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confidence interval for a sample drawn from a normal population of known variance.

Calculating any confidence interval.

2. 2. Lesson 1 - Example Question I The heights of the 1320 lower school students at Poole

High School are normally distributed with mean μ and with a standard deviation of 10cm.

A sample of size 25 is taken and the mean height of the sample is found to be 161cm. a.)

Find the 95% confidence interval for the height of the students. b.) If 200 samples of size

25 are taken with a 95% confidence interval being calculated for each sample, find the

expected number of intervals that do not contain μ , the population mean.

3. 3. Lesson 1 - Example Question II The masses of sweets produced by a machine are

normally distributed with a standard deviation of 0.5 grams. A sample of 50 sweets has a

mean mass of 15.21 grams. a.) Find a 99% confidence interval for μ , the mean mass of

all sweets produced by the machine correct to 2dp. b.) The manufacturer of the machine

claims that is produces sweets with a mean mass of 15 grams, state whether the

confidence interval supports this claim. Source: Page 48 of Statistics 3 by Jane Miller

4. 4. Commonly used z – values for Confidence Intervals 2.576 99% 2.326 98% 1.96 95%

1.645 90% z Confidence Interval

5. 5. Generalisation: Sample from a Normal Population A 100(1 – α )% confidence interval

of the population mean for a sample of size n taken from a normal population with

variance σ 2 is given by where x is the sample mean and the value of z is such that Ф (z)

=1–½α.

6. 6. Practice Questions Statistics 3 and 4 by Jane Miller Page 50, Exercise 3A Question 1

onwards

7. 7. Statistics 3 Confidence Intervals and the t - Distribution - Lesson 2 - <ul><li>Key

Learning Points/Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>The central limit theorem (S2)

</li></ul><ul><li>Unbiased estimate of the population variance (S2).

</li></ul><ul><li>Calculating the confidence interval for a large sample. </li></ul>

8. 8. Unbiased Estimate of the Population Variance Given a sample of size n (n large) from

a population of which the variance is unknown, we estimate the population variance s 2

as detailed below:

9. 9. Generalisation: Large Sample for any Population Given a large sample (n>30) from

any population, a 100(1 – α )% confidence interval of the population mean is given by

where x is the sample mean and the value of z is such that Ф (z) = 1 – ½ α .

10. 10. Lesson 2 - Example Question On 1 st September, 100 new light bulbs were installed

in a building, together with a device that detailed for how long each light bulb was used.

By 1 st March, all 100 light bulbs had failed. The data for the recorded lifetimes, t (in

hours of use), are summarised by Σ t = 10500 and Σ t 2 = 1712500. Assuming that the

bulbs constituted a random sample, obtain a symmetric 99% confidence interval for the

mean lifetime of the light bulbs, giving your answer correct to the nearest hour. Source:

Page 48 of Statistics 3 by Jane Miller

11. 11. Practice Questions Statistics 3 and 4 by Jane Miller Page 50, Exercise 3B Question 1

onwards

12. 12. Statistics 3 Confidence Intervals and the t - Distribution - Lesson 3 - <ul><li>Key

Learning Points/Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation and variance of the

binomial distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions for normal approximation to the

binomial. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculating the approximate confidence interval for a

population proportion from a large sample. </li></ul>

13. 13. Lesson 3 - Example Question You are the manufacturer of tin openers to be used

specifically by left handed people. A random sample of 500 people finds that 60 of them

are left handed. What is the 95% confidence interval for this estimate of the proportion of

people who are left handed? Source: Page 55 of Statistics 3 by Jane Miller

14. 14. Generalisation: Confidence Interval for a Proportion Given a large random sample of

size n from a population in which a proportion of members p has a particular attribute,

the approximate confidence interval is given by:

15. 15. Practice Questions Statistics 3 and 4 by Jane Miller Page 50, Exercise 3C Question 3

onwards

16. 16. Statistics 3 Confidence Intervals and the t - Distribution - Lesson 4 - <ul><li>Key

Learning Points/Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Use flow chart to help decide when to

use either the t or z distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>The t – distribution.

</li></ul><ul><li>Calculating the confidence interval for a small sample drawn from a

normal population of unknown variance. </li></ul>

17. 17. Source: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Student_densite_best.JPG

18. 18. Lesson 4 - Example Question Ten university physics students independently

conducted experiments to determine the value of g . They obtained the following results:

9.812 9.807 9.804 9.805 9.812 9.808 9.807 9.814 9.809 9.807 Calculate the 95%

confidence limits for g , stating any assumptions made. Source: Page 105 of Statistics 2

by M E M Jones

19. 20. Theory For a random sample from a normal population with mean μ , the variable has

a t distribution with ν degrees of freedom, where ν = n – 1. That is,

20. 21. Generalisation: t-distribution Given a sample from a normal population of unknown

variance, a 100(1 – α )% confidence interval for the population mean is given by where x

is the sample mean and the value of t is such that P(T ≤ t) = 1 – ½ α for ν = n – 1 degrees

of freedom.

21. 22. Practice Questions Statistics 3 and 4 by Jane Miller Page 62, Exercise 3D Question 2

onwards

22. 23. Statistics 3 Confidence Intervals and the t - Distribution - Lesson 5 - <ul><li>Key

Learning Points/Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis test on the population mean

for a small sample from a normal population. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortened name: t-Test.

</li></ul>

23. 24. Lesson 5 - Example Question The weights of eggs laid by a hen when fed on ordinary

corn are known to be normally distributed with a mean of 32kg. When a hen was fed on a

diet of vitamin enriched corn a random sample of 10 eggs was weighed and the following

results (in grams) were recorded: 31, 33, 34, 35, 35, 36, 32, 31, 36, 37 Test, using a 5%

significance level, the claim that the new diet has increased the mean weight of eggs laid

by the hen by more than 1g. Source: Page 152 or Statistics2 by MEM Junes

24. 25. Practice Questions Statistics 3 and 4 by Jane Miller Page 67, Exercise 3E Question 1

onwards

25. 26. Statistics 3 Confidence Intervals and the t - Distribution - Lesson 6 - <ul><li>Key

Learning Points/Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed questions on Confidence

Intervals and the t-Distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind map to summarise key learning

points. </li></ul>

26. 27. Practice Questions Statistics 3 and 4 by Jane Miller Page 687, Miscellaneous Exercise

3 Questions 1, 3, 6 and 9 (first part only)

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