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………………………….2 2.2History………………………………………………… ………………..2 3. Components competency………………………………………………………3 of Contents
3.1 Knowledge…………………………………………………………….. .4 3.2 Skill……………………………………………………………………. .4 3.3 Attitude………………………………………………………………… 4 3.4 Who Identifies Competencies? …………………………………………5 3.5 Behavior Indicators……………………………………………………..6 4. Reasons for Competency Mapping of
5. Classification Competencies…………………………………………………...7
5.1Types of Basic Competencies…………………………………………..7 5.2 Type of Professional Competencies…………………………………….8 6. Types of Organizational Competencies…………………………………………….9
6.1 Generic Competencies…………………………………………………...9 6.2 Managerial Competencies……………………………………………….11 6.3 Functional/ Technical Competencies……………………………………12 7. Competency Mapping……………………………………………………………… 13 7.1 Definition……………………………………………………………… …13 7.2 Process………………………………………………………………… …13 8. Need for Competency Mapping………………………………………………………..14 9. Areas of Implementation……………………………………………………… ……….16
1 Recruitment Selection……………………………………………….17 and and ii .16 9..9..2 Training Development……………………………………………….
22 11.1 For the company……………………………………………………….19 9. Advantages of Competency Mapping………………………………………………….2 For managers…………………………………………………………..8.5 Performance Management System……………………………………….19 9.4 Traditional Job Analysis versus Competency Approach………………20 10..18 9...1 iii .20 9.18 8.3 Career and succession planning…………………………………………. Model of Competency Mapping……………………………………………………….19 9..4 Rewards and Recognition………………………………………………. Disadvantages of Competency Mapping………………………………………………21 11.17 8.3 For employees………………………………………………………….
2 Developing the model……………………………………………….22 11.6 Work Logs………………………………………………….2 Focus Groups……………………………………………….28 11.3. Process of Competency Mapping………………………………………………………30 iii .3.3.29 11..29 12.3 Behavioral Event Interviews……………………………….Definition……………………………………………………… ……....7 360 degree feedback………………………………………..3 Data Collection Methods…………………………………………….27 11...3.27 11.3.27 11.1 Literature Review………………………………………….4 Surveys………………………………………………… ….3...28 11.5 Observations…………………………………………… ….......28 11.3.22 11.
3 Collection of Responses……………………………………………..1 Laying Down Of Objectives…………………………………………...5 Findings………………………………………………………… ……33 13.34 Ready-mix Concrete Ambuja 14.2 Preparation of The Questionnaire…………………………………….1 The Opportunity Algorithm………………………………...32 12.37 iii . Competency Mapping at Cement……………………………………………...4.4 Analysis …………………………………………………………….31 12.36 15. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… ……………….31 12.32 12.12..32 12. Competency Mapping at Company…………………………….
.38 iii .References……………………………………………………… ……...………….
1 11. 3..2 12.2 7.1 8.15 Mapping……………………16 Organization Competency Model…….3 competency………………………….1 3.1 11. Page No.5 Competency Competency Wide Mapping……………………………………….1 Areas Stages Components Iceberg Need of In Model of for Implementation Developing An of components of of Competency…………………………………………….List of Figures S.24 Figure iv .No.23 Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping Process of Competency model……………..
Mapping………………………………………30 13.35 iv .2 Hierarchy defining Organization various Chart……………………………………………………..34 designations……………………………….1 13.
List of Tables S.No.1 ………………………………………………8 9. Page 4.1 Approach………………………20 Job Analysis versus Competency Basic Competencies Table v .
Large organizations frequently employ some form of competency mapping to understand how to most effectively employ the competencies of strengths of workers. Competency Mapping\Introduction 1 . Introduction Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one’s strengths as an individual worker and in some cases. when one is ready to do the work. These kinds of skills can be determined. leadership. Competency mapping can also be done for contract or freelance workers.1. as part of an organization. and decisionmaking. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ). They may also use competency mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in different workers to produce the most effective teams and the highest quality work. and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure. or for those seeking employment to emphasize the specific skills which would make them valuable to a potential employer.
Discover Your Strengths by Marcus Buckingham and Donald Clifton. initially published in 2001. Competency mapping alone may not produce accurate results unless one is able to detach from the results in analyzing past successes and failures. having the person sift through past work experiences. and others like it. practice competency mapping through testing.by using numerous books on the subject. and analysis. However. One of the most popular ones is Now. the disadvantage to using a book alone is that most people may have a few blind spots when they analyze their own competency. Competency mapping also requires some thought. and some people simply may not want to do the work involved to sufficiently map competencies. Many studies find that people Competency Mapping\Introduction 1 . Thus a book like the above is often used with a human resources team. time. Buckingham and Clifton’s book. Their perception of how others react to them may not be accurate. or with a job coach or talented headhunter. and by analyzing learning types.
In other cases. When individuals must seek new jobs. especially when conducted by Competency Mapping\Introduction 1 . Alternately.often The overestimate value their abilities. or finding a department at one’s current work where one's strengths or needs as a worker can be exercised. Sometimes an area where strengths are not present is worth developing. making self- competency mapping results dubious. They may need to hire someone who can be an effective time leader or who has demonstrated great active listening skills. competency mapping can indicate finding work that is suited to one’s strengths. knowing one’s competencies can give one a competitive edge in the job market. they may need someone who enjoys taking initiative or someone who is very good at taking direction. A problem with competency mapping. of competency mapping and identifying emotional strengths is that many employers now purposefully screen employees to hire people with specific competencies. Usually. a person will find themselves with strengths in about five to six areas.
Ongoing and unrelenting economic. social and technological changes have spurred the need for flexible. skilled workers who can help their organizations succeed and sustain a competitive advantage. workplace learning and performance professionals must continually reassess their competencies. then it can be of little short-term benefit and may actually result in greater unhappiness on the part of individual employees. To be relevant within organizations and indispensable to clients and customers alike. There is no Competency Mapping\Introduction 1 . A person identified as needing to learn new things in order to remain happy might find himself or herself in a position where no new training is ever required. competency mapping may be of little use. update their skills and have the courage to make necessary changes. Businesses and managing business has and will always be complex. If the employer cannot provide a position for an employee that fits him or her better. If the company does not respond to competency mapping by reorganizing its employees.an organization is that there may be no room for an individual to work in a field that would best make use of his or her competencies.
It also discusses how to develop customized competency models based on the management Competency Mapping\Introduction 1 . The report presents the meaning and history of competency approach in the first section. yet without trivializing the need to sustain and drive a motivated high performing workforce. The next section analyses how competency frameworks can be designed developed and implemented. Further the report discusses the meaning of competency mapping and also defines the competency map. techniques and methods. In the following sections the components and types of competencies have been covered. The company’s need to sustain in a competitive environment. gave rise to the need to understand and learn to establish the context of competency mapping. This report gives an overview of the competency mapping. The section that follows discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of competency mapping.denying the need to perform through a combination of utilizing predictive or forecasting tools. The role of competencies in an organization as a vital tool for recruitment. selection and retention and the areas of application are discussed in the trailing section.
philosophy. and existing processes of the organization. The report also reveals the results of Industrial visits to Ambuja Cement Ltd. customer needs. Competency Mapping\Introduction 1 . In this section the procedures followed by the respective organizations have been discussed and the stage of implementation of competency mapping has been analyzed and presented for both the organizations. and Ready Concrete Mix Ltd.
