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MARCH 2011

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS......................................................3

GLOSSARY OF GENDER TERMS.............................................8
PART 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION......................................12
Activity 1.1 Why a Gender Training?....................................................................13
Activity 1.2: Welcome and Introductions............................................................14
Activity 1.3: Training Goals and Expectation......................................................15
Activity 1.4: Setting ground rules.........................................................................16
Activity 1.5: Concluding Exercise..........................................................................19
PART 2: UNDERSTANDING GENDER.....................................20
Session 2.1: Definition and difference between gender and sex..................21
Session 2.2: Social construction of gender.......................................................24
Session 2.3: Gender roles and stereotypes........................................................27
Session 3.1 Gender from a development perspective.......................................34
Session 3.2: Women in development vs. gender approach...............................37
Session 3.3: Identifying practical needs and strategic interests................44
Session 4.1 Introduction to conceptual frameworks of gender analysis.....47
4.1.1 Harvard Analytical Framework.................................................................47
4.1.2 The moser Framework................................................................................50
4.1.3 The women’s Empowerment Framework.................................................52
4.1.4 Gender Analysis Matrix.............................................................................55
PART 5: GENDER IN RWANDAN CONTEXT..............................61
Session 5.1 Understanding gender in the Rwandan context...........................62
PART 6: GENDER MAINSTREAMING.....................................73
Session 6.1 Understanding gender mainstreaming............................................74
7.1 Concluding and Closure.......................................................................................81
7.2: Evaluation of the workshop and follow up...................................................82
7.3: List of references...........................................................................................83
7.4: Sample agenda....................................................................................................84
7.5: Gender trainers guide......................................................................................85
7.6: Step-by-step guide to initiate gender clubs in schools...........................87

AIDS………………….Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome
CEDAW…………Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination
Against Women
CPC ………………………………………..Child Protection committees
DHS…………………………………………..Demographic and Health Survey
EDPRS……………………………………...Economic Development and Poverty Reduction
EFA………………………………………......Education for All
E.g.……………………………………………For Example
E.t.c. …………………………………………Etcetera
GAD………………………………………....Gender and Development
GAM…………………………………………Gender Analysis Matrix
GEEF…………………………………………Gender Equality and Empowerment Framework
GBV………………………………………....Gender Based Violence
HIV……………………………………………Human Immune Virus
ICCPR…………………………………….International Covenant on Civil and Political
MIGEPROF………………………………Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion
NGO………………………………………….Non Governmental Organization
NMW…………………………………………National Machineries for Women
PGN…………………………………..........Practical Gender Needs
SGBV……………………………………….. Sexual and gender Based Violence
SGN…………………………………………. Strategic Gender Needs
SRH&R………………………………………Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights
TOR…………………………………………..Terms of Reference
UDHR………………………………………….Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UNSCR………………………………………..United Nation’s Security Council Resolution
UPE…………………………………………..Universal Primary Education
VCT…………………………………………….Voluntary Counselling and Testing
WID…………………………………………..Women in Development


The Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion has revised the gender
training module in order to adjust it with the newly revised National Gender
Policy adopted in July 2010. One of the programs of the National Gender
Policy is gender mainstreaming and institutional capacity development. In
this context, a module on gender has been revised in order to ensure that
gender awareness is sufficiently elevated among decision makers,
implementers and communities.

The issue of gender is increasingly coming to the forefront of public debate

in Rwanda. The Government of Rwanda alongside development partners
acknowledge that there is a need to improve the general knowledge of the
population in the area of gender basic concepts, gender analysis and gender

The rationale for this module is therefore to harmonise and guide gender
messages and interventions from an increased number of NGOs and
development partners who provide training and implementing gender related
sensitization campaigns.

This training module aims to promote gender awareness among men, women
boys and girls in order to increase gender equality and equity. It is an
important tool for facilitators and trainers and other program implementers
within and outside Rwanda.

It is my hope that this new module will enhance gender awareness among the
practitioners in particular and the general public in general.


Hon Aloisea INYUMBA

Minister of Gender and Family Promotion

This training module is designed for use with diverse groups but especially
for development change agents/workers. It can also be used for general
sensitization, training on advocacy, programming and policy development
towards promoting gender equity and equality in Rwanda.

The objective of this training module is to provide a standard package of

training materials on the basic concepts of gender, gender analysis and
gender mainstreaming. The training should equip participants with
introductory knowledge and tools that will enable them to recognize
potential gender issues and to begin to determine how they should be
addressed throughout their work. In turn, this should improve gender-
responsive, result-oriented policies, programs and operations. This module
focuses only on the basics of integrating gender into development

The module is designed for use by trainers who have in-depth knowledge of
gender issues and are experienced in participatory methods of training.
However, less experienced practitioners will also find it easy to use because
of the step-by-step instructions and the user-friendly facilitator notes.
Each part specifies learning objectives, steps to follow, content and basic
resource materials. The sections are built in a logical sequence. However,
trainers may rearrange the topics, expand or reduce the detail and
creatively adapt the methods in response to unique aspects of the training
or depending on the level of participants. It also includes a set of exercises
that the trainer may use to enhance learning and communicate key points.
The trainer is advised to thoroughly familiarize him/herself with the
content of the module but may also feel free to improvise and enrich it with
their own information and resources. The trainer can adapt the course to
suit the needs of participant groups by selecting different learning
exercises for group discussion. For example, if he/she trains a group of
education specialists in Rwanda, then he or she should choose to review
general case studies, some tailored to the education sector and some
tailored to the Rwandan context. At the end of the module are important
references for additional information for the trainers.

The Government of Rwanda has through its policies and actions,
demonstrated its commitment to work towards the reduction of gender
based violence, gender inequalities and promotion of gender equity and
equality in all areas. Rwanda adopted the Beijing Platform for action and
undertook strategic actions aimed at tackling twelve identified crucial areas.
It ratified and adhered to a number of international and regional
conventions, charters and declarations including CEDAW, the Millennium
Development Goals, UNSCR 1325, and the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights among others. All these instruments highlight gender as an important
approach to sustainable development. Rwanda is therefore highly committed
to the cause of gender equality and women’s empowerment as transpired in
the June 2003 National Constitution, the National Gender Policy, the Vision
2020, the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy which
highlight gender as a crosscutting issue, the national gender machineries
(e.g. National Women Council, Gender Monitoring Office etc.) and
promulgation of various laws including the 2002 land law, 2008 Law
Preventing and punishing GBV, law n°22/99 of 12/11/1999 on matrimonial
regimes, liabilities, succession and inheritance etc.

The Government of Rwanda alongside development partners acknowledges

that there is a need to improve the general knowledge of the population in
the area of gender roles and gender inequality, including gender based
violence. To efficiently improve the response and prevention of gender
related violence and to improve the comprehension of gender, the Ministry
of Gender and Family promotion (MIGEPROF) has initiated and supported
the establishment of key structures at the decentralized levels. These
structures include Gender Clubs that are active in both secondary schools
and universities and Gender Based Violence & Child Protection Committees at
all levels from district to village level.

An increasing amount of NGOs and development partners are implementing

gender related sensitization campaigns and projects in schools as well as in
the community. In order to harmonize the messages that are passed on to
youth, women and men and the community in general, the Ministry of Gender
and Family Promotion has developed a national methodological framework and
a module to guide these interventions.

The module serves as a reference for all trainings relating to gender and
gender mainstreaming taking place in Rwanda and is available to all partners
supporting the Government of Rwanda to achieve gender equality in Rwanda.
Moreover, it could be adapted to specific groups/contexts, such as Gender
Clubs and GBV/CP Committees.

This guide is based on training modules that MIGEPROF developed in 2002

and 2005 and the existing modules developed by other partners but also
adapted to the various commitments on gender at national, regional and
international levels.

Adapted from the Department for International Development, (2002): Gender manual
Sex Identifies the biological differences between men and women, such as
women can give birth, and men provide sperm. Sex roles are universal.

Gender Identifies the social relations between men and women. It refers to the
relationship between men and women, boys and girls, and how this is socially
constructed. Gender roles are dynamic and change over time.

Gender The process of ensuring that women and men have equal access to and
Mainstreaming control over resources, development benefits and decision-making, at all
stages of development process, projects, programs or policy.

Gender-blind A failure to recognize that gender is an essential determinant of social

outcomes impacting on projects and policies. A gender-blind approach
assumes that gender is not an influencing factor in projects, programs or

Gender An understanding that there are socially determined differences between

Awareness women and men based on learned behaviour, which affects access to and
control over resources. This awareness needs to be applied through gender
analysis into projects, programs and policies.

Gender Encompasses the ability to acknowledge and highlight existing gender

Sensitivity differences, issues and inequalities and incorporate these into strategies
and actions.

Gender Equality The result of the absence of discrimination on the basis of a person’s sex
in opportunities and the equal allocation of resources or benefits or in
access to services.

Gender Equity Entails the provision of fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits
and responsibilities between women and men. The concept recognizes that
women and men have different needs and power and that these differences
should be identified and addressed in a manner that rectifies the
imbalances between the sexes.

Gender Analysis Gender Analysis is the process of analyzing information in order to ensure
development benefits and resources are effectively and equitably targeted
to both women and men, and to successfully anticipate and avoid any
negative impacts development interventions may have on women or on
gender relations. Gender analysis is conducted through a variety of tools

and frameworks. It includes a methodology for collecting and processing
information about gender.

Sex- For a gender analysis, all data should be separated by sex in order to allow
disaggregated differential impacts on men and women to be measured.

Gender Planning Refers to the process of planning developmental programs and projects
that are gender sensitive and which take into account the impact of
differing gender roles and gender needs of women and men in the target
community or sector. It involves the selection of appropriate approaches to
address not only women and men’s practical needs, but also identifies entry
points for challenging unequal relations (i.e. strategic needs) and for
enhancing the gender-responsiveness of policy dialogue.

Gender Roles Learned behaviours in a given society/community, or other special group,

that condition which activities, tasks and responsibilities are perceived as
male and female. Gender roles are affected by age, class, race, ethnicity,
religion and by the geographical, economic and political environment.
Changes in gender roles often occur in response to changing economic,
natural or political circumstances, including development efforts. Both men
and women play multiple roles in society

Gender Needs Leading on from the fact that women and men have differing roles based
on their gender, they will also have differing gender needs. These needs
can be classified as either strategic or practical needs.

Access and Productive, reproductive and community roles require the use of resources.
Control In general, women and men have different levels of both access (the
opportunity to make use of something) to the resources needed for their
work, and control (the ability to define its use and impose that definition
on others) over those resources.

Resources Resources can be economic: such as land or equipment; political: such as

representation, leadership and legal structures; social: such as child care,
family planning, education; and also time—a critical but often scarce

WID and GAD Women in Development (WID) and Gender and Development (GAD) are
sometimes used interchangeably, but there are some basic differences.
The WID approach was developed in the 1970s with the objective of
designing actions and policies to integrate women fully into development.

The GAD approach was developed in the 1980s with the objective of
removing disparities in social, economic and political equality between
women and men as a pre-condition for achieving people-centered
development. Both approaches are still in use and are applicable in
different ways.

Socialization It is a process of informal learning which imparts certain values, attitudes.

Socialization is a continuous and life long process and several institutions
starting with the family we are born in help in perpetuating gender based
behaviour. Often the socialization process is subtle and the only time we
realize its working is when we go against the prescribed norms.

Culture The distinctive patterns of ideas, beliefs, and norms which characterise
the way of life and relations of a society or group within a society

Gender The systematic, unfavourable treatment of individuals on the basis of their

Discrimination gender, which denies them rights, opportunities or resources. Women’s
differential access to power and control of resources is central to this
discrimination in all institutional spheres, i.e. the household, community,
market, and state.

Gender Division The socially determined ideas and practices which define what roles and
of Labor activities are deemed appropriate for women and men. While the gender
division of labour tends to be seen as natural and immutable, in fact, these
ideas and practices are socially constructed.

