is 20, and the part is 5. Let p represent
a p
the percent. b
 100
a p 37.5 p
b
 100 50
 100
5
 100
p 37.5(100)  50p
20
3750  50p
5(100)  20p 3750 50p
500  20p 50
 50
500

20p 75  p
20 20
25  p Thirty-seven and one half is 75% of 50.
Five is 25% of 20.

Chapter 3 62
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5. the sum of is the


3-1 Writing Equations Five times m and n same as seven times n.
123 123 14243 1 424 3 123 123 {
5  (m  n)  7  n
Page 122 Algebra Activity The equation is 5(m  n)  7n.
1. The area of the front is the product of the length 6. Words: Area equals one half times the base
and the height or lh. times the height.
2. The area of the back is the product of the length Variables: Let A  area, b  base, and h  height.
and the height or lh. one the the
Area
23 equals half
23 times base
23 times height.
3. The area of one side is the product of the width 1 123 1 123 1 123 123
1
and the height or wh. Formula: A  2
 b  h
4. The area of the other side is the product of the The formula for the area of a triangle is A  2 bh.
1
width and the height or wh.
7. Words: Circumference equals the product of
5. The area of the top is the product of the length
two, pi, and the radius.
and the width or lw.
Variables: Let C  circumference and r  radius.
6. The area of the bottom is the product of the
the product of two,
length and the width or lw. Circumference equals pi, and the radius.
1442443 123 144424443
7. The
1
surface area is
4444244
the sum of the areas of the faces.
443 { 1444444442444444443 Formula: C  2r
S  lh  lh  wh  wh  lw  lw
The formula for the circumference of a circle is
or S  2lh  2wh  2lw C  2r.
8. If s represents the length of the side of a cube, 8. 14  d  6d
then the surface area is given by S  2lh  2wh  { { { { {

2lw with l  s, h  s, and w  s. Fourteen plus d equals six times d.


1 3
S  2lh  2wh  2lw 9. 3
b  4
 2a
{ { { { {
 2s  s  2s  s  2s  s One-third of b minus three-fourths equals two times a.
 2s2  2s2  2s2
10. Sample answer: The original cost of a suit is c.
 6s2
After a $25 discount, the suit costs $150. What is
The surface area is given by S  6s2. the original cost of the suit?
11. Darius’ number of pounds
current weight plus he wants to gain equals 160.
14442444 3 123 144 442444 43 14243 123
Page 123 Check for Understanding 155  g  160
1. Explore the problem, plan the solution, solve the The equation is 155  g  160.
problem, and examine the solution. 12. 155  g  160
2a. Misae has $1900 in her account at the Find g mentally by asking, “What number added
beginning. to 155 equals 160?”
2b. money number g5
per week times of weeks
14243 123 14 243 Darius needs to gain 5 pounds to reach his goal.
30  10
30 . 10  300
money number Pages 124–126 Practice and Apply
per week times of weeks 13.
14243 123 14 243 Two
1444hundred
24443 minus
123 three
123 times
123 x
{
is equal to
14 424 43
nine.
123
30  20 200  3  x  9
30 . 20  600 The equation is 200  3x  9.
She will add $300 in 10 weeks and $600 in 14. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
20 weeks. Twice
1424 3r 12
plus three
3 1 23 1times
23 {s 1
is44244
identical to
3 thirteen.
1424 3
2c. money number 2r  3  s  13
per week times of weeks The equation is 2r  3s  13.
14243 123 14 243
30  w 15. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
or 30w One-third q 1 plus
1
4424 43 23 25 {
is44244
1 as much as3 twice
1
424 q.
3
2d. No; 1900  52(30)  3460, which is less than 1
3500. 3
q  25  2q
1
3. Sample answer: After sixteen people joined the The equation is 3
q  25  2q.
drama club, there were 30 members. How many 16. 14
The44244
square of m 123
minus the cube 43
of n is sixteen.
43 14 424 { 1 4243
members did the club have before the new 2 3
members? m  n  16
4. 1Two The equation is m2  n3  16.
23 times
123 { t decreased
14 4244by 3 eight
123 equals
123 seventy.
14243
2  t  8  70
The equation is 2t  8  70.

63 Chapter 3
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17. the sum of is equal 26. Words: Volume equals the product of , the
Two times v and w 1 to43 1two
23 times z. square of the radius of the base, and
123 123 14243 42 123 {
2  (v  w)  2  z the height.
The equation is 2(v  w)  2z. Variables: Let V  volume, r  radius of base,
and h  height.
18. the sum of is the
the square of the the
Half of nine and p same as p minus three.
123 { 14243 1424 3 { 123 123 Volume
1
424 123 
3 equals times radius of the base times height.
{ 123 14 4424443 123 123
1
2
 (9  p)  p  3 Formula: V    r  h 2
1 The formula for the volume of a cylinder is
The equation is 2(9  p)  p  3.
V  r2h.
19. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
The divided the is the twice the
27. Words: The square of the measure of the
number g 1 by 3 number h same as sum of g and h plus seven. hypotenuse is the square of the
14243 424 14243 1424 3 1442443 123 123
g  h  2(g  h)  7 measure of one leg plus the square of
the measure of the other leg.
The equation is g  h  2(g  h)  7.
Variables: Let c  measure of hypotenuse,
20. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
a  measure of one leg, and
the square of the the square the square
Five-ninths times sum of a, b, and c equals of a plus of c. b  measure of other leg.
14243 123 144424443 123 14243 123 14243
5
 (a  b  c)2  a2  c2
Formula:
9
The square of the the square of the the square of the
5
The equation is 9(a  b  c)2  a2  c2. measure
144 of the hypotenuse
44424444 43 is measure
{1444244 of one43
leg 1
plus
23 measure of the other leg.
14444244443
21. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate. c2  a2  b2

The Pacific Ocean This formula for a right triangle is c  a2  b2. 2


144 42444 3 is
{ 1
46%
23 of Earth.
{ 123
P  0.46  E 28. Words: Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
is nine-fifths of the degrees Celsius
The equation is P  0.46E.
plus thirty-two.
22. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
Variables: Let F  degrees Fahrenheit and
The cost number C  degrees Celsius.
per yard times of yards plus 3.50 equals 73.50.
14243 123 1 424 31 23 1 23 123 123 Temperature in the degrees
degrees Fahrenheit is nine-fifths of Celsius plus thirty-two.
1.75  f  3.50  73.50 144424443 { 14243 { 14243 123 14243
9
The equation is 1.75f  3.50  73.50. Formula: F  5
 C  32.
23. Words: Area is the base times the height. The formula for temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
9
Variables: Let A  area, b  base, and h  is F  5C  32.
height.
29. {
d 
{
14
{

{
5
{
Area
123 is{ 1
the
424base
3 1times the height.
23 14243 d minus fourteen equals five.
Formula: A  b  h
30. 2f
{

{ {
6 
{
19
{
The formula for the area of a parallelogram is
A  bh. Two times f plus six equals nineteen.
31. k2  17  53  j
24. Words: Volume is one-third times the { { { { { { {
product of the area of the base and k squared plus seventeen equals fifty-three minus j.
its height. 32. 2a
{

{
7a
{

{ {
b
Variables: Let V  volume, B  area of base, Two times a equals seven times a minus b.
and h  height. 3 1
33. 4
p  2
 p
the product of the area { { { { {
Volume is one-third
14243 times
123 of the44424444
base and its height. Three-fourths of p plus one-half equals p.
123 { 144 43
1
Formula: V  3
 (B  h) 34. 2
w  1
w  3
5{ { 2{ { {
The formula for the volume of a pyramid is
1
Two-fifths times w equals one-half times w plus three.
V  3Bh.
35. 7(m
1424 n)
3 
{ 110n
23 
{
17
{
25. Words: Perimeter is twice the sum of the Seven times equals ten plus seventeen.
lengths of the two adjacent sides. the sum of m and n times n
Variables: Let P  perimeter, a  one side, and 36. 4(t  s)  5s  12
b  an adjacent side. 123 { { { {

the sum of the lengths


Four times the equals five times s plus twelve.
Perimeter is two times of the two adjacent sides. quantity t minus s
14243 { 123 123 144 44424444 43
Formula: P  2  (a  b)
The formula for the perimeter of a parallelogram
is P  2(a  b).

Chapter 3 64
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1 Plan: Write the formula for the volume of


37. A  2h (a  b)
a sphere.
The area A of a trapezoid equals one-half times the radius
the product of the height h and the sum of the of the
The four- sphere
bases, a and b. Volume is thirds times  times cubed.
1
424 3 { 123 123 { 123 14243
38. rt  d 
4
   r3
{ { { V 3
Rate times time equals distance. 4
Solve: V 3
r3
39. Sample answer: Lindsey is 7 inches taller than 4
Yolanda. If 2 times Yolanda’s height plus  3
 (4)3
Lindsey’s height equals 193 inches, find Yolanda’s 
4
 (64)
3
height.
4
40. Sample answer: The price of a new backpack is p  3
(64)
dollars and the tax on the backpack is 0.055p. If 256
 3

the total cost of the backpack and the tax is
 268.1
$31.65, what is the price of the backpack?
Examine: The volume of a sphere with r  4
41. Words: Volume equals one-third times the
is about 268 in3.
product of , the square of the
radius of the base, and the height. 45. Rewrite the phrase so it is easier to translate.
Variables: Let V  volume, r  radius of base, the number of years
and h  height. The year Tarzan before the town was
was first published plus named Tarzana
Formula: 144424443 123 144424443
the square of the the 1912  y
Volume equals one-third times  times radius of the base times height. The expression is 1912  y.
1424 3 123 14243 123 { 123 14444244443 123 123
1
V  3
   r2  h 46. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
1
The formula for the volume of a cone is V  3 r2h. The year Tarzan the number of years before the year the
was published plus the town was renamed equals town was renamed.
14442444 3 123 1444442444443 123 144424443
42. Explore: You know the formula for the volume 1912  y  1928
of a cone. You need to evaluate the
The equation is 1912  y  1928.
formula with r  10 and h  30.
47. 1912  y  1928
Plan: Write the formula for the volume of a
Ask yourself, “What number added to 1912 equals
cone.
1928?”
the product of
y  16
, the square
The volume equals 1
one-third times 14of 424
r, and43
h. There were 16 years between the first Tarzan
144244 3 123 4243 123 story and the naming of the town.
1
V  3
 (r2h) 48. Rewrite the phrase so it is easier to translate.
1
Solve: V  3r2h the advertising
1 Four
123 times
1 portion
23 1442443 plus
123 15
 3 (10)2(30) {
4  a  15
1
 3 (100)(30) The expression is 4a  15.
1
 3 (100)(30) 49. Rewrite the sentence so it is easier to translate.
 11003 2(30) The advertising
portion plus
15 more than 4 times

 1000 1442443 123 the advertising portion {


14444244443 is {
60.
a  (4a  15)  60
 3141.6
The equation is a  (4a  15)  60.
Examine: The volume of a cone with r  10 and
h  30 is about 3142 cm3. 50. Find the solution for a  (4a  15)  60. Start by
letting a  10 and then adjust values up or down
43. Words: Volume is four-thirds times  times
as needed.
the radius of the sphere cubed.
Variables: Let V  volume and r  radius of a a  (4a  15)  60 Reasonable?
?
sphere. 10 10  (4  10  15)  60 S 65  60 too high
the radius ?
of the 5 5  (4  5  15)  60 S 40  60 too low
four- sphere ?
Volume is thirds times  times cubed. 7 7  (4  7  15)  60 S 50  60 too low
1
424 3 { 123 123 { 123 14243 ?
Formula: V  3
4
   r3 8 8  (4  8  15)  60 S 55  60 almost
?
4 9 9  (4  9  15)  60 S 60  60 true ✓
The formula for the volume of a sphere is V  3r3.
The solution of a  (4a  15)  60 is 9. Therefore,
44. Explore: You know the formula for the volume
9 minutes were spent on advertising.
of a sphere. You need to evaluate the
formula with r  4. 51. See students’ work.

