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and control over a hitherto amorphous and

diffuse movement. During his first nationwide

satyagraha, Gandhi urged the people to boycott
British education institutions, law courts, and
products (in favor of swadeshi ); to resign from
government employment; to refuse to pay
taxes; and to forsake British titles and honors.
The party was transformed from an elite
organization to one of mass national appeal.
Mahatma Gandhi's first nationwide
satyagraha was too late to influence the framing
of the new Government of India Act of 1919,
the magnitude of disorder resulting from the
movement was unparalleled and presented a
new challenge to foreign rule. Gandhi was
forced to call off the campaign in 1922 because
of atrocities committed against police. However,
the abortive campaign marked a milestone in
India's political development. For his efforts,
Gandhi was imprisoned until 1924. On his
release from prison, he set up an ashram (a
rural commune), established a newspaper, and
inaugurated a series of reforms aimed at the
socially disadvantaged within Hindu society,
the rural poor, and the Untouchables (see
Changes in the Caste System, ch. 5). His
popularity soared in Indian politics as he
reached the hearts and minds of ordinary
people, winning support for his causes as no one
else had ever done before. By his personal and