When the competency required for a particular position is mapped. With the job profile well defined. Too often. The candidate who applies for the position is aware of what the position demands. recruiting and retaining the right people.Competency 2.2. Competency mapping plays a vital role in selecting. an accurate job profile is created. ambiguity about the roles desired by the company and the expectations carried by the new employee is a cause of disappointment for both the employee and employer after the Competency Mapping\Competency 2 .1 Definition Competency can be defined as the process of identifying key attributes and skills for each position and process within the company. Competency mapping is of great importance in any organization. This increases the chances of retention as the new employee and the company know what to expect from each other. The interviewers who interview the candidate are sure of what to look for in him. the entire recruitment process becomes easier.
There is not a standard competency mapping process that will work in all situations and in all companies. However. customers. Once the employee has entered the organization. Clarity is required in matters of organizational goals and strategies and core competency.employee joins the company. money and effort. Experts suggest that each company must develop a model that is unique to itself. goals etc. This requires the backing of the top management. a competency mapping exercise that is done well is a great asset for the company. This model must bear in mind its strategy. In spite of the investment involved. training and appraisal are made more effective and meaningful when they are based on a concrete and comprehensive competency mapping. Most of the activities of the HR department such as recruitment. A Human resources Policy that is founded on competency is considered to be the best HR policy. it is natural for the Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . In involves investment in terms of time. competency mapping as an exercise is expensive.
This enables the employee to align his efforts in the direction of the company’s requirement.employee to want to ascend the corporate ladder. As the skills and qualities required for each position in the hierarchy is clearly defined. employees who seek growth are aware of what is expected of them. Apart from recruiting and promotion. A combination of knowledge. Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . It also brings a degree of transparency to the whole process and motivates the employees. It also gives direction to the training machinery within the organization as the training programs will be better suited to meet the employees’ needs. skills. competency mapping is a great development tool for the employee. It assesses the inherent strengths and weakness of the individual and helps him develop himself. attitude and personality of an individual as applied to a role or job in the context of the present and future environment that accounts for sustained success within the framework of Organizational Values.
Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. skills. traits. having the ability to perform a specific role. motives. and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and emotional intelligence. Attributes include: personal characteristics. It encompasses a combination of knowledge. For instance. and skills in influence Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . More generally. and attributes (more historically called “KSA’s”) that are described in terms of specific behaviors. Success factors are combinations of knowledge. values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior. skills and behavior utilized to improve performance. competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified.
and negotiation. which means that a person shows in action that that person is competent. In the military the training system for this kind of competence is called artificial experience. a skill. Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . or an ability. Competence is also used to work with more general descriptions of the requirements of human beings in organizations and communities. A person possesses a competence as long as the skills. Therefore. which is the basis for all simulators. enabling the person to perform effective action within a certain workplace environment. An important detail of this approach is that all competences have to be action competences. Examples are educations and other organizations that want to have a general language to tell what a graduate of an education must be able to do in order to graduate or what a member of an organization is required to be able to do in order to be considered competent. abilities. one might not lose knowledge. but still lose a competence if what is needed to do a job well changes. and knowledge that constitute that competence are a part of that person.
and the organizational and occupational literature Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . To be competent a person needs to be able to interpret the situation in the context and to have a repertoire of possible actions to take and have trained in the possible actions in the repertoire. competent people will react to the situation following behaviors they have previously found to succeed. Regardless of training. However. The concept of competence has different meanings. and continues to remain one of the most diffuse terms in the management development sector. competence grows through experience and the extent of an individual to learn and adapt. In emergency contexts. if this is relevant.General definition Competence is shown in action in a situation and context that might be different the next time a person has to act. there has been much discussion among academics about the issue of definitions. hopefully to good effect.
professional competence. for example.General competence Within a specific organization or professional community. or earn a promotion. But today there is another way of looking at it: that there are general areas of occupational competence required to retain a post. For a university student. the primary tasks could be: Handling theory Handling methods Handling the information of the assignment The four general areas of competence are: Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . For all organizations and communities there is a set of primary tasks that competent people have to contribute to all the time. is frequently valued. They are usually the same competencies that must be demonstrated in a job interview.
Relation Competence: The ability to create and nurture connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks must be shown. Learning Competence: The person assessed must be able to create and look for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to complete the primary tasks and reflect on the experience. Meaning Competence: The person assessed must be able to identify with the purpose of the organization or community and act from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community. Change Competence: The person assessed must be able to act in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life. 4.1. 3. Occupational Competence Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . 2.
e. Thus.The Occupational Competence movement was initiated by David McClelland in the 1960s with a view to moving away from traditional attempts to describe competence in terms of knowledge. skills and attitudes and to focus instead on the specific self-image. relatively enduring characteristics of people) that are found to consistently distinguish outstanding from typical performance in a given job or role. and workplaces. schools. there have been important developments in research relating to the nature. and that there is a limited number of competences that predict outstanding performance in any given job or role. Nevertheless. It should be noted that different competences predict outstanding performance in different roles. Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . as can be seen from Raven and Stephenson. values. and assessment of high-level competencies in homes. a trait that is a "competence" for one job might not predict outstanding performance in a different role. traits. development. and motive dispositions (i.
A competency model refers to a group of competencies required in a particular job and usually number 7 to 9 in total. select and manage their outstanding performers after Dr David McClelland. More recent research by individuals such as Daniel Goleman in Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . did not predict success in the job. The number and type of competencies in a model will depend upon the nature and complexity of work along with the culture and values of the organisation in which the work takes place. found that traditional tests such as academic aptitude and knowledge tests. Harvard Business School Professor of Psychology.Competency model Competencies are characteristics which drive outstanding performance in a given job. Since the early 70’s. role or function. leading organizations have been using competencies to help recruit.
attitudes and skills needed to be developed in education. A competence model. in The Competent Manager. have reinforced and emphasised the importance of competencies as essential predictors of outstanding performance.2History A team of Educationists lead by Benjamin Bloom in the USA in mid fifties laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives and thereby defining the knowledge. His classic books on "Talent and Society".Emotional Intelligence and Richard Boyatzis. "The Achieving Society". also known as a competency framework. 2. uses the five competences described earlier. "Motivating Economic Achievement" and "Power the Inner Experience" brought out several Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . Together these tasks reflect the purpose of the job. David McClelland the famous Harvard Psychologist has pioneered the competency movement across the world. "Achievement Motive". These will support the primary tasks and the job specific tasks.
