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Flow rate

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Flow rate

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should be able to:

• Define the rate of flow for a fluid and solve

problems using velocity and cross-section.

• Write and apply Bernoulli’s equation for the

general case and apply for (a) a fluid at rest, (b) a

fluid at constant pressure, and (c) flow through a

horizontal pipe.

Fluids in Motion

in this treatment to

exhibit streamline flow.

which every particle in the fluid follows the

same path past a particular point as that

followed by previous particles.

Assumptions for Fluid Flow:

• All fluids move with streamline flow.

• The fluids are incompressible.

• There is no internal friction.

Rate of Flow

The rate of flow R is defined as the volume V of a fluid

that passes a certain cross-section A per unit of time t.

The volume V of fluid is given by

the product of area A and vt:

V Avt

A vt

Volume = A(vt)

Avt

R vA Rate of flow = velocity x area

t

Constant Rate of Flow

For an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the velocity

increases when the cross-section decreases:

R v1 A1 v2 A2 vd v d

1 1

2 2

2 2

A1

R = A1v1 = A2v2

A2

v2

v1

v2

Example 1: Water flows through a rubber hose 2 cm in

diameter at a velocity of 4 m/s. What must be the

diameter of the nozzle in order that the water emerge

at 16 m/s?

The area is proportional to

the square of diameter, so:

vd v d

1 1

2 2

2 2

2 2

vd (4 m/s)(2 cm)

d

2

2

1 1

d2 = 0.894 cm

v2 (20 cm) 2

Example 1 (Cont.): Water flows through a rubber hose

2 cm in diameter at a velocity of 4 m/s. What is the rate

of flow in m3/min?

R v1 A1 v2 A2

d12

R v1 A1 ; A1

4

d1 (4 m/s) (0.02 m)

2 2

R1 v1 R1 = 0.00126 m3/s

4 4

m3 1 min

R1 0.00126 R1 = 0.0754 m3/min

min 60 s

Problem Strategy for Rate of Flow:

• Read, draw, and label given information.

• The rate of flow R is volume per unit time.

• When cross-section changes, R is constant.

R v1 A1 v2 A2

and velocity.

Problem Strategy (Continued):

d, a more useful equation is:

vd v d

1 1

2 2

2 2

for one section of pipe must be consistent with

those used for any other section of pipe.

The Venturi Meter

A C

B

The higher velocity in the constriction B causes a

difference of pressure between points A and B.

PA - PB = rgh

Demonstrations of the Venturi Principle

of pressure that exerts the forces shown.

Work in Moving a A2 Note

Volume of Fluid P2 differences in

pressure DP

A1 and area DA

F2

P1 P2 ; F2 P2 A2

A2

A2

Volume

F1 V P2 , F2

P1 ; F1 P1 A1

A1

A1 h

P1

F1

Fluid is raised

to a height h.

Work on a Fluid (Cont.)

v2 F2 = P2A2

Net work done on

fluid is sum of work

v1 A2 done by input force

F1 = P1A1

A1 s2 h2 Fi less the work done

by resisting force F2,

h1 s1 as shown in figure.

Conservation of Energy

v2 F2 = P2A2

Kinetic Energy K:

DK ½mv22 ½mv12 v1 A2

F1 = P1A1

Potential Energy U: A1 s2 h2

DU mgh2 mgh1 h1 s1

2

2

2

1

Conservation of Energy

( P1 P2 )V (½mv ½mv ) (mgh2 mgh2 )

2

2

2

1

v2

Bernoulli’s Theorem: v1

P1 r gh1 ½ r v Const

2

1

h2

h1

Bernoulli’s Theorem (Horizontal Pipe):

P1 r gh1 ½ r v12 P2 r gh2 ½ r v22

r

P1 P2 ½ r v22 ½ r v12

h1 = h 2

Horizontal

Pipe

DP r gh ½ r v22 ½ r v12

Example 3: Water flowing at 4 m/s passes through a Venturi

tube as shown. If h = 12 cm, what is the velocity of the water in

the constriction?

r

DP r gh ½ r v ½ r v

2

2

2

1

v1 = 4 m/s h = 6 cm

Bernoulli’s Theorem for Fluids at Rest.