Patriarchy Systemic societal structures that institutionalize male physical, social and
economic power over women. The concept of patriarchy to explain the
systematic subordination of women by both overarching and localized
structures. These structures work to the benefit of men by constraining
women’s life choices and chances

Women A ‘bottom-up’ process of transforming gender power relations, through

Empowerment individuals or groups developing awareness of women’s subordination and

building their capacity to challenge it. Empowerment is sometimes
described as being about the ability to make choices, but it must also
involve being able to shape what choices are on offer. What is seen as
empowering in one context may not be in another.

Gender Relations Hierarchical relations of power between women and men that tend to
disadvantage women. These gender hierarchies are often accepted as
‘natural’ but are socially determined relations, culturally based, and are
subject to change over time. They can be seen in a range of gendered
practices, such as the division of labour and resources, and gendered
ideologies, such as ideas of acceptable behaviour for women and men.

Gender Based Gender based violence is defined as any act that results in a bodily,
Violence psychological, sexual and economic harm to somebody just because they are
female or male. Such act results in the deprivation of freedom and negative
consequences. This violence may be exercised within or outside households
(GBV law:59/2008)

Masculinity Masculinity refers to the multiple ways that manhood is socially defined
across the historical and cultural context and to the power differences
between specific versions of manhood. Eg: a version of manhood associated
with the dominant social class (economic, cultural, ethnic, sexual


The first part of the gender training module covers the general introduction
with welcome and introductory session, participant’s expectations, training
goals and objectives as well as highlighting the methodological approach that
will be applied throughout the training. It also includes exercises to help
participants get to know each other better, for the purpose of networking
but also to make the training environment more comfortable and favorable.
Exercises that stimulate participant’s participation and expression are
mostly applied.

Activity 1.1 Why a Gender Training?

People in virtually all countries share gender-differentiated roles and

responsibilities both in the private and public spheres. These roles reflect
varying societal values, attitudes, knowledge and national, regional, and/or
local/community realities. However, many countries are concerned with the
unequal economic and social development opportunities and status between
men and women. The disparities significantly affect women’s risk of poverty.
Often ensuing poverty further exacerbates gender inequities and exposes
women to levels of discrimination and poverty not faced by their male
counterparts. In communities where social and economic roles and the
division of labor are gender-biased, even meticulously planned interventions,
if gender-blind, can have unanticipated and adverse impacts.

This gender training aims to develop gender awareness among stakeholders

involved in development policy, planning and implementation. It helps
development policy makers, planners and implementation stakeholders
understand the differential impact on men and women of development
interventions and increase the knowledge of the different needs and
preferences that men and women have. The training aims to increase the
awareness among participants that addressing gender issues in policy
formulation, program/project design and implementation can increase
development effectiveness.

Activity 1.2: Welcome and Introductions
 To help the facilitators to introduce themselves and get to know the
 To help the participants to get to know each other
 To build trust and a develop safe environment for the duration of the


1. Each participant is asked to introduce themselves in turn by simply
adding an adjective before their name that begins with the same letter,
followed by the name of the organization and the work they do
2. The facilitator leads by giving an example, I am serious Sam! I am jolly
Joy! I work with PROFEMMES Twese Hamwe as a women empowerment

3. This can be done when seated, but is more fun and active if participants
stand in a circle. Ask each person to accompany the name with a
movement or gesture. When they step back it is the next person turn
(the one they choose)

4. If the facilitator knows any other exercise she/he should feel free to
use it

There is no need to debrief after this exercise. Most importantly an
atmosphere of informality is established. The physical movement relaxes
participants and puts them at ease with others. The facilitator should
inform the participants that they can feel free to use any language while
introducing themselves. The trainer is sure that the exercise reduces the
curiosity of identifying each participant and vice versa. Participants will also
discover each other, they’ll gain a network of people with whom they can
collaborate even after the training. The exercise is one of the ways that
raises attentiveness among participants even for the trainer

Activity 1.3: Training Goals and Expectation
 To discover the expectations of the participants and learn about their
interest in the training
 To help the participants to get to know each other
 To build trust and develop a safe environment for the duration of the

Materials: 20m
Small Cards, Flip Chart, Marker pens
1. Split participants into pairs
2. Distribute small cards among participants (each pair)
3. Write down the following questions on a flip chart and ask each
participant to ask these questions to their partner during the exercise:
a. What is your background/ experience in gender?
b. What do you hope to gain from this training/your expectations?”
2. After 5 minutes of interviewing each other, ask the participants to arrive
at a common expectation from the training that they both agree on and
write it on a card
3. Ask each pair to report their common expectation to the plenary one
after the other

Facilitator’s notes:
The important aspect in this exercise is that participants do not report only
their own expectations but learn to work in groups/pairs. In this way the
exercise is neutral to seniority: participants sitting next to each other
interview each other. If the groups are larger than 20 persons, it is
important to emphasize that people should stick to 1 minute to report back
the most important aspects. Otherwise this exercise might end up being too
long and participants might get bored. The facilitator should make a
summary of the expectations of the participants and link it with the overall
objective of the workshop. The facilitators should use this exercise to
clarify what they will be able to achieve in the given time frame of the
workshop and tell participants that items will be discussed later if required.

Activity 1.4: Setting ground rules
 To collectively develop and follow the ground rules to foster and
encourage respect for each other and improve communication among
the group so that participants can share their views without any
hesitation in front of the group
 To clarify what kind of behavior the participants expect from each
other to build trust and develop a safe environment for the duration
of the workshop

Methodology: Brainstorming 25m

Materials required: Chart paper, tape and markers

1. Ask the participants to sit in a circle and inform them that the
purpose of the activity is to collectively develop a list of ground rules
for discussion within the group so that the group’s time together is
productive and respectful and each participant feels comfortable to
express his/her doubts, curiosities, opinions, and points of view.
2. Ask the group to suggest ground rules they feel are important
3. Have the group discuss and vote on these ground rules. Those that the
majority of the participants support should be written up on the large
sheets of paper hanging on the wall
4. Invite all the participants to sign the ground rules
5. Explain to the group that these ground rules were decided
democratically and, therefore, we will follow these in the following
6. Point out that the focus of the workshops is to promote critical
reflection of different gender norms, attitudes, and behaviors and to
provide a space where participants can reflect on what choices are
best for them in relation to the topics that will be addressed

Facilitator notes: Revisit these ground rules as necessary through the

various activities, particularly before the discussion of anticipated
problematic topics. Below are some examples of ground rules that are
generally useful in promoting respectful discussion:
 Listen carefully to what others say.

 Do not interrupt when someone is speaking
 Confidentiality
 Clarify any questions or doubts as soon as you can.
 Respect time and be punctual.
 Respect differing opinions
 Do not laugh or make fun of other participants’ comments or
 Switch off/put in silent mode mobile phones

Activity 1.5: Concluding Exercise
At the end of this session, share the final agenda of the workshop with the
participants and give a copy of the agenda to them. Ask them to review it
briefly and give time to ask for clarification.


1. Convey the workshop schedule clearly with start, lunch and tea
breaks, and closure timings. Point out the location of the bathrooms
and other facilities that the participants need to know
2. Ask for volunteers to be the ‘eyes’ and ‘ears’ of the workshop and to
give an informal feedback of the participants to the facilitators at
the end of the day. This would help the facilitators to know if there
are any sessions or methodology that the participants are not happy


This section of the training module covers various gender related

definitions and concepts: It reviews and explains key concepts on gender,
social construction of gender, gender roles and stereotypes and gendered
institutions and structures which sensitize participants on how gender is
socially constructed and how it shapes masculine and feminine identities,
behaviors, attitudes and practices with particular reference to gender
inequalities. It also shows the historical perspectives of gender with the aim
of putting into historical perspective the struggle for gender equality and
identifies key landmarks in this process

Session 2.1: Definition and difference between gender and sex
‘Gender’ refers to the socially determined ideas and practices of what it is
to be female or male, how a person’s biology is culturally valued and
interpreted into locally accepted ideas of what it is to be a woman or
man, whereas ‘Sex’ refers to the biological characteristics that
categorize someone as having either a female or male body

 Objectives
 To enable the participants to reflect on their understanding of sex
and gender
 To clarify the difference between sex and gender for the
 To increase the understanding of the concept of gender
 To increase the comfort level of participants with these issues

Methodology: Brainstorming, discussion based on guiding questions 1hou

Materials: flipcharts, markers, papers and pens r

1. Take a flip chart and write in bold letters ‘YES IT’S GENDER’ and paste
it on a wall. Take another flip chart and write ‘NO IT’S SEX’ on it and
paste it on the opposite wall. Ask the participants to come together in
the middle of the room. Explain to them that you will read out a series of
statements. After each statement, the participants have to decide
whether the characteristic/behavior in the statement is gender or sex
and accordingly go and stand near the ‘YES IT’S GENDER’ or ‘NO IT’S
SEX’’ sign post. Each participant must decide for themselves without
discussing it with others. Explain to the participants that there is no
right or wrong response and the participants should freely choose
whatever they think is correct according to them. Read out the following
 Men do not need tenderness and are less sensitive than women
 Most drivers in Rwanda are men
 Women give birth to babies men don’t
 Care of babies is the responsibility of women
 Only women can breastfeed babies

 Men have moustache
 Women cannot carry heavy loads
 Women are scared of working outside their homes at night
 Men’s voices break at puberty women’s don’t
 Women are emotional and men are rational
 Most of the women have long hair and men have short hair
 Most scientists are men
 Cooking comes naturally to women
2. After each statement, once the participants take a stand ask them to
explain why they think so. Once everyone had a chance to explain why
they chose those answers ask them if they think the
behavior/characteristic in the statement is determined by the biological
or physical differences between men and women. Encourage the
participants to discuss and debate whether there are exceptions to the
statement and if yes then how do these exceptions come about?
3. Through these discussions, highlight the physical/biological differences
between women and men and the social differences between them.
4. Based on the discussion during this exercise, ask the participants what
they understand by sex and gender. Draw a vertical line in the middle of
the flip chart and write sex on one side and gender on the other. Ask the
participants to give the characteristics of sex and gender. Make sure
that the participants point out points in handout

Facilitator’s notes
Explain to the group that these statements were meant to generate a
discussion around how society promotes images of men and women, which
results in gender biases and images. Understanding the difference between
gender and sex is critical as it helps understand the cause of inequity
between men and women. The cause of unequal relationship between men and
women is the socially constructed attributes of men and women.

Key message:
 Gender and sex are two different concepts with different meanings
 Sex refers to biological characteristics that categorize someone as
having either a female or male
 Gender is the result of a social construction


The table below shows the difference between gender and sex. It is
important not to undermine the significance of biological difference. Some
biological/physical differences do require differential treatment. Women’s
marginalization has often been seen as ‘natural’ and a fact of their biology.
However these biological differences cannot explain why women have less
access to power and lower status than men. Gender and the hierarchical
power relations between women and men based on this are socially
constructed, and not derived directly from biology. Gender identities and
associated expectations of roles and responsibilities are therefore
changeable between and within cultures.

Biologically determined Constructed by society
Universal for all human beings Multi-faceted differs within and
between cultures
Unchanging Dynamic, changes over time
Inborn Acquired

Session 2.2: Social construction of gender
 To enable participants to understand the differential behavior norms
ascribed to men and women
 To identify sources that influence and reinforce these behaviors
 To understand the consequences of different behavior for
girls/women and boys/men

Methodology: Brainstorming in plenary session, individual thinking, group

work and discussion
Materials: flipcharts, markers, papers and handouts

1. Divide the participants in 3 groups. Assign each group one of the task in
Handout 2. Give 15min to the group to discuss and complete their task.
The facilitators should circulate during the group work to ensure that
each group has understood the task clearly.