They even developed a new and yet simple methodology called the Behavior Event Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies. These competencies exposed by McClelland dealt with the affective domain in Bloom's terminology. Latter McBer a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland and his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of entrepreneurs and managers across the world. Competency Mapping\Competency 2 . The turning point for competency movement is the article published in American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland. wherein he presented that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure them using a variety of tests.new dimensions of the competencies.
Components of Competency Competency has three major components which are as follows: Knowledge Skills Attitude 0100090000037800000002001c0000000000040000000301080005 0000000b0200000000050000000c025e13751e040000002e011800 1c000000fb021000070000000000bc020000000001020222537973 74656d0013751e000067af0000ac5d120004ee8339e04e1c000c020 000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb0238ff0000 000000009001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d 616e0000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010100 050000000902000000020d000000320ab800000001000400000000 Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 3 .3.
Figure 3.1 : Components of Competency Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 3 .
and is.3. rationale and background to allow us to tackle a task and gives us the ability to make appropriate decisions regarding next steps. Knowledge ensures that skills are applied in the right fashion. knowledge comprises many factors like memory. the more accurate our prediction. Knowledge is something that we acquire and store intellectually. plan. which allows us to specify the outcome. evaluate and measure. numerical ability. We design theoretical approaches based on our knowledge. It comes from learning or experience and it is held in our minds as a resource that we can tap into. Our knowledge provides the necessary theory. Knowledge allows us to understand. a complex competency. analyze. linguistic ability. The greater our knowledge. therefore. It can be either: Scientific Knowledge Technical Knowledge Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4 .1 Knowledge: It refers to the information a person possesses about specific areas.
Skill is our ability to “do” . "active listening" skill in an interview. either covert (e. Skills can be learned. the greater our ability is to see the objective brought to fruition.it is practical. They are demonstrated abilities or proficiencies. Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4 . Conviction and passion are the spark or initiative – it is skill that sustains the effort. This is the procedural "know how" knowledge (what one can do). It represents intelligent application of knowledge. Skill allows us to achieve. practiced and then stored away to be called upon when required. it produces results and consequences.g. and tools. create. experience. Job Knowledge 3.g. deductive or inductive reasoning) or observable e. accomplish and deliver..2 Skill: Skill on the other hand is the talent we have that enables us to execute what is in our minds. The greater our skill level. which are developed and learned from past work and life experience.
but never arrive. 3. Attitudes determine the kind of things we choose and whether we are likely to approach a particular situation or not or whether we Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4 . he is not likely to use the ERP or SAP. For example attitude to a particular occupation or type of machine or a particular technology all influence our behavior. groups.3 Attitudes: Attitudes are predispositions to other individuals. If he is not positive about the uses of ERP or SAP.If your knowledge is faulty and your skill is high. If a person does not have a positive attitude to computers or IT. To drive competency requires a continuing investment in effective training. The combination of knowledge and skill provides competency. you need to be both knowledgeable and skillful. If your knowledge is high and your skill is weak. events. situations. he is not likely to use a computer. then you will go brilliantly along the wrong path. skill walks the path. When individuals are competent then they are able to do the job the way it is intended to be done. then you may go limpingly and haltingly in the correct direction. To achieve the highest results. Knowledge points the way. objects. issues. etc.
are open to try out the technology or meet the customer or sell a particular product with high motivation. situation. A positive attitude makes us to treat that object. or event—this is often referred to as the attitude object. characteristics of people. trait and motive competencies Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4 . Attitudes decide our approach or avoidance behavior. They are normally conceptualized as positive or negative. place. etc. Knowledge and skills tend to be visible and relatively surface. But attitude. An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item. thing. method. technology. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person. and person or group more positively and therefore we appreciate it and promote the same. meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question.
are more hidden “deeper” and central to personality. Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4 .
Surface knowledge and skills are relatively easy to develop. But core motive and trait competencies are at the base of the personality and are more difficult to assess and develop. This has been depicted below in the form of an iceberg model.
Figure 3.2: Model of components of competency
3.4 Who Identifies competencies? Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of people: Experts
Competency Mapping\Components of Competency
HR Specialists Job analysts Psychologists Industrial Engineers etc.
In consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role.
Competency Mapping\Components of Competency
3.5 Behavior Indicators A Competency is described in terms of key behaviors that enables recognition of that competency at the work place. These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on-the-job much more consistently than average or poor performers. These characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in that they include the key behaviors that primarily drive excellent performance. Following are some key behavior indicators in an employee: • Independently researches for information and solutions to issues • Ability to know what needs to be done or find out (research) and take steps to get it done • Ask questions when not sure of what the problem is or to gain more information. • Able to identify the underlying or main problem. • Shows willingness to experiment with new things.
Competency Mapping\Components of Competency
• Develops a list of decision making guidelines to help arrive at logical solutions. Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6 .
Key performance areas can be improved by understanding the fields where there is a gap between the actual and the desired results. 3.4. If the competencies are determined for the given job. then the person whose career panning phase is taking place can consider those competencies and can be ready for the same. 4. Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6 . Once the competencies are determined. proper training can be provided to the individuals to work more efficiently on the processes. 2. Through competency mapping.Reasons for Competency Mapping Competency Mapping is excessively used in the organization to determine the crucial elements and activities. The basic reasons due to which the mapping of the competencies is done are as follows: 1. the individual is preparing himself for the next set of responsibilities.
Competency mapping plays a crucial role in career planning of the individual in the organization. Competency mapping leads the individual to understand the actual position and the gap from the desired status of work. By overcoming the differences in the desired level and the actual status of performance the individual can feel the increase in the self confidence and the motivation level. 7. Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6 . Competency based approach can lead the individual to derive much efficient results (with more accuracy) as compared to work in a non-competency derived situation. 9.5. 10. 6. Helps the individual to determine the areas where the development is required and thus leads the individual to develop a self development plan. With the help of the competency mapping the individual can alter the style of work where the gap exists. 8.
Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6 .
handling a sales call effectively is a competency that a sales personnel would be required to have. For example.4. Competencies = Basic Competencies + Professional Competencies 4. problem solving is a competency that exists in every individual but in varying degrees. it can be simply said that.Classification of Competencies Competencies can broadly be classified into two categories Basic Competencies Professional Competencies. Basic competencies are inherent in all individuals. and are job related.1 Types of Basic Competencies Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 7 . For example. Hence. Only their degree of existence differs. Professional competencies are over and above the basic competencies.
4. organizations have to identify the critical basic competencies required for individual employees to deliver their best in their organization. The importance of mapping the competencies proves critical for organizational success. Emotional Competencies: Those which determine an individual's emotional quotient. competencies Only differ the from combination individual and to degree individual.The basic competencies encompass the following: 1. Social Competencies: Those that determine the level of social ability in a person. It has been proved by various scholars that all individuals have competencies. 3. of these Hence. Intellectual Competencies: Those which determine the intellectual ability of a person. 2. Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 7 . Motivational Competencies: Those which determine the level of motivation in an individual.