For many situations, the fluid remains at rest so that

v1 and v2 are zero. In such cases we have:

r = 1000

seen earlier for finding the h kg/m3

pressure P at a given depth

h = (h2 - h1) in a fluid.

Torricelli’s Theorem

When there is no change of pressure, P1 = P2.

P1 r gh1 ½ r v P2 r gh2 ½ r v

2

1

2

2

surface v2 0 and P1= v2 0

P2 and v1 = v we have:

h2 h v 2 gh

Torricelli’s theorem:

h1

v 2 gh

Interesting Example of Torricelli’s

Theorem:

Torricelli’s theorem:

v

v 2 gh v

v

• Discharge velocity

increases with depth.

• Maximum range is in the middle.

• Holes equidistant above and below midpoint

will have same horizontal range.

Example 4: A dam springs a leak at a point 20

m below the surface. What is the emergent

velocity?

Torricelli’s theorem:

v 2 gh h

v 2 gh

Given: h = 20 m

g = 9.8 m/s2

v = 19.8 m/s2

Strategies for Bernoulli’s Equation:

• Read, draw, and label a rough sketch with givens.

• The height h of a fluid is from a common reference

point to the center of mass of the fluid.

• In Bernoulli’s equation, the density r is mass

density and the appropriate units are kg/m3.

• Write Bernoulli’s equation for the problem and

simplify by eliminating those factors that do not

change.

Strategies (Continued)

P1 r gh1 ½ r v12 P2 r gh2 ½ r v22

r = 1000

DP = rg(h2 - h1) h kg/m3

P1 P2 ½ r v22 ½ r v12

Strategies (Continued)

P1 r gh1 ½ r v12 P2 r gh2 ½ r v22

Torricelli’s Theorem

v 2 gh

General Example: Water flows through the pipe at the rate of

30 L/s. The absolute pressure at point A is 200 kPa, and the point

B is 8 m higher than point A. The lower section of pipe has a

diameter of 16 cm and the upper section narrows to a diameter of

10 cm. Find the velocities of the stream at points A and B.

R=30 L/s

D

A R2 ; R 8m

2

AA = (0.08 m)2 = 0.0201 m3 A

AB = (0.05 m)2 = 0.00785 m3

R 0.030 m 3 /s R 0.030 m 3 /s

vA 2

1.49 m/s; v2 2

3.82 m/s

AA 0.0201 m A2 0.00785 m

General Example (Cont.): Next find the absolute

pressure at Point B.

B

Given: vA = 1.49 m/s R=30 L/s

vB = 3.82 m/s 8m

PA = 200 kPa

A

hB - hA = 8 m

Consider the height hA = 0 for reference purposes.

0

PA + rghA +½rvA2 = PB + rghB + ½rvB2

PB = PA + ½rvA2 - rghB - ½rvB2

PB = 200,000 Pa + ½(1000 kg/m3)(1.49 m/s)2

– (1000 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2)(8 m) - ½(1000 kg/m3)(3.82 m/s)2

PB = 115 kPa

Summary

Streamline Fluid Flow in Pipe:

R v1 A1 v2 A2 v1d12 v2 d22

PA - PB = rgh P1 P2 ½ r v22 ½ r v12

P1 r gh1 ½ r v12 Constant v 2 gh

Summary: Bernoulli’s Theorem

• Read, draw, and label a rough sketch with givens.

• The height h of a fluid is from a common reference

point to the center of mass of the fluid.

• In Bernoulli’s equation, the density r is mass density

and the appropriate units are kg/m3.

• Write Bernoulli’s equation for the problem and

simplify by eliminating those factors that do not

change.

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