Group 1
Task: Discuss the following Case Study and answer the questions given
at the end.
Case Study: Gasaro and Ntwali are a married couple living in Munini. One day
they heard the good news that Gasaro’s sister gave birth to a baby boy. The
next day they heard that Ntwali’s cousin has become a father of a baby girl.
Gasaro and Ntwali are invited for the naming ceremony of the two new born
babies. Gasaro and Ntwali decide to purchase gifts for the new born baby
girl and boy as they prepare to attend the naming ceremony.
a. What gifts do you think Gasaro and Ntwali bought for the baby girl
and the baby boy? Why? What would happen if they exchange the
b. What names do you think they suggest for the baby boy and baby girl?
Is there a reason for suggesting a particular name?

Group 2
Task: Discuss the following Case Study and answer the questions given
at the end.
Case Study: Mutesi is a young woman living in Kabeza. She is in love with
Musoni and is getting married to him with her family’s blessings. Before the
wedding, Mutesi’s bridal shower is organized and attended by older women
of her family to give her advice for the new phase of her life.
a. What advice do you think Mutesi is given by the older women?
b. Do you think Musoni is also given advice before the wedding? If yes,
then what advice do you think is given to him? If not, then why do you
think he is not given any advice?

Group 3
Task: Discuss and answer the following questions: In the context of
a. How would a bride and a bridegroom behave on their wedding day?
b. How would a woman/man show her/his anger?
c. How would a woman/man show her/his pain?
d. How would a woman/man behave in a big gathering?

2. Give 15 minutes to the each group to discuss and make presentation to

the plenary. After the plenary ask the following questions:
 Do you find that women and men behave differently in different
situations? Why?
 How and where are these behavior learned?
 At what stage of our lives do we learn these behaviors?
 What impact do these have on the lives of men and women?

Facilitator notes:
During the presentation by different groups, be ready to probe and highlight
the different behavior expectations from girls and boys, women and men.
Explain the following terms to the participants during the discussion: Gender
roles, gender stereotypes, socialization. Building on the different examples
cited during plenary presentations, the facilitator can summarize with more
examples including:
 Child naming: Girls’ names, Mukobwajana, Mukakigeli, Mutamuriza,
Mukandoli, Mutesi, Murorunkwere; Boys’ names, Ntwari, Ngabo,
Rudahusha, Ngaboyisonga
 Toys: Boys tend to be given mechanical (cars, aero planes, pistol, piano
etc) toys, while girls are given toys (baby dolls etc) designed to enable
them practice motherhood
 Sex typing: Girls imitate what their mothers do and boys what their
fathers do
The best way to understand how socialization process works is by recalling
personal experiences. As conclusion the facilitators can ask the participants
to think about the different times in their lives when they were asked to
behave like a woman or a man. Encourage them to share these personal
experiences in the plenary. Probe how the participants felt when they went
through this experience.

Key message:
 Gender inequalities are learned through education various levels including the
family, school, religions, society and the wider community level

Session 2.3: Gender roles and stereotypes
 To understand how gender roles lead to gendered division of labour
 To enable participants to understand gender discrimination based on
stereotyping of male and female qualities
 To understand the social pressures, benefits and costs for men and
women to confirm to dominant gender roles
Gender role is the behaviors, attitudes values, beliefs and so on that a
particular cultural group considers appropriate for males and females on the
basis of their biological sex. Gender roles and expectations are learned.

A gender stereotype is a product of a subjective perception built with an

aim of confirming a society in which women have a lower status than men.
The consequences of these gender stereotypes are gender inequality, the
continuous reproduction of gender inequalities and gender based violence.

Methodology: brainstorming, large group sharing, small group sharing
Materials needed: Power point, Flip chart, cards, newsprint and markers
Ask all the participants to stand up and make a circle. Ask the participants
to volunteer to form two families:
1. Family 1: Husband (age 40), wife (35), a boy age 14yrs and a girl age
12yrs. The family lives in Kigali. The husband works in the office and
has a regular salary. The wife stays at home and looks after the
Family 2: Husband (age 35), wife (age 26), 3 boys (age 8, 6, 1) and one
girl (age 4). The family lives in a village in Muyange. They have a small
piece of land and do subsistence agriculture which allows them to
2. Once the participants have volunteered to play the role of different
family members, ask each group to role play different household
chores from morning until midnight.
3. Divide the remaining participants into two groups of observers and
assign them to the two families. Give the observers a 24 Hour day
chart and explain to them that they have to observe and note down

how task and responsibilities are distributed and carried out in a given
working day by the adult man and woman in the family.
4. Once the role play is over and the observer team has made detailed
notes in the 24 hour day chart, ask the entire group (Family 1
+observer of family 1 and family 2+observer of Family 2) to sit
together and go through the list that the observers have made. The
groups should discuss the following:

 Do these role plays reflect roles played by men, women, boys and
children in Rwandan families?
 Do you find any differences in roles played by men and boys and
roles played by women and girls?
 Ask the groups to categorise the roles of men and women into
productive/reproductive and community roles. Give hand out 5 for
the definition of the 3.
 Ask the groups to compare the different roles of men and women
and share them in the plenary.
Ask the group if the productive roles can be done without the reproductive

 Facilitator’s Notes
Facilitators should add the following points if they have not been
identified during the discussion:
 Division of labour: Women and girls concentrate on reproductive
chores while boys and men dominate the productive and political roles
 Decision-making: men decide family life including the life and
wellbeing of a woman
 Family headship: Men own the property and women only have user
rights. This property is passed on to the sons as custodians of family
 Kinship: Under patriarchy, the family name and identity is defined
along the male line. Children take on the names of their fathers. Girls
are expected to marry and go to stay with their husbands; boys are
seen as the permanent residents of the homestead, a factor that is
related to the expectation that they will offer protection to the
family and its wealth as well as being a continuation of the lineage.
The women’s roles are interior and private while men’s roles are external and
visible/public. The women’s roles are not very remunerative in terms of

money, respect, power whereas those of men are highly appreciated as they
fall within the productive category. Men’s responsibilities are associated
with economic and social capacity and with protected rights making it
possible for them to exert power over women. Women’s responsibilities are
associated with minor rights, which leads to social and economic dependence
and subordination compared to men. In the Rwandan traditional context, the
distribution of roles is enacted by culture and laws which:
 Dictate expectations of society towards men and women, perceptions,
attitudes and practices which are different.
 Determine needs and knowledge to acquire so that men and women
exert their roles and respective responsibilities,
 Determine the places and the moment when these roles will be
Key message:
 Participants are aware that the traditional division of labor between
men and women based on culture results in a overload of work for
women. Some socially assigned tasks empower people of one sex and
this distribution does not value the many others’s tasks. The
stereotypes continue to maintain this unequal division of tasks and
responsibilities and therefore resulting into power relations and


Time of the day Task - Man Task – Woman


Productive role: Comprises the work done by both men and women for payment in cash
or kind

Reproductive/Domestic role: comprises childbearing/rearing responsibilities as well as

domestic tasks, required to guarantee the maintenance and well being of household
members. It includes not only biological reproduction but also the care and maintenance
of the persons who comprise the household

Community management role: comprises activities undertaken at the community level

to contribute to the development or political organisation of the community. It is usually
voluntary, unpaid work.

Session 2.4 Gendered institutions and structures
 To understand how different institutions perpetuate gender roles
 To enable participants to reflect on positive and negative images
created and portrayed by these institutions

Methodology: brainstorming, large group sharing, small group sharing

Materials needed: Flip chart, cards, magazines, newspaper clippings,
1. Divide the participants into 4 groups. Ask each group to discuss on the
 Folk songs, proverbs, popular stories: ask the group to identify some
key examples of those songs, stories, proverbs which either reinforce
the existing roles and images or create new images of men/women.
Ask them to discuss if they convey a positive or negative images for
men and women. Do any of them specifically portray a preference for
boys or girls? What can we do to change these?
 Radio, TV Serials and advertisements: Repeat the same exercise as
above but this time ask the group to think about the popular TV
serials and magazines or advertisement either in print media or on TV.
 Social and cultural practices: ask the group to reflect on some cultural
and religious practices in their communities and families that are
different for men and women. On a flip chart sheet make 2 columns –
one for men and another for women. Ask the participants to list the
practices which have negative implications for men and women and
those which have positive implications. After listing these practices,
ask them to discuss the following:
o Who is imposing these practices? Who is benefiting from these
practices? Why do we continue to perform them if they are

Women Men
negative positive negative positive

 Religious practices: repeat the same exercise as above but this time ask
the group to reflect on religious practices.

Facilitator notes:
It is important to note that the institutions named above are not the only
ones that perpetuate gender roles but this depends on different cultures
and societies. Also remember to highlight that it is not always that these
institutions give only negative image of a woman.

Key message:
The language used and messages given through songs, proverbs, media, some
religious practices, social and cultural practices predetermine the gender
inequalities. Most of these portrays a negative image of a woman and thus as
development and change agents need to challenge them.


This section introduces the concepts of gender and development and the
factors as to why any development intervention should take into account
gender dynamics. Through the case studies given in this section,
participants learn about the unintended consequences, mostly negative, of
development projects if the different gender roles and relationships in a
community are not carefully analyzed and understood in planning and
implementing the projects. It provides a framework for considering
alternative ways of perceiving human social and cultural development and
organizing social, economic, and political life. This section therefore covers
gender from a development perspective, WID and GAD, practical and
strategic gender needs

Session 3.1 Gender from a development perspective
 To highlight the importance of looking at different gender needs in
development planning or perspective

Methodology: case Study, group discussion, PowerPoint presentation, lecture

Materials: case study handout, Flip chart, Markers, PowerPoint presentation.

Process: r

1. Divide the participants in 2 groups. Ask each group to discuss case study
1 in Handout 6.
2. Give the group 20mins to read and discuss the questions listed in the
case studies and then make a presentation to the plenary based on their
3. Share with the group your ideas about what happened in this particular
4. Ask participants if they know of a similar story in their country

This is the story of a project that was implemented in a remote village in
Ethiopia. This remote village was inhabited by one of the ethnic groups in
Ethiopia who had lived in isolation for a long time. The ethnic group had
minimal contact with the outside world and had no ‘modern facilities’. They
led a traditional life. One day, a non-governmental organization (NGO)
decided to do development work among this community. They sent a
representative to the community and asked him to design a development
project which will benefit the community. The NGO representative came to
the village and noticed that the nearest water source was 5 kilometers away
from the village and the women had to walk this distance everyday to fetch
water. The NGO representative held discussions with the elders of the
village and together they decided to dig a well in the village which will reduce
the time burden on the women. With the assistance of some fairly strong
men, they dug a well in the village and the men were taught how to maintain
it. A few months later, the NGO representative revisited the village to
assess the impact of the well on the lives of the women. He was shocked to
see that the well had been damaged and did not work any longer and women
were still walking 5 kilometers to fetch water.
Discussion Questions:
What happened?
In your opinion why was the well damaged so quickly?
Does this story have any connection with our own experience?

 Facilitator notes
The facilitators should keep the following point in mind while discussing the
story. The well was damaged because according to the culture of this
particular group, digging wells is meant for men, but maintenance of well and
fetching water was an activity reserved for women and not for men. The
women would take this opportunity to chat with their friends about the daily
problems they faced in their homes (marriage related issues). Women were
therefore left aside from their typical traditional activity. The men who had
been trained for the maintenance of the well did not really value the skill
they had been given as they considered it as a woman’s job. The facilitator
should also stress that any development intervention should take into
account gender dynamics and that this project was designed without an
understanding of the roles of men and women. The key questions that the

projects should have asked at the designing stage are – who does what? Who
has access to what resource, benefits and opportunities? Who controls the
resources, benefits, and opportunities?

Key message:
 The basic responsibilities entrusted socially just to women or just to men
hinder the development of the community. In any integrated
development, it is essential to involve men and women in basic
 Gender approach is an essential tool for development and one must take
into account the gender aspects in the design and implementation of
development projects.

Session 3.2: Women in development vs. gender approach
 To enable participants understand WID and GAD concepts
 To identify differences between a gender and a WID approach

Methodology: brainstorming and power point presentations 30m

Materials: Flipcharts, markers, projector and handouts

Exercise 1: Break participants into small groups. Distribute handout 6 then
ask participants to read it and ask how they would design this project
differently, if they were to adopt a gender approach. Illustrate the
difference between the two approaches using specific examples. The trainer
could first discuss the likely reasons why such a project would not succeed
and then move on to how the project could be designed with hindsight.