Table 4.2 Types of Professional Competencies: The professional competencies encompass the Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 8 .Motivational Competencies: o Continuous Learning o Perseverance o Achievement Orientation o Time Management Social Competencies: o Team Work o Inter-personal Skills o Responsibility o Customer Satisfaction Intellectual Competencies: o Communication o Creativity o Analytical Ability o Planning and Organizing Emotional Competencies: o Initiative o Optimism o Self Confidence o Leadership o Managing Stress o Managing Change These competencies have been presented below in the form of a grid.1: Basic Competencies 4.
Knowledge Experience Expertise gained by an individual employee. Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 8 .
processing tools.5. 5. Competencies in organizations tend to fall into following broad categories: Generic Competencies Managerial Competencies Functional/Technical Competencies We now delve into greater depths of each of these. linguistic. regardless of their function or level. Types of Organizational Competencies The previous section classified competency as basic competencies and professional competencies. i.1 Generic Competencies Competencies which are considered essential for all staff.e. program execution. etc. Communication. This section analyses the types of competencies in an organization. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 9 .
Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 9 . thoughts and feelings clearly and correctly using oral or written means.focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors). followed by a brief explanation of each of them: Human • Communication • Team Working & Interpersonal Effectiveness • Influencing Ability • Achievement Orientation • Networking Ability Communication: Competency of Communication is defined as the set of human attributes required to communicate ideas. They can be represented as below.
Achievement Orientation: Competency of Achievement orientation is defined as the set of human attributes required to continuously seek and achieve higher goals.Team Working & Interpersonal Effectiveness: Competency of Interpersonal Effectiveness and Team working is defined as the set of human attributes required to impact team or group working to achieve the team objectives. Influencing Ability: Competency of Influencing ability is defined as the set of human attributes required to Impact the outcome of an interaction. Networking Ability: Competency of Networking Ability is defined as the set of human attributes required to maintain contact and relationship with different people from different fields Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 10 .
non-congruence. non-congruence. Tolerance to non-compliance. Strategic Thinking: Competency of Strategic thinking is defined as the set of human attributes required to visualize near and distant future conditions and develop appropriate organizational response. nonconformance is defined as the set of human attributes required to remain unfazed when encountered with unfamiliar and unacceptable Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 10 . Conceptual • Creative Thinking • Strategic Thinking • Tolerance to non-compliance. non-conformance: Competency of Tolerance to non-compliance. non-congruence. non- conformance Creative Thinking: Competency of Creative thinking is defined as the set of human attributes required to generate solutions.
Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 10 .situations.
2 Managerial Competencies Competencies which are considered essential for staff with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any service or program. They are as presented below: • Customer Orientation • Organizing Skills • Cross functional Perspective • Planning Skills • Execution Skills • Analytical Skills • Decision Making • Delegation: • Leadership Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 11 .5.
• Developing and supporting subordinates for effectiveness Customer Orientation: Competency of customer orientation is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand and satisfy customer’s needs and requirements. Planning Skills: Competency of Planning is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand inter relationships and requirements of different activities to be performed to achieve the Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 11 . nurture and troubleshoot organizational processes and relationships for effective delivery of objectives. Organizing Skills: Competency of organizing is defined as the set of human attributes required to establish. Cross functional Perspective: Competency of Cross functional perspective is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand one’s own job in relation with other functions within the organization.
desired objectives. Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 11 .
Leadership: Competency of Leadership is defined as the set of human attributes required to take responsibility for accomplishing the Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 12 .Execution Skills: Competency of Job execution is defined as the set of human attributes required to carry out the assigned activities to the satisfaction of the customer cost effectively. Delegation: Competency of delegation is defined as the set of human attributes required to empower the subordinates for effective operations. Decision Making: Competency of decision making is defined as the set of human attributes required to decide the course of action under any situation. Analytical Skills: Competency of Analytical skills is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand and interpret the data and information.
desired objectives. Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 12 . Business Awareness: Competency of Business Awareness is defined as the set of human attributes required to take business decisions for achieving business objectives.3 Functional/Technical Competencies Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the organization within a defined technical or functional area of work. Developing and supporting subordinates for effectiveness: Competency of Developing and supporting subordinates is defined as the set of human attributes required to enable the subordinates to be effective in the assigned job and contribute to the organization. 5. Business Skills: Competency of Business Skills is defined as the set of human attributes required to effectively perform the functional business processes.
Technical Skills: Competency of Technical Skills is defined as the set of human attributes required to effectively perform the technical responsibilities of the job position. The technical skills have to be primarily assessed through technical interview or written test. Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 12 .
It has to be specific to the user organization. etc.) needed to perform the same successfully. behavioral. It is better to Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . conceptual knowledge. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical. an attitudes.2 Process The competency mapping process does not fit the one-size-fits all formula.6. Process of Competency Mapping 6. 6. skills. leadership. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ). managerial. and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure.1 Introduction Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. and decisionmaking.
develop models that draw from but are not defined by existing research. From that. using behavioural interview methods so that the organization creates a model that reflects its own strategy. and how potential alternative formats for the models may or may not fit the needs of the business. discrete groups or teams. and a 'vertical slice' taking in one whole department or team from top to bottom. and the competencies that bring success in that specific context (including national culture). more or less at the same organizational level. then start there. ideally in two directions-a 'horizontal slice' across the business that takes in a multi-functional or multi-site group. its own customers. Start with small. its own market. and where the pain is being felt. It is advisable to begin with a 'horizontal' slice of the management or Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . It is important to focus on one or two key areas of implementation rather than the whole HRD agenda in one scoop. the organization can learn about the process of competency modelling. So if recruitment and selection or performance management are the key strategic needs of the business.
senior-most team as the benefits will percolate down to the whole organization. categorized and levelled carefully to create models that are both concise and comprehensive. but as a reference point. Methodology for designing: The most effective route to employ recognized best-practice internal research methodology using behavioural event interview (BEI) techniques to selectively sample the target population (supplemented with expert panels and 'Competency Requirement Questionnaires' to engage wider population samples) and so build up the models from the data that emerges. This data should be triangulated against clear top-down input in terms of organizational strategy and business objectives. Developing BEI skills within the organization has the added benefit that once the model is complete. it can be used more effectively by transferring these skills Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . it should be sorted. simple and sophisticated. Once the behavioural data is collected. and also against external research relevant and analogous to the organization’s situation-not as a driver.
all-powerful 'global leadership model'. and behavior attributes) that are required to perform effectively in a job or an identified process. International organizations must ensure that the methodology does not screen-out those competencies that do not match the culturallyinfluenced pre-conceptions of the head office (wherever it is situated) of what high-performance competencies are.to selection interviewing. It starts with the clear articulation of workflow and processes. internal and external customer requirements. including all quality and quantity requirements. The other set Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . and so on. One set is based on organizational workflow and processes. Competency Mapping process is designed to consistently measure and assess individual and group performance as it relates to the expectations of the organization and its customers. decision criteria. development assessments. Competency Mapping juxtaposes two sets of data. This is a common error…the universalist. inputs and outputs. skills. and most important. It is used to identify key attributes (knowledge.
and with what specific population. Competency Mapping process can be the foundation for aligning workflow and process outputs with critical customer requirements with a foundation of required employee attributes and competencies. which can be summarized as follows: Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . Where the output from the organizational maps meet the individual and group performance capabilities.degree feedback process) to assess the extent to which individuals and groups can consistently demonstrate over time the competencies required to meet the expectations. one of the major concern areas for the Human Resource Department is to determine the competencies of the processes and to evaluate the strength level of the person working on it. an overall trend line is created that identified where in the process specific developmental opportunities exists. In any organization. To conduct the competency mapping certain steps needs to be followed. It is collected through the utilization of a variety of assessment tools and procedures (which may include a robust 360. Competency Mapping has emerged as a major concern for the organization in the recent times and has attracted the attention of the top management.of data is based on individual and group performance capabilities.