65 Chapter 3
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52. Words: Surface area is the sum of the area 63. 12d  3  4d  12d  4d  3
of the faces.  (12d  4d)  3
Variables: Let S  surface area, a  length of  (12  4)d  3
the sides of an equilateral triangle,  8d  3
and h  height of a prism. The 64. 7t  t  8t  7t2  (t  8t)
2
height of the equilateral triangle is  7t2  (1  8)t
a 23  7t2  9t
given by 2 .
Surface area of area of 65. 3(a  2b)  5a  3(a)  3(2b)  5a
area is three times a side plus two times a base.  3a  6b  5a
14243 { 123 123 123 123 123 123 123  3a  5a  6b
Formula:  (3a  5a)  6b
1 a 23
S  3  ah  2  2a 2  (3  5)a  6b
The formula for the surface area of this  8a 6b
a2 23 66. 5(8  3)  7  2  5(5)  7  2
triangular prism is S  3ah  2 .
53. Equations can be used to describe the  25  14
relationships of the heights of various parts of a  39
structure. Answers should include the following. 67. 6(43  22)  6(64  4)
• The equation representing the Sears Tower is  6(68)
1454  a  1707.  408
54. B; a the
68. 7(0.2  0.5)  0.6  7(0.7)  0.6
One-fourth of number plus five equals number minus 123
seven.  4.9  0.6
14243 { 1424 3 1 23 1 231424 31424 3 123
1  4.3
4  n  5  n  7
1
69. 1 70. 1
The equation is 4
n  5  n  7. 5.67 0.57
55. D;{
7  (x  y)  35 3.70 2.80
{ 123 { {
9.37 3.37
Seven times the sum of x and y equals 35.
71. 4 72. 8 9
5.128 9.010
3. 4 0 7.3 5
Page 126 Maintain Your Skills 1. 8 8 1.6 5
56. 28100 represents the positive square root of 2 1 10 3 1 2 1 4
73.  5  15  15 74. 366
8100. 3 6
13 5
8100  902 S 28100  90  15 6
25 25 7 2 7 6 3 1 9 2
57.  3 36 represents the negative square root of . 75. 399 76.  6  12  12

156 22 S  3 2536  56


36 9 4
1 7
25
 9  12
36

58. 290 represents the positive square root of 90.


90  9.492 S 290  9.49 Page 127 Algebra Activity
59. 255 represents the negative square root of 55. (Preview of Lesson 3–2)
55  7.422 S 155  7.42 1. Step 1 Model the equation.
60. There is 1 six and 6 total outcomes.
1
x
P(6)  6
1 1
 0.17 1 1 1 1 1 1
The probability of rolling a 6 is
1
or about 17%. 1 1
6 1 1 1 1 1
61. There are 3 even numbers and 6 total outcomes.
1  1
3 1 1 1
P(an even number)  6
1 1 1
 2
or 0.5
The probability of rolling an even number is 2 or
1 x57
50%. x  5  (5)  7  (5)
62. There are 4 numbers greater than two and 6 total Place 1 x tile and 5 positive 1 tiles on one side of
outcomes. the mat. Place 7 positive 1 tiles on the other side
4 of the mat. Then add 5 negative 1 tiles to each
P(a number greater than 2)  6 side.
2
3
The probability of rolling a number greater than
2
2 is 3.

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Step 2 Isolate the x term. Place 1 x tile and 4 positive 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 27 positive 1 tiles on the other
x 1 1 side of the mat. Then add 4 negative 1 tiles to
each side.
1 1 1 1
Step 2 Isolate the x term.
1 1 1 1
 x 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
–1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 
–1 1 1 1 –1 1

x2 1 1 –1 1
–1 1
Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove 1 1 –1 1
all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x  2. –1 1 1 1 –1 1
2. Step 1 Model the equation.
x  23
x 1 1 1 1 Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove
1 1 1 1 all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x  23.
1 1 4. Step 1 Model the equation.
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
 1 1 1 1
x

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1  1 1

1 1
x  (2)  28
x  (2)  2  28  2 1 1
Place 1 x tile and 2 negative 1 tiles on one side of 1 1
the mat. Place 28 positive 1 tiles on the other side
of the mat. Then add 2 positive 1 tiles to each side. x  (3)  4
Step 2 Isolate the x term. x  (3)  3  4  3
Place 1 x tile and 3 negative 1 tiles on one side of
x 1 1 1 1 the mat. Place 4 positive 1 tiles on the other side
1 1 1 1 of the mat. Then add 3 positive 1 tiles to each side.
1 1 1 1 Step 2 Isolate the x term.
1 1
1 1 1 1 \
 1 1 1 1
x
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1

–1 1 1 1
x  30
–1 1 1
Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove
all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x  30. –1 1
3. Step 1 Model the equation.
x7
x Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove
1 1 1 1
all the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x  7.
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1  1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1

x  4  27
x  4  (4)  27 (4)

67 Chapter 3
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5. Step 1 Model the equation. Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove all
the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x  5.
x 7. You can model the equation a  b by putting an a
tile on one side of the mat, and putting a b tile on
1 1 1 1 1 the other side of the mat. You can add a c tile to
each side of the mat. The resulting equation
1 1
 would be a  c  b  c.
8. You can model the equation a  b by putting an a
1 1
tile on one side of the mat, and putting a b tile on
1 1 the other side of the mat. You can add a negative
1 1 c tile to each side of the mat. The resulting
equation would be a  (c)  b  (c)
x  3  4 or a  c  b  c.
x  3  (3)  4  (3)
Place 1 x tile and 3 positive 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 4 negative 1 tiles on the other side
3-2 Solving Equations by Using
of the mat. Then add 3 negative 1 tiles to each side. Addition and Subtraction
Step 2 Isolate the x term.
Page 131 Check for Understanding
x 1. Sample answers: n  13, n  16  29, n  12  25
1 1 2. The Addition Property of Equality and the
Subtraction Property of Equality can both be
1 1 used to solve equations. The Addition Property
 of Equality says you can add the same number
1 1 1 1
to each side of an equation. The Subtraction
1 1 1 Property of Equality says you can subtract the
same number from each side of an equation.
1 1 Since subtracting a number is the same as
adding its inverse, either property can be used
x  –7 to solve any addition equation or subtraction
Group the tiles to form zero pairs. Then remove all equation.
the zero pairs. The resulting equation is x  7. 3. (1) Add 94 to each side.
6. Step 1 Model the equation. g  94  (94)  75  (94)
g  19
x
1 1 (2) Subtract 94 from each side.
1 1 1 1 1 g  94  94  75  94
g  19
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 4. t  4  7
1  1 t  4  4  7  4
1 t  3
1 1
Check: t  4  7
1 1 ?
3  4  7
1 1 7  7 ✓
The solution is 3.
x72
x  7  (7)  2  (7) 5. p  19  6
Place 1 x tile and 7 positive 1 tiles on one side of p  19  19  6  19
the mat. Place 2 positive 1 tiles on the other side of p  13
the mat. Then add 7 negative 1 tiles to each side. Check: p  19  6
?
Step 2 Isolate the x term. 13  19  6
66✓
x The solution is 13.
1 1 1 1 6. 15  r  71
1 1 15  r  15  71  15
1 1 r  56
1 1
 1 Check: 15  r  71
1 1 ?
15  56  71
1 1
1 1 71  71 ✓
1 1
1 1
The solution is 56.
1 1

x  –5
Chapter 3 68
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7. 104  y  67 14. The average the average


104  67  y  67  67 time in Europe
1442443 minus
123 14424time in Japan
43
171  y 35.5  16.8
Check: 104  y  67 35.5  16.8  18.7
?
104  171  67 The difference is 18.7 hours.
104  104 ✓
The solution is 171.
8. h  0.78  2.65 Pages 132–134 Practice and Apply
h  0.78  0.78  2.65  0.78 15.  9  14
h  3.43  9  9  14  9
Check: h  0.78  2.65  23
?
3.43  0.78  2.65 Check:  9  14
2.65  2.65 ✓ 23  9  14
?

The solution is 3.43. 14  14 ✓


2 1
9. 3
 w  12 The solution is 23.
2 2
 w  3  12  3
1 2 16. s  19  34
3
s  19  19  34  19
5
w6 s  15
Check:
2
w
1
12 Check: s  19  34
3 ?
2 5 ? 1 15  19  34
3
6 12 34  34 ✓
1 1
12  12 ✓ The solution is 15.
5 17. g  5  33
The solution is 6.
g  5  5  33  5
10. 1
A4number minus twenty-one is 8. g  28
42443 1424 3 1 442443 123 123
n  21  8 Check: g  5  33
?
n  21  8 28  5  33
n  21  21  8  21 33  33 ✓
n  13 The solution is 28.
Check: n  21  8 18. 18  z  44
?
13  21  8 18  z  18  44  18
8  8 ✓ z  26
The solution is 13. Check: 18  z  44
?
11. 1
A4number increased by 37 is 91. 18  26  44
42443 1 4442444 3 123 { 123
n  37  91 44  44 ✓
n  (37)  91 The solution is 26.
n  (37)  37  91  37 19. a  55  17
n  54 a  55  55  17  55
Check: n  (37)  91 a  38
?
54  (37)  91 Check: a  55  17
?
91  91 ✓ 38  55  17
The solution is 54. 17  17 ✓
12. Words: The average time in Japan plus 8.1 The solution is 38.
equals the average time in the United 20. t  72  44
States. t  72  72  44  72
Variable: Let /  the average time in Japan. t  28
The average the average Check: t  72  44
?
time in Japan plus 8.1 equals time in the U.S. 28  72  44
1442443 123123 123 1442443
44  44 ✓
Equation:
/  8.1  24.9 The solution is 28.
13. /  8.1  24.9 21. 18 61  d
/  8.1  8.1  24.9  8.1 18  61 61  d 61
/  16.8 43  d
The average time is 16.8 hours. Check: 18  61  d
?
18  61  43
18  18 ✓
The solution is 43.