A project in an African country aimed to increase agricultural income by
introducing new crops suitable for exports. The cultivation of these crops
required large tracts of land and the use of machinery. Although no analysis
was undertaken, it was evident that women needed to be supported to
increase their income. A component was added that included: (i) training of
women extension agents in nutrition and family care (ii) provision of
extension services by these trained agents to women beneficiaries; (iii) some
training opportunities reserved for women beneficiaries; (iv) some income
generating activities for women in non-agricultural products.

The component was not successful. Women were rarely available for the
extension training, nor did they benefit from the training opportunities. The
majority of the incomes generating activities were unsuccessful because
women rarely have the assets required as collateral for small loans. And
there were no organized groups that could tap these credits.

Questions for Discussion:
• Were the intended objectives valid?
• Why did the project not succeed?
 What could have been the problems?
• What kind of information would the project designer need for developing
an effective project?

1. Problems Included: Why did the project not succeed?

 Extension trainers were male. Interaction was therefore difficult.
 Extension agents focused on cooking and nutrition when they spoke to
women. Extension trainers were not trained in the subsistence crops
that the women produced.
 Extension trainers went to their homes to look for women during the
day, when they were busy cultivating their own lands or working on
their household lands.
 It was also found that women were forced to spend time helping their
husbands cultivate new commercial crops and therefore had little time
for new agricultural activities.
 Women had no assets in their own name to provide as collateral for
loans and could not avail of the credit.
 Sustainability was a problem and funds were spent on women, without
any attempt to enhance their productivity.

2. Setting Objectives: What would be the gender outcomes or results for

this project?
[Answers could include empowerment of women, increasing the income that
women generate, and increasing productivity.]
 Ask participants what a gender objective would be
 Suggest that a gender-related objective would need to address
gender differences or changing the power structures in a way that will
advantage the currently disadvantaged sex
 Thus, in the above project, it was expected that increasing women’s
income would lead to more balanced decision making in the home on
how to spend the income.

3. Obtaining Information: What kinds of information would the project

designers have needed to design the project to achieve the above gender
objectives or outcomes?

[In order to design the project to achieve gender objectives, one would need
to fully understand the differential roles, responsibilities, assets, needs, and
preferences of both women and men].
 One would need to seek information on the differentials in terms of
access to and control over different types of assets/resources. For
example, what do women own in terms of land that they cultivate?
 Do they have the same needs in terms of extension services?
 Are current extension services reaching both women and men as
required and relevant for both of them?
 Do women control the income they generate?
 How can you increase women’s control over assets generated from the
project activity, etc?
 Where would they have found such information and how would they
have obtained it? [There are different ways project designers collect
information necessary for project design.]
 However, the most important point that needs to be made is that all
information-seeking activities undertaken during project preparation
must seek sex-disaggregated information as well as gender-related
information. This is the most efficient and effective way of obtaining
the necessary information.
 Thus, any interviews undertaken with stakeholders must ensure that
both women and men are represented.
 In interviewing institutional stakeholders, institutions that work with
women must be included.
 In addition, discuss where such information would be available.
 Also, discuss the possibility of doing qualitative assessments to
understand the different perspectives of both men and women.

4. Influencing Project Design: How would the new information influence

project design? What kinds of measures would address the problems they
found and ensure that women also benefited from the project?
[For example, if one knew that women owned only small portions of land on
which they essentially did subsistence farming and worked only as
unremunerated labor on their husband’s land, then it would be clear that the
extension services will not be equally relevant for women as for men, unless
some of the advice and services of extension agents would apply to
subsistence farming].

 Focus may then need to be placed on whether the income generated
from their subsistence farming can be increased.
 The proposed design could also include providing them with off-farm
income generating activities that may be undertaken together with
their subsistence farming.
 If the information indicates that women spend inordinate time finding
fuel and fodder, a component may be added to make such resources
more accessible so that they have greater time for leisure or other
productive activities.

5. How would they measure whether the project was benefiting both
men and women?
What would be a sex-disaggregated indicator?
 Number of beneficiaries receiving guidance from extension services,
disaggregated by sex;
 Number of women involved in income generating activities;
 Average increase in income per women;
What would be a gender indicator?
 Measuring change in gender relationships is difficult and often needs
to be done through qualitative surveys and interviews.

Facilitator Notes
Through these discussions, one would need to see if the increased incomes
resulted in greater empowerment of women and consequently improved
gender balance in the home.

Key message:
Gender is not women's matters. It is essential to involve as well women and
men in all stages of development at household, the project, the community;
so that both women’s and men’s specific needs are taken into account but
also ensure that they equally benefit

Women in Development approach came into being in the 1970’s when for the
first time gender variables were used to assess the impact of modernization
in developing countries. The dominant mainstream thinking on international
development did not consider women as a separate unit of analysis till then.
It was believed that all would benefit equally as societies increasingly
become modernized. The spate of studies in the 1970’s that used gender
variables to assess the impact of development on men and women showed
that women were left behind in the race to development. Research showed
that new technologies that were introduced in agriculture sector were
directed at men and tended to benefit them to the marginalization of
women. Similarly the enrollment figures in schools showed that girls were
less likely to complete school than boys. The Washington DC chapter of the
Society for International Development used this evidence to draw the
attention of American policy makers on issues around ‘women in
development’. They advocated for legal and administrative changes to ensure
that women are better integrated into the economic system.
However, the WID project focused more on involving women in income-
generating activities like micro credit or teaching of specific skills like
tailoring. The basic assumption of these projects was that access to income
will lead to significant change in the position of women in society. However,
these projects came under criticism as the evaluation showed that they
increased the workload of women and the indirect benefit of these projects
were going to men in the households. An evaluation of the micro credit
program in India showed that more than 70 per cent of the women in the
group had taken heavy loan from the group to purchase income generating
assets like a shop or a mini van for public transport which were registered in
their husband’s name. The income generated from these sources was under
the control of the men and the women were left to deal with the loans!
The Gender and Development approach emerged in the 1980’s as an
alternative to the earlier Women in Development approach. The GAD
approach is not concerned with the women per se but with the social
construction of gender and the assignment of specific roles, responsibilities
and expectations to women and men. The GAD approach does not focus
either on productive or reproductive aspect of women’s (or men’s) lives to
the exclusion of others. It looks at women’s contribution to both inside and
outside the household. The three main GAD principles and practice are:

1. Bring about change in gender relations
2. Work in a participatory way with men and women- making sure to
involve men because it takes men as well as women to change
gender relations.
3. Take a broader, historically informed view of gender relations and
its social context – it accepts that gender relations did not develop
over night and will not change over night.

Exercise 2:
 Ask participants to brainstorm on what they have understood by GAD
and WID and write answers on a flipchart
 Supplement and give more clarity on WID and GAD concepts
 Using a flipchart or projector, share with the participants the
differences between WID and GAD.


Women in Development Gender and Development (GAD)
The An approach which views An approach to people centered
women’s lack of participation development
as the problem

The Focus Women Relations between women and


The Problem The exclusion of women (half Unequal relations (between

of the productive resource) women and men, rich and poor)
from the development that prevents equitable
process development and women’s full
The Goal More efficient, effective Equitable, sustainable
development development with men and women
sharing decision-making and
The Solution Integrate women into existing Empower the disadvantaged and
structures women and transform unequal
relations and structures

The  Women only projects Identify/address practical
Strategies needs determined by women
 Women’s components and men to improve their
integrated projects condition
Increase  At the same time address
women’sproductivity strategic gender needs of
 Increase women’s income women and men

 Increase women’s ability  Address strategic needs of

to manage the household the poor through people
centered development gender

Session 3.3: Identifying practical needs and strategic interests
 To introduce a framework for differentiating between projects that
reinforce existing gender inequalities and projects that challenge
those identities

Methodology Small group analysis with guiding questions 1hou

Materials Flipcharts, handouts on practical needs and strategic interests
1. Introduce practical and strategic gender needs by posting the flipchart and
highlighting main aspects of each on it and give several examples of each

Practical needs Strategic interests

Short term Long term
 Basic needs (clean water, food, fuel,  Personal security, freedom from
housing) can be addressed through violence, legal rights, access to
concrete steps education and more difficult
issues to address
 Women can easily identify these  Often women cannot articulate
needs these needs
 Makes it easier for women to carry  Challenges the systems that
out roles and responsibilities define women’s and men’s roles
assigned to them by society and responsibilities
 Do not challenge subordinate  Challenges subordinate position
position of women to men of women

2. Ask some of the participants to cite a few of their projects or programs

and ask what practical and strategic needs are addressed in the project.
3. Break into smaller groups. Ask groups to take 10 minutes discussing the
following questions
 What are some practical gender needs for you?
 What are some strategic gender interests for you?
4. After 10 minutes, ask them to take 10 more minutes to discuss the
 Should development projects address practical gender needs,
strategic interests or both? What are the advantages or
disadvantages of each approach?
 What solution would you propose and why?

5. Tell them that each group should be ready to make a 5 minute
presentation of their discussions.
6. Close with a summary based on their presentation

Facilitator Notes
It is useful for gender training facilitator to be aware of the different
implications of each approach so that they can ask appropriate questions
to assist workshop participants with their own analysis.

Key message:
The gender approach is used in a long-term vision of development;
development projects must therefore be designed taking into account the
practical needs of men and women as well as strategic interests.


This section introduces a summary of frameworks/tools used while

analyzing gender and how to plan accordingly. It also presents an example of
a gender analysis matrix and why any development intervention should take
into account gender dynamics. With the example given in this section,
participants learn about the unintended consequences, mostly negative, of
development projects if the different gender roles and relationships in a
community are not carefully analyzed and understood in planning and
implementing the projects. It provides a framework for considering
alternative ways of perceiving human social and cultural development and
organizing social, economic and political life. It therefore covers three/four
frameworks: the Harvard analytical framework, Moser framework, Women’s
Equality and Empowerment Framework and Gender analysis matrix.

Session 4.1 Introduction to conceptual frameworks of gender analysis
 To help participants understand the various tools/frameworks used
while analyzing gender and how to plan accordingly
 To help participants understand how to do a gender analysis and

Methodology: Power point presentation with questions in an interactive
Materials: projector, laptop, flipcharts markers and handouts

With the use of a PowerPoint presentation, present the a summary of
frameworks with slides on how each works and what it aims at


 The Harvard Analytical Framework;
 The Moser Framework
 The Women’s Empowerment Framework
 Gender Analysis Matrix


The Harvard Analytical Framework is also called the Gender Roles
Framework or Gender Analysis Framework. Developed by the Harvard
Institute for International development in collaboration with the WID
Office of USAID, and based on the WID efficiency approach, it is one of
the earliest gender analysis and planning frameworks. The Harvard
analytical framework sets out to: 1) make an economic case for allocating
resources to women as well as men; and 2): to assist planners to design more
efficient projects. It is most useful for projects that are agricultural or
rural based, and/or that are adopting a sustainable livelihood approach to
poverty reduction. It is also useful to explore the twin facts of productive
and reproductive work, especially with groups that have limited experience

of analyzing differences between men and women. The framework is
designed as a grid for collecting data at the micro-level.

Aims of the Harvard Framework

 To demonstrate that there is an economic rationale for investing in
women as well as men
 To assist planners in designing more efficient projects and improve
overall productivity
 To emphasize the importance of better information as the basis for
meeting the efficiency/equity goal
 To map the work of men and women in the community and highlight the
key differences

The framework consists of a matrix for collecting data at the micro-
(community and household) level. It has four inter-related components:
 The activity profile, which answers the question “who does what?”,
including gender, age, time spent and location of the activity;
 The access and control profile, which identifies the resources used to
carry out the work identified in the activity profile, and access to and
control over their use, by gender;
 The analysis of influencing factors, which charts factors that influence
gender differences in the above two profiles;
 The project cycle analysis, which examines a project or intervention in
light of gender-disaggregated information. The framework also contains a
series of checklists consisting of key questions to ask at each stage of
the project cycle: identification, design, implementation and evaluation.