All the data collected is to be recorded in a systematic sequence. performance limits and power structure. People (on the job) are asked about the responsibility. Before starting the competency procedure. 4. H. co-workers and subordinates Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . pressure. 3. peers. a specific profile is to be set for the jobs which are to be evaluated in the future. 7. 6. 2. At the initial level.R. Information from the superiors. duties. 5.1. All the activities which are crucial for the proper execution of the activity of the process are marked separately. Personnel should select the job(s) from which the competencies are to be identifies. A small meeting with the person who is handling the process or the job is done.
8. The information can be collected from direct interview or through questionnaires or e-mails (whatever is suitable).In case of discrepancy in between the actual requirement of the Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 .R. 10.These competencies are noted for the future reference of the job and the job holder respectively. All the people who are not directly attached to the process but indirectly are attached to it are asked about the major competency issues.After assessing the competency requirement for the job. 12. 11.All the information is collected.are also collected. systematically evaluated and processed by the H. 13. personnel and the crucial factors (which are necessary for the success of the process) are determined. the present level of the individual working on the process is judged. 9.
capability and the desired level.The worksheet includes all the issues related to the job and the data collected form the individuals directly or indirectly in the organization.For determining the present level of the individual (working on the process).All the employees would be properly informed about the competencies which are crucial for performing their task or job. the individual working with the specific set of process (s) is provided with the training. Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 .The data collected will be reserved with the HR Department for the future reference (for next competency mapping or job up-gradation process). 15. 17. Competency Identification worksheet can be prepared. 16. 14.
3 Common Steps In Competency Mapping First: A job analysis is carried out by asking employees to fill in a questionnaire that asks them to describe what they are doing. attitudes and abilities they need to have to perform it well. thus making it behavioural as well as skill-based. An almost (but not quite) arbitrary level of attainment is noted against Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . Third: Having agreed on the job requirements and the skills and attitudes needed to progress within it and become more productive. and what skills. There would be a bit that requests them to list down attributes needed to make it up to the next level.6. Second: Having discovered the similarities in the questionnaires. one starts mapping the capability of the employees to the benchmarks. a competency-based job description is crafted and presented to the personnel department for their agreement and additions if any. There are several index points within the responsibility level.
each benchmark indicating the areas where the assessee is in terms of personal development and achievement. Once the employee `tops' every indicator at his level. A winwin situation for everyone. he is promoted. Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 . he moves on to the next and begins there at the bottom . This reasonably simple though initially (the first year only) tedious method helps everybody to know what the real state of preparedness of an organization to handle new business (or its old one) because it has a clear picture of every incumbent in the organization. It helps in determining the training and development needs and importantly it helps to encourage the best and develop the rest. These give an adept HR manager a fairly good picture of the employee to see whether he (or she) needs to perform better or to move up a notch on the scale.in short.
Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13 .
finances. customers and markets. Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 14 . • Recognition that technology. • Downsizing adds to the consequent need to get a lot of thing done with fewer people and thus reduce manpower costs and pass on the advantage to the customer. firms have become more aware of the need for having competent employees and developing distinguished competencies for every organization.7. This need arose due to the following reasons: • Increased cost of manpower • Need for ensuring that competent people are available for performing various critical roles. Need for Competency Mapping With global economy and the world becoming a global village. systems and processes can all be set right or managed effectively if we have the right kind of human resources.
Traditionally HR directors and their top management have always paid attention to competencies and incorporated them in their appraisal system. revised their performance appraisal systems. LIC or NDDB. • And recognition of the strategic advantage given by employee competencies in building the core competencies of the organization. competency mapping should already be in existence. For example when L&T. Bharat Petroleum.• The need for focus in performing roles-need for time management. they focused on the assessment of competencies Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 14 . In good organizations with competent HR managers. increased emphasis on performance management systems. nurturing of competence. etc. Several organizations have realized the importance of this in the last one decade and hence the rush for competency mapping. HLL.
Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 14 .
Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 15 . The following figure summarizes the need for competency mapping Figure 7.1: Need for Competency Mapping Competency mapping therefore is important and is an essential exercise. Every well managed firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required for performing each role effectively. performance management. Such list should be used for recruitment..
placement and training needs identification.promotions. Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 15 .
1: Areas of Implementation of Competency Mapping Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 16 .8. Areas of Implementation The competency mapping can be applied to the areas depicted in the following diagram: Figure 8.
skills. Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 16 .1 Recruitment and selection Competencies can be used to construct a template for use in recruitment and selection. Depending upon the accepted definition. abilities and other characteristics. competency data may take the form of behaviors. Competency based selection can be a way to gain competitive advantage. Some of these advantages are listed below: A firm that knows how to assess competencies can effectively hire the best at a reasonable price. Information on the level of a competency required for effective performance would be used to determine the competency levels that new hires should possess.8. for example hire under priced but highly entrepreneurial MBA’s from lesser-known business schools.
New hires with the competencies to do a job become fully productive faster. A lengthy training period may transpire before new hires become productive. The organization needs to identify new hires with the potential to become future managers or leaders. There is high turnover due to high failure rate among new hires.2 Training and Development It involves identifying gaps and helping employees develop in the right direction. If the training programs can be aligned to the development needs emerging out of the appraisal system and to the market led training Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 17 . 8. Knowing the competency profile for a position allows individuals to compare their own competencies to those required by the position or the career path. Training or development plans could focus on those competencies needing improvement. A gap between the competencies needed and what the organization can hire for indicates the training new hires will need.
the person can be trained on those competencies only. identify gaps in terms of the competencies for that role and the competencies of the person doing that role to diagnose the training and development needs. 8. Competency based training programs clearly tell what should be the competency level of the person entering the program. Identify the most appropriate training and development methodology for each trainable competency Accordingly. This would drastically reduce the training cost for the organization.3 Career and succession planning It involves assessing employees’ readiness or potential to take on new Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 17 . This can be achieved in the following manner: Firstly determine the competencies for a particular position Secondly identify the competencies of the person holding that position By mapping the competencies.needs they can contribute better to both individual and business objectives.