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22. 25  150  q 29. 6  m  (3.42)


25  150  150  q  150 6  3.42  m  (3.42)  3.42
125  q 2.58  m
Check: 25  150  q Check: 6  m  (3.42)
? ?
25  150  125 6  2.58  (3.42)
25  25 ✓ 6  6 ✓
The solution is 125. The solution is 2.58.
23. r  (19)  77 30. 6.2  4.83  y
r  19  77 6.2  4.83  4.83  y  4.83
r  19  19  77  19 11.03  y
r  96 Check: 6.2  4.83  y
?
Check: r  (19)  77 6.2  4.83  11.03
?
96  (19)  77 6.2  6.2 ✓
77  77 ✓ The solution is 11.03.
The solution is 96. 31. t  8.5  7.15
24. b  (65)  15 t  8.5  8.5  7.15  8.5
b  65  15 t  15.65
b  65  65  15  65 Check: t  8.5  7.15
b 50 ?
15.65  8.5  7.15
Check: b  (65)  15 7.15  7.15 ✓
?
50  (65)  15 The solution is 15.65.
15  15 ✓ 32. q  2.78  4.2
The solution is 50. q  2.78  2.78  4.2  2.78
25. 18  (f )  91 q  6.98
18  f  91 Check: q  2.78  4.2
18  f  18  91  18 ?
6.98  2.78  4.2
f  73 4.2  4.2 ✓
Check: 18  (f )  91 The solution is 6.98.
?
18  (73)  91 3 5
33. x46
91  91 ✓
3 3 5 3
The solution is 73. x4464
26. 125  (u)  88 x  112
7
125  u  88 3 5
125  u  125  88  125 Check: x46
u  37 7 3 ? 5
112  4  6
Check: 125  (u)  88 5 5
?  ✓
125  [(37) ]  88 6 6
7
88  88 ✓ The solution is 112.
The solution is 37. 3 7
34. a  5  10
27. 2.56  c  0.89 3 3 7 3
2.56  c  2.56  0.89  2.56 a  5  5  10  5
c  3.45 a  10
1

Check: 2.56  c  0.89 3 7


? Check: a  5  10
2.56  3.45  0.89
1 3 ? 7
0.89  0.89 ✓ 10  5  10
The solution is 3.45. 7 7
10  10 ✓
28. k  0.6  3.84 1
k  0.6  0.6  3.84  0.6 The solution is 10.
k  4.44 35.
1
2  p  8
5

Check: k  0.6  3.84 1 1 5 1


? 2  p  2  8  2
4.44  0.6  3.84
1
3.84  3.84 ✓ p  18
The solution is 4.44. 1 5
Check: 2  p  8
1 1 ? 5
2  18  8
5 5
8
8✓
1
The solution is 18.

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2 4 43. A number3 minus


36.  r  9 eighteen equals 31.
3 1424 1231 424 3 123 {
2 2 4 2 Equation: n  18  31
3
 r  3  9  3
1
n  18  31
r  19 n  18  18  31  18
Check:
2
 r  9
4 n  49

1 2
3
2 1 ? 4
Check: n  18  31
 19  9 ?
3 49  18  31
4
9  9 ✓
4
31  31 ✓
1 The solution is 49.
The solution is 19.
2 4 2 3
44. What
14442 number
4443 decreased
14 44244 4by
3 77 equals
{ 1424 3118?
23
37. v5 38. w4
3 5 Equation: n  77  18
2 4 4 4 2 3 3 3
3
5 v55 5
4 w44 n 77  18
2
15 v
7
20 w n  77  77  18  77
n  59
2 4 2 3
Check: 3
v5 Check: 5
w4 Check: n  77  18
2 ? 2 ? ?
2
 15  5
4 7
 20  4
3
59  77  18
3 5
2 2 2 2 18  18 ✓
3
3✓ 5
5✓
The solution is 59.
2 7
The solution is 15. The solution is 20. 45. A number increased by 16 21.
1424 3 14 4244 31 23 is
{ 1 23
39. First, solve x  7  14. Equation: n  (16)  21
x  7  14 n  (16)  21
x  7  7  14  7 n  (16)  16  21  16
x  21 n  5
Now, replace x in x  2 with 21. Check: n  (16)  21
?
x  2  21  2 5  (16)  21
 19 21  21 ✓
The value is 19. The solution is 5.
40. First, solve t  8  12. 46. A number plus 43 is 1
102.
14 243 1 23 1 23 { 23
t  8  12
Equation: n  (43)  102
t  8  8  12  8
t  20 n  (43)  102
n  (43)  43  102  43
Now, replace t in t  1 with 20.
n  145
t  1  20  1
Check: n  (43)  102
 19 ?
145  (43)  102
The value is 19.
102  102 ✓
41. The length of the rectangle
1444 4424444 43 is 78. { { The solution is 145.
Equation: x  55  78 47. What one- is equal negative
x  55  78 number minus half to 3 three-fourth?
1
424 3 123 123 1424 1 442443
x  55  55  78  55 Equation: n 
1
 4
3
2
x  23 1 3
n  2  4
Check: x  55  78
? 1 1 3 1
23  55  78 n  2  2  4  2
78  78 ✓ 1
n  4
The solution is 23. 1 3
42. The width of the rectangle Check: n  2  4
144444244444 3 is 24. { {
1 1 ? 3
Equation: y  17  24 4  2  4
y  17  24 3
4  4 ✓
3

y  17 17  24  17 1
y  41 The solution is 4.
Check: y  17  24
?
41  17  24
24  24 ✓
The solution is 41.

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48. is equal 58. Words: The number of volumes at Harvard


19 plus 42 plus a number to 87. University plus the difference equals
{ 1 23 { 123 14 4244 3 14 4244 3 {
Equation:19  42  n  87 the number of volumes at the Library
of Congress.
19  42  n  87
61  n  87 Variable: Let x  the difference in volumes
61  n  61  87  61 between the two libraries.
The number of volumes the the number of volumes at
n  26
at Harvard University plus difference equals the Library of Congress.
14444244443 123 14243 123 1444442444443
Check: 19  42  n  87
? Equation: 13.6  x  24.0
19  42  26  87
13.6  x  24.0
87  87 ✓
13.6  x  13.6  24.0  13.6
The solution is 26. x  10.4
49. Sometimes; if x  0, x  x  x is true. The Library of Congress has 10.4 million volumes
50. Always; any number plus 0 is always the number. more.
51. Words: The miles per gallon of a luxury car 59. Words: The number of volumes at New York
plus 10 equals the miles per gallon of Public plus the difference equals the
a midsize car. number of volumes at Harvard
Variable: Let   the miles per gallon of a University.
luxury car. Variable: Let x  the difference in volumes
The miles per gallon the miles per gallon between the two libraries.
of a luxury car plus
23 10 equals of a midsize car.
144424443 1 { 123 144424443 The number the number
Equation:   10  34 of volumes at the of volumes at
New York Public 1
plus difference equals Harvard University.
The equation is   10  34. 144424443 23 14243 123 144424443
Equation: 11.4  x  13.6
52. /  10  34
/  10  10  34  10 11.4  x  13.6
/  24 11.4  x  11.4  13.6  11.4
x  2.2
A luxury car travels 24 miles on a gallon of gasoline.
Harvard University has 2.2 million volumes more.
53. The miles per gallon the miles per gallon
of a subcompact car
144424443 is
{ of a luxury car
144424443 plus
123 13.
{
60. Words: The number of volumes at New York
x  24  13 Public plus the difference equals the
x  24  13 number of volumes at the Library of
x  37 Congress.
A subcompact car travels 37 miles on a gallon of Variable: Let x  the difference in volumes
gasoline. between the two libraries.
The number the number
54. The miles per gallon the miles per gallon of volumes at the of volumes at the
of a subcompact car minus of a midsize car
144424443 123 144424443 New York Public 1
144424443 plus difference
23 14243 equals Library
123 of Congress.
144424443
37  34 Equation: 11.4  x  24.0
37  34  3 11.4  x  24.0
A subcompact car travels 3 miles more. 11.4  x  11.4  24.0  11.4
55. Sample answer: 29 miles; 29 is the average of 24 x  12.6
(for the 8-cylinder engine) and 34 (for the 4-cylinder The Library of Congress has 12.6 million volumes
engine). more.
56. Words: The height of the Great Pyramid plus 61. Words: The total number of volumes is equal
the amount of decrease equals the to the sum of the volumes at the
original height. Library of Congress, Harvard
Variable: Let d  the amount of decrease. University, and New York Public.
The height of the the amount the original Variable: Let x  the total number of volumes.
Great Pyramid plus of4decrease equals height. The total volumes at volumes at volumes at
144424443 123 1 42443 123 1442443
number is Lib. of C. plus Harvard plus NY Public.
Equation: 450  d  481 14243 { 14243 123 14243 123 14243
The equation is 450  d  481 Equation: x  24.0  13.6  11.4
57. 450  d  481 x  24.0  13.6  11.4
450  d  450  481  450 x  49
d  31 The total number of volumes at the three largest
The decrease in height is 31 ft. U.S. libraries is 49 million.