Example 1: Activity Profile Chart
Type of Who When How Where How Why
Activity (Gender/Age) Often




Who - Male Adult, Female Adult, Male Child, Female Child
What- Activities carried out
When- Time of the year/day
Where- Location of the activity, i.e. at home or away
How- Means of doing the activity, i.e. is it manual or technological
How often- Number of times it is done over a space of time
Why- What reason justifies the gender that does it


The Moser framework (Gender planning) was developed as a planning

tradition in its own right. It takes the view that gender planning, unlike
other mainstream planning, is “both technical and political in nature” . It
assumes conflict in the process. It involves transformative processes and
characterizes planning as a “debate.” There are six tools in the framework
that can be used for planning at all levels from project to regional planning.

One of the most popularly used frameworks is that developed by Caroline
Moser. It is based on her concepts of gender roles and gender needs, and
policy approaches to gender and development planning. Other sections in this
module discuss the concepts of gender roles and gender needs, and contain
exercises which clarify an understanding of these concepts. Moser
categorizes the main policy approaches to women and development as
follows: Policy approaches to low-income Third World women have shifted
over the past decade, mirroring shifts in macro-economic development
policies. Five different policy approaches can be identified, each categorized
in terms of the roles of women on which they focus and the practical and
strategic needs they meet.

Welfare: Earliest approach, 1950-70. Its purpose is to bring women into

development as better mothers. Women are seen as passive beneficiaries of
development. It recognizes the reproductive role of women and seeks to
meet practical gender needs (PGNs) associated with that role through top-
down handouts of food aid and measures against malnutrition and family
planning. It is non-challenging and, therefore, still widely popular.

Equity: The original WID approach, used in the 1976-85 UN Women’s

Decade, its purpose is to gain equity for women, who are seen as active
participants in development. It recognizes women’s triple role (productive,
reproductive and community-based) and seeks to meet strategic gender
needs (SGNs) through direct state intervention giving political and economic

autonomy, and reducing inequality with men. It challenges women’s
subordinate position. Criticized as Western feminism, equity is considered
threatening, and is unpopular with governments.

Anti-poverty: The second WID approach, a toned-down version of equity,

adopted from the 1970s onward. Its purpose is to ensure that poor women
increase their productivity. Women’s poverty is seen as a problem of
underdevelopment, not of subordination. It recognizes the productive role of
women, and seeks to meet the PGN to earn an income, particularly in small-
scale income-generating projects. It is most popular with NGOs.

Efficiency: The third, and now predominant, WID approach, adopted

particularly since the 1980s debt crisis. Its purpose is to ensure that
development is more efficient and effective through women’s economic
contribution, with participation often equated with equity. It seeks to meet
PGNs while relying on all three roles and an elastic concept of women’s time.
Women are seen entirely in terms of their capacity to compensate for
declining social services by extending their working day, a very popular

Empowerment: The most recent approach, articulated by Third World

women. Its purpose is to empower women through greater self-reliance.
Women’s subordination is experienced not only because of male oppression
but also because of colonial and neo-colonial oppression. It recognizes the
triple role and seeks to meet SGNs indirectly through bottom-up
mobilization of PGNs. Empowerment is potentially challenging, although its
avoidance of Western feminism makes it unpopular except with Third World
women’s NGOs.

Uses of the framework:

• For planning at all levels from policies to projects;
• In conjunction with Harvard framework

Strengths of Moser’s framework:

 Moves beyond technical elements of planning, recognizing its political
elements and assuming conflict of interests in the planning process.
Recognizes the transformative potential of gender planning;

 Conceptualizes planning as aiming to challenge unequal gender relations
and support women’s empowerment;
 Makes all work visible and valuable to planners through the concept of
triple roles;
 Distinguishes between types of gender needs: those that relate to
women’s daily lives but maintain existing gender relations (practical
gender needs) and those that potentially transform existing gender
subordination (strategic gender needs); categorizes policy approaches.

Potential limitations
 The idea of gender roles obscures the notion of gender relationships
and can give the false impression of natural order and equality;
 The framework does not mention other forms of inequality, such as
class, race or ethnicity;
 The framework is static and does not examine change over time as a
 The policy approaches should not be seen as mutually exclusive; they
may often overlap each other in practice.


This framework was developed by Sara Hlupekile, a gender expert from
Lusaka, Zambia. It aims to assist planners as well as question what women’s
equality and empowerment means in practice and to what extent a
development intervention supports empowerment. Women’s empowerment is
defined as “enabling women to take an equal place with men, and to
participate equally with men in the development processes in order to
achieve control over the factors of production on an equal basis with men.”

Aims of the framework

 To achieve women’s empowerment by enabling women to achieve equal
control over the factors of production and participate equally in the
development process.
Longwe argues that poverty arises not from lack of productivity, but from
oppression and exploitation. She conceptualizes five progressive levels of
equality, arranged in hierarchical order, with each higher level denoting a

higher level of empowerment. These are the basis to assess the extent of
women’s empowerment in any area of social or economic life. The levels of
equality are:

Control Using the participation of women in the decision-making

process to achieve balance of control between men and
women over the factors of production, without one in a
position of dominance.
Participation Pertains to women’s equal participation in the decision making
process, policy-making, planning and administration. In
development projects, it includes involvement in needs
assessment, project design, implementation and evaluation.

Conscientization. Pertains to an understanding of the difference between sex

roles and gender roles and the belief that gender relations
and the gender division of labor should be fair and agreeable
to both sides, and not based on the domination of one over
the other
Access Pertains to women’s access to factors of production of three
fourths of land, labor, credit, training, marketing facilities,
and all publicly available services and benefits three-fourths
on an equal basis with men. Equality of access is obtained by
securing equality of opportunity through legal reform to
remove discriminatory provisions.
Welfare Pertains to level of material welfare of women, relative to
men, with respect to food supply, income and medical care,
without reference to whether women are themselves the
active creators and producers of their material needs.
The women’s empowerment framework identifies three levels of recognition
of women’s issues in project design:

Negative level Where project objectives are silent about women’s

Experience suggests that women are likely to be left
worse off by such a project.
Neutral level Where the project objectives recognize women’s issues
and concern but remains neutral or conservative, merely
ensuring that women are not left worse off than before.

Positive level Where project objectives are positively concerned with

women’s issues and with improving the position of women
relative to men.

Uses of the framework
Particularly useful for groups committed to promoting equality and
empowerment through their work

Strengths of the framework

It develops the notion of practical and strategic gender needs into a
progressive hierarchy. Shows that empowerment is an essential element of
development and enables assessment of interventions along this criterion,
and has a strong political perspective, aims to change attitudes.

Potential limitations
 Assumption of levels of equality as strictly hierarchical is questionable.
 Framework is static and takes no account of how situations change over
 Examines gender relations from the point of view of equality alone,
excludes interrelationship between rights and responsibilities.
 Ignores other forms of inequality.

4.1.4 Gender Analysis Matrix
 To help participants understand how to do a gender analysis
 To introduce the gender Matrix
Methodology: presentation with questions in an interactive manner
Materials: flipcharts, handouts on: definitions for the gender analysis
matrix, blank gender analysis matrix and a completed gender analysis matrix
1. Introduce the activity by explaining that they are now going to use a tool
for gender analysis known as the gender analysis matrix

2. Display the flipchart sheet Gender analysis matrix: what? Why? Who?
When? and read loud
 What? A tool for gender analysis of development projects at
community level
 Why? To determine the different impacts of development
interventions on women and men
 Who? Analysis is done by a group within the community which
preferably should include women and men in equal numbers
 When? At the planning stage to determine whether potential gender
effects are desirable and consistent with program goals
3. Distribute copies of handouts on definitions for gender analysis matrix.
Display the blank Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) on the flipchart
4. Review the handout while pointing to the appropriate boxes on the matrix


Project Objective:
Labour Time Resources Culture


5. Explain that the GAM is filled in taking each level and assessing the
impact of the project on each category shown. For example, what impact
will the project have on women’s work - the response is written in the box
for women and labour. What impact will the project have on women’s
resources; will they lose access to land or control over money they earn?
6. Explain that the GAM is used with groups of community members with
equal representation of women and men, and it is facilitated by a
development worker like the participants themselves. Over time,
community members themselves will facilitate the process, but in the
early stages, an experienced trainer is needed. The analysis will be done
by the group
7. Display the partially filled matrix for the project on bringing water to all
the homes in one village. Explain the filled boxes. Ask participants what
would be the project impact on women’s resources, labour, time and


Project Objective:
Labour Time Resources Culture
Women + no longer + saves time
need to
transport + option of
water leisure

Men Training, Unease

building and about
maintenance women
take more having
time free time
household + better
+ more
Community + trained
committee for

water system

1. Are the effects listed above desirable? Are they consistent with the
program goal?
2. How will this activity affect those who do not participate?
3. Unexpected results- to be identified during implementation

8. After several minutes of having participants generate ideas show an

example of a complete GAM by distributing the GAM handout.
9. Explain to the group that all the boxes have been filled in with potential
changes the project might bring. Those filling out the matrix would go
back to it and do the following.
 Put a plus (+) sign if it is consistent with program goals
 Put a minus (-) sign if it is contrary to program goals
 Put a question mark (?) if they are unsure whether it is consistent or
10. Point to the filled matrix how it has been filled
11. Finally explain that when using the GAM in the field certain rules should
be followed. Post the rules shown below and read them aloud.
 Where possible women and men in equal numbers should do the
 The analysis should be reviewed and revised once a month for the
first three months
 Every box should be verified on each review of the GAM and must be
used for other standard tools of analysis e.g. monitoring and needs
assessment tools
12. Assure participants that they will learn more about how GAM works by
actually doing the analysis with their own projects themselves

Project Objective: Piped water is brought to all homes in one village
Labour Time Resources Culture
Women + no longer + saves time +water is -Reduction of
need to easily mobility
transport + option of available
water leisure forGardens -Social
irrigation interaction at
water source
Men + Acquire skills Training, +Better -Uneasy about
in water building and health women having
system maintenance free time
building and take more +More
maintenance time water

household + Net savings + women have + better ? women more

or increase in more time for health at home
labour child care and
other home + more
based work water

Community + trained ? Less time + more - women’s

community for leisure water easily Involvement
committee for for men, more available in community
water system time for self
maintenance women management
of water
- women
interact less
with each
1. Are the effects listed above desirable? Are they consistent with the
program goal? Yes, but with potentially negative socio-cultural effects
2. How will this activity affect those who do not participate? All are involved
– women
3. Unexpected results- to be identified during implementation.
 Women collect and transport water for family needs
 Women leave homes regularly only to go to the water source

Comparing Gender Frameworks
When selecting a framework for your particular work, it is important to
consider their main conceptual differences. Following, is a list of the most
useful questions to ask.

 To what extent does the framework incorporate an analysis of social

relations, which goes beyond issues of gender?
 What is the ultimate goal of each framework? Is it focusing on
efficiency or empowerment?
 How flexible are different gender frameworks? Given time, gender
roles and relations change naturally in any community.
 Does the framework mainly analyze social roles or social relations? A
gender analysis that focuses primarily on roles takes the gender
division of labour, and the gendered distribution of resources as
its starting point. A gender-roles analysis therefore sees a
community mainly in terms of who does what, who has what, and
so on. Alternatively, a gender analysis which focuses on relations
sees a community mainly in terms of how members relate to each
 What is the role of the planner in the framework?
 Which gender frameworks can also be used in work addressing male
gender identity and roles?

Facilitator notes:
It is important to note that Most of the gender frameworks except the
Women’s Empowerment (Longwe) Framework do look at the gender roles and
relations of both women and men, and so could be used for projects which
target men. The Moser Framework looks at the strategic gender needs of
women only and the later ones include men as well and can also be used with
projects that address male gender roles.