Individuals would know the Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 17 .challenges. Determining a person job fit can be based on matching the competency profile of an individual to the set of competencies required for excellence within a profession.
Rewarding employees for their ability to make the best use of their skills and competencies in accordance with the organization’s needs was the logic behind this once popular HR tool. There is a need for competency based compensation system To attract more competent than average employees To reward for results and competencies developed To motivate employees to maintain and enhance their skills and competencies regularly By rewarding employees who develop relevant competencies the organization can benefit by improving its own capability to face the Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 18 . One way of improving employee performance is by recognizing and rewarding effort. 8.4 Rewards and Recognition Competency based pay is compensation for individual characteristics for skills and competencies over and above the pay a job or organizational role itself commands. Enhancement in competencies has to be one of them. Competency pay is the best way to do so. Various elements are considered for arriving at compensation increase.competencies required for a particular position and therefore would have an opportunity to decide if they have the potential to pursue that position or not.
5 Performance Management System Performance has two dimensions Achieving business results Developing individual competencies These days performance appraisal is seen by managers and employees as a bureaucratic “paperwork” exercises that they do not take seriously because it has little impact on employee development. Performance appraisals do not address the employees’ questions about skill development or career advancement.e. Competency based performance management would: Focus on “HOW” of performance and not on “WHAT” of performance i.future 8. Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 18 . not on results but how the results are achieved Link to development of the individual and not just rewards Competency based PMS shift the emphasis of appraisal from organization results to employee behaviors and competencies demonstrated and hence help identify development gaps.
9.1 For the company The advantages of competency mapping for the companies or organizations are as follows: Establishes expectations for performance excellence Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention Increase in the effectiveness of training and professional development programs because of their link to success criteria.9. Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 19 . the managers and the individual employees. The section also gives a comparative view of the competency based approach and the job analysis approach. The following section analyzes each of them in relation to the company. Advantages of Competency Mapping There are several advantages of competency mapping over traditional job analysis.
Provides a common understanding of scope and requirements of a specific role Provides a common. organization wide standard for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries Help companies “raise the bar” of performance expectations Help teams and individuals align their behaviors with key organizational strategies 9.2 For Managers The competency mapping provides following advantages to the managers: Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the selection process Provide more objective performance standards Easier communication of performance expectations Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 19 .
Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the managers and employees and performance. development and career-oriented issues Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 19 .
4 Traditional Job Analysis versus Competency Approach Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 20 .9.3 For employees The employees in an organization get the following advantages by competency mapping: Identify the behavioral standards of performance excellence Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and the tools required to enhance their skills Enhances clarity on career related issues Helps each understand how to achieve expectations 9.
• Data generation from subject matter incumbents. • Outstanding performance. • Effective performance. • Long list of tasks and skills / • A distilled set of underlying knowledge required to characteristics. • Data addition experts generation performers subject other to and from in job matter outstanding perform each of those tasks. experts. Competency model leads to…. Table 9.1: Job Analysis versus Competency Approach Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 20 . job incumbents.Job Analysis leads to….
Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 20 .
A problem with competency mapping. If too much emphasis is placed on 'inputs' at the expense of 'outputs'.10. 3. then it can be of little short-term benefit and may actually result in greater unhappiness on the part of individual employees. If the company does not respond to competency mapping by reorganizing its employees. there are few drawbacks to the approach. Disadvantages of Competency Mapping In spite of the several advantages offered by competency mapping. there is a risk that it will favor employees who are Competency Mapping\Disadvantages of Competency Mapping 21 . 2. especially when conducted by an organization is that there may be no room for an individual to work in a field that would best make use of his or her competencies. Some of these are discussed below: 1.
Competency Mapping\Disadvantages of Competency Mapping 21 . 4. .good in theory but not in practice and will fail to achieve the results that make a business successful. They can become out of date very quickly due to the fast pace of change in organizations and it can therefore be expensive and time consuming to keep them up-to-date.
g. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand. discuss.. organization.11. group of related jobs). Model of Competency Mapping 11. job family (e. and apply the competencies to workforce performance. organizational needs will determine the optimal framework. The competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of formats. No one approach is inherently best. A common approach is to identify several competencies that are essential for all employees and then identify several additional categories of competencies that apply only to specific subgroups.1 Definition A competency mapping model is an organizing framework that lists the competencies required for effective performance in a specific job. or process. Some competency models are organized Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 22 . function.
with a basic set of competencies for a given job family and additional competencies added cumulatively for each higher job level within the job family. review existing data. evaluate contextual drivers.according to the type of competency. identify competencies and develop models. Model – analyze and synthesize data. engage stakeholders and set goals.2 Developing the model The following are the steps involved in designing and developing the competency mapping model: Strategize – assess business needs. such as leadership. or technical capacity. and validate models. Other models may employ a framework based on job level. Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 22 . personal effectiveness. 11. Initiate – identify methodologies. benchmark competencies. develop project plans. and collect competency data.
Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 22 .
applications. develop and initiate competency communicate activities. Pilot – develop implementation and evaluation plans. Evaluate – establish and evaluate measures. Link – link to all human resources system components. and phase in implementation of other competency' based applications. and continuously Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 23 . and continuously improve the system.
Content Validation session Study Identified Jobs Review list of probable Competencies fy major categories Construct Competency Definitions of skills Assign proficiency levels ify Probable competencies Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 23 .
1: Stages In Developing An Organization Wide Competency Model Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 23 . if necessary Figure 11.Reinforce proficiency of critical competencies Refine competency definitions.
These steps have been segregated in view of implementing the model and are depicted in the following figure: Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 24 .
Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 24 .
Figure 11.2: Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping model Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 24 .
up-to-date job description helps the Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 25 . Step 2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels Study the organization hierarchy across each of the selected departments. Job descriptions are a basic human resources management tool that can help to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.Following is a brief description of each of these steps: Step 1: Identify departments for competency mapping Decide and select the departments within the organization which we would like to include into our study. For all the levels at every department obtain each role’s job description.. For each employee. The departments should be chosen based on their criticality and importance to the organization. Step 3: Obtain the job descriptions. a good.
and objectives of the organization. the relative importance of the duties. Step 4: Preparation of semi structured interview In structured interviews. and. Benchmarking interviews with other organizations are especially useful in achieving a broader view of the job or determining which competencies are more universally deemed Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 25 . their managers. how their position contributes to the mission.incumbent to understand: their duties and responsibilities. good job descriptions contribute to organizational effectiveness by: ensuring that the work carried out by staff is aligned with the organizations mission. For the organization. and. carefully planned questions are asked individually of job incumbents. or others familiar with the job. goals. Helping management clearly identify the most appropriate employee for new duties and realigning work loads.
Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 25 . However.necessary for a particular job. and differences in job responsibilities that may limit the relevance of the information. it is important to be cautious in applying the information collected from other organizations as there are many variables such as work environment. culture.