Chapter 3 72
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62. Words: The number of one-year olds plus the 68. A; x 167  52
difference equals the number of x 167  167  52  167
newborns. x  115
Variable: Let x  the difference between the
number of one-year olds and
newborns. Page 134 Maintain Your Skills
The number of the the number of 69. Words: Area is  times the radius squared.
one-year olds 1
plus
23 difference
14243 equals newborns.
1442443 123 1442443 Variables: Let A  area and r  radius.
Equation: (679  634) x  (1379  1286) Area is  times the radius squared.
123 { { 123 144424443
679  634  x  1379  1286
Formula: A    r2
1313  x  2665
1313  x  1313  2665  1313 The formula for the area of a circle is A  r2.
x  1352 70. Replace r in r2 with 16.
There are 1352 more newborns. r2  (16)2
63. Words: The number of males plus the  (256)
difference equals the number of ≈ 804.2
females. The area is about 804 in2.
Variable: Let x  the difference between the 71. You can use a calculator to find an approximation
number of males and females. for 22.
1
The number the the number
2
 0.5
of4males plus difference equals 1of4females.
14 2443 1 23 1 442443 123 42443
22  1.41421356 p
Equation: (1379  679  x  (1286 
1
1707) 634  3714) Therefore, 2
6 22.
1379  679  1707  x  1286  634  3714 72. You can use a calculator to find an approximation
2
3765  x  5634 for 3.
3765  x  3765  5634  3765 3
x  1869 4
 0.75
2
There are 1869 more females. 3
 0.66666666 p
64. Words: The total population is equal to the Therefore,
3 2
7 3.
4
sum of the number of newborns,
3
one-year olds, and adults. 73. You can use a calculator to find the value of 8.
Variable: Let t  the total population. 3
 0.375
8
The total the number of the number of the number
3
population is newborns
14243 { 14424431
plus one-year olds plus of adults.
23 1442443 123 14243 Therefore, 0.375  8.
Equation: 74. The greatest common place value is tens, so the
t  (1379  1286)  (679  634)  (1707  3714) digits in the tens place are the stems.
t  1379  1286  679  634  1707  3714 Stem Leaf
t  9399 3 12456
The total deer population is 9399. 4 0123
65. If a  b  x, then a  b  x. If a  x  b  x, then 5 246
by the transitive property a  a  x. If a  a  x,
3 01  31
then x  0. If x  0, then a  x  b  x implies
a  b. Therefore, if a  b  x, then a  b and 75. The greatest common place value is ones, so the
x  0 would make a  x  b  x true. digits in the ones place are the stems.
66. Equations can be used to describe the Stem Leaf
relationships of growth and decline in job 0 58
opportunities. Answer should include the 1 1247
following. 2 3689
• To solve the equation, add 66 to each side. The 3
0 05  0.5
solution is m  71.
4 15
• An example such as “The percent increase in
76. Hypothesis: y  2
growth for paralegals is 16 more than the
Conclusion: 4y  6  2
percent increase in growth for detectives. If
the growth rate for paralegals is 86%, what is 77. Hypothesis: it is Friday
the growth rate for detectives? d  16  86; Conclusion: there will be a science quiz
70%” 78. 4(16  42)  4(16  16) Substitution; 42  16
67. C; b 15  32  4(1) Substitution; 16  16  1
b  15  2  32  2 4 Multiplicative
b 13  34 Identity; 4  1
4

73 Chapter 3
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79. (25  52)  (42  24)  (32  25)  (16  16) 4. 2g  84
2g 84
Substitution
2
 2
 7  0 Substitution
g  42
7 Additive Identity
Check: 2g  84
80. Replace x in 3x  2
2 with each value in the ?
replacement set. 2(42)  84
84  84 ✓
x 3x  2  2 True or False?
?
The solution is 42.
0 30  2 7 2S2 2 false t
5.  5

17t 2  7(5)
? 7
1 31  2 7 2S5 7 2 true ✓
7
?
2 32  2 7 2S8 7 2 true ✓ t  35
The solution set for 3x  2
2 is {1, 2}. Check:
t
 5
7
81. Replace y in 2y2  1
0 with each value in the 35 ?
replacement set. 7
 5
5  5 ✓
y 2y2  1  0 True or False?
The solution is 35.
?
1 2(1)2  1 7 0 S 1 7 0 true ✓ 6.
a
9
4

1 2  36149 2
36
? a
3 2(3)2  1 7 0 S 17 7 0 true ✓ 36 36

5
?
2(5)2  1 7 0 S 49 7 0 true ✓ a  16
a 4
Check: 9
The solution set for 2y2  1
0 is {1, 3, 5}. 36
16 ? 4
82. 14 83. 1 36
9
6 .5 7 0.3 4 4
 2 .8  0.1 5 9
9 ✓
52 0 35 1 5 The solution is 16.
13 0 70 3 4 8
7. k 9

12 12
18.2 0 10.5 4 5 5
5 4 5 8
84. 7.12 85. 0.22 4 5
k 4
9
2.5

17.8

00 1.50.3 30 40 10
  k  36 or 9
17 5 30
1
30 30 k  19
25 30 4 8
Check: k9

1 2
50 0 5
50 4 1 ? 8
1 9
5 9
0
8 8
1 1 1 9
9✓
2 5 2 5 5 3 5 3
86. 3
8 38 87. 9
 10  9  10 1
The solution is 19.
4 3 2

 12
5
6
1 8. 3.15  1.5y
3.15
1 2 1 5 8 4 8 15  1.5y
88. 2
 5
 2
2 89. 9
 15
 
9 4
1.5 1.5

5 120 2.1  y
 
4 36 Check: 3.15  1.5y
1 10 ?
 14  3 3.15  1.5(2.1)

1
33 3.15  3.15 ✓

1314 2p  212
The solution is 2.1.
9.

1134 2p  52
3-3 Solving Equations by Using

13 1 4 2
p  13 1 2 2
Multiplication and Division 4 13 4 5

Page 138 Check for Understanding 20


p  26 or 13
10

1314 2p  212
1. Sample answer: 4x  12
2. Dividing each side of an equation by a number is Check:
the same as multiplying each side of the equation
1314 211013 2  212
?

by the number’s reciprocal.


1 1
3. Juanita; to find an equivalent equation with 22  22 ✓
1n on one side of the equation, you must divide The solution is
10
.
1 13
each side by 8 or multiply each side by 8.

Chapter 3 74
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Five times a number is 1


10. 123 120. 16. 1634  86s
123 14243 { 23
1634 86s
5  n  120 86
 86
5n  120 19  s
5n 120
5
 5 Check: 1634  86s
?
n  24 1634  86(19)
The solution is 24. 1634  1634 ✓
equals 24.
11. Two fifths of a number 1 The solution is 19.
1442443 { 14243 4243 123 b
  24 17.  11

1 2  7(11)
2 n 7
5
2 b
n  24 7

12
5 7
5 2
n
5
 2 (24) b  77
2 5 b
n  60 Check: 7
 11
77 ?
The solution is 60. 7
 11
12. Words: The discharge of a river is the width 11  11 ✓
times the depth times the speed. The solution is 77.
Variable: Let d  the depth of the river. v
18. 5  45

1 v2
The discharge the the the
of a river is width times depth times speed.
144424443 { 123 123 123 123 123 5 5  5(45)
Equation: 3198  533  d  0.6
v  225
3198  533 d (0.6) v
3198  533(0.6)d Check: 5  45
3198  319.8 d 
225 ?
 45
3198 319.8d 5
319.8
 319.8 45  45 ✓
10  d The solution is 225.
The Mississippi River is 10 m deep at this 19.
2
n  14

12
3
location.
3 2 3
2 3
n  2 (14)
n  21
Pages 138–140 Practice and Apply Check:
2
n  14

1212  14
3
13. 5r  55
2 ?
5r 55
5
 5 3

r  11 14  14 ✓
Check: 5r  55 The solution is 21.
? 2
5(11)  55 20. g  14

12 1 2
5
55  55 ✓ 5 2
g
5
 2 14
2 5
The solution is 11.
g  35
14. 8d  48 2
Check: g  14

1352  14
8d 48
8
 8
5
2 ?
d6 5
Check: 8d  48 14  14 ✓
?
8(6)  48 The solution is 35.
48  48 ✓ 21.
g
 12
5

1 2  241125 2
24
The solution is 6. g
24
15. 910  26a 24
910 26a g  10
26
 26 g 5
Check:  12
35  a 24
10 ? 5
Check: 910  26a 24
 12
?
910  26(35) 5 5
 12 ✓
12
910  910 ✓
The solution is 10.
The solution is 35.

75 Chapter 3
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22.
z
5
2
28. 1323 2x  512
1 2  45125 2 1113 2x  112
45
z
45 45

11 1 3 2
x  11 1  2 2
z  18 3 11 3 11
z 2
Check: 5
45 33 3
18 ? 2 x  22 or 2
45
5
1
x  12

1323 2x  512
2 2
5
5 ✓
The solution is 18. Check:
23. 1.9f  11.78
1323 21112 2  512
?
1.9f 11.78
 1 1
1.9 1.9
52  52 ✓
f  6.2 1
Check: 1.9f  11.78 The solution is 12.
? 2
1.9(6.2)  11.78 29. 5h  33
11.78  11.78 ✓ 33
2
5h
The solution is 6.2. 

1 2
5 5
24. 0.49k  6.272 11 1
0.49k 6.272
h   3 5
0.49
 0.49 11
h
k  12.8 15
2
Check: 0.49k  6.272 Check: 5h  33

11115 2  323
?
0.49(12.8)  6.272 5
?

6.272  6.272 ✓ 2 2
The solution is 12.8. 33  33 ✓
11
25. 2.8m  9.8 The solution is 15
.
2.8m 9.8
2.8
 2.8 30. 3p  45
1

m  3.5 45
1
3p
Check: 2.8m  9.8 3

? 3
2.8(3.5)  9.8 p
21 1

9.8  9.8 ✓ 5 3
21 7
The solution is 3.5. p 15
or 5
26. 5.73q  97.41 p
2
15
5.73q 97.41
5.73
 5.73 Check: 3p  45
1

1 22
q  17 ? 1
3 15  45
Check: 5.73q  97.41
? 1 1
5.73(17)  97.41 45  45 ✓
97.41  97.41 ✓ The solution is 15.
2

The solution is 17.


1235 2t  22
31. First, solve 4m  10.
27. 4m  10
1135 2t  22 4m

10

13 1  5 2 t  13(22)
4 4
5
5 13 5 m 2
1
t
110
 13 m 22
1
6
 813 Now, replace m in 12m with 22.

1 12
t
Check: 1
25
3
2t  22 12m  12 22

 12 1 2 2
1235 218136 2  22
5
?

 30
22  22 ✓
6 The value is 30.
The solution is 813.