Key message:
The four tools are used to analyze the gender situation in the context of each
 Harvard analytical framework :essentially used to assist planners to
allocate economic resources to men as well as to women; to help for
mapping the work of men and women in the community and highlight
the key differences
 Moser framework: Focuses on gender roles and gender needs in order
to empower women or men accordingly.
 The Women’s Empowerment Framework: Used by planners to enable
women to take an equal place with men, and to participate equally with
men in the development processes in order to achieve control over the
factors of production on an equal basis with men.
 Gender analysis matrix: Is a tool used for gender analysis of
development projects at community level, to determine the different
impacts of development interventions on women and men. The analysis
is done by a group within the community which preferably should
include women and men in equal numbers. It is used at different
stages of project planning and implementation, especially at the
planning stage to determine whether potential gender effects are
desirable and consistent with program goals.


As previously noted, gender is a complex variable that nestles in social,

cultural, economic, and political contexts across time and space. Gender is
also cross-sectoral and serves as a lens through which any number of themes
may be analyzed. While the list is not exhaustive, below are examples of the
links between gender and development in selected sectors. This is depicted
by the exercises given below which allows participants to explore the
possible gender related norms in the context of Rwanda that could
hamper education, health, agriculture and justice.

Session 5.1 Understanding gender in the Rwandan context
 To acquaint participants with knowledge on gender related issues that
hamper education, health, agriculture and justice and law in Rwandan
 To help participants understand how to address gender related issues
vis-à-vis education, health, agriculture and justice and law in Rwanda

Methodology: Brainstorming, group discussion based on guiding questions and

Materials: flipcharts, markers, cards, paper and pens

1. The facilitator starts off the session with reference to the previous
sessions on understanding the concepts of gender and gender in
2. The facilitator helps the participants to form four groups that will work
on the following themes:
 Group 1: Gender and culture
 Group 2: Gender and Justice and Law 2hou
 Group 3: Gender and Education
 Group 4: Gender and Agriculture
 Group 5: Gender and Health
N.B each group should identify gender related issues in each sector and
propose solutions to the identified gender related problems or issues
3. Presentation group work in a plenary session
4. Summary of points raised during discussion in the plenary session per

Facilitator notes: Please note that each group should define clearly the
topic to be discussed e.g. what is culture, agriculture, education, health,
justice and law and how are they related to gender in Rwandan context. Also
important to note is that the patriarchal structure in Rwanda has set the
life of women and men in society thus giving them different roles and
identity. In most cases this system determines the rules, interpretation of

laws and religious norms, and enforceability of laws. It further determines
who has access and control over resources. Remarkably, the patriarchal
system has not only impeded women’s rights but has also retarded societal
development, the two factors being the backbone of development of any
given society.


The findings from MIGEPROFE and UNFPA Study 2002 on the beliefs,
attitudes and socio-cultural practices related to gender in Rwanda, showed
that the traditional and modern society allocate a very important favor to
male children because they are seen as the family heirs, responsible for the
perpetuity, continuity and durability of the family and the clan name.

The boy is a life insurance for the parents, economically independent and
defender of the family, clan and country. Parents want male children at any
cost, also ignoring the fact that biologically it is the man who determines the
sex of children, and women are often bothered and even ill-treated for not
having born male children. The girl is liked because she helps her mother. In
the traditional practice, the woman benefited from the protection of the
man, but at the same time this protection prevented the woman from
possessing any property, thereby reducing the role she plays in the
management of the society.

The division of labour spared the women from the heavy tasks that were
allocated to men, but as a consequence, the material wealth, which was the
basis of consideration of an individual’s status, was out of reach for the
woman. The result of this has therefore been that the women have no access
to loans, owing to lack of collateral securities. The image of the Rwandan
woman has undergone a positive transformation from various initiatives
including the establishment of structures to support women’s economic
empowerment as a means to reduce poverty and to involve women in the
economy as a good practice, promoting gender sensitive laws and ongoing
review of gender discriminatory laws, and other commendable initiatives
thanks. Also a number of training programs and awareness raising campaigns
have made women feel increasingly at ease within the family and in society.
However, there are still gender biased attitudes towards women which have
a negative impacting on efforts for their promotion. Gender -based violence
(GBV) is one of the key examples showing how women are still victims of
some socio-cultural practices as discussed in the section below

Gender-based violence: Gender–based violence is a culture-linked serious

issue facing women and men in Rwanda with women being the majority among
the victims and men the majority among the perpetrators. For example,
among the 55 cases of victims of family murders reported in 2005, 36 cases

were women out of whom 22 were killed by their husbands. The 19 remaining
cases were men out of whom 2 were killed by their wives. In 2006, 84 cases
of family murders were reported and 50 were women out of whom 34 were
killed by their husbands. The 34 remaining cases were men out of whom 7
were killed by their wives (Augustin Kimonyo: 2008). It goes without saying
that highly significant numbers of cases of GBV are not reported to
concerned authorities. Four main forms of GBV have been identified and
they include physical violence, sexual violence, economic violence and
psychological violence

The main influencing factors of GBV proved to be poverty, alcohol, drugs,

ignorance and wrong interpretation of gender (Augustin Kimonyo: 2008). A
joint program on GBV has been developed by Rwanda Government and its
development partners to be implemented the following years and some of
the key strategies adopted in the program are: awareness raising and
training under the key component of prevention. Other strategies articulate
around the key component of response and they include the legal, medical,
psychological and protection interventions. Several institutions have taken
measures to fight GBV including the Rwanda National Police and the Rwanda
Defense Force who have established GBV desks. The two institutions have
hotlines for GBV victims, which are No 112 and No3512 respectively and the
Rwanda National Police is the main driver behind the One Stop Centers that
provide holistic care to victims of GBV. In the same line of though a men
local organization called Rwanda Men Resource Center (RWAMREC) is
promoting positive masculinity and fighting GBV is part of its mission.

Polygamy: The phenomenon of polygamy is still present here and there in

Rwanda. To avoid this phenomenon that proves to have a negative impact on
social lives of Rwandans, especially women, the Government of Rwanda has
adopted the strategy of legalizing marriages through mass weddings for
those married couples that were not registered before. The population has
massively responded to this process and so far thousands of couples have
legalized their marriages with the assistance of the closest concerned
authorities. As outcomes, this process has not only legal protection of the
wife in terms of her rights within the marriage but it also accords her the
right to succession to the properties of her family among others.


A legal and institutional environment that provides equal rights and

opportunities for women and men and policy measures that address
persistent gender inequalities has also been installed. Local and national
economic development cannot occur when women are denied equal access to
opportunities and assets. Persistent inequalities ensure that women remain in
a cycle of poverty. One of the pillars of gender equality is equal rights
between men and women. Those rights are at present provisioned by written
laws. Moreover, all laws must be made gender sensitive.

The 2003 Constitution provides that all Rwandans are born and remain free
and equal in rights and duties. Discrimination of whatever kind based on inter
alia ethnic origin, clan tribe, colour of the skin, sex etc is prohibited and
punished by law (article 11).

Moreover the articles of the constitution of the Republic of Rwanda provide

one of the most important principles of gender equality namely affirmative
actions to solve specific problems. Article 9.4 stipulates that ”equality
between men and women reflected by ensuring that women are granted at
least 30% of posts in decision-making organs.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights which Rwanda ratified, stipulates

in article 2? that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set
forth in this declaration without distinction of any kind such as race, colour,
sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin,
poverty, birth or other status (UDHR 1948). As for article 1, it stipulates
that people are born free and equal. And according to the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) under its article 26 “ all the
persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination
to the equal protection of the law . In this respect, the law shall prohibit any
discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection
against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language,
religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or
other status.” The use of the word “any’’ gives to courts and other
authorities the latitude to interpret terms of the covenant so as to add
other types of discrimination, for example on the basis of sex or sexual

Rwanda adopted the fundamental principles of equality and non
discrimination. The country has made much effort to ensure that men and
women have the same rights and has given to women a fixed number of posts
in decision making organs. Moreover discriminatory laws towards women are
being revised. Nevertheless there are till discriminatory laws based on
Rwandan cultures which are still applied by courts.

Key legal instruments

 Ratification of CEDAW
 The 1325 of UN Security Council

 The 1820 of UN Security Council

 The Rwandan Constitution of June 4th, 2003

 The law n°22/99 of 12/11/1999 on matrimonial regimes, liabilities,

succession and inheritance

 2009 GBV law

 2002 Land Law

 2001 Law on the rights of children


Since the advent of formal education in Rwanda in 1908, the education

system has been characterized by its exclusivity, accessible only to a
privileged few. The system created a clear distinction between education for
“trades”, which prepared the majority of the population to play their role in
the traditional setting, and education for the Rwandan elite, pre-selected to
supervise the rest of the population. This legitimized divisive disparities
based on religion, region, ethnicity, gender etc. The first girl enrolled into
the formal school 40 years after the establishment of the system!

Girls were mainly educated to become good spouses and good mothers and
increase the family wealth and production. Their education was provided by
their mothers and their aunts together with their grandmothers. Girls were
appreciated on the basis of their submission, respect, discretion and hard
working qualities. Girls were taken as a strong source of wealth and
production while boys were taken as a rightful heir from whom they
expected to hold the family continuity, security and defense force. In the
past decade, Rwanda passed through two critical phases. Between 1990 and
1994, Rwanda experienced a period of growing instability that culminated in
the war and genocide of 1994. These tragic events left the country in ruins,
scarred by social disintegration, deep poverty and lack of economic
opportunity. Since 1995, efforts by the government and other stakeholders
are underway to address the situation.

The education system has been restructured and is all- inclusive. The
government is committed to universal primary education (UPE), and education
for all (EFA) goals. It has called upon all stakeholders to lend a hand in
matters related to providing better basic education to the entire population,
eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005
and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring
girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good
quality is among EFA goals in Rwanda.

Some obstacles for Gender Equality in Rwanda include:

 Poor knowledge and attitudes about genders for some men and women
 Ignorance
 poverty
 Culture
 Some discriminating legal provisions
 Confusing gender with foreign cultures which create confrontation
among women and men.
Rwanda’s patriarchal social structure has been at the base of existing
gender imbalances in the country for centuries and are reflected in social,
economic, education, health spheres of development
However, there are major challenges to girls’ education in Rwanda


 High dropouts in upper primary for girls

 Low completion and achievement rates for girls
 Low transition rates from primary to secondary 47.5% Vs 52.5% for
 Gender insensitivity of teachers and gender blind curriculum as well as
 Lack of self esteem among girls
 GBV and unwanted pregnancies
 Inefficient information on SRH& R
 Cultural based mentality on house hold chore for girls


Gender is a key factor in the spread and prevention of HIV/AIDS. In Sub-

Saharan Africa, 55 percent of those infected are women, and in many
African countries, females aged 15-24 have prevalence rates of up to six
times higher than those of males of the same age. Gender can be seen to
affect health in a big number because of differences in

 Health needs
 Access to health care
 Decision making roles
 Inadequate use of the services due to culturally inappropriate beliefs
The gender factors permeate all aspects of health and health care. The
following are some examples of health and health care. Gender bias and the
differential allocation of resources generally begins at birth for overall
poverty and cultural beliefs about women’s worth conspire to deprive
females from receiving the very few resources they need to be productive
members of the society. Violence against women and girls with its horrifying
impacts on health and indeed the lives of women can only be understood and
dealt with if one understands society itself the socialization of men and
women and the power differential of men and women. For example, a
Rwandese saying (amafuti y’umugabo nibwo buryo bwe) whatever the man
does is always right reflects how this could increase GBV.

Women very often lack the power to be able to negotiate safer sex
practices in their sexual relationships or to access care when they
themselves become ill. For example: It is always said (hindukira naragukoye)
meaning that a woman should not say no to sex because of the dowry that
has been offered by a man.
There are gender based differences in the way in which men and women
experience and cope with stress and life events and how they signal their
mental distress. For example: women, do not easily talk about the different
domestic violence’s they face and as result the over heaped silence
translates into other mentally related problems.