Step 8: Repeat for next levels and functions. The interviews and appropriate recording of answers should be done Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 26 . generate a list of skills observed for the job.Step 5: Scheduling of interviews Obtain a list of employees from respective department heads and accordingly schedule interviews. A minimum of 5 candidates are to be interviewed at each level in each department. Step 7: Preparation of a list of Skills As per the interview and the details that were generated from the candidate. Thereon a list of identified competencies should be drawn for each interviewed candidate. Step 6: Recording of interview details The candidate’s answers and opinions have to be recorded in as much detail as possible for further reference during the project.
Step 10: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with Head of Departments.at all remaining levels and other departments within the Torrent Research Center. Confirm competency definitions with respective Head Of Department’s and obtain from the required proficiency levels of each competency that is ideal for each role. For each position at each department a list of competencies observed from both the job description and the semi structured interview (list of skills) should be drawn up. Also locate any missing competencies. Step 9: Make the list of the competencies required indicators. for the department for each level and each function giving behavioral Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 26 . Each competency should be given a name and an appropriate definition that clearly indicates its meaning and essence.
Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 26 .
3 Data Collection Methods One of the major steps in developing the model for competency mapping is to collect the data.1 Literature Review A preliminary approach to defining job content and identifying required competencies is to conduct a review of the literature to learn Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 27 . 11.3. 11. Step 12: Mapping of competencies Map the competencies of selected employees against the competency matrix as per their employee level and department.Step 11: Preparation of competency matrix Prepare a matrix defining competencies required and corresponding proficiency levels for each level across all departments. This sub-section discusses some of these methods in detail. Here an employee’s actual proficiency level of a particular competency would be mapped against the target proficiency level.
no previous studies have been conducted. Sources of published literature include books. Quite often. colleges and universities that offer training programs for your target job.about previous studies of the job or similar jobs. the Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 27 . 11. Typically. There are different approaches to conducting focus groups. and dissertations. and through the Internet. their managers. The quality of these studies will vary widely and they need to be critically evaluated before use. they can be extremely helpful in providing an introduction to the job and a preliminary list of competencies to consider. a facilitator works with a small group of job incumbents.2 Focus Groups In focus groups. consulting firms. theses. A series of focus groups is often conducted to allow many people in the organization to provide input. association magazines. supervisees.3. Unpublished studies may be available from professional associations. However. clients. professional journals. or others to define the job content or to identify the competencies they believe are essential for performance. if they do exist.
facilitator will use a prepared protocol of questions to guide a structured discussion. Expert panels are a special type of focus group in which persons who are considered Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 27 .
Often. average and low performers are also interviewed to provide a comparison. thought.4 Surveys In surveys.” 11.3. and perhaps senior managers complete a questionnaire administered either in print or Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 28 .3. The interviewer will ask questions such as: “Tell me about a time when you had an extremely challenging client” or “Give me an example of a situation at work in which you had to make a difficult decision. and felt in challenging or difficult situations.3 Behavioral Event Interviews In behavioral event interviews (BEI). said. top performers are interviewed individually about what they did. job incumbents.highly knowledgeable about the job and its requirements meet to develop a list of competencies required for success. 11. their supervisors. The competencies that were instrumental in their success are extrapolated from their stories.
For very complex jobs. the research team visits high performing incumbents and observes them at work. the degree to which the competency differentiates superior from average performers.3. The respondents are typically asked to assign ratings to each listed job element or competency. and if the competency is needed on entry to the job or can be developed over time. how frequently the competency is used on the job. The more complex the job and the greater the variety in job tasks. For a very routine job in which the same task is repeated over and over throughout the day. The survey content is based on previous data collection efforts such as interviews. respondents may be asked how critical a competency is to effective job performance. or literature reviews. Survey respondents are usually asked to provide in writing any additional information that they feel is important. Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 28 . focus groups. For example. the more time is required for an observation.5 Observations In this data collection method. an observation of a couple hours might suffice.electronically. 11.
observation of a week or more may be required. the observations may have to be conducted over a period of weeks or Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 28 . seasons. If the job changes based on work cycles. or other factors.
6 Work Logs In the work log method of data collection. Depending on the complexity and variety of the job. 11. incumbents may be asked to make log entries for several days. or months. The competencies required for effective performance are then inferred from the observations by persons who are experts in competency identification.3. job incumbents enter into logs or diaries their daily work activities with stop and start times for each activity. The observation process may include asking employees to explain what they are doing and why.7 360 degree feedback It’s a process whereby an individual (the recipient) is rated on their performance by people who know something about their work (the Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 29 . weeks.3.months. 11. Sometimes observations of average and low performers are also conducted to establish a basis for comparison.
more complete and accurate picture than could be obtained from any one source. attributes and other job relevant characteristics and thus help to build up a richer. peers and managers and in some cases customers or clients. The resulting information is presented to the individual with the aim of helping them to gain a better understanding of their skills and development areas.raters). This is usually in addition to completing a selfassessment on performance. in fact anybody who is credible to the individual and is familiar with their work can be included in the feedback process. Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 29 . Each source can provide a different perspective on the individual’s skills. This can include direct reports.
Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 29 .
It is essential to lay down the entire plan first. Process of Competency Mapping Competency mapping requires a lot of planning and efforts of the HR department as it’s a lengthy and a time consuming process. 0100090000037800000002001c000000000004000000030108000500 00000b0200000000050000000c025e13751e040000002e0118001c000 000fb021000070000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00 13751e000067af0000ac5d120004ee8339e04e1c000c02000004000000 2d01000004000000020101001c000000fb0238ff00000000000090010 00000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000000000 0000000000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000 020d000000320ab80000000100040000000000781e561320005b0004 0000002d010000030000000000 Figure 12.1: Process of Competency Mapping Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 30 .12. and then take it forward.
Each of the stages is explained in detail below: 12. The objectives of Competency Mapping are as follows: To establish a Competency Model. which will create a benchmark for all the employees in the organization and will help in performing all HR functions more efficiently.The diagram explains the flow of the Competency Mapping Methodology. Therefore it is vital to list down the objectives which will help to plan the exercise in accordance with the objectives and ultimately establish what we desire to arrive at.1 Laying Down Of Objectives Before conducting any research it is very essential to understand the reason or the objectives one is planning to establish through the research. To map the competencies of the existing employees and understand where they fall low or average in comparison to the Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 31 .
The questions are framed in such a way so as to derive accurate and appropriate responses relevant to the project. 12. These tools include: Rank Order Rating Behavioral Event Interview Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 31 . The application of these tools is visible in the questionnaire.competencies essential for their job/role. This questionnaire is designed keeping in mind the objectives of the project.2 Preparation of The Questionnaire The data required for competency mapping for the middle management is collected by undertaking “JOB EVALUATION” which includes the preparation of a “Role Profile Questionnaire”. There are various tools of Competency Mapping for the employees as discussed earlier in the report. This will help in identifying training and development needs for the employees.