Chapter 3 76
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32. First, solve 15b  55. 38. One and one third times a number is 4.82.
14444244443 123 1 44244 3 { 14243
15b  55 1  n  4.82

1 2
13
15b 55
15
 15
1
13 n  4.82
11
b 4
n  4.82

12
3 3
2
b 33 3 4
n
3
 4(4.82)
4 3
2
Now, replace b in 3b with 33. n  3.615
3b  3 1 2 2
33
The solution is 3.615.

 31 3 2
39. The number of people in
11 left-handed people is one seventh of the world.
14444244443 { 1442443 { 14 42443
/  1  p
 11 7
1
The value is 11. The equation is /  7p.
Seven
33. 1
424 3 123 1
equals 84.
times a number 1 1
40. Replace p in 7p with 350 and solve.
442443 4243 123
7  n  84 1 1
p  7(350)
7n  84 7

7n 84  50
7
 7 There are 50 left-handed people.
n  12 1
41. Replace  in /  7p with 65 and solve.
The solution is 12.
1
Negative nine times a number is 117.
34. 1 /  7p
44424443 123 1 442443 { 123
1
9  n  117 65  7p
9n  117
9n 117
7(65)  7 117 2p

9 9 455  p
n  13 There are 455 people in the group.
The solution is 13. 42. Replace C in C  d with 50 and solve.
35. One fifth of a number is 12. C  d
14243 { 1 44244 3 { 123
1  n  12 50  d
5
50 d
1 
n  12  

12
5
5 1 5 15.9  d
1 5
n  1(12)
The diameter was about 16 feet.
n  60 43. Replace r with 126 and d with 60.5 in rt  d and
The solution is 60. solve.
36. Negative three eighths times a number equals 12.
1444442444443 123 1 44244 3 14243 123 rt  d
8
3  n  12 126t  60.5
126t 60.5
3
8n  12 

1 32
126 126
8
3 8 n  3(12)
8 t  0.48
It takes about 0.48 second.
n  32
44. Replace r with 132 and d with 60.5 in rt  d and
The solution is 32.
solve.
37. Two and one half times a number equals one and one fifth.
14444244443 123 1
44244
3 14243 14444244443 rt  d
1  n  1
132t  60.5
1212 2n  115
22 15
132t 60.5
132
 132
5
n 5
6 t  0.46

12 12
2
2 5 2 6 It takes about 0.46 second.
5 2
n 5 5
45. time for a time for a
12
n 25 two-seam fastball minus four-seam fastball
14444244443 1 424 3 14444244443
The solution is
12
. 0.48  0.46
25
0.48  0.46  0.02
The difference is about 0.02 second.

77 Chapter 3
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46. the number of The side length of each square is 4 inches.


eight
123
times
123
grams of hydrogen
14444244443 Area is side length squared.
123 { 144424443
8  x A  42
The expression for oxygen is 8x. 2
A4
47. Number of grams number of grams number of grams A  16
of hydrogen plus of oxygen equals of water.
14444244443 123 14444244443
14243 14444244443 The area of the square is 16 in2.
x  8x  477
53. A; 4t  20
The equation is x  8x  477.
4t 20
48. Solve x  8x  477 2
 2
x  8x  477 2t  10
(1  8)x  477
9x  477
9x

477 Page 140 Maintain Your Skills
9 9
54. m  14  81
x  53
m  14  14  81  14
There are 53 grams of hydrogen. m  67
49. Replace x in 8x with 53. Check: m  14  81
8x  8(53) ?
67  14  81
 424 81  81 ✓
There are 424 grams of oxygen. The solution is 67.
50. First, solve 6y  7  4. 55. d  27  14
6y  7  4 d  27  27  14  27
6y  7  7  4  7 d  13
6y  11 Check: d  27  14
6y 11 ?
6
 6 13  27  14
5 14  14 ✓
y 16
5
The solution is 13.
Now, replace y in 18y  21 with 16.

1 52
56. 17  (w)  55
18y  21  18 16  21 17  w  55

 18 1 6 2  21
17  w  17  55  17
11
w  72
 33  21 Check: 17  1w2  55
17  31722 4  55
?
 12
The value is 12. 55  55 ✓
51. You can use the distance formula and the speed of The solution is 72.
light to find the time it takes light from the stars 57. is equal the sum of
to reach Earth. Answers should include the Ten
123 times
123 a4
1 number
42443 a to43 {
142 5 times
1 23 14b2
and c.
443
following. 10  a  5  (b  c)
• Solve the equation by dividing each side of the The equation is 10a  5(b  c).
equation by 5,870,000,000,000. 58. (5)(12)  60
The answer is 53 years. 59. (2.93)(0.003)  0.00879
• The equation 5,870,000,000,000t  60. (4)(0)(2)(3)  (0)(2)(3)
821,800,000,000,000 describes the situation  (0)(3)
for the star in the Big Dipper farthest from  (0)
Earth. 61.
52. C; 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
2 times 2 times 62.
Perimeter is length plus width. 654321 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1442443 { 14243 123 14243
48  2(5x)  2x 63.
48  2(5x)  2x 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1
48  10x  2x 64.
48  (10  2)x 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1
48  12x 65. Commutative Property of Addition
48 12x
12
 12
66. Associative Property of Multiplication
4x 67. 2  8  9  16  9
 25
68. 24  3  8  8  8
0

Chapter 3 78
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3 3 2
69. (17  7)  8 (24) 7. p  18

12
8 3
72 3 2 3
 8 2 3
p  2 (18)
9 p  27
15  9 6 2
70. 26  12
 26  12 Check: 3
p  18
6 ?
 38
2
18 (27) 
3

3 18  18 ✓
19
The solution is 27.
8. 17y  391
Page 140 Practice Quiz 1 17y
 17
391
1. Surface the square of 17
area
14243 equals
123 four
123 times
123 
{
times
123 1the radius.
4424 43 y  23
S  4    r2 Check: 17y  391
?
The formula for the surface area of a sphere is 17(23)  391
S  4r2. 391  391 ✓
2. Replace r in 4r 2 with 7. The solution is 23.
4r2  4 (7)2 9. 5x  45
 4 (49) 5x 45

 4(49) 5 5
 196 x  9
 615.8 Check: 5x  45
The surface area is about 615.8 cm2. 5 (9)  45
?

3. d  18  27 45  45 ✓


d  18  18  27  18 The solution is 9.
d  45 2
10. 5 d  10

1 22
Check: d  18  27
? 5 5
45  18  27 2 5 d  2 (10)
27  27 ✓ d  25
The solution is 45. Check:
2
5 d  10
4. m  77  61 2 ?
m  77  77  61  77 5 (25)  10
m  16 10  10 ✓
Check: m  77  61 The solution is 25.
?
16  77  61
61  61 ✓
The solution is 16. Page 141 Algebra Activity
5. 12  a  36 1. Step 1 Model the equation.
12  a  12  36  12
a  24 x
Check: 12  a  36
1 1 1
12  1242  36
? x
36  36 ✓ 1 1 1
The solution is 24. 
1 1 1
6. t  (16)  9 1 1 1
t  16  9
t  16  16  9  16
t  7
Check: t  (16)  9
? 2x  3  –9
7  (16)  9
99✓ Place 2 x tiles and 3 negative 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 9 negative 1 tiles on the other side
The solution is 7.
of the mat.

79 Chapter 3
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Step 2 Isolate the x term. Place 3 x tiles and 5 positive 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 14 positive 1 tiles on the other side
x of the mat.
1 1 1 Step 2 Isolate the x term.
x
1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1
1 1 1  1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1
x 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1  1 1
1 1

2x  3  3  –9  3 1 1 1 1 1 1
Since there are 3 negative 1 tiles with the x tiles, 1 1 1 1
add 3 positive 1 tiles to each side to form zero pairs.
Step 3 Remove zero pairs. 3x  5  5  14  5
Since there are 5 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles,
x add 5 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero
1 1 1 pairs.
x Step 3 Remove zero pairs.
1 1 1

1 1
 1 1
x 1 1 1 1
x 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
x 1
1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2x  –6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the 1 1 1 1
zero pairs.
Step 4 Group the tiles.
3x  9
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the
zero pairs.
x  1 1 1 Step 4 Group the tiles.

x  1 1 1
x  1 1 1

x  1 1 1

2x
2
–6
 2 x  1 1 1
Separate the tiles into 2 equal groups to match
the 2 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 3 negative
1 tiles. Thus, x  3. 3x 9
3
3
2. Step 1 Model the equation.
Separate the tiles into 3 equal groups to match
x the 3 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 3 positive
1 1 1 1 tiles. Thus, x  3.
x
1 1 1
x
 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

3x  5  14

Chapter 3 80
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3. Step 1 Model the equation. Separate the tiles into 3 equal groups to match
the 3 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 4 positive
x 1 tiles. Thus, x  4.
1 1 1 4. Step 1 Model the equation.
x
1 1 1
x x
 1 1 1
x
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 
1 1 1 1

1 1
3x  2  10
Place 3 x tiles and 2 negative 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 10 positive 1 tiles on the other side
of the mat. 8  2x  4
Step 2 Isolate the x term. Place 2 x tiles and 4 positive 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 8 negative 1 tiles on the other side
x of the mat.
1 1 1
x Step 2 Isolate the x term.
1 1 1
x x
1 1 1
1 1
 1 1 1
x
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1  1 1

1 1 1 1
3x  2  2  10  2
1 1 1 1
Since there are 2 negative 1 tiles with the x tiles,
add 2 positive 1 tiles to each side to form zero pairs.
Step 3 Remove zero pairs. 8  4  2x  4  4
Since there are 4 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles,
x add 4 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero
1 1 1 pairs.
x
1 1 1 Step 3 Remove zero pairs.
x

1 1
 1 1 1 x
1 1 1
1 x
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1

1 1
3x  12
1 1 1 1
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the
zero pairs. 1 1 1 1
Step 4 Group the tiles.
12  2x
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the
zero pairs.
x  1 1 1 1

x  1 1 1 1

x  1 1 1 1

3x
3
 12
3

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Step 4 Group the tiles. Step 3 Remove zero pairs.

x 1 1 1
1 1 1 x
 x 1 1 1
1 1 1 x
x 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
 x 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

–12
 22x 4x  8
2
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the
Separate the tiles into 2 equal groups to match zero pairs.
the 2 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 6 negative
Step 4 Group the tiles.
1 tiles. Thus, x  6.
5. Step 1 Model the equation.
x 1 1
x 1 1 1
x
1 1 1
x  1 1
x
x 1 1 1 x 1 1