Enormous efforts have been made in recent years to improve service
delivery and findings of the health sector in Rwanda. Investing in health is
not only a moral obligation the Government of Rwanda has demonstrated
great commitment through policies and actions to improve service delivery in
the health sector, including the adoption of the Health sector Policy 2005,
the Health Sector Strategic Plan 2005 – 2009, malaria eradication
commitment and HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among the
Rwandan population aged 15-49 years is 3%.

The rate of seroprevalence among women aged 15-49 years is 3.6%, which is
higher than that of men (2.3%). There are more cases of infected people in
the urban areas (8.6% of women and 5.8% of men) than in the rural areas
(2.6% of women and 1.6% of men). A national campaign was conducted to
reduce perceptions about the stigma of HIV and the accompanying
discrimination and there are now 234 health centres with Voluntary
Counselling and Testing (VCT), and treatment of PLHIV has increased (72%
of pregnant PLHIV are estimated to receive a complete course of ARVs).

However, concern remains in several areas including: low condom utilization

among youth (with a special attention to youth female category) and groups
at higher risk of HIV exposure, the rural versus urban ratio of HIV
prevalence and increasing transmission amongst married couples and the
cultural norms associated with this. Thus, Rwanda must strive to take the
necessary precautionary steps now so that increasing rates of infection do
not erode the impressive gains made in the last five years. Efforts have
been made to enable the people living with HIV/AIDS to get anti-retroviral
treatment, and a large-scale campaign against their stigmatization and
marginalization has been conducted to condemn some behaviors tending to
exclude them

In many parts of the world, women cannot own land, and those who do
generally command smaller landholdings than men. And, in most developing
regions, female-run enterprises tend to be undercapitalized. Such
disparities, in productive resources, hurt women’s ability to participate in
development and to contribute to higher living standards for their families.
These disparities also translate into greater risk and vulnerability in the
face of personal or family crises, in old age, and during economic shocks or

One of the biggest challenges for the government of Rwanda is poverty

which is highly related to multiple factors including insufficient land, rapid
population growth, environmental degradation etc. According to the survey
carried out in 2001 on household living conditions shows that 62.15% of
households led by women live under poverty line as opposed to 54.32% of
households led by men. This experience related to poverty among women in
Rwanda relatively high compared to men and is a result of a gender based
exclusion and discrimination.

For example women play a very big role in agriculture (90%) the existing
gender inequalities related to power relations among men and women are a
challenge. Access and control of resources such as seeds pesticides the
harvest and agricultural related loans remains in the hand of men.

The different forms of inequality exhibit access to services and economic

opportunities by women. Women are principally concentrated in agriculture
and informal sector as shown below by the household living conditions survey.
 34.6% of women work in the public sector compared to 65.4% of men
 31.9% of women work in Para public domain compared to 68.1% of men
 29.2% of women work in the formal but privates sector as opposed to
70.8% of men.

Key message:

 Challenges by key sector development: education, agriculture, health,
justice and rights, women and men do not enjoy the same rights
following the cultural barriers that have their roots in the patriarchal
system still strong. It is important to propose changes to improve the
situation in the interest of men and women.


This Part is related to how gender could be mainstreamed at various levels including but
not limited to at the Institutional Level, the Policy Level, Program/Project Level and
monitoring and evaluation. This also shows how various stake holders mainstream
gender at each level within programs or sectors

Session 6.1 Understanding gender mainstreaming
 To familiarize with the concept of gender mainstreaming
 To acquaint participants with knowledge on gender mainstreaming and
at what levels and how to mainstream gender

Methodology: Brainstorming and power point presentations

Materials: projector, flipcharts, markers, cards


1. Begin by asking participants what is meant by the term ‘Gender

Mainstreaming.’ You may find that several of them consider this
process as one focused on and benefiting women.
2. After obtaining different views from the participants, discuss Gender
Mainstreaming based on the notes that follow.

3. Emphasize at every point that Gender Mainstreaming is a process to

ensure that both men and women benefit from development
interventions and that neither group is adversely impacted.

4. Use power point slides to highlight what are meant by Gender

mainstreaming when, how and where it is necessary.

Facilitator Notes

Before displaying the slide, generate a discussion among the participants on

the various steps (noted below) in developing a Gender Mainstreaming
strategy. Thus, if one participant says ‘clear goals and objectives,’ write it
down immediately as an important factor and keep track of it. See if the
participants will offer the four different steps. Once a fruitful discussion
has taken place, show them the slide and reinforce the learning through

further discussion. Encourage participants to come up with other steps that
they may consider important.

 A strategy for Gender mainstreaming involves a clear Policy,

assessment of past performance, Action Plan and Effective
partnerships. A thoughtful and deliberate strategy is essential for
Gender Mainstreaming. Developing a strategy involves four key steps:

1. A clear policy. It may be helpful to stress the importance of clear goals

and objectives. For example, you can have a strategic goal of gender equality
or empowerment of women. Or, again, gender equality could be a goal itself
or part of a larger goal, such as poverty reduction. The operational
objectives, approaches, and targets and measures would all be different for
each of these goals. To illustrate, measuring increased income of targeted
women, and their control over such income, will provide information on
empowerment, but not on achievement of gender equality. Similarly, since
there can be multiple relevant objectives that can support gender equality,
it is important to prioritize between them. Thus, when gender equality is
part of a poverty reduction mandate, focus on health and education sectors
may be a priority.

The policy should explain at what levels mainstreaming gender will take place.
Mainstreaming gender can take place at the country level in determining the
assistance to be provided to a country. Or, it can take place at the level of
individual projects or programs. Will gender be integrated into all projects
and programs or will it be incorporated only in selected projects in some
priority sectors?

2. An assessment of past performance is critical. To develop a gender

mainstreaming strategy, it is critical to have an understanding of how the
relevant policy or related institutional systems have worked in the past. How
is gender currently being integrated? What are the systems and processes?
Where are the appropriate entry points for integrating gender? What have
been the results? What has worked well in the case of gender? What needs
to be strengthened? What are the constraints—are they human, financial,
technical, or other?

3. Based on an understanding of what has worked and what needs to be

strengthened, an action plan for gender mainstreaming must be developed

with the participation of all key actors who will be responsible for different
elements of its implementation. Keeping in mind the prioritized objectives,
such an action plan should define clear responsibilities, include efficient
processes for mainstreaming, provide for adequate capacity among relevant
actors, provide sufficient incentives for staff, allocate adequate resources,
and include relevant targets and indicators that can be monitored and

4. Effective partnerships with internal and external actors is necessary.

Gender is a crosscutting area and needs to be addressed across sectors.
Identifying and initiating strong partnerships with relevant institutions is
key. For example, in developing a strategy for mainstreaming gender into a
government’s health policy, it may be important to ensure support from
research institutions or the private sector. Such partnerships will need to
be part of the overall strategy.


“Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the

implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation,
policies or programs, in any area and at all levels.

It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and

experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring,
and evaluation of the policies and programs in all political, economic, and
societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not

Gender Mainstreaming gained popularity after it was highlighted as the main

strategy or instrument for achieving gender equality and women’s
empowerment at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995.
Since then, most multilateral and bilateral agencies, as well as governments,
have adopted a strategy for mainstreaming gender as the key to achieving
gender-related goals and objectives.

Gender Mainstreaming is the process of ensuring that both women and men
have equal access to and control over resources, decision-making, and
benefits at all stages of the development process and in development
projects. Gender Mainstreaming is an instrument and not an end in itself.
Gender Mainstreaming emphasizes getting the overall activity to focus on
both men and women, rather than merely adding a component or section to
benefit women at the margin. For example, the process encourages policy
makers or project designers to assess the gender dimensions of policy or
project impacts. Gender Mainstreaming also integrates measures that would
ensure equitable or equal benefits for both men and women into a policy or
project. If any adverse impact on either men or women is identified, the
policy or project should include measures to mitigate such adverse impacts.

If such policies or projects continue to only benefit women at the margins

through an additional component focused on women, and the ‘mainstream’

policy or activity is designed in a manner that women may not benefit,
achieving gender equality will be a slow process. Gender Mainstreaming,
therefore, is a way to enhance overall development effectiveness and to pay
attention to both men and women’s needs in creating a just and equal society.

Entry points for Gender Mainstreaming exist at different levels—

institutional, policy and program/project levels:

1. Gender Mainstreaming at the Institutional Level

Gender Mainstreaming at the institutional level is the best entry point for
Gender Mainstreaming. If an institution mainstreams gender, then all
policies, programs and products emanating from that institution will be
gender-aware. However, making changes at the institutional level can be
complex and difficult. This requires significant management commitment, a
clear policy and a well-defined strategy. The allocation of resources,
enhancement of human capacity and appropriate adaptation of systems are
often difficult to achieve. (If the participants are interested in
mainstreaming at an institutional level, then it may be appropriate to discuss
the Mainstreaming Gender into Institutions Learning Case.)

2. Gender Mainstreaming at the Policy Level

Gender Mainstreaming at the policy level is the next best entry point. If
gender is mainstreamed at the policy level, then programs and projects
resulting from the policy are bound to address gender issues. However,
gender is a cross-sectoral issue. Often, institutions issue a general gender
policy. A general gender policy by itself is often not effective, unless it can
ensure that gender is integrated into all other institutional and sector
policies. Additionally, Gender Mainstreaming at the policy level requires
information and data on gender issues in policy-related areas. For example,
agricultural policy formulators need information on the roles,
responsibilities, resources, and needs of men and women in agriculture. In
addition to relevant quantitative information, they need a sound qualitative
understanding of the links between different policy aspects and any
differentiated gender implications. Such information is widely available in
the health, education and agricultural sectors, but not in several others such
as transport and public sector administration. Thus, policies related to
health, education, agriculture, and not most other sectors, are most likely to

be gender-aware. (If the participants are interested in the policy level, then
it may be appropriate to select for example the exercise on Gender and
Agriculture Policy Learning Case.)

3. Gender Mainstreaming at the Program/Project Level:

The most common entry point for Gender Mainstreaming is, therefore, at
the project level. Links between the project activity and any sex-
disaggregated impact thereof are easier to identify. It is also easier to
understand the sex-differentiated needs and priorities of both men and
women through participatory assessments and to assess, a priori, any
differential impact. Historically, gender has been most commonly
integrated into education, health and agricultural projects, for which
such information is available. As knowledge and data become available in
other sectors, Gender Mainstreaming in other projects is becoming
increasingly common.

4. Gender Mainstreaming in Monitoring and Evaluation:

 Monitoring is the systematic measurement of progress toward desired
objectives of a project, program or policy. It involves measuring inputs,
activities and outputs, and assessing whether these are indeed
contributing to achieving the project/program/policy’s stated objectives
(outcomes and impacts). It helps ensure that the project, program or
policy achieves its defined objectives within a prescribed time frame and
budget. Monitoring provides feedback on implementation progress and
problems faced, and tracks resource acquisition and allocation, costs,
production and delivery of services, and the degree and quality of
stakeholder participation. Monitoring compares performance with
existing program objectives and assesses intended and unintended
outcomes of project, program or policy.

 Evaluation is assessing whether a project, program or policy is achieving

its intended objectives. This may be done periodically by internal
managers or by external stakeholders. Evaluation focuses on outcomes
and impacts and assesses whether they are contributing to achieving
program goals and objectives.

Monitoring and evaluation involve giving feedback to improve the

likelihood that the resources will meet the desired objectives.

Why is Gender important for Monitoring and Evaluation

Females and males have varying development priorities, needs and

constraints, and are affected differently by development programs.
Conventional M&E systems often do not capture gender differences in
access and impacts. This means that project managers or policy makers
often operate in the blind and gender issues remain invisible.