Rank Order Rating is used to find out which competencies are required for each job/role and their order of importance to each profile. Action and Results). Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 31 . Task. The Behavioral Event Interview is a set of open ended questions to find out the STAR’s (Situation.
3 Collection of Responses This stage consumes the maximum time. they are usually preoccupied with their work and therefore it becomes difficult for them to spare time for the questionnaire. Hence this stage takes almost a month to complete. the data is then analyzed manually. the analysis is based on the ratings provided by each employee to the different competencies. To establish the Competency Model.4 Analysis Once the data is collected from all the employees belonging to the middle level management. 12. 12. The Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 32 .Once the questionnaire is prepared. As the employees to be interviewed belong to the middle management. the responses are collected from the employees belonging to the middle level management by a one on one interaction with each respondent.
highest rated competencies form the critical competencies in the model and the others follow in the other categories. Another technique used is called the Opportunity Algorithm which is used to map the current competencies of the employees in relation to the competencies rated by the employees in question 2. The Opportunity Algorithm was introduced by the Harvard School of Business and is one of the most successful formulae used by many big organizations. The Opportunity Algorithm is explained in brief below: 12.4.1 The Opportunity Algorithm How can a company discover and prioritize the most promising skills and opportunities in their Human Resources to achieve their desired goals/objectives. Executives struggle with this question every day and an outcome based on research offers a surprisingly simple answer. The best outcomes spring from those skills that are important to the job/role but
Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping
are not satisfied entirely or that are partially satisfied by the existing job/role holders.
Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping
Selecting the richest areas of opportunity from a long list of outcomes is critical since chasing the less promising ones is a drain on one’s resources. Fortunately, a simple mathematical formula known as “Opportunity calculation” makes it possible to discover the most promising areas. The formula [Importance + (Importance – Satisfaction) = Opportunity] yields highly accurate results. The companies ask the job/role holders to quantify on a scale, the importance of each desired outcome (skill) and the degree to which it is currently satisfied (how they assess themselves on each of the desired outcome). Those rankings are inserted into the formula, resulting in an overall opportunity score. After the application of the formula one arrives at various opportunity scores for each of the job/role holders. The highest score depicts the skills which the job/role holder should give his immediate attention and look for improvement in those areas. The job/role holder then looks at the second highest score and sharpens those skills later, after
Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping
successful improvement in the first area where he scored the highest score. These scores will differ from individual to individual and from job/role to job/role. 12.5 Findings With the help of the Opportunity Algorithm and the ratings provided by the employees, the Competency Model and the Competency Scorecard for each employee can be established.
Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping
so the employees working in this well known ready mix concrete company should not only possess basic knowledge about the concrete and cement industry but also be competent enough to contribute in the development and growth of the company. This is where “Competency Mapping” comes into picture. Jaipur and NCR. The following is the general organization chart of the company: 0100090000037800000002001c000000000004000000030108000500 00000b0200000000050000000c025e13751e040000002e0118001c000 000fb021000070000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00 Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 34 . Ahmedabad. Nasik. Hyderabad. Goa. Surat. Kolkata. Chandigarh.13. Chennai. The company has its plants spread across various cities like Mumbai. Pune. Bangalore. which helps to discover what kind of competency is required to deliver superior performances and eventually help the company grow leaps and bounds. Competency Mapping at Ready-mix Concrete Company Ready-mix Concrete industry is a fast growing and booming industry.
Figure 13.1: Organization Chart Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 34 .
General Manager Dy. Manager Top Management CEO & ED Senior Officer CFO & CS Officer VP’s Asst. Officer Each region follows a normal hierarchy which defines various designations in each department. General Manager Asst. The hierarchy is explained with the help of the following diagram: Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35 . General Manager Senior Manager Manager Dy. Manager Asst.
Figure 13. The procedure followed is as follows: • Laying down of Objectives • Preparation of questionnaire and distributing it amongst all the employees • Collecting of data and responses through Experts and Resource Panels.2: Hierarchy defining various designations The RMC Company is in the initial stage of implementing the Competency Mapping Process. Critical event interviews and generic competency dictionaries. Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35 .
• Building up of Model Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35 .• Analysis of data to build up a model.
competency mapping is at its nascent stage.g. This process is implemented by following the principles underlying Performance Management. namely: • Measurement o o establish performance measures establish measurable behavioral goals that will improve performance measure current behaviors compare the current behaviors with the behavioral goals and identify the main differences o • Appraisal o • Action Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement 36 . Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement At Ambuja Cements.: achievement of business objectives).14. Here performance management is a cyclical process aimed at improving performance (e.
o For each difference. you return to the appraisal stage to assess the impact of the changes on the behavioral and performance measures Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement 36 . you plan how to bring actual behaviors in line with the goals. in order to improve the performance implement the plan o • Monitoring o o Check that the new plans are being followed At an appropriate time.
recruitment) of the organization. is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i. Increased manpower costs.e. training. A lot of resources are spent and consultants are being invited to do competency mapping. need for ensuring that competent people man critical positions. and the need to be competitive and recognition of the strategic advantages of having good human resources have compelled firms to be more competency driven. Conclusion Competency Mapping therefore. A lot is going on in recent times on the issue of competency mapping. job evaluation. In the report we have discussed how competent employees have become need of the hour in every organization and it is now essential Competency Mapping\Conclusion 37 .15.
gaps and imbibe this as an every day practice in an organization. And to see in it an exercise that has a significant and lasting value to project managers as well as to the organisation. The key is to look at competency mapping as going beyond mere processes. Such a powerful organisational tool is often resorted just because rival organisations have implemented it and not because there is genuine appreciation of its benefits. identify models. All the stakeholders must see in the exercise an opportunity for longterm growth. Competency Mapping\Conclusion 37 . Often competency mapping runs the risk of being just another newfangled process that happens to be the flavour of the season.that they undertake competency mapping. Competency mapping should not be seen as just another means to apportion and dispense rewards.
Competency Mapping\Conclusion 37 .
2nd floor.E.Rao. Ambuja Cements Limited Elegant Business Park Behind Kotak Mahindra Bank MIDC Cross Road . T. off Andheri Kurla Road Andheri (E). Sai Service Compond.V. Highway.References Industries Visited 1. Infocom Network Ltd. Mumbai . Performance management and appraisal competencies. W. 194.59 Books and Journals: a.B. RMC India Ltd. Arvind Chambers. Andheri (E) 2. Sage systems: HR tools for global .
Sep 3. V. “Competency based HR”. 2005. “Competency mapping”. 4. 3. Sudipta.citehr.com www. “Don’t take your junior colleagues for granted: Cos Using Feedback From Peers & Subordinates To Assess Executives”.com/q/Human-Resources-2866/competency-mappingExpress Computer. Website references: www.careertrainer. Verma. Economic Times Mumbai.tvrls. M. Sinha. 2007.hrworkbench.indianmba.com www. Sudipta.com www.in/eng en. 2.com www. Express Computer.publications. 10 Jan .allexperts. 10 Jan 2005.
Competency Mapping\References 38 .
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