1 1 1 1 1
x 1 1

4x 8
4
4

3  4x  11 Separate the tiles into 4 equal groups to match


Place 4 x tiles and 3 positive 1 tiles on one side of the 4 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 2 positive
the mat. Place 11 positive 1 tiles on the other side 1 tiles. Thus, x  2.
of the mat. 6. Step 1 Model the equation.
Step 2 Isolate the x term.
x
x 1 1 1 x
x
1 1 1 1 1 1
x  1
x 1 1 1
 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1
2x  7  1
3  4x  3  11  3 Place 2 x tiles and 7 positive 1 tiles on one side of
Since there are 3 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles, the mat. Place 1 positive 1 tile on the other side of
add 3 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero the mat.
pairs. Step 2 Isolate the x term.

x
x
1 1 1 1
1 1 1  1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1

2x  7  7  1  7

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Since there are 7 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles, Step 2 Isolate the x term.
add 7 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero
pairs. 1 1 1 x
Step 3 Remove zero pairs. 1 1 1 x
1 1 1
x
x 1 1 1 x
x 1 1 1
 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
9  7  4x  7  7
1 1 1 1
Since there are 7 negative 1 tiles with the x tiles,
add 7 positive 1 tiles to each side to form zero pairs.
2x  6
Step 3 Remove zero pairs.
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the
zero pairs. 1 1 1 x x
Step 4 Group the tiles. 1 1 1 x x
1 1 1
1 1 1 1

x  1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1
16  4x
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the
zero pairs.
2x
2
 –6
2 Step 4 Group the tiles.
Separate the tiles into 2 equal groups to match
the 2 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 3 negative
1 1 1 1 x
1 tiles. Thus, x  3.
7. Step 1 Model the equation.
1 1 1 1  x
x
x 1 1 1 1 x

1 1 1 x
1 1 1 1 x
x
1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 16
4
 44x
1 1 1
Separate the tiles into 4 equal groups to match
1 the 4 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 4 positive
1 tiles. Thus, x  4.
9  4x  7 8. Step 1 Model the equation.
Place 4 x tiles and 7 negative 1 tiles on one side of
the mat. Place 9 positive 1 tiles on the other side x
of the mat.
x
x 1 1 1

1 1 1
 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

7  3x  8

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Place 3 x tiles and 7 positive 1 tiles on one side of


the mat. Place 8 negative 1 tiles on the other side 3-4 Solving Multi-Step Equations
of the mat.
Step 2 Isolate the x term.
Page 145 Check for Understanding
x 1. Sample answers: 2x  3  1, 3x  1  7
x 2. (1) Add 4 to each side. (2) Multiply each side by 5.
1 1 1
(3) Subtract 3 from each side.
x
1 1 1 3. Odd integers are two units apart. If we want to
1 1 1 1
 1 1 signify the odd integer before odd integer n, we
1 1 1 need to subtract 2 units. Therefore, the
expression can be written as n 2.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4a. Subtract 3 from each side.
1 1 1 1 1 1 4b. Simplify.
4c. Multiply each side by 5.
7  3x  7  8  7 4d. Simplify.
Since there are 7 positive 1 tiles with the x tiles, 4e. Subtract 4 from each side.
add 7 negative 1 tiles to each side to form zero
4f. Simplify.
pairs.
4g. Divide each side by 2.
Step 3 Remove zero pairs.
4h. Simplify.
x 5.Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.
1 1 1
x Undo the
1 1 1
x Statement Statement
1 1 The result is 55. 55
1 1 1 1
 The product is added to 13. 55  13  42
1 1 1 1 A number is multiplied
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 by seven. 42  7  6

1 1 1 1 1 The number is 6.
6. Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.
3x  15
Statement Undo the Statement
Group the tiles to form zero pairs and remove the There are 2,187,000
zero pairs. bacteria on the seventh 2,187,000
Step 4 Group the tiles. day.
A bacteria population
1 1 1 triples in number 2,187,000  36  3000
x
1 1 each day.

1 1 1 There were 3000 bacteria.


x  7. 4g  2  6
1 1 4g  2  2  6  2
1 1 1 4g  4
x 4g 4

1 1 4 4
g  1
3x Check: 4g  2  6
3
 –15
3 ?
4(1)  2  6
?
Separate the tiles into 3 equal groups to match 4  2  6
the 3 x tiles. Each x tile is paired with 5 negative 6  6 ✓
1 tiles. Thus, x  5.
The solution is 1.
9. First add 12 to each side, and then divide each
8. 18  5p  3
side by 7.
18  3  5p  3  3
15  5p
15 5p
5
 5
3p

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Check: 18  5p  3 13. Twelve 34.


123 decreased
144244by 3 twice a number equals
? 1442443 123 1 23
18  5(3)  3 12  2n  34
?
18  15  3 12  2n  34
?
18  18 ✓ 12  2n  12  34  12
The solution is 3. 2n  46
2n 46
9.
3
a  8  11 2
 2
2
3
a  8  8  11  8 n  23
2
3
The solution is 23.
a  19

12
2 14. Let n  the least integer.
2 3 2
3 2
a  3(19) Then n  1  the next greater integer, and
38 n  2  the greatest of the three integers.
a 3
The sum of three consecutive integers is 42.
2 1444444442444444443 { {
a  123
n  (n  1)  (n  2)  42
3
Check: a  8  11 n  (n  1)  (n  2)  42
1 2  8  11
2
3 2 ? 3n  3  42
123
2 3n  3  3  42  3
?
19  8  11 3n  39
11  11 ✓ 3n

39
2 3 3
The solution is 123. n  13
b  4
10.  17 n  1  13  1 or 14 n  2  13  2 or 15

1 2  2(17)
2
b  4 The consecutive integers are 13, 14, and 15.
2 2
15. Let n  the number of letters in the Hawaiian
b  4  34
alphabet.
b  4  4  34  4
The English alphabet 123
equals 2 more than twice the Hawaiian alphabet.
b  30 14444244443 { 14243 1444442444443

b  4 26  2 + 2n
Check:  17
2 26  2  2n
30  4 ?
2
 17 26  2  2  2n  2
34 ? 24  2n
2
 17 24 2n

17  17 ✓ 2 2

The solution is 30. 12  n


11. 0.2n  3  8.6 The Hawaiian alphabet has 12 letters.
0.2n  3  3  8.6  3
0.2n  5.6
Pages 145–148 Practice and Apply
0.2n 5.6
0.2
 0.2 16. Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.
n  28 Statement Undo the Statement
Check: 0.2n  3  8.6 The result is 25. 25
?
0.2(28)  3  8.6 The quotient is added
?
5.6  3  8.6 to 17. 25  17  8
8.6  8.6 ✓ A number is divided
The solution is 28. by 4. 8  4  32
12. 3.1y  1.5  5.32
The number is 32.
3.1y  1.5  1.5  5.32  1.5
3.1y  6.82 17. Start at the end of the problem and undo each
3.1y 6.82
step.
3.1
 3.1
Statement Undo the Statement
y  2.2
The result is 75. 75
Check: 3.1y  1.5  5.32
? The difference is
3.1(2.2)  1.5  5.32 multiplied by 5. 75  5  15
?
6.82  1.5  5.32 Nine is subtracted
5.32  5.32 ✓ from a number. 15  9  24
The solution is 2.2.
The number is 24.

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18. Start at the end of the problem and undo each 21. Start at the end of the problem and undo each step.
step.
Statement Undo the Statement
Statement Undo the Statement He had $13.45 left. $13.45
The fourth question is He bought lunch for
worth $6000. $6000 $6.55. $13.45  $6.55  $20
The fourth question is He spent half for a
worth twice as much $6000  2  $3000 haircut. $20  2  $40
as the third question. He spent one third for 3
The third question is $40  2  $60
gasoline.
worth twice as much $3000  2  $1500
as the second question. He withdrew $60.
The second question is Exercises 22–39 For checks, see students’ work.
worth twice as much $1500  2  $750 22. 5n  6  4 23. 7  3c  11
as the first question. 5n  6  6  4  6 7  3c  7  11  7
5n  10 3c  18
The first question is worth $750. 5n 10 3c 18
 
19. Start at the end of the problem and undo each 5 5 3 3
step. n  2 c  6
Statement Undo the Statement 24. 15  4a  5
15  5  4a  5  5
After 8 hours, it
5 5 20  4a
weighs 16 of a pound. 20 4a
16
4
 4
1 5 5
The sculpture lost its
2 16
2 8 5a
weight the 8th hour. 25. 63  7g  14
1
The sculpture lost 2 its
5
24
5 63  14  7g  14  14
8
weight the 7th hour. 49  7g
49 7g
1 5 5 
The sculpture lost 2 its 4
22 7 7

weight the 6th hour. 7  g


c y
1
The sculpture lost 2 its
5
25 26. 3
57 27. 5
96
2
c y
weight the 5th hour.
3
5575 5
9969
1
The sculpture lost its 5  2  10 c
2
y
 3

1 2  3(2) 1 2  5(3)
2 3 5
weight the 4th hour. c y
3 3
5 5
1
The sculpture lost 2 its 10  2  20
c  6 y  15
weight the 3rd hour. a p
1
28. 3 7
 2 29. 9  4
5
The sculpture lost its
2
20  2  40 a p
3  3  2  3 9  959
weight the 2nd hour. 7 4
a p
1 7  5 4  14

1 2  7(5) 1 p2
The sculpture lost 2 its 40  2  80
a
weight the 1st hour. 7 7 4 4  4(14)
The sculpture weighed 80 lb. a  35 p  56
t m
20. Start at the end of the problem and undo each 30. 8
 6  12 31. 5
 6  31
step. Count the rungs from the top. t m
8
 6  6  12  6 5
 6  6  31  6
Statement Undo the Statement t m
 6  25

1 2  8(6) 1 2  5(25)
She went into the 8 5
t m
building. 0 8 8
5 5
She climbed the t  48 m  125
remaining 4 rungs. 044 17  s
32.  10

1 2  4(10)
She went up 7 rungs. 4  7  11 4
17  s
She backed down 4 4
5 rungs. 11  5  6 17  s  40
She moved up 3 rungs. 639 17  s  17  40  17
She stood on the s  57
middle rung. 2(9)  1  19 s 57
1
 1
The ladder has 19 rungs. s  57

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33.
3j  (4)
 12 Now, replace a in 5a  2 with 5.