Timely and systematic collection of sex-disaggregated information can help

determine whether the intervention benefits both males and females
similarly. It allows for fine-tuning of the project during implementation to
address any deficiencies, as well as helps to enhance the gender dimensions
of design during the next phase of the project.

Continuous monitoring of the adequacy of inputs to achieve the gender-

related objectives, and periodic systematic evaluation of sex-disaggregated
or gender-related results (outputs, outcomes and impacts) determine
whether the intervention is achieving or has achieved the desired gender

M&E systems became easier to integrate if they are considered at an early

stage of project/program/policy planning. First, to the extent possible, all
indicators for each stage of the project should be measured or
disaggregated by sex. Where appropriate or necessary, additional indicators
should be developed for specific gender-related issues. Where it is not
practical to use indicators to capture gender-specific issues such as
empowerment or confidence building of women, separate participatory
assessments or other qualitative methods may be necessary.

Key message:
 Be aware to integrate gender at all levels of development:
institutional/organization, policies, program and project planning, monitoring
and evaluation.
 It is therefore important to conduct a gender gap analysis of every

program, sector or project to ensure that the identified gaps at all levels
are taken into account and addressed accordingly.


7.1 Concluding and Closure

 To show appreciation to the group using silence and creativity to
convey feelings
 To conclude the workshop on a positive note
1. Ask everyone to sit in a circle, with no chairs in the middle. Tell
participants that at the end of the workshop it is sometimes difficult to
break the group feeling. This exercise is a goodbye gift from everyone that
we can carry with us as we leave. Explain that the exercise requires
imagination and silence
2. Start yourself, by holding your hands with the palms turned up. Using your
hands mime the shape of an object (a box, a bottle, a ball). Pass this object
to the person on your right. Explain that they now can give any present of
their choosing to the next person
3. Continue around the circle, until you receive the last gift. You can end with
“Thank you” or “Bon Voyage” 10m

Facilitator notes

This is a very calming and sharing exercise in which people reveal themselves
to be amazingly creative. It does not require touching and is therefore
suitable to many cultural contexts. However you might feel more
comfortable making two circles, for women and men.

7.2: Evaluation of the workshop and follow up

 Circulate a full list of all participants and their email addresses before
everyone leaves the session. This will facilitate ongoing network and support
 Handout the following form to participants to complete and return before
they leave the session
1. What have been the most beneficial aspects of this workshop?

2. What have been the least useful?


3. Do you feel confident that you will be able to apply the gender analysis method at
all stages of your work?
If yes, please give details………………………………………………………….........................................
If no, please explain the constraints………………………………………………………………………………..

4. Do you feel that you will receive adequate support from senior management to
address the problems that have been identified in this workshop?

Yes Explain……………………………………………………......................................................................
No Explain……………………………………………………......................................................................

5. Did you find the workshop?

 Too long?
 The right length?
 Too short?
6. Have you found group work, exercises and role plays useful during this workshop?
7. What further training would you require to ensure that you can effectively
integrate gender into your work?

8. How should this training be organized?

7.3: List of references

1. Augustin Kimonyo, (2008). Gender and community development

analysis in Rwanda, Kigali

2. Rwanda: Demographic Health Survey (2005)

3. Department for International Development, (2002). Gender module : a

practical guide for development policy makers and practitioners

4. Gender sensitive training skills (2005). A training of trainers Package

5. MIGEPROF, (2004). La politique nationale du Genre, Kigali

6. Ministry of Health, (2003). National Population policy for sustainable

development of Rwanda, Kigali

7. MIGEPROF, (2002). module de formation sur le Genre: Kigali

8. MIGEPROF (2005), Gender Training module : Kigali

9. MIGEPROF , National Gender Policy, July 2010

10. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning-Statistics department

(2002). Rwanda Development Indicators, Kigali

11. Rwanda, National Constitution, 4 June 2003, Kigali

12. SAVITRI RAY GENDER TA EXPERT (2002). Training module on

Gender sensitization Haryana Forestry department

13. USAID Higa Ubeho (2011). A gender training of trainers Module for
Rwanda Partner Organizations, Kigali Rwanda

14. Workshop for Trainers in Women, Gender and Development, June 9-

21, 1996, Programme Handbook, Royal Tropical Institute, the


DAY ONE Arrival and registration of participants 8:30 am - 9:00am

Welcome and introductions 9: 00 am – 09:15 am

Goals and participants expectations 09: 15 am – 09:45 am

Why a gender training 9: 45am – 10:00 am

Setting ground rule 10: 00 am – 10:15 am

Concluding exercise 10: 15 am – 10:30 am

Tea break 20 10: 30 am – 10:50 am

Definitions and difference between gender and sex 10: 50 am – 12:00 am

Social Construction of Gender 12: 00 pm– 13:00 pm

Lunch 13: 00 pm – 14:00 pm

Gender roles and gender stereotypes 14: 00 pm – 15:30pm

Gendered institutions and structures 15:30 pm – 16:45pm

Closing and reflection on the day 16:45pm- 17: 00 pm

DAY TWO Concerns, Question and answers for day one sessions 9: 00 am – 10:00 am

Tea break 20 10: 00 am – 10:20 am

Gender from a Development Perspective 10: 20 am – 11:30 am

Women in Development vs Gender Approach 11: 30 am – 12:15 am
Identifying Practical Needs and Strategic Interests 12: 15 pm – 13:00 pm
Lunch 13: 00 pm - 14:00 pm

Introduction to Conceptual Frameworks of Gender Analysis 14: 00 pm - 16:45 pm

Closing and reflection on the day 16:45pm- 17: 00 pm

DAY THREE Concerns, Question and answers for day one sessions 9: 00 am – 09:30 am

Understanding gender in the Rwandan context 09: 30 am – 10:30 am

Tea break 10: 30 am – 11:00 am

Understanding gender in the Rwandan context 11: 00 am – 13:00 pm

Lunch 13: 00 pm – 14:00 pm

Understanding gender mainstreaming 14:00pm -16:15pm

Evaluation of the training 16: 15pm – 16:30 pm

Closure 16:30pm -16:45 pm


The facilitator should be keenly aware that gender issues vary and are
different across space, time and communities. In addition, gender is not
always perceived as an economic issue, but as a political, social, or religious
issue. This can lead to charged emotions and hardening of positions because,
often, participants reflect different personal experiences and beliefs. A
successful trainer should ensure that all participants are comfortable to
express their views, as well as encourage and facilitate open, respectful, and
honest discussion without taking sides. Such discussion is the first step to
effective learning

 Instructors will need a projector, flip chart, markers and Post-It notes
to conduct group exercises. Participants will need paper, pens or pencils
to complete the Learning Cases and Case Studies
 To encourage participation and discussion among the participants, the
room should be set up in a manner in which all participants can see each
other and the instructor. The course allows instructors to train a group
of no more than 25-30 people. This interactive course gives participants
time to work actively on exercises, reflect on the topic communicate and
network with other participants

 Facilitators should know that it is very vital to use training modules at

every workshop organized for several purposes: they serve as a guide for
the trainer, serve as a guide and later reference for trainees, document
procedures and best practices, provide ready-made checklists for
performance evaluation and shorten the time to competency.

 Experience in using training modules has shown that it is preferable to

use the activities as a complete set and not in an isolated way
 It is useful, whenever possible, to have three facilitators present
 A suitable space for working with the community members should be
used, allowing the activities to be carried out without any restriction of
 One should try and produce a free and respectful environment, where
there are no judgments or criticisms of the attitudes, language or
behavior of the participants.
 Situations of conflict may occur. It is up to the facilitators to intervene,
seeking to establish a consensus and respect for different opinions. The

work should endeavor to go as deep as possible, moving beyond the
standard ‘politically correct discourse’

 The discussion notes serve more as an interactive guide to engage

participants, and not merely as lecture notes. Therefore, trainers using
this module must be well acquainted with the sections (Contents and Time
required) prior to training. By reviewing the sections in advance, the
trainer can make decisions concerning which materials to use according to
the participants’ knowledge or experience. The discussion points
suggested in the activities presented do not necessarily have to be used
at the end of the activities, but can be used while it is being executed, as
the facilitator thinks fit

 The dress code is also important, since gender training is a sensitive issue
and therefore should not give room for judgments. This is also related to
the cultural beliefs and yet gender is part of social transformation.

7.6: Step-by-step guide to initiate gender clubs in secondary schools
and universities

What is a school gender club?

A school Gender Club is a school-based group run by students and supported
by teachers that works to create safe, caring and inclusive spaces for
students and the entire school community to discuss and address gender
issues. Typically, Gender Clubs are designed to provide a safe space for
students to meet, socialize and support one another as they discuss gender
issues. Starting a club or group at your school can be a great way to address
gender issues in the school as well as in the community in which you live.

1. Follow all school policies and guidelines

A Gender Club should be established in the same way that any other
group in your school is formed. Check your school policies to see what the
school’s rules are for student groups. These rules may require you to seek
the permission of a teacher and the school administration and enlist the
support of other students. If you can, find lots of support and look for a
diverse group (boys and girls or teachers) to help get you started
2. Find a Gender Club advisor
Find a teacher, administrator or school staff member who would be
willing to serve as a supportive ally for your group. If possible, try to
include both male and female advisors. Remember, diversity will be your
group’s greatest strength.
3. Speak to your school administration
Encourage your school administration team to become your allies. School
administrators can work with your club to help demonstrate that your
group is a valued and important part of the school community.
Administrators also serve as an important liaison between students,
teachers, parents, school boards and the larger community. Be sure to
include them in your planning. Remember, if you follow all the proper
procedures, a school cannot turn down your request to start a Gender

4. Inform school counsellors and other school resource people about your

School resource workers, like police officers and school counselors, will
often know of students who might benefit from your school’s Gender
club. School counsellors, in particular, may be an important source of
support for students who need to form clubs

5. Develop a mission or vision statement

A guiding core statement of beliefs can help to focus your club and, in
turn, demonstrate how serious and important your club is to the school
community. Organize your gender club goal and value statements to
include principles related to human rights and social justice. Find out
what your school’s educational priorities and goals are and demonstrate
how your club helps to live them out.

6. Find a safe meeting place

Select a safe and comfortable location in your school that is relatively
private. Remember that some students may feel uncomfortable and
nervous when first attending meetings. Try to create an atmosphere that
accommodates all individuals and comfort levels. Choosing a meeting place
right next to where the secondary school football team hangs out may
not be a good idea. Then, again, you could always invite them to attend

7. Advertise your group

Work with your advisor to use this opportunity as a “teachable moment”
to talk about gender. The simple presence of your club’s posters can send
a powerful message of gender and help educate students and staff about
the gender promotion in your school. Prepare posters that set a positive
tone for your club. Include the meeting time, location and date. Think
about including a small description about what goes on at your meetings
and be sure to emphasize that everyone is welcome.

8. Schedule your first meeting

Select a meeting time that is convenient for most of your participants.
Revisit the group’s mission statement and brainstorm possible activities
and topics of discussion for future meetings. Some clubs hold meetings
weekly, others monthly. Determine what kind of schedule will work best
for your club.

9. Establish clear guidelines
Think about establishing specific ground rules for club discussions that
reaffirm responsible and respectful behaviors. In addition to creating a
welcoming environment, work together to develop and establish the clubs
dos and don’ts that can be posted and/or read at the beginning of each
meeting. Keep a positive and supportive tone in your club meetings and
remember to emphasize the importance of equal participation (by
students and advisors) as well as debate which helps to challenge
gendered norms

10. Set Possible activities:

Examples of such activities could include hosting guest speakers; holding

joint meetings and events with other school groups/clubs; writing articles
for the school newspaper or website; networking with local gender clubs,
participated in women’s day events and other gender equality events.
Remember to plan events that entice people to come, not because they are
necessarily interested in the cause, but because the event sounds fun. Be
creative, understanding and gentle in your approach, and be sure to include
celebration and socialization as part of the club’s activism and organizing

11. Plan for the future

Work with your club to develop an action plan that will help to make your
group an active and sustainable presence in your school. Your action plan
might include long and short-range goals and priorities.