3 4  6 (12)
6
3j  (4) 5a  2  5(5)  2
6 6  25  2
3j  (4)  72  27
3j  (4)  (4)  72  (4) The value is 27.
3j  76 41. First, solve 2x  1  5.
3j 76
3
 3 2x  1  5
j
76 2x  1  1  5  1
3
2x  4
1
j 253 2x 4
2
2
34. 3d  1.2  0.9
x2
3d  1.2  1.2  0.9  1.2
3d  2.1 Now, replace x in 3x  4 with 2.
3d 2.1 3x  4  3(2)  4

3 3 64
d  0.7 2
35. 2.5r  32.7  74.1 The value is 2.
2.5r  32.7  32.7  74.1  32.7 42. Two-thirds
14243 of a number minus six is negative ten.
{ 14243 123 { { 1442443
2.5r  106.8
2
2.5r 106.8  n  6  10
2.5
 2.5
3
2
r  42.72 3
n  6  10
2
36. 0.6  (4a)  1.4 3
n  6  6  10  6
0.6  (4a)  0.6  1.4  0.6 2
n  4

1 2  32(4)
4a  0.8 3
4a 0.8 3 2
 2 3
n
4 4
a  0.2 n  6
p The solution is 6.
37. 7
 0.5  1.3
43. Twenty-nine is thirteen added to four times a number.
p
 0.5  0.5  1.3  0.5 1442443 { 14243 14243 123 123 14243
7 29  13  4  n
p
 1.8 29  13  4n
1 2  7(1.8)
7

7
p 29  13  13  4n  13
7 16  4n
p  12.6 16 4n

38. 3.5x  5  1.5x  8 4 4

(3.5  1.5)x  5  8 4n


2x  5  8 The solution is 4.
2x  5  5  8  5 44. Let n  the least odd integer.
2x  3 Then n  2  the next greater odd integer, and
2x
2
3 n  4  the greatest of the three odd integers.
2
The sum of three consecutive odd integers {is 51.
x  12 or 1.5
1 144444444424444444443 {
n  (n  2)  (n  4)  51
9z  4
39. 5
8  5.4 n  (n  2)  (n  4)  51
9z  4 3n  6  51
5
88  5.4  8
9z  4
3n  6  6  51  6
 13.4 3n  45
1 2  5(13.4)
5
9z  4 3n 45
5 5 3
 3
9z  4  67 n  15
9z  4  4  67  4 n  2  15  2 or 17 n  4  15  4 or 19
9z  63
The consecutive odd integers are 15, 17, and 19.
9z 63
9
 9
z7
40. First, solve 3a  9  6.
3a  9  6
3a  9  9  6  9
3a  15
3a 15
3
 3
a5

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45. Let n  the least even integer. 49. Let x  the length of the shortest side.
Then n  2  the next greater even integer, and Then x  2  the length of the next longer side,
n  4  the greatest of the three even integers. and x  4  the length of the longest side.
The sum of three consecutive even integers is 30. The sum of the three sides is 54.
1444444442444444443 { 123 1444442444443 { {
n  (n  2)  (n  4)  30 x  (x  2)  (x  4)  54
n  (n  2)  (n  4)  30 x  (x  2)  (x  4)  54
3n  6  30 3x  6  54
3n  6  6  30  6 3x  6  6  54  6
3n  36 3x  48
3n 36 3x 48
3
 3 3
 3
n  12 x  16
n  2  12  2 or 10 n  4  12  4 or 8 x  2  16  2 or 18 x  4  16  4 or 20
The consecutive even integers are 12, 10, The lengths of the sides are 16 cm, 18 cm, and
and 8. 20 cm.
46. Let n  the least integer. a  7000
50. 9 2000
2
Then n  1  the next greater integer, a  7000
92 2 2
n  2  the next greater integer, and 2000
a  7000
n  3  the greatest of the four integers. 7

1 2
2000
The sum of four consecutive integers is 94. a  7000
1444444442444444443 { { 2000(7)  2000 2000
n  (n  1)  (n  2)  (n  3)  94
14,000  a  7000
n  (n  1)  (n  2)  (n  3)  94 14,000  7000  a  7000  7000
4n  6  94 21,000  a
4n  6  6  94  6
They can climb to about 21,000 ft.
4n  88
4n 88 51. 8  2/  12
4
 4 8  12  2/  12  12
n  22 20  2/
n  1  22  1 or 23 n  2  22  2 or 24 20

2/
2 2
n  3  22  3 or 25
10  /
The consecutive integers are 22, 23, 24, and 25.
The person’s foot is about 10 in. long.
47. Let n  the least odd integer.
52. See students’ work.
Then n  2  the next greater odd integer,
53. Let x  the amount of sales.
n  4  the next greater odd integer, and
n  6  the greatest of the four odd integers. The monthly the amount
salary
1442443 plus
123 2% of of sales
{ { 1442443 { 123
is $2000.
The sum of four consecutive odd integers is 8.
1444444442444444443 { {
500  0.02  x  2000
n  (n  2)  (n  4)  (n  6)  8
500  0.02x  2000
n  (n  2)  (n  4)  (n  6)  8
500  0.02x  500  2000  500
4n  12  8
0.02x  1500
4n  12  12  8  12
0.02x 1500
4n  4 0.02
 0.02
4n 4
 x  75,000
4 4
n  1 Mr. Goetz must have $75,000 in sales.
n  2  1  2 or 1 n  4  1  4 or 3 54. Let   the length of the rectangle.
n  6  1  6 or 5 The area the area of the area of
4
The consecutive odd integers are 1, 1, 3, and 5. of the square minus the rectangle is of the square.
1442443 123 1442443 { 5
{ { 1442443
48. Let x  the number of miles driven in one day. 10  10  4/ 
4
5
 (10  10)
Price of car cost per number cost for 4
per day plus mile times of4miles is one day.
10  10  4/  5 (10  10)
14243 123 14 243 123 1 243 { 14243
4
14.95  0.10  x  60 100  4/  5(100)
14.95  0.1x  60 100  4/  80
14.95  0.1x  14.95  60  14.95 100  4/  100  80  100
0.1x  45.05 4/  20
0.1x 45.05
0.1
 0.1
4/

20
4 4
x  450.5 /5
Ms. Jones can drive 450.5 mi. The length of the rectangle is 5 in.

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55. Never; Let n, n  2 be the even numbers, and 62. Step 1


p  (5)
6
2
m, m  2 be the odd numbers.
p  (5)
The sum of two the sum of two 2
6 66
consecutive consecutive p  (5)
2
6 0
even numbers equals odd numbers.
1442443 123 1442443
n  (n  2)  m  (m  2) Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.
n  (n  2)  m  (m  2) Step 3 Enter ( ALPHA P ( ( ) 5
2n  2  2m  2 ) ) ⫼ ( ) 2 6.
2n  2  2  2m  2  2
2n  2m Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the
2n

2m
solution. P  17.
2 2
r  0.8
nm 63. Step 1 0.7  6
r  0.8
Thus, n must equal m, so n is not even or m is not 0.7  0.7  6
 0.7
odd. r  0.8
56. By using the length at birth, the amount of 0 6
 0.7
growth each year, and the current length, you can Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.
write and solve an equation to find the age of the
Step 3 Enter ( ALPHA R 0.8 ) ⫼
animal. Answers should include the following.
• To solve the equation, subtract 8 from each 0.7. 6
side and then divide each side by 12. Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the
• The alligator is about 93 or 10 years old.
2
solution. R  5.
57. B; 1
Fifteen minus three times a number equals negative twenty-two. 64. Step 1 4.91  7.2t  38.75
4243 123 123 123 14243 123 14444244443
15  3  n  22 4.91  7.2t  38.75  38.75  38.75
or 15  3n  22 7.2t  33.84  0
3
58. D; 5
a  19  16 Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.
3
5
a  19  19  16  19 Step 3 Enter 7.2 ALPHA T 33.84.
3 ALPHA
a  3 Step 4 Press [SOLVE] to reveal the

1 2  53 (3)
5
5 3 solution. T  4.7.
3 5
a
a  5
59. Step 1 0  11y  33 Page 148 Maintain Your Skills
65. 7t  91
Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve. 7t 91
7
 7
Step 3Enter 11 ALPHA Y  33.
t  13
Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the Check: 7t  91
solution. Y  3. ?
w  2
40 7(13)  91
60. Step 1 5 91  91 ✓
Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve. The solution is 13.
r
Step 3 Enter ( ALPHA W  2 ) ⫼ 66.  8

1 2  15(8)
15
r
5
4. 15 15

Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the r  120


r
solution. W  18. Check: 15
 8
h 120 ?
61. Step 1 6  12  7  8
15
6  6  12 
h
6 8  8 ✓
7
h The solution is 120.
0  18  7

Step 2 Press and choose 0, for solve.


Step 3 Enter ( ) 18 ALPHA H ⫼ ( )
7.
Step 4 Press ALPHA [SOLVE] to reveal the
solution. H  126.

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2 1 3a  16
67. 3b  1 2 75.  (3a  16)  4

114 2
4
2 3
3b  2  (3a  16)
3 2
2 3 b 1 2 3
 2 2
3
1 2  3a 1 4 2  16 1 4 2
1 1

9
b4 3
 4a  4
1
b  24 76.
15t  25
 (15t  25)  (5)

1 12
5
2 1
Check: 3b  1 2  (15t  25) 5
2 1 ?
3 2 4  1 2
1
1 2  15t 1 5 2  25 1 5 2
1 1
1 1
1 2  1 2 ✓  3t  (5)
1
The solution is 2 4.  3t  5
77. 17  9  17(10  1)
68. Words: The number of models in 1990 plus 18
 17(10)  17(1)
equals the number of models in 2000.
 170  17
Variable: Let m  the number of models in 1990.  153
The number of the number of
models in 1990 1
plus
78. 13(101)  13(100  1)
23 18 equals models in 2000.
1442443 { 123 1442443
 13(100)  13(1)
Equation: m  18  47  1300  13
The equation is m  18  47.  1313
69. Solve m  18  47.
1 12
79. 16 1 4  16 1  4 1 1
2
114 2
m  18  47
m  18  18  47  18  16(1)  16
m  29
 16  4
There were 29 models in 1990.  20
70. There are two numbers divisible by 3, and there
1 12
80. 18 2 9  18 2  9 1 1
2
119 2
are 8  2 or 6 numbers not divisible by 3.
odds of divisible by 3  6
2  18(2)  18

3
1  36  2
 38
The odds of spinning a number divisible by 3
81. the product
14444244443 of 5 and m, 1
plus
23 half
142of
43n
are 1:3.
1
71. There are four numbers equal to or greater than 5m  2
n
5, and there are 8  4 or 4 numbers less than 5. n
Thus, the algebraic expression is 5m  2 .
4
odds of equal to or greater than 5  4 82. the quantity 3 plus b 14243
14444244443 divided by {y
1
 1 (3  b)  y
The odds of spinning a number equal to or greater Thus, the algebraic expression is (3  b)  y.
than 5 are 1:1. 83. {
3 times a 1
plus
123 { 23 the
144 square
4244of 43b
72. There are six numbers less than 7, and there are
3  a  b2
8  6 or 2 numbers not less than 7.
6 Thus, the algebraic expression is 3a  b2.
odds of less than 7  2
84. 5d  2d  (5  2)d 85. 11m  5m  (11  5)m
3
1  3d  6m
The odds of spinning a number less than 7 86. 8t  6t  (8  6)t 87. 7g  15g  (7  15)g
are 3:1.  14t  8g
6 6 1 88. 9f  6f  (9  6)f
73. 7  3  7  3
 3f
6
 21 89. 3m  (7m)  [3  (7)]m

2
7  10m
2
3 2
74. 38
8
2 1
 38
2
 24
1
 12

Chapter 3 90
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3 1 1 3
Solving Equations with the Check:  4t  2t  4

1 12 11 12 2  34
8
3-5 ? 1
Variable on Each Side 3
8
1
 4 12 2
3 3 ? 3 3
8
8 4 4
Pages 151–152 Check for Understanding
1a. Incorrect; the 2 must be distributed over both g 00✓
1
and 5. The solution is 1 2.
2(g  5)  22 7. 3(a  5)  6
2g  10  22 3a  15  6
2g  10  10  22  10 3a  15  15  6  15
2g  12 3a  9
2g 12
2
 2
3a
3
9
3
g6 a3
The solution is 6. Check: 3(a  5)  6
?
1b. correct 3(3  5)  6
?
1c. Incorrect; to eliminate 6z on the left side of the 3(2)  6
equals sign, 6z must be added to each side of the 6  6 ✓
equation. The solution is 3.
6z  13  7z 8. 7  3r  r  4(2  r)
6z  13  6z  7z  6z 7  3r  r  8  4r
13  13z 7  3r  8  3r
13 13z
13
 13
7  3r  3r  8  3r  3r
1z 7  8
The solution is 1. Since 7  8 is a false statement, this equation
has no solution.
2. If both sides of the equation are always equal, the
equation is an identity. 9. 6  3  5(d  2)
6  3  5d  10
3. Sample answer: 2x  5  2x  5
6  5d  7
4a. Subtract 6n from each side. 6  7  5d  7  7
4b. Simplify. 13  5d
4c. Add 13 to each side. 13

5d
5 5
4d. Simplify.
2.6  d
4e. Divide each side by 2.
Check: 6  3  5(d  2)
4f. Simplify. ?
6  3  5(2.6  2)
5. 20c  5  5c  65 ?
6  3  5(0.6)
20c  5  5c  5c  65  5c ?
15c  5  65 633
15c  5  5  65  5 66✓
15c  60 The solution is 2.6.
c  1 c
15c
 15
60 10. 4

1 2  814c 2
15 8
c  1
c4 8 8
Check: 20c  5  5c  65 c  1  2c
?
20(4)  5  5(4)  65 c  1  c  2c  c
?
80  5  20  65 1c
85  85 ✓ c  1 c
Check: 8
4
The solution is 4. 1  1 ? 1
3 1 1 3 8
4
6. 8
 4t  2t  4 2 ? 1
3 1 1 1 3 1 8
4
8
 4t  2t  2t  4  2t 1 1
3 3 3 4
4 ✓
8
 4t  4
The solution is 1.
3 3 3 3 3
8
 4t  8  4  8 11. 5h  7  5(h  2)  3
3
4t  8
9 5h  7  5h  10  3

1 2  43 198 2
5h  7  5h  7
4 3
3 4 t Since the expressions on each side of the equation
t2
3 are the same, this equation is an identity. The
1
statement 5h  7  5(h  2)  3 is true for all
t  12 values of h.

91 Chapter 3
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12. 5.4w  8.2  9.8w  2.8 Exercises 16–39 For checks, see students’ work.
5.4w  8.2  9.8w  9.8w  2.8  9.8w 16. 3  4q  10q  10
8.2  4.4w  2.8 3  4q  10q  10q  10  10q
8.2  4.4w  8.2  2.8  8.2 3  14q  10
4.4w  11 3  14q  3  10  3
4.4w 11 14q  7
4.4
 4.4
14q 7
w  2.5 14
 14
Check: 5.4w  8.2  9.8w  2.8 1
q  2 or 0.5
?
5.4(2.5)  8.2  9.8(2.5)  2.8 17. 3k  5  7k  21
?
13.5  8.2  24.5  2.8 3k  5  7k  7k  21  7k
21.7  21.7 ✓ 4k  5  21
The solution is 2.5. 4k  5  5  21  5
13. D; Solve by substitution. 4k  16
4k 16
A 75  9t  5(4  2t) 4
 4
?
75  9(5)  5[4  2(5)] k4
?
75  (45)  5[4  (10)] 18. 5t  9  3t  7
?
75  45  5[14] 5t  9  3t  3t  7  3t
120  70 8t  9  7
B 75  9t  5(4  2t) 8t  9  9  7  9
?
75  9(4)  5[4  2(4)] 8t  16
? 8t 16
75  (36)  5[4  (8)] 8
 8
?
75  36  5[12] t2
111  60 19. 8s  9  7s  6
C 75  9t  5(4  2t) 8s  9  7s  7s  6  7s
?
75  9(4)  5[4  2(4)] s96
?
75  36  5[4  8] s9969
? s  3
39  5[4] 3 1
39  20 20. 4
n  16  2  8n
D 75  9t  5(4  2t) 3
n
1
 16  8n  2  8n  8n
1 1
? 4
75  9(5)  5[4  2(5)] 7
? n  16  2
75  45  5[4  10] 8
7
?
30  5[6] 8
n  16  16  2  16
30  30 ✓ 7
n  14

1 2  87 1142
8
The answer is D. 8 7
7 8
n
n  16
1 2 3 1
Pages 152–154 Practice and Apply 21. 4
 3y  4  3y
14a. Multiply each side by 10. 1 2 1 3 1 1
4
 3y  3y  4  3y  3y
14b. Simplify.
1 1 3
14c. Distributive Property 4
 3y 4
1 1 1 3 1
14d. Add 4 to each side.
4
 3y  4 44
14e. Simplify. 1 1
3y 2

1 2  3112 2
14f. Divide each side by 6.
1
14g. Simplify. 3 3y
3
15a. Subtract v from each side. y  2
15b. Simplify. y  1 2
1

15c. Subtract 9 from each side.


22. 8  4(3c  5)
15d. Simplify. 8  12c  20
15e. Divide each side by 6. 8  20  12c  20  20
15f. Simplify. 12  12c
12 12c
12
 12
1  c

Chapter 3 92
23. 7(m  3)  7 30.
3
y  y  4  2y
1
2
7m  21  7 1 1
7m  21  21  7  21 2
y  4  2y
7m  28 1
y 
1
y
1
 4  2y  2y
1
7m 28 2 2
7
 7 04
m4 Since 0  4 is a false statement, this equation has
24. 6(r  2)  4  10 no solution.
6r  12  4  10 31.
2
3  5b  11  5b
2
6r  8  10
2 2 2 2
6r  8  8  10  8 3  5b  5b  11  5b  5b
6r  18 4
3  5b  11
6r 18
 4
6 6 3  5b  3  11  3
r  3 4
b 8

1 2  54(8)
1
25. 5  2 (x  6)  4 5
5 4
1 b
5  2x  3  4 4 5

1
b  10
2x  8  4 1 g
32. 4
(7  3g)  8
1
2x 8848 7 3 g
4
 4g  8
1
2x  4

1 2  2(4)
7 3 g g g
4
 4g  8  8  8
1
2 2x 7 7
4
 8g 0
x8 7 7 7 7
26. 4(2a  1)  10(a  5) 4
 8g  4 04
8a  4  10a  50 7
g  4
7

1 2  87 174 2
8
8a  4  10a  10a  50  10a 8 7
18a  4  50 7 8
g
18a  4  4  50  4 g  2
18a  54 1 1
33. 6
(a  4)  3(2a  4)
18a 54
18
 18 1 2 2 4
6
a3  3a  3
a3
1 2 2 2 4 2
27. 4(f  2)  4f 6
a  3  3a  3a  3  3a
4f  8  4f 1
2a  3
2
3
4

4f  8  4f  4f  4f 1 2 2 4 2
8  0 2a  3  3 33
Since 8  0 is a false statement, this equation 1
2a 2

1 2  2(2)
has no solution. 1
2 2a
28. 3(1  d)  5  3d  2
3  3d  5  3d  2 a  4
3d  2  3d  2 34. 28  2.2x  11.6x  262.6
Since the expressions on each side of the equation 28  2.2x  11.6x  11.6x  262.6  11.6x
are the same, this equation is an identity. The 28  13.8x  262.6
statement 3(1  d)  5  3d  2 is true for all 28  13.8x  28  262.6  28
values of d. 13.8x  234.6
13.8x 234.6
29. 2(w  3)  5  3(w  1) 13.8
 13.8
2w  6  5  3w  3
x  17
2w  1  3w  3
2w  1  3w  3w  3  3w 35. 1.03p  4  2.15p  8.72
w  1  3 1.03p  4  2.15p  2.15p  8.72  2.15p
w  1  1  3  1 3.18p  4  8.72
w  2 3.18p  4  4  8.72  4
w 2
3.18p  12.72
1
 1 3.18p 12.72
3.18
 3.18
w2
p4

93 Chapter 3
36. 18  3.8t  7.36  1.9t 2(n  2)  3n  13
18  3.8t  1.9t  7.36  1.9t  1.9t 2n  4  3n  13
18  1.9t  7.36 2n  4  3n  3n  13  3n
18  1.9t  18  7.36  18 n  4  13
1.9t  10.64 n  4  4  13  4
1.9t

10.64 n  17
1.9 1.9 n 17
t  5.6 1
 1

37. 13.7v  6.5  2.3v  8.3 n  17


13.7v  6.5  2.3v  2.3v  8.3  2.3v n  2  17  2 or 19
16v  6.5  8.3 The consecutive odd integers are 17 and 19.
16v  6.5  6.5  8.3  6.5 43. Let n  the least even integer.
16v  14.8 Then n  2  the next greater even integer, and
16v 14.8
16
 16
n  4  the greatest of the three even integers.
v  0.925 Three
123 times
123 the
14 greatest
4244 equals twice
3 123